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Monthly Current Affairs January 2020

Published by aspireiasmainskunji, 2020-04-07 15:43:45

Description: Monthly Current Affairs January 2020

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Easy to PICK1 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” JANUARY 2020 PT-MAINS Copyright ©Aspire IAS All rights are reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of Aspire lAS.

Easy to PICK2 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” S. Topic Page No. No. GS-1 1. 08 2. Bhima-Koregaon village prepares for historic day 09 3. Northeast monsoon ends, country records 30 per cent surplus rain 10 4. ‘Non-tribal communities can never claim to be indigenous’: AAKS 12 5. 13 6. Bojjannakonda: Buddhist Site 17 Tipu Sultan 18 7 75th Anniversary of liberation of the Auschwitz camp 20 1. Nagoba jatara 22 2. 24 3. GS-2 26 4. 27 5. DoT kick-starts process to roll out 5G, trials likely in Jan-Mar 30 6. Taiwan passes law to combat China influence 31 7. 34 9. Odisha tribals still suffering from hunger, malnutrition 35 10. Free trade agreement with Mauritius near finalization 37 12. 39 13. Success of facial recognition tech depends on data 43 14. India, Nepal to hold talks on Kalapani 46 15. 47 16. Economy braces for a crude shock after US airstrike kills Iran general 48 17. CAA will leave many children stateless: plea 49 18. Centre approves 2,636 auto charging stations 51 19. NHRC tells Rajasthan to explain Kota deaths 53 20. India faces a year of tough trade talks 55 21. 58 22. UPSC to conduct separate exam for Railway Service 60 23. Global Drosophila conference 62 24. 64 2 State can regulate minority institutions: SC 66 25. Army gets working on GOCO model to improve efficiency 69 26. ‘It is up to States to provide 10% quota’ Centre opens up coal sector Rising oil prices may hit Budget math Revised norms for data-led probes China, Pakistan navies deploy submarines in strategic Arabian Sea What’s next in U.S.-Iran conflict? NCRB Report 2018 India, Sri Lanka foreign ministers’ meet LOKPAL Electoral Bonds

Easy to PICK3 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” 27. SC judgement on internet shutdown 72 28. International Energy Agency (IEA) 75 29. WTO: India-US trade dispute 78 30. Competition Commission of India (CCI) 81 31. BharatNet 83 32. Right to property 85 33. United Nations (UN) report on ‘Levels and Trends in Child Mortality’ 87 34. Libya ceasefire 89 35. Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) 90 36. Tibet’s new law on ethnic unity 92 37. Surrogacy in India 94 38. Supreme Court on religious practices 96 39. Manual Scavenging 98 40. Iran’s violation of nuclear deal 100 41. Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2019 101 42. Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) rules, 2019 103 43. China coronavirus 105 44. India-Malaysia trade-dispute 107 45. Labour reforms 109 46. OALP Round-V 110 47. China’s move on J&K 112 48. National Investigation Act, 2008 113 49. Mental Health Act, 2017 116 50. India to host SCO meet 119 51. China-Myanmar Economic Corridor (CMEC) 120 52. Capital Punishment 123 53. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2020 report 126 54. India-EU summit 2020 127 55. Sexual Harassment at Workplace 130 56. Libya summit 132 57. Drone census 134 58. Supreme Court on PF benefits 135 59. 50th Meeting of World Economic Forum 137 60. BharatNEt phase-2 139 62. SC won’t stay Electoral Bond Scheme 141 63. Iran says it may pull out of NPT 143 64. Global Investment Trend Monitor report: UNCTAD 145 65. Code of conduct for Ministers 147

Easy to PICK4 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” 66. India, Brazil to sign Strategic Action Plan 148 67. Powers of Speaker under the Tenth Schedule 150 68. World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2020 report 153 69. Democracy Index 155 70. Corona virus 157 71. UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) 159 72. Commission for sub-categorisation of Other Backward Classes 160 73. India-Brazil agreement on legal and criminal cooperation 162 74. Amnesty International study 163 75. One nation, one road tax 165 76. India’s gas-based economy 166 77. Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI-2019) 168 78. ICJ orders Myanmar to protect Rohingya 170 79. Sagarmatha Dialogue 171 80. Republic Day 2020 172 81. Legislative Councils 174 82. Criminalisation Of Politics 176 83. National Security Act (NSA) 178 84. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) 180 85. IT Intermediaries Guidelines (Amendment) Rules, 2018 182 86. Global Talent Competitiveness Index, 2020 183 87. Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana 185 88. Oslo Accords 188 89. Fund crunch hits MGNREGA scheme 190 90. Cases of diabetes and cancer rise in rural areas of M.P. 192 91. Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) 196 92. Tribal protest in Odisha 198 93. EMI option for states to repay their dues to discoms 199 94. Committee on Related Party Transactions norms 201 95. Easing Abortion laws in India 203 96. India, France to partner on museums 204 97. Trump unveils West Asia plan 206 98. North-Eastern Council (NEC) 209 99. Anticipatory bail 211 100. Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010 214 101. Report on combating Pneumonia 217 102. First case of coronavirus in India 219 103. Central Water Commission (CWC) 221

Easy to PICK5 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” 104. Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) 223 105. New power scheme to replace UDAY 225 106. UK finally leaves European Union 226 107. Paharis to get reservation in J&K 228 GS-3 1. FM unveils ₹102 tn infra push to reignite growth 230 2. Core sectors shrink for fourth straight month 232 3. Current account deficit narrows to 0.9% of GDP 234 4. RBI’s Operation Twist may boost lending, growth 235 5. Relief for govt as GST collections remain above Rs.1 trillion mark 237 6. RBI extends relaxation in NBFC norms till June 239 7. Gaganyaan, Chandrayaan-3 in mission mode, says ISRO 241 8. Kerala for steps to curb alien plants’ growth in NB 243 9. RBI launches app to help visually impaired identify notes 244 10. In Haryana, scientists develop India’s own brain template, Brahma 245 11. Air defence command plan on 247 12. India records less than 100 tiger deaths for the first time in three years 248 13. Fears of surge in oil price, Govt looks outside Gulf 250 14. The govt is likely to find it hard to trim fiscal deficit 252 15. Uptick in GST collections doesn’t suggest the economy is firing up 254 16. NAL wants govt. push for Saras takeoff 256 17. Spectre of fresh NPAs looms over banks this year 258 18. How automation affects global FDI flows 260 19. Climate change claimed 1,659 lives in 2019, the 7th warmest year on record 262 20. Stressed urban cooperative banks to face PCA-like curbs 264 21. New satellites will help Gaganyaan crew 267 22. ICAR to set up innovation fund to help farmers 269 23. Productivity has big role in India’s $5 tn GDP dream 271 24. 5% growth cloud over budget 273 25. Statistics panel on economic data holds 1st meet 275 26. Genome of Indian cobra sequenced 279 27. Govt. may cut spending to curb deficit 281 28. The link between growth, demand and investment 282 29. Re-grassing is mandatory after mining, rules SC 284 30. Northeast gas grid 285 31. Road to Budget 2020 287 32. Green Credit Scheme 290

Easy to PICK6 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” 33. Digital Sky Platform 291 34. Man-Tiger Conflict 294 35. Index of Industrial Production (IIP) 296 36. National Strategy for Financial Inclusion (NSFI) , 2019-2024 298 37. Department of Military Affairs (DMA) 300 38. Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS), Andhra Pradesh 302 39. Marginal Cost Of Funds-based Lending Rate (MCLR) 304 40. Wular Lake 306 41. Indian Coast Guard Ship (ICGS)- Annie Besant 308 42. Inflation targeting framework 310 43. 5G trials in India 312 44. Retail Inflation 314 45. National Anti-profiteering Authority (NAA) 315 46. TrueNat 317 47. RBI tightens debit, credit card usage norms 318 48. Bru refugee crisis 320 49. Current Account Deficit (CAD) 321 50. Debt Linked Savings Scheme (DLSS) 323 51. GSAT-30 324 52. Waste treatment 326 53. Illegal Extraction of Groundwater 327 54. Surge in Solar imports 329 55. Submarine-launched Ballistic Missile K-4 334 56. Irrawaddy dolphin 336 57. India’s import substitution policy 340 58. Oxfam India report: ‘Time to Care’ 342 59. Naga-Kuki conflict in Manipur 344 60. Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) 347 61. Sukhoi-30 MKI equipped with BrahMos missile 349 62. Regulating Artificial Intelligence (AI) 351 63. Recession and Stagflation 354 64. Project 75I 356 65. Thirty Metre Telescope (TMT) 359 66. Paradip Port 361 67. New Industrial Policy 365 68. Vyommitra : ISRO’s half-humanoid 366 69. Pathalgadi Movement 368 70. New snake eel species discovered in Odisha 370

Easy to PICK7 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” 71. Australia bushfires 371 72. Bar-headed goose 373 73. New Financial Resolution Authority on the anvil 375 74. Air India privatization 377 75. Centre, Assam govt. sign accord with Bodo groups 379 76. Thermal scanners for detecting Coronavirus 380 77. Illegal sand mining 382 78. African cheetahs to be introduced in India 384 79. 10 more wetlands in India declared as Ramsar sites 386 80. Indian Staffing Federation (ISF) 388 81. Trends in Credit Growth in India 390 82. Yellow rust disease 392 83. Airport Collaborative Decision Making (A-CDM) System 394 84. Pollution by dairy farms 395 85. 20th Livestock Census 396

Easy to PICK8 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Bhima-Koregaon village prepares for historic day Syllabus subtopic: Modern Indian history Indian society which is even visible from about the middle of the eighteenth today in the way of excessive caste and century until the present- significant religious discrimination which needs to events, personalities, issues. be checked keeping in mind the tenets of the Constitution. Prelims and Mains focus: About the Bhima Koregaon conflict; its outcome and Why Bhima Koregaon is seen as a Dalit significane. symbol?  The battle has come to be seen as a News: Lakhs of devotees, neo-Buddhists, members of Ambedkarite outfits, symbol of Dalit pride because a large politicians, students and other visitors are number of soldiers in the Company expected to congregate near the force were the Mahar Dalits. Since ransthamb or victory pillar in Bhima- the Peshwas, who were Brahmins, Koregaon village for the 202nd were seen as oppressors of Dalits, the anniversary of the Bhima-Koregaon victory of the Mahar soldiers over the battle of 1818 on New Year’s Day on the Peshwa force is seen as Dalit Wednesday. assertion.  On 1 January 1927, B.R. Ambedkar About Bhima-Koregaon conflict visited the memorial obelisk erected on  The battle was fought in Bhima the spot which bears the names of the dead including nearly two dozen Koregaon, a district in Pune with a Mahar soldiers. The men who fought strong historical Dalit connection, in the battle of Koregaon were the between the Peshwa forces and the Mahars, and the Mahars are British on January 1, 1818. Untouchables.  The British army, which comprised mainly of Dalit soldiers, fought the upper caste-dominated Peshwa army. The British troops defeated the Peshwa army. Outcomes of the battle:  The victory was seen as a win against caste-based discrimination and oppression. Peshwas were notorious for their oppression and persecution of Mahar dalits. The victory in the battle over Peshwas gave dalits a moral victory, a victory against caste-based discrimination and oppression and sense of identity.  However, the divide and rule policy of the British created multiple fissures in

Easy to PICK9 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Northeast monsoon ends, country records 30 per cent surplus rain Syllabus subtopic: Important Geophysical  The southwest monsoon brings rains phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, towards the end of summer as the high Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., pressure built in the Indian Ocean geographical features and their location- pushes the wind masses towards the changes in critical geographical features low pressure formed on land (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such  Temperature Gradien: It’s the changes. temperature variation between the sea and the landmass Prelims and Mains focus: About the monsoon: its features and impact; South- Southwest V/s Northeast monsoon west and north-east monsoon  The northeast monsoon, or winter News: 2019 was a year of bountiful rain. monsoon, blows from land to sea, The year’s Northeast monsoon ended on a whereas south-west monsoon, or high, with the season’s total rainfall summer monsoon, blows from sea to recorded remaining 30 per cent surplus. land after crossing the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and Bay of Bengal. Northeast Monsoon (Retreating Monsoon)  The southwest monsoon brings most of the rainfall in the country -  India Meteorological Department approximately 75 per cent of India’s (IMD) recognizes October to annual rainfall. December as the period for Northeast monsoon.  During this period, where rainfall is experienced over southern states, mainly over Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh along with some parts of Telangana and Karnataka.  In areas around Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and along the northeast, precipitation during this period reported is either in the form of rainfall or snowfall (due to Western disturbances). Monsoon in India  Monsoon is seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea

Easy to PICK10 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” ‘Non-tribal communities can never claim to be indigenous’: AAKS Syllabus subtopic: Salient features of  Though the accord brought an end to Indian Society, Diversity of India. the agitation, some of the key clauses Prelims and Mains focus: About the are yet to be implemented, which has ethnic tribes in Assam; Assam Accord and kept some of the issues festering. its significance News: Non-tribal communities living in What does Clause 6 state? Assam can never claim to be ‘khilonjia’ Clause 6 of the Assam Accord “envisaged or indigenous, said the All-Assam that appropriate constitutional, legislative Kochari Samaj (AAKS) that represents and administrative safeguards shall be the earliest ethnic communities provided to protect, preserve and promote inhabiting the State. the cultural, social, linguistic identity and heritage of the Assamese people.” Significane of the statements. The samaj’s statement assumes 1881 census significance ahead of a report to be  The 1881 census recorded 19 groups submitted by a 15-member panel enlisting the communities that qualify to within the Kochari classification but be called ‘khilonjia’ for implementing some got isolated from the parental Clause 6 of the Assam Accord of 1985. stock. Today, it comprises communities such as Bodo, the What is Assam Accord? largest plains tribe in the northeast,  The Assam Accord (1985) was a Deuri, Dimasa, Rabha, Sonowal Kachari, Thengal Kachari and Tiwa. Memorandum of Settlement (MoS)  Large swathes of Assam are under signed between representatives of the autonomous or development councils Government of India and the leaders of specifically for these communities. the Assam Movement in New Delhi on 15 August 1985. Kochari kingdom  The accord brought an end to the  Kochari kings began ruling areas under Assam Agitation and paved the way for the leaders of the agitation to form present-day Assam and beyond 1,500 a political party and form a years before the Mahabharata era. But government in the state of Assam soon the non-tribal have pushed the tribal after. history aside despite the United  As per the Accord, those Nations specifying that only the Bangladeshis who came between aborigines can be called indigenous. 1966 and 1971 will be barred from  The samaj claimed many traits voting for ten years. The Accord also representative of mainstream mentions that the international Assamese culture today were borders will be sealed and all appropriated from the tribes. These persons who crossed over from include the floral ‘gamosa’, or Bangladesh after 1971 are to be cloth-towel, that has become a deported. symbol of the anti-CAA protest.  The Kochari group also pointed out that the Ahoms, who came from

Easy to PICK11 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Thailand some 800 years ago, were to 1949, while the third group ruled non-indigenous. The Ahoms are one southern part of Assam from the 13th of six communities demanding century to 1854. Scheduled Tribe status, which the Kocharis enjoying ST status are  Bodos are the dominant group in opposed to. BTAD (Bodoland Territorial Council). They speak the Bodo language among Ethnic groups in Assam themselves along with using Assamese to communicate with other indigenous  Assam is acknowledged as the settling Assamese communities as the lingua- land for a lot of cultures. A number of franca. tribal grouping have landed in the soils of Assam in the course of diverse  Most of the indigenous Assamese directions as the territory was linked to communities today have actually been a number of states and many different historically tribal and even the now countries. considered non-tribal population of Assam were actually tribes which have  Austro-Asiatic, Mongoloids, and slowly been converted into castes Indo-Aryans had been the most through Sanskritisation. important traditional groups that arrived at the site and lived in the very  Actually, more than 70-75% or more old Assam. They were well thought- of the now considered non-tribal out as the ‘aborigines’ of Assam and population of Assam actually have yet at the moment they are essential Mongoloid roots and origin and thus elements of the “Assamese Diaspora”. were historically tribal. Some of the tribal groups were able to enter into the  The greater Bodo-kachari group Hindu upper caste society while some encompasses the 18 major tribes of of them remained in the tribal or lower Assam, both plain and hills, viz., Boro, caste society. Thus, Assam has always Dimasa, Chutia, Sonowal, Mech, been a historically tribal state. Tiwa, Garo, Rabha, Sarania, Hajong, Tripuri, Deori, Thengal,  Ahoms along with Chutiya, Moran, Hojai, Koch, and others. Motok, and Koch are still regarded as semi-tribal groups who have  The ancient land of 'Kirat' is also nominally converted to Ekasarana referred to the land of the Kachari. Dharma even though keeping alive Bodo Kacharis were historically the their own tribal traditions and customs. dominant group of Assam, who were Various indigenous Assamese later dominated in the 1500s by the Tai communities in Assam like Chutiya, Ahoms, the ethnic group who along Koch-Rajbongshi, Moran, Motok, with the Upper Assam Bodo-Kachari Ahoms etc (all having tribal origin) groups like Chutias, Morans and have slowly been converted into a Borahis were associated with the term caste through Sanskritisation. As per \"Assamese\". latest development Moran, Chutiya, Motok, Tea tribes, Tai Ahoms and  Along with Tai Ahoms, they were Koch have realised the above- other prominent groups that ruled mentioned points and have applied for Assam valley during the medieval ST status. This will make Assam a period, those belonging to the Chutiya, predominantly tribal state having wider Koch, and Dimasa communities. The geo-political ramifications. first group ruled from 1187 to 1673 in the eastern part of the state, the second group ruled Lower Assam from 1515

Easy to PICK12 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Bojjannakonda: Buddhist Site Syllabus subtopic: Indian culture will  At the nearby Lingalametta, one can cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, see hundreds of rock-cut monolithic Literature and Architecture from ancient to stupas in rows. modern times. Prelims and Mains focus: about the ritual Efforts of NTACH to protect the site and the Buddhist sites associated; about from damage INTACH and its role in conserving Indian Following the intervention of the Indian heritage National Trust for Art and Cultural News: After a sustained campaign, Heritage (INTACH), the practice carried heritage lovers and officials have been out on the Kanuma day during Sankranti successful in almost stopping the stone- has almost been done away with. With the pelting ritual at Bojjannakonda, a support of the police and the district famous Buddhist site at Sankaram, 3.5 administration, it has been able to stop km from Anakapalle and 41 km from pelting of stones for the past few years. Visakhapatnam. About INTACH About the ritual on Kanuma day The villagers, as a part of an ancient ritual,  The Indian National Trust for Art and would throw stones at a belly-shaped object at the site, believing it to be a Cultural Heritage (INTACH) was part of a demon. founded in 1984 with the vision to About the Buddhist sites Bojjannakonda and Lingalametta are spearhead heritage awareness and twin Buddhist monasteries dating back to the 3rd century BC. These sites have seen conservation in India. three forms of Buddhism — 1. the Theravada period when Lord  INTACH’s mission is to conserve Buddha was considered a teacher; heritage is based on the belief that 2. the Mahayana, where Buddhism was living in harmony with heritage more devotional; and 3. Vajrayana, where Buddhist enhances the quality of life, and it is tradition was more practised as the duty of every citizen of India as Tantra and in esoteric form. The name Sankaram is derived from the laid down in the Constitution of term, ‘Sangharama’. The site is famous for many votive stupas, rock-cut caves, India. brick-built edifices, early historic pottery, and Satavahana coins that date back to  INTACH is recognized as one of the the 1st century AD.  The main stupa was carved out of rock world’s largest heritage and then covered with bricks, and a number of images of the Buddha are organizations and has pioneered the seen sculpted on the rock face all over the hill. conservation and preservation of not just our natural and built heritage but intangible heritage as well.

Easy to PICK13 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Tipu Sultan Syllabus subtopic: Modern Indian history Haidar Ali, who had driven out the from about the middle of the eighteenth previous Hindu dynasty. century until the present- significant He tried to build up an alliance to drive the events, personalities, issues British – ‘those oppressors of the human race’ – out of India and intrigued with the Prelims and Mains focus: about the French in Paris and Mauritius. Tippu was controversy around Tipu Sultan of instructed in military tactics by French Mysore; his administration and religious officers in the employ of his father, Hyder policies Ali. In 1767 Tippu commanded a corps of cavalry against the Marathas in the News: Even though the Karnataka State Carnatic (Karnataka) region of western government is yet to officially announce India, and he fought against the Marathas its decision on whether lessons pertaining on several occasions between 1775 and to Mysuru king Tipu Sultan should be 1779. dropped or retained, it is clear that the He succeeded his father in December 1782 lessons will be retained for the 2020-2021 and in 1784 concluded peace with the academic year. British and assumed the title of sultan of Mysore. In 1789, however, he provoked Background British invasion by attacking their ally, the The controversy regarding the lessons on Raja of Travancore. By the Treaty of Tipu Sultan was raised by Madikeri MLA Seringapatam (March 1792) he had to cede Appachu Ranjan who had written to the half his dominions. department seeking removal of the lessons He remained restless and allowed his terming Tipu a “fanatic”. Subject experts negotiations with Revolutionary France to had argued that only “facts” pertaining to become known to the British. On that him were presented in the class six, seven pretext the governor-general, Lord and 10 textbooks and that he was “not Mornington (later the marquess of glorified”. Wellesley), launched the fourth Anglo- Mysore War. Seringapatam (now Concerns: Srirangapatna), Tippu’s capital, was The “removal” of Tipu from textbooks will stormed by British-led forces on May 4, fundamentally alter the history of early 1799, and Tippu died leading his troops in modern India, and make invisible one of the breach the key individuals in the society and politics of South India in the second half Conflicts with the British (Anglo- of the 18th century, when the East India Mysore wars): Company was rapidly expanding Britain’s The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of colonial footprint over the country. four wars fought in India over the three decades of the 18th century between the About Tipu Sultan (1750-1799) British East India Company and the Tipu Sultan, the Tiger of Mysore, was the Kingdom of Mysore Indian ruler who resisted the East India First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-1769) Company’s conquest of southern India. He In 1767, Mysore was a powerful state had inherited the throne from his father under Hyder Ali. In 1769, the first Anglo-

Easy to PICK14 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Mysore war was fought in which Haider ended by signing of Treaty of Ali defeated the British and Treaty of Seringapatna, between Tipu Sultan and Madras was signed between them. Haider Lord Cornwallis. In this treaty, Tipu ceded Ali occupied almost the whole of Carnatic half of his territories and two of his son’s Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784) as a hostage of war. Warren Hastings attacked French port Mahe, which was in Haider Ali’s territory. Haider Ali led a common front with Nizam and Marathas and captured Arcot (Capital of Carnatic State). In July 1781, Haider Ali was defeated at Porto Novo by Eyre Coote and saved Madras. In December 1782, after the death of Haider Ali, the war was carried on by his son Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan signed Treaty of Mangalore in March 1784 which ended the second Anglo-Mysore war. Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-1792) Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799) The third war was fought between Tipu Sultan, and British East Indian Company In Fourth War 1799, the British army led began in 1789 and ended in Tipu’s by Lord Wellesley attacked and defeated defeated in 1792. In this war, Marathas Tipu Sultan in a fierce war. He met a and Nizam aided the British and heroic death on 4th May 1799 while Cornwallis captured Bangalore. The war defending his capital Seringapatnam. Tipu’s reform measures and administration: Tipu was less worried about form and more about the substance of governance. He considered agriculture as the life blood of the nation and took steps for taking over derelict land and protection of the cultivator and his descendants. He had encouraged the farmers to cultivate commercial crops to overcome poverty and unemployment problems. He had several commercial depots in foreign

Easy to PICK15 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” countries such as Pegu, Muscat, Turkey restrictions on lavish extravagance for and Istanbul for selling sandalwood. marriages, festivals and charities. He introduced sericulture in Mysore on a His administration saw a strong and well- large scale and maintained records about organized central government, a well-knit the cultivation of sericulture. He was district and provincial administration primarily responsible for the construction directly under the control of the centre, of well laid out roads and communication well-trained and disciplined civil, military facilities. He had given loans and subsidies and diplomatic services, uniform set of to the farmers and provided the benefit of laws and the direct contact between the land revenue exemption. Tipu also subjects and the state by the removal of promoted animal husbandry, horticulture, intermediaries sericulture, social forestry and other branches of agriculture. Tipu’s international diplomacy: Tipu wanted to develop the economy of Tipu was greatly disappointed when he Mysore State in a different way and make realized that local powers in India lacked his citizens economically self-reliant and national consciousness. Tipu tried his best politically sovereign republics. He gave to enlist the cooperation of both the importance for the development of Marathas and the Nizam, but none of them economic bonds between South India and recognized the political sagacity and the Persian Gulf. In a letter addressed to foresightedness of Tipu. Chief of the factory at Muscat, Tipu had It was this factor which compelled him to requested the Imam to send Dingies, a develop friendly relations with foreign small vessel employed in the trade powers. He appointed trade agents and between Malabar Coast and Persian Gulf diplomatic missions to accomplish this in return of rice produced in India. goal of diplomacy. He tried to enlist the He wrote letters to Muscat to dispatch support of France, Turkey, Iran and expert shipbuilders to the Mysore territory. Afghanistan, hoping to form a formidable Maldive Islands continued to be an front against the English by appealing to important naval dockyard during his time. their religious sentiments. Mangalore, Bhatkal, Coondapur and He had appealed to the French General to Tadadi became important naval centres of send a strong army of 10000 to be under his times. Tipu also invited experts from the his authority within India. He was a Turkey, China, France and Iran and set up member of Jacobin club of France. Tipu industries in Channapatna, Bidnur, Sultan had strongly persuaded the French Chitradurga, Bangalore and Srirangapatna. to assist him in the Third Mysore War He had invited Chinese experts for against the British but they remained improving sugar manufacturing in his neutral because Tipu had initiated a war territory. Pearl fisheries were encouraged against the English at the wrong moment. by him in the Malabar coast. He sent a Tipu made an attempt to cultivate mission to France to import skilled diplomatic relations with the Ottoman workers and arsenals in 1785. Sultan and French King and assured them He took measures to bring social reforms that they could share the British like ban on the use of liquor and all possessions in South India with him. intoxicants, the ban on prostitution and the Turkey did not have either the wish or the employment of female slaves in domestic capacity to respond to Tipu’s diplomatic service, the abolition of the Nayar practice initiatives and France incurred severe loss of polyandry in Malabar and Coorg, the in the war with Britain repeal of the custom of human sacrifice in the temple of Kali near Mysore town and Tipu’s religious idealism:

Easy to PICK16 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Tippu is being considered by many to Sringeri and offered donations in huge historians as a great secular ruler and a quantities and got consecrated a splendid supporter of Hindu temples. He sandalwood idol of Sharada. consulted with astrologers of Ranganatha Tipu Sultan was a ruler of the past and we temple, Sreerangapattana before his every cannot expect him to be Secular and administrative or war attempts. He gifted tolerant in the modern sense. His history the astrologers with lots of money. shows evidence of both statemenship and Believing, according to the predictions of tolerance to Hindus along with persecution astrologers, that he could become the and forced conversions of Hindus. In his undisputed ruler of the whole of South defence of Mysore against the British he India, after defeating the British, he showed the character of the highest order performed all the suggested rituals in the of Patriots. In his reformative and Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple. It is only innovative measures he showed the for the satisfaction of the Brahmin character of a great administrative genius. astrologers who used to study his There is enough evidence in history to horoscope that Tippu Sultan had celebrate or condemn Tipu Sultan. patronised two temples. The wealth of But today there is an active project of many Hindu temple was confiscated communalizing history and there is focus before 1790 itself mainly to make up for on Politicising historical figures. In this the revenue loss in the country. project Tipu Sultan is a controversial By his six to eight years of presence in figure as he can be interpreted both ways. Malabar, the entire costal belt of the region In the interest of Indian National unity and converted to Islam. Some of the largest to foster the genuine feeling of tolerance and wealthiest groups of families of and brotherhood among communities it is Calicut were converted in mass to Islam. better to look at the Tipu’s tolerant aspect He renamed several places with Islamic rather than dividing the communities by tenor. His role in Malabar and Coorg bringing forth his intolerant measures. region shows some elements of religious There is a need for constructive use of extremism and intolerance. history. But after being defeated in the first Anglo- Mysore war he started dealing cordially with the Hindus in his kingdom so as to avoid insurrection and get support in the face of the British power. The credit of re- consecration of Sharada idol made of sandalwood, the main deity at Sharada Peeta, Sringeri of Chikmagalur goes to him and his contributions to the Peeta are well documented. When the Peeta came under attack from Maratha army when Sachidananda Bharathi was the pontiff, Tipu Sultan was waging a battle at Kannur in Kerala. On learning about the raid from the Marathas, he sent an army to Sringeri to drive away Marathas. The army was stationed at Sringeri to offer protection from further attacks. According to documentations Tipu brought back Sachidananda Bharathi again

Easy to PICK17 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” 75th Anniversary of liberation of the Auschwitz camp Syllabus subtopic: History of the World  Of these seven killing centers, the will include events from 18th century such camp at Auschwitz (in German- as Industrial Revolution, world wars, occupied Poland), perhaps the most Redrawal of National Boundaries, well known, was the largest in size. In Colonization, Decolonization, political many ways, Auschwitz has become the philosophies like Communism, Capitalism, centre of Holocaust history and Socialism etc.— their forms and effect on research and serves as a reminder of the society. the horrors of the Holocaust. Prelims and Mains focus: about Auschwitz  Most of the 1.1 million people concentration camp and its significance in murdered by the Nazi German forces at WWII the camp were Jewish, but among those imprisoned there were also Poles News: Survivors of the Auschwitz- and Russians. Birkenau death camp gathered Monday for commemorations marking the 75th  Allied forces liberated Auschwitz on anniversary of the liberation of the camp. January 27, 1945, finding hundreds of sick, starving and exhausted prisoners, About who had somehow survived.  During the Second World War, the  In 2005, the UN-designated January 27 government of Nazi Germany killed as the International Holocaust approximately 17 million people Remembrance Day. across Europe in half a dozen camps specifically designated for killings.

Easy to PICK18 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Nagoba jatara Syllabus subtopic: Indian Culture - Karnataka, jharkhand and Madhya Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature Pradesh belonging to the Mesaram clan and Architecture from ancient to modern offer prayers at the festival Nagoba. times.  It's starts in pushya masam (December-January). A ceremony of Prelims and Mains focus: about Nagoba 'bheting' is it's integral part where the jatara and the rituals associated with it new brides are introduced to the clan god during first jatra afer their News: The month-long Nagoba jatara marriage. recently concluded in Telangana’s Adilabad district. Nagoba Jatara Celebrations: 1. Rituals performed at Keslapur Nagoba Key highlights  The Betal puja involved display of Jatara begin in the morning, the Mesram elders will place the sacred martial art, in this case sword ‘jhari’, a 1,400-year-old water wielding, by the Adivasi Raj Gond container before performing its and Pardhans from the Mesram clan puja. near the Govad. The practised exercise has the ‘warrior’ jumping into the 2. The group of Gond and Pradhan elders air wielding a thin bamboo stick like who had fetched holy water with pots a sword. from Hastina Madugu of river Godavari in Jannaram Mandal was  According to elders, the Adivasis were given a traditional welcome under the familiar with martial arts, having been old banyan tree. from the once ruling clans. The Mesram exited Keslapur village to 3. Before the start of the pujas, the Gonds proceed towards Shampur in Utnoor continue to ‘purify’ the temple with mandal for the Budumdev jatara. Ganga Jal or water from the Godavari drawn at a spot called ‘Hastina About Nagoba jatara Madugu’ where Nagoba is believed  Nagoba Jatara is a tribal festival held to have quenched his thirst after partaking the ‘naivedyam’. in Keslapur village, Inderavelly Mandal Adilabad district, Telangana, 4. The event also includes a ceremony India. called ‘bheting’, which incorporates new brides into the clan. The Raj  It is the second biggest tribal carnival Gond Adivasis of Adilabad follow an and celebrated by Mesaram clan of elaborate ritual called Bheting, one of Gond tribes. Tribal people from their many regalistic ceremonies, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and through which new daughters in law Madhya Pradesh belonging to the are formally introduced to the clan. All Mesram clan offer prayers at the those who are married into the clan festival. during the last year need to ‘meet’ clan deities through Bheting so that they  Thousands of Tribal people from become eligible to enter the deity’s Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, temple.

Easy to PICK19 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” 5. The women clad in white saris are the Bheti Koriad or daughters in law to be introduced to goddess Jangubai and belong to the eight clans which have Jangubai as the clan deity. 6. The naivedyam carried in the bamboo baskets is made of freshly harvested food grains. The bamboo denotes the connection of the Gonds with the jungles while the naivedyam offering is a matter of thanksgiving for the crop harvested. 7. Adivasi celebrates with music and more than 15 types of dances. 8. The Gusadi Dance performance by dancers from the Gond tribe is a major special attraction of the event. 9. Gonds pilgrims and priests will play traditional folk music at the entrance of the Jangubai cave temple located in the hilly forest of Kota-Parandoli gram panchayat in Kerameri Revenue Mandal. 10. Later Gond women carry on with their daily grind, including grinding grain, with a smile on their face. 11. The women in the given group coming on pilgrimage to Jangubai caves prepare food at the spot, a small shed having been earmarked for the purpose. 12. In the night, the Gonds performed the Mahapuja of Nagoba, also known as Persa Pen or great god, which marks the actual beginning of the annual tribal fair.

Easy to PICK20 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” DoT kick-starts process to roll out 5G, trials likely in Jan-Mar Syllabus subtopic: Awareness in the healthcare. However, building use- fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, cases in these sectors is still a work in nano-technology, bio-technology and progress. So far, six proposals have issues relating to intellectual property been received, which includes those rights. from China’s ZTE and Huawei. Any field trial in respect of 5G is to be Prelims and Mains focus: about 5G; its carried out only through licensed advantages and significance in telecom service providers in a development of various sectors restrictive, limited geographical area and for specific use case. News: The telecom department has initiated the process of rolling out 5G  Earlier this month, DoT approved networks in the country, with telecom prices for the next spectrum auction operators set to begin testing the that will happen by April. Of the technology later this month. 8,300MHz of airwaves the government  All major telecom operators and plans to offer, 6,050MHz have been allocated for 5G. The 3,300-3,600MHz equipment vendors on Tuesday met top band allocated for 5G has been priced officials of the department of at ₹492 crore per megahertz. telecommunications (DoT) to discuss the roadmap for trials. Case of China’s Huawei  DoT is expected to allot spectrum in a  This has come as relief for Huawei, few days and trials will happen in January-March. which has been facing global scrutiny  The meeting with telecom companies over network security concerns. The happened a day after the government US has claimed that Huwaei’s 5G said it has allowed all applicants, equipment could be used by China to including China’s Huawei, to spy on other countries, an allegation participate in 5G trials. the company has denied.  The DoT will allocate the trial  The approval for conducting 5G trials spectrum to its licencees, which are does not, however, automatically telecom service providers, who can imply that Huawei’s equipment will be then choose to partner with vendors cleared for a commercial rollout in such as Nokia, Huawei, Ericsson and India. Samsung. 5G scenario in India vis-a-vis other Background countries  In June 2019, DoT approved a one-  5G is the next generation of wireless year 5G trial period and a one-time fee technology and will boost data speeds of Rs.5,000 for entities seeking and propel the Internet of Things, experimental spectrum to conduct with the potential to bring radical trials. The government also announced changes in agriculture, its intention to focus on three big manufacturing, healthcare and social sectors for deployment of education. 5G—education, agriculture and

Easy to PICK21 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine”  India’s 5G trials and commercial in November to consumers in 50 rollout are far behind global peers, Chinese cities, including Beijing and which have even deployed commercial Shanghai. networks. South Korea was the first to commercially start 5G services in  US’s Verizon Communications Inc. April. kickstarted 5G services in October 2018 in Houston, Indian- apolis, Los  China’s state-run teleco operators Angeles and Sacramento, using non- China Mobile, China Unicom and standard gear. China Telecom rolled out 5G services

Easy to PICK22 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Taiwan passes law to combat China influence Syllabus subtopic: Effect of policies and China’s response politics of developed and developing  In Beijing, the Taiwan Affairs Office countries on India's interests, Indian diaspora. lashed out at the DPP over the new law. Prelims and Mains focus: about the bill  “The DPP imposes ‘Green Terror’ for passed by Taiwan; China-Taiwan dispute; its political and election gains to difference between One China policy and damage cross-strait exchanges while principle creating hostility and confrontation between the two sides,” office News: Taiwan passed a controversial bill spokeswoman Zhu Fenglian said, on Tuesday aimed at countering China’s according to the Xinhua news agency. influence on the self-ruled island, less  China still sees self-ruling, democratic than two weeks before it goes to the polls Taiwan as part of its territory and has to elect a new President. vowed to one day reunify it — by force if necessary. What is the Bill about? Background  The “anti-infiltration Bill” pushed by  Taiwan holds a presidential vote on President TsaiIng-wen’s Jan. 11 with President Tsai Ing-wen hoping to win re-election. She has Beijing-sceptic ruling party became repeatedly mentioned what she sees as the threat of China as a warning to law despite strong objection from the voters.  Tsai’s ruling Democratic Progressive Opposition Kuomintang (KMT) party. Party is pro-independence, although she has said she wants to maintain the  It bans “hostile” foreign forces from status quo with China but will defend Taiwan’s security and democracy. activities such as campaigning,  Democratic Taiwan is claimed by China as a wayward province and is lobbying, making political donations, the Communist Party’s most sensitive and important territorial issue. China disrupting social order or spreading disinformation related to elections. Violators face a maximum five-year prison term and a fine of up to around $3,32,000. What is the reason behind the passage of the Bill  The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) govt. said it passed the Bill to prevent China, which is Taiwan’s only threat, from using its sharp power and its capital to pollute, manipulate or sabotage Taiwan’s democratic activities.  The Mainland Affairs Council, Taiwan’s top China policy-making body, said the new law would help strengthen the island's “democratic defences”.

Easy to PICK23 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine”  has threatened to attack if Taiwan  Since 1979, Taiwan has had to moves toward formal independence. negotiate its ‘international living space’ but it has largely honoured the  President Xi Jinping said in January ‘One China’ principle. that China reserves the right to use force to bring Taiwan under its control but will strive to achieve peaceful “reunification”. One China Policy The One-China policy refers to the policy or view that there is only one state called \"China\", despite the existence of two governments that claim to be \"China\".  As a policy, this means that countries seeking diplomatic relations with People's Republic of China (PRC, Mainland China) must break official relations with the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan) and vice versa.  The One China policy is different from the \"One China principle\", which is the principle that insists both Taiwan and mainland China are inalienable parts of a single China What is the ‘One China’ principle? The principle affirms Chinese sovereignty over Taiwan and is the cornerstone of bilateral diplomatic relations between Washington and Beijing.  Any country that wants to establish political and diplomatic relations with China must agree to adhere to this principle and not recognise Taiwan as an independent country.  Currently, 21 states recognize Taiwan as a sovereign country. India does not maintain any diplomatic ties with the Taiwan.  In practice, the ‘One China’ principle is a stabilisation mechanism that preserves the status quo over Taiwan’s political status while allowing it to function as an independent economic, civic and administrative entity.

Easy to PICK24 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Odisha tribals still suffering from hunger, malnutrition Syllabus subtopic: Issues relating to  Under the Mahatma Gandhi National development and management of Social Rural Employment Guarantee Act, Sector/Services relating to Health, 21 tribals of these villages had worked Education, Human Resources. in a road construction work in 2014, but they had not got their payments. Prelims and Mains focus: about the findings of RTF regarding malnutrition  Paudi Bhuyan, one of the most among tribes in Odisha; about juanga and vulnerable and neglected tribes who Paudi Bhuyan tribe reside on hilltops, should be mainstreamed and linked with News: Right to Food Campaign (RTF), a government welfare programmes platform of social activists, said poor immediately. implementation of government welfare programmes was marginalising tribals  In Nagada village, which put Odisha further in backward pockets of Odisha. to shame following reports of malnutrition deaths of children, Background situation remained unchanged despite In the wake of malnutrition deaths of 20 the State government promising to infants of the Juanga tribe at Nagada have given utmost attention for its village in Jajpur district in 2016, the RTF development. campaigners started visiting villages inhabited by particularly vulnerable About PVTGs tribal groups(PVTGs) in different parts  PVTGs are more vulnerable among the of the State. tribal groups. What did it reveal?  They have declining or stagnant  As per the findings shared by RTF population, low level of literacy, pre- members, Paudi Bhuyan tribes in agricultural level of technology and are four villages – Kiri, Keta, Kundula and economically backward. Kunu – under Bonai subdivision of  They generally inhabit remote Sundargarh districts were suffering localities having poor infrastructure from hunger and malnutrition. and administrative support.  Integrated Child Development Identification: Service (ICDS) programme, one of  In 1975, the Government of India the most important food security programmes, was found non-existent initiated to identify the most vulnerable in Paudi Bhuyan tribal villages. tribal groups as a separate category Anganwadi centres were non- called PVTGs and declared 52 such functional. No ICDS authority has groups, while in 1993 an additional 23 visited these villages in two decades. groups were added to the category, Children were never immunised. They making it a total of 75 PVTGs out of were also not getting cooked food. 705 Scheduled Tribes, spread over 18 states and one Union Territory (A&N Islands) in the country (2011 census).

Easy to PICK25 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine”  Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha (13), followed by Andhra Pradesh (12). The criteria followed for determination of PVTGs are as under:  A pre-agriculture level of technology.  A stagnant or declining population.  Extremely low literacy.  A subsistence level of economy.

Easy to PICK26 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Free trade agreement with Mauritius near finalization Syllabus subtopic: Bilateral, regional and India-Mauritius economic relations global groupings and agreements  India had a trade surplus of around involving India and/or affecting India's interests $1.09 billion with Mauritius in 2018- 19, which means that it had exported Prelims and Mains focus: about the more goods to the island nation than proposed India-Mauritius FTA and its it imported from it. significance; India-Mauritius economic relations  Mauritius was the second top source of foreign direct investment (FDI) News: India is close to finalising a into India in 2018-19. India received proposed free trade agreement (FTA) $8 billion (about Rs 56,000 crore) with Mauritius, with several rounds of foreign inflows from the country. negotiations to improve market access between the two countries having been  India exports petroleum products, completed, the Ministry of Commerce and pharmaceuticals, cereals, cotton and Industry said on Wednesday. electrical machinery, apparel and clothing accessories to Mauritius. Background Seven rounds of India-Mauritius CECPA  The island nation’s exports to New negotiations have been held till now. Delhi include iron and steel, pearls, During these rounds, negotiations focussed precious/semi-precious stones and on various aspects including trade in optical, photographic and precision goods, trade in services, rules of origin, instruments. technical barriers to trade and sanitary and phyto-sanitary (SPS) measures, trade Way ahead remedies and dispute settlement. The government plans to promote India- Africa trade and economic relations About the proposed FTA through regular reviews of trade ties through institutional mechanisms like Joint  The proposed India-Mauritius Commission Meetings, Joint Trade Committees and Joint Working Groups, Comprehensive Economic the Ministry’s release added. Union Minister of Commerce and Industry Cooperation and Partnership Piyush Goyal in May 2019 had held digital video conferences with Indian business Agreement (CECPA) seeks to communities in African regions like Madagascar, Tanzania, Mauritius, Kenya, mutually benefit both countries in the Uganda, South Africa, Zambia, Mozambique, Ghana, Botswana, Nigeria, areas of trade in goods and services. Morocco, Senegal, Zimbabwe, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia and Egypt in order to Why countries opt for FTA? promote India’s exports to the region. Countries enter into FTAs to make it easier to exchange goods and services between them. This is usually done by reducing or eliminating trade barriers like tariffs and quotas that these countries would have imposed on these goods and services.

Easy to PICK27 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Success of facial recognition tech depends on data Syllabus subtopic: Statutory, regulatory during which a camera captured a and various quasi-judicial bodies photo of their faces and scanned it against a database in a matter of Prelims and Mains focus: About the seconds. AFRS system and its uses in various fields; about NCRB: its objectives and How does the software work? functions The police’s AFRS is different from the facial recognition systems used on News: Facial recognition software is now smartphones. The latter is based on the an integral part of policing, globally. ISO 19794-5 standard meant for consumer Last month, the police used its automated biometrics; the police’s software is more facial recognition system (AFRS) to “restrictive”, as per the National Crime screen crowds at PM Modi’s rally on the Records Bureau (NCRB) document citizenship law in Delhi. seeking proposals for the system. It measures facial features and uses the What is the purpose of AFRS software? measurements to create a “template” to be  AFRS is a software that recognizes, matched against others, says an American Bar Association study. Law enforcement’s records and matches faces against software is meant to work in various light various government databases from conditions; detect make-up, plastic surgery photos and videos taken from public or ageing; and work against sketches of and private sources. subjects.  Its purpose is to find missing children, who may be recorded on Can facial recognition technology be CCTV; track criminals across a beaten? country; and in the case of Modi’s A review of the London Metropolitan rally, recognize people who were Police’s facial recognition system by likely to raise protest slogans at the academics from the University of Essex in rally, based on footage recorded from July 2019 showed that the system had earlier protests. According to reports, erred in 81% of the cases. However, law people at Delhi’s Ramlila Maidan had enforcement bodies worldwide have to pass through a metal detector, adopted the system, although there are enough reports for and against the software. Which databases does AFRS have access to? The NCRB document says AFRS should be able to check against various databases. Besides the criminal database, it mentions the passport database; the Aadhaar database that includes your photo may be

Easy to PICK28 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” used too. It mentions the Immigration, the investigators in linking crime to Visa and Foreigners’ Registration the perpetrators based on the Tracking database, the ministry of women recommendations of the Tandon and child development’s Khoya-Paya and Committee to the National Police the National Automated Fingerprint Commission (1977-1981) and the Identification System. It can match a MHA’s Taskforce (1985). photo against many and compare one photo with another. The more the data,  NCRB was entrusted with the the better is the output. responsibility for monitoring, coordinating and implementing the What is the scope of India’s AFRS? Crime and Criminal Tracking NCRB’s proposal clearly states that while Network & Systems (CCTNS) a centralized web application will be project in the year 2009. The project hosted in the crime record bureau’s data connects 15000+ police stations and centre in Delhi, it will be made available to 6000 higher offices of police in the “all police stations of the country”. That country. means AFRS certainly stretches on a national scale. Furthermore, Delhi Police  NCRB launched the National Digital also required the software to work on Police Portal. It allows search for a Android, iOS and Windows platforms. criminal/suspect on the CCTNS “NCRB has already proposed the database apart from providing various provision of mobile data terminals to each services to citizens like filing of police station,” states the proposal complaints online and seeking document. antecedent verification of tenants, domestic help, drivers etc. About National Crimes Record Bureau (NCRB) NCRB has five major objectives and it  NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function also fulfils several other functions: as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist Functions: (NDSO) and share it with the States/UTs on a regular basis.  Entrusted to maintain National Database of Sexual Offenders

Easy to PICK29 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine”  Designated as the Central Nodal  IT-based Public Services like Vahan Agency to manage technical and Samanvay (online matching for operational functions of the ‘Online Stolen/Recovered vehicles) and Talash Cyber-Crime Reporting Portal’ (matching of missing persons and dead through which any citizen can lodge a bodies) is maintained. complaint or upload a video clip as evidence of crime related to child  Maintains Counterfeit Currency pornography, rape/gang rape. Information and Management System (FICN) and Integrated  Compiles and publishes National Monitoring on Terrorism (iMoT) Crime Statistics. Crime in India, applications. Accidental Deaths & Suicides and also Prison Statistics.  Assists various States in capacity building in the area of Information  Serve as a principal reference point Technology, CCTNS, Finger Prints, to policymakers, police, Network security and Digital Forensics criminologists, researchers and media, through its training centres. both in India and abroad.

Easy to PICK30 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” India, Nepal to hold talks on Kalapani Syllabus subtopic: India and its  India has said the new map accurately neighbourhood relations. depicts its sovereign territory and it has Prelims and Mains focus: about the in no manner revised its boundary with Kalapani dispute between India and Nepal; Nepal. about the Treaty of Sagauli News: Nepal and India will resolve the Background Kalapani border issue through dialogue,  Nepalese territories including the Ministry of External Affairs said on Thursday. Darjeeling were handed to the British Context: East India Company as concessions under the Sugauli treaty which was  Nepal has raised objections after India signed in 1816 on the conclusion of the released its new political map in Anglo-Nepalese War. November last year following the reorganisation of Jammu and  Under the treaty, the Nepalese- Kashmir. controlled territory that was ceded included all areas that the king of  Nepal claimed that Limpiyadhura, Nepal had won in earlier wars such as Lipulek, and Kalapani areas were the kingdom of Sikkim in the east and shown under India’s territory even Kumaon and Garhwal in the west. though they lie within the Nepalese territory.

Easy to PICK31 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Economy braces for a crude shock after US airstrike kills Iran general Syllabus subtopic: Effect of policies and News: Investors in India were rattled on politics of developed and developing Friday after a US airstrike killed a top countries on India's interests, Indian Iranian general, sending crude oil prices diaspora. soaring, a development that could further strain the finances of the world’s third Prelims and Mains focus: escalating US- largest crude importer and deepen an Iran tensions and its impact on India’s economic slowdown. economy Context: ratchets up tension between Washington Crude oil futures in London and New and Tehran, heightening fears of an York surged by more than 4% to levels not armed confrontation that could pull in seen since the attacks on Saudi Arabia’s other countries. As focus shifts to how Iran oil production facility in September. The will react, the country’s supreme leader, strike near Baghdad airport killed Qasem Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, vowed “severe Soleimani, the Iranian general who led the retaliation” awaits the killers of Soleimani. Revolutionary Guards’ Quds force, according to a US defence department Impact on India’s economy statement.  The surge in prices is worrying for Escalating tensions between US and New Delhi as India imports more Iran than 80% of its fuel requirements. While no oil installations or production Analysts forecast that Brent crude oil were hit, the killing of one of Iran’s most prices could breach $70-72 a barrel in powerful generals is a provocation that the coming weeks if Teheran retaliates.

Easy to PICK32 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine”  Even though New Delhi has slashed its fifth of the world’s oil—which could crude imports from Iran to negligible be vulnerable in the case of a wider levels since a US sanctions waiver on US-Iran conflict. its purchases ended in May last year, a bulk of India’s crude oil supplies are Significance of Strait of Hormuz routed from West Asian nations Bounded to the north by Iran and to the through the Strait of Hormuz—a south by Oman and the United Arab narrow passageway that carries one- Emirates (UAE), the Strait of Hormuz connects the Gulf with the Arabian Sea.

Easy to PICK33 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine”  Iranian officials had in April India’s trade with the region, which threatened to block the Strait of now stands at $78 billion (from Gulf Hormuz in retaliation to US Cooperation Council member sanctions. India had deployed naval countries—Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the assets in the region to protect its UAE, Qatar, Bahrain and Oman), supplies in the wake of mine attacks on according to April-November figures oil tankers in the region. from India’s commerce ministry.  With India’s gross domestic product  West Asia is the source of some $200 growth slowing to a six-and-a-half- billion in remittances and investments year low of 4.5% in the September for India. quarter, there are serious concerns that high fuel prices could hurt economic  The jitters over the potential economic recovery. impact saw the rupee on Friday closing at a six-week low against the  Another worry, according to dollar, while the benchmark BSE government officials, is that tensions Sensex fell 0.39% to 41,464.61 points. between Iran and the US could affect

Easy to PICK34 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” CAA will leave many children stateless: plea Syllabus subtopic: Government policies Indian citizenship by birth only if and interventions for development in either of the parents is an Indian various sectors and issues arising out of citizen. their design and implementation. 3. Thirdly, it provides that children born Prelims and Mains focus: about the in India on or after December 3, 2004, concerns raised by the plea; about CAA would be entitled to Indian citizenship 2019 and its significance by birth only if both of parents are News: The citizenship law which citizens or one of the parents is a differentiates children on the basis of their citizen and the other is not an illegal date of birth will leave many stateless, a migrant. petition filed in the Supreme Court on What does this mean? Friday contended. Hence, while there are conditions for children born between 1950 and 1987, What did the plea challenge? children born in the second and third time- Besides challenging the Citizenship frame may end up stateless. (Amendment) Act, 2019, for discrimination in the grant of citizenship  Those children who were born in India on the basis of religion, the petition filed on or after July 1, 1987, but before by Association for Protection of Civil December 3, 2004, whose parents Rights, an NGO, challenged the validity were illegal migrants would not be of Section 3 (1) of the original granted citizenship but would not even Citizenship Act, 1955. be considered illegal migrants within Section 3(2) (b) of the Citizenship Act, What does Section 3(1) of the 1955. Citizenship Act, 1955 say? Section 3(1) creates three scenarios:  Similarly, those children who were 1. It mandates that children born in India born in India on or after December 3, 2004, either of whose parents was an on or after January 26, 1950, but illegal migrant, would again not be before July 1, 1987, are entitled to granted citizenship,” the petition citizenship by birth. contended. 2. Secondly, it says children born in India on or after July 1, 1987, but before  The court will hear the petitions December 3, 2004, would be entitled to against the CAA and the NRC on January 22.

Easy to PICK35 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Centre approves 2,636 auto charging stations Syllabus subtopic: Welfare schemes for  Of the 2,636 stations, 1,633 will be vulnerable sections of the population by fast charging stations. About 14,000 the Centre and States and the performance chargers will be installed across the of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, selected cities. institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these About FAME India scheme vulnerable sections.  FAME India is a part of the National Prelims and Mains focus: About FAME Electric Mobility Mission Plan India scheme; its features and significance (NEMMP). Main thrust of FAME is to encourage electric vehicles by News: The Centre has approved setting up providing subsidies. of 2,636 charging stations in 62 cities  Vehicles in most segments – two across the country under the FAME wheelers, three wheelers, electric and India scheme, which will encourage hybrid cars and electric buses obtained original equipment manufacturers the subsidy benefit of the scheme. (OEMs) to launch new electric vehicle  FAME focuses on 4 areas i.e. models, Union Minister Prakash Javadekar Technology development, Demand said on Friday. Creation, Pilot Projects and Charging Infrastructure.

Easy to PICK36 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine”

Easy to PICK37 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” NHRC tells Rajasthan to explain Kota deaths Syllabus subtopic: Statutory, regulatory captivated the general public with the and various quasi-judicial bodies speedy delivery of justice by the courts. Suo Motu cases in India are Prelims and Mains focus: About the generally taken up by the Supreme recent deaths of children in Kota, Court. Rajasthan; NHRC: composition, vision and significance About NHRC News: The National Human Rights  The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) on Friday issued a notice to the Rajasthan government in Commission (NHRC) of India was connection with the deaths of over 100 children at the government-run J.K. Lon established on 12 October, 1993. The hospital in Kota in December. statute under which it is established is  Taking suo motu cognisance of media reports, the Commission issued a the Protection of Human Rights Act notice to the Chief Secretary, asking for a detailed report within four weeks. (PHRA), 1993 as amended by the Background Protection of Human Rights According to the reports, as many as 10 children died in just 48 hours between (Amendment) Act, 2006. December 23 and 24, 2019 at the hospital.  It is in conformity with the Paris Suo motu cognisance?  A Suo motu cognizance is a Latin Principles, adopted at the first term which means an action taken by a international workshop on national government agency, court or other central authority on their own institutions for the promotion and apprehension.  A court takes a Suo Motu Cognizance protection of human rights held in of a legal matter when it receives information about the violation of Paris in October 1991, and endorsed rights or breach of duty through media or a third party’s notification. by the General Assembly of the United  In India, Article 32 of the Indian Constitution and Article 226 of the Nations by its Regulations 48/134 of Indian Constitution lay down the provisions for filing Public Interest 20 December, 1993. Litigation (PIL) in India in Supreme Court and High Courts respectively.  The NHRC is an embodiment of This has given rise to the court's’ power to initiate legal action on their India’s concern for the promotion and cognizance of a matter. Suo Motu’s actions by Indian courts are a reflection protection of human rights. of activism by the judiciary and  Section 2(1)(d) of the PHRA defines Human Rights as the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in India. Composition The NHRC consists of:  A Chairperson, who has been a Chief Justice of India or a Judge of the Supreme Court  One member who is, or has been, a Judge of the Supreme Court of India  One member who is, or has been, the Chief Justice of a High Court  Three Members, out of which at least one shall be a woman to be appointed

Easy to PICK38 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” from amongst persons having Commissioner for Persons with knowledge of, or practical experience Disabilities serve as ex officio in, matters relating to human rights members.  In addition, the Chairpersons of  The sitting Judge of the Supreme Court National Commissions (Scheduled or sitting Chief Justice of any High Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Women , Court can be appointed only after the Minorities, Backward Classes, consultation with the Chief Justice of Protection of Child Rights) and Chief Supreme Court. Vision & Mission at the national level but at  The NHRC has been set up by an Act international level too. of Parliament under the Protection of  NHRC is a unique institution because Human Rights Act, 1993 for the it is one of the few National Human protection and promotion of human Rights Institutes (NHRIs) in the world rights. The functions of the whose Chairperson is the former Commission as stated in Section 12 of Chief Justice of the country. The the Act and apart from enquiry into world looks at NHRC of India as a role complaints of violation of human model in promoting and monitoring rights or negligence in the prevention effective implementation of promotion of such violation by a public servant, and protection of human rights. the Commission also studies treaties and international instruments on  The NHRC, India plays an active role human rights and make in coordinating with other NHRIs of recommendations for their effective the world to enhance awareness from implementation to the Government. the perspective of human rights. It has also hosted delegations from UN  The Commission is responsible for Bodies and other National Human spreading of human rights awareness Rights Commissions as well as amongst the masses and encouraging members of civil society, lawyers and the efforts of all stake holders in the political and social activists from many field of human rights literacy not only countries.

Easy to PICK39 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” India faces a year of tough trade talks Syllabus subtopic: Bilateral, regional and Industries and External Affairs Ministries global groupings and agreements in 2020. involving India and/or affecting India's interests RCEP walkout Prelims and Mains focus: about the  To begin with, the RCEP walkout is challenges India will be facing in negotiating trade deals this year; about not cast in stone yet, as the other 15 RCEP, CECA, BTIA, GSP: their countries, including 10 ASEAN significance members and their FTA partners News: After walking out of negotiations China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand on the 16-nation Regional and South Korea, will complete legal Comprehensive Economic Partnership reviews by June and are only expected (RCEP) free trade agreement, the to sign the deal in November 2020. government said it would renegotiate its existing free trade agreements (FTA) and  In the interim, many countries, most redouble its efforts to conclude other trade notably Japan, Australia and even negotiations. The task is likely to swamp China, have said they would be keen to negotiators of both the Commerce and work with India to convince the government to rejoin the RCEP.

Easy to PICK40 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” India-Australia CECA (CECA), as well as Commerce Minister While the RCEP is being wrapped up, Piyush Goyal’s plans to reopen the India’s long-pending negotiations with existing FTAs with ASEAN, Japan and Australia for a Comprehensive South Korea will have to take a back seat. Economic Cooperation Agreement

Easy to PICK41 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Bilateral Trade and Investment discuss restarting EU-India Bilateral Agreement (BTIA) Trade and Investment Agreement The next big trade focus for the (BTIA) talks. However, this is easier said government will be during the EU-India than done, given that the talks that began summit expected in March, when PM in 2007 and stalled in 2013 over tariff Modi is expected to travel to Brussels, to issues, have not been resumed despite meet the new European Commission several efforts. President Ursula Von Der Leyen, and Bridging gap with U.S. on two occasions when they met in 2019, Finally, the two Ministries will focus on but negotiators have been unable to forge closing talks with U.S. Trade any kind of deal, despite visits by Mr. Representatives. In 2019, President Goyal to the U.S. Trump rescinded India’s GSP special In the New Year, both sides hope a status for exporters, which has led to package of smaller agreements can be more bitterness over the issue. Mr. Modi announced, but a free trade agreement and Mr. Trump discussed the trade issues could be several years away, as it hasn’t even been discussed officially yet.

Easy to PICK42 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Way ahead Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Given all the challenges, the government is (DFAT). actively considering a sharper and leaner With the world being carved up into trade negotiating team that merges the best regional trading blocs and India’s only strengths of Commerce Ministry officials regional Bloc, for SAARC nations and External Affairs diplomats, on the (SAFTA) stalled, the odds of concluding lines of countries with a consolidated more bilateral trading agreements will be that much harder in 2020.

Easy to PICK43 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” UPSC to conduct separate exam for Railway Service Syllabus subtopic: Statutory, regulatory services. The exam is expected to be held and various quasi-judicial bodies in the next recruitment circle of 2021 What will be the recruitment Prelims and Mains focus: about the procedure? recent reform in the railway service and its advantages; UPSC: structure and functions  The UPSC will be given information about the requirement of cadre in News: The Union Public Service various wings for the services, Commission (UPSC) will conduct an engineering etc. and the number of exclusive examination for recruitment of posts will be notified accordingly. officers to handle specialized services in the newly created Indian Railway  Candidates from engineering will have Management Service (IRMS) following to take the main examination on their unification of eight different Railway specialised domain course and not any other subject. Reasons behind move Managers (DRMs) and above, including General Managers, as well as  The objective behind the “historic” to the Railway Board. massive restructuring of the management of the Indian Railways is What was the practice till now? to remove the “departmentalism” Till now, only those chosen to become 34 culture which has seeped all the way DRMs each year based on their UPSC up to the Railway Board and ensure marks and date of birth had opportunity to there is “one service and officers reach higher posts, with the rest not even from one batch should get evaluated. promotion in on go” and not as has been happening thus far. Changed procedure  For the IRMS, there would be  The 350-odd officers joining the Railway service annually will all have benchmark performance and personal an equal opportunity of reaching the integrity for all those joining service top posts of Divisional Railway

Easy to PICK44 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” based on their 15-year tenure by a About UPSC group of three senior officers. Article 315 provides there will be one UPSC and State public service  The CRB has already clarified that commission for every state, however two existing officers would not be or more states may agree to have joint discriminated against in terms of PSC and in that case the President shall be promotions or posts as a Group of law provides for appointment of joint PSC. Ministers would be looking into the issue to make necessary adjustments Appointments even in creating new posts to  Chairman and members of union accommodate performers. public service commission are appointed by the President.  Chairman and members of joint public service commission are appointed by the President.  Chairman and members of state public service commission are appointed by the Governor. As far as possible one half of the members of every public service commission should be those members which have held office for at least 10 years under the government of India or under the government of a state. Functions Under Article 320 of the Constitution of India, the Commission is, inter-alia, required to be consulted on all matters relating to recruitment to civil services and posts. The functions of the Commission under Article 320 of the Constitution are: 1. Conduct examinations for appointment to the services of the Union. 2. Direct recruitment by selection through interviews. 3. Appointment of officers on promotion / deputation / absorption. 4. Framing and amendment of Recruitment Rules for various services and posts under the Government. 5. Disciplinary cases relating to different Civil Services. 6. Advising the Government on any matter referred to the Commission by the President of India. Tenure: All chairman and members are appointed for 6 years of until in case of

Easy to PICK45 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” UPSC they attain the age of 65 years and Grounds: in case of joint and state commission is 62 1. Members and chairman can be years whichever is earlier. removed on the ground of Re-Appointment: No member of misbehaviour after the supreme court chairman of any public service on reference being made to it by commission will be eligible for president after holding enquiry it is reappointment to the same office. A reported that any member or chairman member of a state commission may should be removed. become chairman of that state commission 2. When he is adjudged as insolvent. or member of chairman of any commission 3. When he accepts any paid employment including union public service outside the duty of his office. commission. Members of UPSC may 4. When he is infirmity of mind of body. become chairman of state public service All members of chairman of any commission or of union public service commission (UPSC or State PSC) can be commission. However, after the cease to removed only by the President. hold the office they will not hold any Article 317(1) - President in case of UPSC office under the government of state or and Joint PSC and governor in case of union government. State PSC may suspend chairman or any other member until the president has Removal: passed the order for removal on reference being made to the Supreme Court.

Easy to PICK46 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Global Drosophila conference Syllabus subtopic: Bilateral, regional and immunity and ecology and evolution global groupings and agreements are scheduled for the conference. involving India and/or affecting India's interests  One of the highlights of this Prelims and Mains focus: About the conference is that we are explicitly Conference and its significance; about the encouraging undergraduates from Drosophila fly various institutes of the world to News: Pune is set to host the fifth edition participate in it. There is a of the Asia Pacific Drosophila Research pre-conference symposium called Conference (APDRC5), which is being ‘signals from the gut’ in organised in the country for the first collaboration with the National time by the Indian Institute of Science Centre for Cell Science, as well as a Education and Research (IISER). pre-conference microscopy workshop on super-resolution microscopy. This About the Conference will feature microscopes from fluorescence imaging to super  This biennial conference, which is to resolution imaging (50 nm resolution) which are vital for certain kinds of fly be held between January 6 and 10, work. aims to promote the interaction of  The last four editions of this conference took place in Taipei, Seoul, Drosophila researchers in the Beijing and Osaka. Asia-Pacific region with their peers What is Drosophila? in the rest of the world.  Drosophila is one of the most widely-used and preferred model  It will bring together scientists from all organisms in biological research across the world for the last 100 years. over the world who use the fruit fly, Several discoveries in biology have been made using this. Drosophila, as a model organism to  Its genome is entirely sequenced and address basic and applied questions. there is enormous information available about its biochemistry,  The event will feature 430 delegates: physiology and behavior. 330 Indian and 100 foreign. It will see the participation of two Nobel laureates, professors Eric Wieschaus and Michael Rosbash, known for their seminal contribution to the fields of development biology and chronobiology respectively.  This event is one of the largest meetings of Drosophila researchers in the whole world and attracts scientists working in diverse disciplines ranging from cell and molecular biology to ecology and evolution.  A total 57 talks and 240 posters on topics ranging from gametogenesis and stem cells, morphogenesis and mechanobiology, hormones and physiology, cellular and behavioural neurobiology, infection and

Easy to PICK47 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” State can regulate minority institutions: SC Syllabus subtopic: Indian Constitution- The term \"Minority\" is not defined in the historical underpinnings, evolution, Indian Constitution. However, the features, amendments, significant Constitution recognises only religious provisions and basic structure. and linguistic minorities. Prelims and Mains focus: about the SC 1. Article 29: judgement and its significance;  It provides that any section of the constitutional provisions regarding minorities citizens residing in any part of India having a distinct language, script or News: The Supreme Court on Monday culture of its own, shall have the right held that the State is well within its to conserve the same. rights to introduce a regulatory regime  It grants protection to both religious in the “national interest” to provide minorities as well as linguistic minority educational institutions with minorities. However, the Supreme well-qualified teachers in order for them Court held that the scope of this to “achieve excellence in education.” article is not necessarily restricted to minorities only, as use of the word Background ‘section of citizens’ in the Article that  The judgment came on a challenge to include minorities as well as majority. the validity of the West Bengal Madrasah Service Commission Act 2. Article 30 : Under the article, all of 2008. minorities shall have the right to  The State Act mandated that the establish and administer educational process of appointment of teachers in institutions of their choice. aided madrasahs, recognised as minority institutions, would be done by  The protection under Article 30 is a Commission, whose decision would confined only to minorities (religious be binding. or linguistic) and does not extend to any section of citizens (as under What did the SC say? Article 29).  The managements of minority 3. Article 350-B: Originally, the institutions cannot ignore such a legal Constitution of India did not make any regime by saying that it is their provision with respect to the Special fundamental right under Article 30 of Officer for Linguistic Minorities. But, the Constitution to establish and the Seventh Constitutional Amendment administer their educational Act of 1956 inserted Article 350-B in institutions according to their choice. the Constitution.  The regulatory law should however balance the dual objectives of  It provides for a Special Officer for ensuring standard of excellence as Linguistic Minorities appointed by the well as preserving the right of the President of India. minorities to establish and administer their educational institutions.  It would be the duty of the Special Regulations that embrace and reconcile Officer to investigate all matters the two objectives were reasonable. relating to the safeguards provided for Constitutional Provisions: linguistic minorities under the constitution.

Easy to PICK48 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Army gets working on GOCO model to improve efficiency Syllabus subtopic: Government policies mortars and small arms, vehicles, and interventions for development in communication systems, radars, air various sectors and issues arising out of defence systems, armoured personnel their design and implementation. carriers; manufacture of spares and Prelims and Mains focus: About the overhaul of aviation rotables. GOCO model and its significance News: Army has started identifying potential industry partners to implement the Government Owned Contractor Operated (GOCO) model for its base workshops and ordnance depots. Background The GOCO model was one of the recommendations of the Lt. Gen. DB Shekatkar (Retd.) committee to “enhance combat capability and re-balance defence expenditure.” How is it going to be implemented?  A Request For Information was issued on December 19, 2019 to shortlist service providers with experience in “warehousing, logistics and supply chain management” for Central Ordnance Depot, Kanpur. The Army has also started evaluating the GOCO model for Army Base Workshops (ABW) to drive “higher operational efficiencies”.  The agenda of these interactions would be to understand from interested industry participants their views on opportunities envisaged and issues/concerns if ABWs were to be run under GOCO model.  The tasks undertaken by these workshops include depot-level repairs; overhaul of T-72 and T-90, guns,

Easy to PICK49 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” ‘It is up to States to provide 10% quota’ Syllabus subtopic: Government policies  It said the 10% reservation law was and interventions for development in enacted to promote the welfare of the various sectors and issues arising out of poor not covered by the 50% their design and implementation. reservation policy for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and Prelims and Mains focus: About the 10% the Socially and Educationally reservation introduced by the Constitution Backward Classes. 103rd Amendment Act and related issues  It has been nearly six months since a News: The Centre on Tuesday informed Bench, led by Justice Sharad A. the Supreme Court that it would be the Bobde, now the Chief Justice of India, States’ prerogative to provide 10% has reserved orders on the preliminary economic reservation in government question that whether a bunch of writ jobs and admission to education petitions challenging the economic institutions. reservation law should be referred to a Constitution Bench. Context: The Centre was responding to a writ petition from Supreme Court  The court had refused to pass any advocate G.S. Mani complaining that the interim order to stay or hamper the economic reservation law was not being implementation of the Constitution implemented in Tamil Nadu and (103rd Amendment) Act, which Karnataka. provides for the 10% reservation. Centre’s response: Whether or not to Key changes made by the 103rd CAA provide reservation to the economically Amendment of Article 15: weaker section in appointment to State In Article 15 of the Constitution, after government jobs and admission to State clause (5), the following clause shall be government educational institutions, as per inserted, namely:— provisions of the newly inserted Articles “(6) Nothing in this article or sub-clause 15(6) and 16(6) of the Constitution, is to (g) of clause (1) of Article 19 or clause (2) be decided by the State government of Article 29 shall prevent the State from concerned. making,— (a) any special provision for the However, the Centre said its Department advancement of any economically weaker of Social Justice and Empowerment “has sections of citizens other than the classes no role in deciding the reservation policy mentioned in clauses (4) and (5); and of any State government”. (b) any special provision for the advancement of any economically weaker About the reservation under EWS sections of citizens other than the classes  As per the notification issued by the mentioned in clauses (4) and (5) in so far as such special provisions relate to their Department of Personnel and admission to educational institutions Training on January 19, 2019, persons including private educational institutions, whose family has a gross annual whether aided or unaided by the State, income below Rs.8 lakh are identified other than the minority educational as those belonging to the economically institutions referred to in clause (1) of weaker section.

Easy to PICK50 - “UPSC Monthly Magazine” Article 30, which in the case of reservation favour of any economically weaker would be in addition to the existing sections of citizens other than the classes reservations and subject to a maximum of mentioned in clause (4), in addition to the ten per cent. of the total seats in each existing reservation and subject to a category.” maximum of ten per cent of the posts in each category.” Amendment of Article 16: In Article 16 of the Constitution, after For the purposes of Article 15 and Article clause (5), the following clause shall be 16, “economically weaker sections” shall inserted, namely:— be such as may be notified by the State “(6) Nothing in this article shall prevent from time to time on the basis of family the State from making any provision for income and other indicators of economic the reservation of appointments or posts in disadvantage.’

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