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Home Explore Bulk Operations Manual - 01 Sep 2015

Bulk Operations Manual - 01 Sep 2015

Published by seateam.hsqe, 2016-03-02 03:42:30

Description: Bulk Operations Manual - 01 Sep 2015


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Bridge & Deck ProceduresDisplay base means the level of SENC information which cannot beremoved from the display, consisting of information which is required atall times in all geographical areas and all circumstances. It is not intendedto be sufficient for safe navigation, thus must never be used fornavigation. Display of SENC Information • ECDIS should be capable of displaying all SENC information. • SENC information available for display during route planning and route monitoring should be subdivided into three categories, display base, standard display, and all other information • ECDIS should present the standard display at any time by a single operator action. • When a chart is first displayed on ECDIS, it should provide the standard display at the largest scale available in the SENC for the displayed area. • It should be easy to add or remove information from the ECDIS display. • It should not be possible to remove information contained in the display base. • It should be possible for the mariner to select a safety contour from the depth contours provided by the SENC. ECDIS should give the safety contour more emphasis than other contours on the display. • It should be possible for the mariner to select a safety depth. ECDIS should emphasize soundings equal to or less than the safety depth whenever spot soundings are selected for display • The ENC and all updates to it should be displayed without any degradation of their information content • ECDIS should provide a means of ensuring that the ENC and all updates to it have been correctly loaded into the SENCControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 37 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresScaleECDIS should provide an indication of whether the information isdisplayed at a larger scale than that contained in the ENC or own ship'sposition is covered by an ENC at a larger scale than that provided by thedisplay.Display of Other Navigational InformationRadar information or other navigational information may be added to theECDIS display. However, it should not degrade the SENC information,and should be clearly distinguishable from the SENC information.Colours and Symbols Display RequirementsECDIS should be capable of displaying information as per IHO SpecialPublication S-52 and IEC Publication 1174.Back UpPurpose of an ECDIS back–up system is to ensure that safe navigation isnot compromised in the event of ECDIS failure. This should include atimely transfer to the backup system during critical navigation situations.The backup system shall allow the vessel to be navigated safely until thetermination of the voyage.Interpretation of the back-up requirements varies from flag state to flagstate. Different interpretations to satisfactory ECDIS back-up include: • A fully-updated folio of paper charts for the remainder of the voyage • A second ENC-fuelled ECDIS, with an independent power supply • An ENC-fuelled ECS • A ENC chart radarControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 38 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresDigital ChartsThere are two kinds of official digital charts commonly available;Electronic Navigational Charts (ENC) and Raster Navigational Charts(RNC).ENC stands for “Electronic Navigational Chart”. By IMO definition ENCs canonly be produced by or on the authority of a government authorizedHydrographic Office or other relevant government institution.Official ENCs are vector charts compiled from a database of individualgeo- referenced objects from Hydrographic Office’s archives includingexisting paper charts.When used in an ECDIS, the ENCs content can be displayed as a seamlesspattern in user selected scales presenting user selected chart items. Dueto the limited physical size and the limited resolution of computermonitors the chart image generated from ENCs does not fully imitate theknown appearance of the paper chart. This apparent disadvantage iscompensated by the ENC being a database: special ECDIS operationalfunctions continuously retrieve the ENC content to give warning ofimpending danger in relation to the vessel’s position and its movement.RNC means “Raster Navigational Chart”. Official RNCs are digital rastercopies of official paper charts.Only ENC are permitted to be used for navigation. Should ENC not beavailable for sections of the intended voyage then the vessel must use anup-to-date paper folio of corrected charts for navigation.Informatively, when an ECDIS system does not have an ENC for the areabeing navigated, and paper charts are not available and an RNC is used inits place, it is said to be operated as a Raster Chart Display System(RCDS).The following limitations significantly reduce the functionality expectedfrom the ECDIS when using Raster Charts: • Unlike within the ECDIS where the ENCs have no chart boundaries, RNCs are based on paper charts and as such have boundaries which are evident when passing from one chart to the next. This may cause confusion or distract the user at areas on or near to chart boundaries.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 39 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures• RNCs will not trigger automatic alarms (e.g. Anti-grounding). However, some alarms and indications can be generated with the manual addition, during passage planning, by the user (example: clearing lines, ship safety contour lines, isolated danger markers and danger areas). To recover some of the safety functionality of the ECDIS system and mitigate these limitations a significant amount of data set-up is required.• Horizontal datum and chart projections may differ between raster charts. Mariners should understand how a chart’s horizontal datum relates to the datum of the position fixing system in use. In some instances, this may appear as a shift in position. This difference may be most noticeable at grid intersections and during route monitoring.• Some raster charts cannot be referenced to WGS-84. If any electronic chart cannot be referenced to a WGS-84 chart datum the ECDIS equipment should give a continuous indication of this inaccuracy in order to highlight the position error.• The display of RNCs features cannot be simplified by the removal of data and features to suit a particular navigational circumstance or task at hand. When you zoom in or out on scale within the system the raster chart image is only magnified, it does not jump step the available information and provide clear display detail to suit the scale as with an ENC. This could affect the superimposition of radar/ARPA and overload the amount of data being displayed.• Without selecting different scale charts the look-ahead capability may be limited. This may lead to inconvenience when determining range and bearing or the identity of distant objects.• Raster charts are drawn in the north-up orientation and the information is written on the chart in that same orientation. When the orientation of RNC within the RCDS display is arranged in anything other than north-up the readability of chart text and symbols may be affected (e.g. when in course- up, route-up display modes).• It is not possible to interrogate RNC features to gain additional information about charted objects.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 40 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • With RNC it is not possible to display a ship’s safety contour or safety depth and highlight it on the display, unless these features are manually entered during route planning. • ECDIS systems using ENCs apply prescribed colour and intensity regimes for day, dusk and night time so as to not impair the night vision of the user. Depending on the source of the RNC, different colours may be used to show similar chart information and these may again vary within the day and a night regime from what the user is used to. • An RNC is intended to be used at the scale of the equivalent paper chart. Excessive zooming in or out can seriously de-grades the displayed image or overloads the display with too much unreadable data. If the RNC is displayed at a larger scale than the equivalent paper chart, the ECDIS will provide an indication. • ECDIS can provide an indication of the quality of Hydrographic data used in the ENC. When using RNCs, mariners are require to consult the source diagram or the zone of confidence diagram, if available, to gain this data. • Lastly, when a Pilot boards a vessel they need to interface with the bridge equipment and bridge team as quickly and seamlessly as possible. The standardized nature of ECDIS greatly assists in this, However, it is important to notify the Pilot when the system is in RCDS mode so that incorrect assumptions about available functionality are avoided.4.7.2 Approved ECDISUse of ECDIS as a stand-alone navigation system without paper chartsrequires two fully independent, IMO type approved vector chart systems.Appropriate entries should be made in Cargo Ship Safety EquipmentCertificate Form E, Section 3, Details of navigation systems andequipment. All navigation officers should undergo an appropriate trainingcourse.Before a watch keeping officer or master intends to use a compliantECDIS as the primary means of navigation they should complete ageneric ECDIS Operators Course complying with IMO Model Course 1.27The Operational Use of Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems(ECDIS) as well as equipment type specific training.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 41 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures4.7.3 Guidance on IHO Compatibility Checks for equipment in useECDIS comprises of hardware, software and data. It is important for thesafety of navigation that the application software within the ECDIS worksfully in accordance with the Performance Standards and is capable ofdisplaying all the relevant digital information contained within the ENC.Any ECDIS which has not been upgraded to be compliant with the latestversion of the ENC Product Specification or the S-52 Presentation Librarymay be unable to correctly display the latest charted features.Additionally the appropriate alarms and indications may not be activatedeven though the features have been included in the ENC. Similarly anyECDIS which is not updated to be fully compliant with the S-63 DataProtection Standards may fail to decrypt or to properly authenticate someENCs, leading to failure to load or install. ECDIS that is not updated forthe latest version of IHO Standards may not meet the chart carriagerequirements as set out in SOLAS regulation V/ IHOStandards that relate to ECDIS, ENC production and distribution, arelisted below:IHO ECDIS Standards Current EditionECDIS Display and Presentation S-52 PresLib Edition 3.4Electronic Navigational Chart S-57Edition 3.1,(ENC) S-57Edition 3.1.1 and 3.1.2 S-57Maintenance Document (Cumulative) Number 8IHO Recommended ENC S-58 Edition 3.0Validity ChecksRaster Navigational Chart (RNC) S-61 Edition 1.0ENC Producer Codes S-62 Edition 2.4ENC Data Protection S-63 Edition 1.1IHO Test Data Sets for ECDIS S-64 Edition 1.0ENC Production Guidance S-65 Edition 1.0IHO Data Presentation and PerformanceThe Vessel must verify once every three months that the ECDIS softwareinstalled is the latest version and is in compliance with the lateststandards of IHO.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 42 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresThe vessel superintendent is to seek clarification with the ECDISmanufacturer where deemed necessary.A record of all software updates of the ship’s ECDIS will be maintained.The IHO has designed data sets that can help determine if the ECDISsoftware has any short comings or require upgrading. The IHO datapresentation and performance checks must be carried out every 3months on all the ECDIS sets.In case the results of the ECDIS sets do not match the requirements setby IHO, the test results should be documented by filling up the form“ECDIS Check reporting form” which is provided separately and should besent by the vessel to the office. This form requires to be submitted by thevessel’s superintendent to IHO.In case the vessel determines that the underwater features and isolateddangers are not displayed properly the vessel must inform the office andaction must be taken to supplement the planning and monitoring of theroute. This could be done by consulting other sources of information suchas paper charts and publications to ensure that the watch keepers canidentify all underwater dangers and isolated dangers. These additionalhazards can then be added manually in the ECDIS as a \"manual update\".The vessel can do this by using an appropriate mariner's data/ mariner'snote or mariner's information functions of ECDIS.Guidance for the test and the reporting form can be found in the SafetyDirectives.4.7.4 ECDIS TrainingFor ECDIS to fully deliver the enhanced safety, all watch-keepers willneed to train themselves in use of electronic charts from scratch and touse their many traditional chart-work skills in a different way.All navigating officers serving on ships fitted with an approved ECDISshall undergo an approved training on use of ECDIS (IMO model course1.27). This generic training shall be done at an establishment approvedby the Flag Administration. Each deck watch keeper shall be inpossession of ECDIS training certificate and same shall be available onboard.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 43 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresThe navigating officers shall also be provided training on the specificmake and model installed on the ships. All deck officers shall be fullyfamiliar with the operation of ECDIS prior to the first voyage after theinstallation of ECDIS.The type specific training shall be at least one of the below and trickledown training is not considered to be appropriate means of training; • Computer based training module provided by makers and supplied to vessels • Training from manufacturers either on ship or on shoreA valid certificate shall be issued after successful completion of theformal training.Master shall ensure that proper handover is carried out including practicaloperation on use of ECDIS equipment for on signers. All deck officersmust invest time and effort to mastering the device prior to his firstnavigational watch. This will be crucial to the navigation safety of thevessel.Officers shall make themselves familiar with the equipment, its operationand its limitations with the aid of HSQE BRDG 005 ECDIS Familiarizationchecklist and with the assistance from equipment makers manual. Inparticular, officers shall understand the interface (input/output)requirements for correct and accurate operation. Features, which arecapable of monitoring the ship’s progress and avoiding danger areas,shall be fully understood and utilized.The Master must regularly ensure that officers assigned to keep chargeof a navigational watch using ECDIS are familiar with the operation of thesystem, its limitations, how to interpret the information being providedand the method of keeping data fully corrected up to date.4.7.5 ECDIS LimitationsElectronic Navigational Charts (ENCs) are vector electronic charts thatconform to International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) specifications.They are compiled from a database of individual items (objects) ofdigitized chart data which can be displayed as a seamless chart. Whenused in an Electronic Chart Display and Information System ECDIS, thedata is re-assembled to display either the entire chart image or a user-Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 44 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresselected combination of data. ENCs are intelligent such that they can beset up to give warning of impending danger in relation to the vessel’sposition and movement.ENC Updates are issued for all Permanent Chart Updating Notices toMariners and all chart-specific temporary and preliminary Notices toMariners. The User should be aware that it may not always be possible toissue updates for temporary and preliminary Notices to Mariners that arenot chart specific. OOW / user should consult the paper weekly Notices toMariners booklet.Because of the developing nature of ECDIS and because global coverageof ENCs is not yet available, there are vastly varying degrees ofexperience of the practical, operational use of ECDIS. OOW / user shouldsatisfy themselves that their ECDIS provides all the navigationalfunctionality that they will need and that they are familiar with theoperation of this functionality.OOW / user should be aware of the significant changes in navigationalpractice required by the introduction of ECDIS and of the need tomanage these changes in a careful and prudent manner.The limitations of electronic charts are as follow: • T & P notices may not be updated • Appearance and content of data may differ substantially from similar data in paper chart form • No data from nautical publication imposed • Rely on accuracy of GPS • Without selecting different scale charts, the look ahead capability may be limited. • This may lead to inconvenience when determining range or bearing of distance objects. • Chart accuracy – Missing or Old data • Technical limitations – Failure of other sensory inputs • Information overloadControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 45 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures• Selection of display setting - Safety contours and depthNote: The UK Hydrographic Organization has issued a Radio NavigationWarning (RNW) repeated in several NAVAREAS as follows regarding theselection and display safety data in ECDIS:“Mariners are advised that ECDIS may not display some isolated shoaldepths when operating in \"base or standard display\" mode. Routeplanning and monitoring alarms for these shoal depths may not alwaysbe activated. To ensure safe navigation and to confirm that a plannedroute is clear of such dangers, mariners should visually inspect theplanned route and any deviations from it using ECDIS configured todisplay \"all data\". The automated voyage planning check function shouldnot be solely relied upon.4.7.6 Zooming In / Out Limitations:ENC scales and Radar rangesThe user must not to zoom in and out too much and should use the ENCat its compilation scale (as this reduces clutter as required). The autoload function is to be ON so that the largest scale ENCs are always in useand the most relevant ENC is loaded at all times.ENCs are created and designed for different scale ranges (Usage bands).The table provides an overview about the common scale ranges for eachUsage Band:Numbe Usage Scale Range 6 Berdthing 1:2 000 to 1:5 5 Harbour 1:2 000 to 1:25 4 Approach 1:20 000 to 1:50 3 Coastal 1:50 000 to 1: 150 2 General 1:150 000 to 1:400 1 Overview smaller than 1:300ECDIS is able to overlay the chart display with radar image. Toharmonize both displays with reasonable accuracy, Hydrographic OfficesControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 46 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresare encouraged to adjust their ENC scales with the usually used Radarranges.The table below gives an overview and compares both:Radar EN C Scale200 nm 1: 3 000 00096 nm 1: 1500 00048 nm 1: 700 00024 nm 1: 350 00012 nm 1: 180 0006 nm 1: 90 0003 nm 1: 45 0001,5 nm 1: 22 0000,75 nm 1: 12 0000,5 nm 1: 8 0000,25 nm 1: 4 000ENC OverlappingAlthough ENCs with the same Usage Band may overlap; the displayedinformation must not. ENCs with a different Usage Band could overlapboth area and displayed information. The image below shows thepossibility of overlapping of ENCS with different Usage Band.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 47 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures4.7.7 RADAR Overlay on ECDIS – Benefits and LimitationsThe presentation of Hydrographic and traffic information on one screen isone of the great advantages when navigating with ECDIS.The advantages are: • All data for navigating in difficult situations is available at any time, • The GPS/DGPS position can be checked by radar image, • Differences of reference systems and sensor data can be detected, • Radar echoes can be better identified, • Anomalies with floating aids to navigation (e.g buoys in strong currents or adrift) can be easily detected, • Radar specific limitations can be compensated for to some degree, • Transfer of Radar bearings and distances on a sea chart becomes superfluous and human error can be limited.The Disadvantages are: • Sea clutter, • Information overflow, • Mutual coverage of information, • Priority of presented data, • System failure e.g. \"black out\" will affect two navigation systems, • If ARPA only targets displayed then all other Radar targets will be suppressed.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 48 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresWhen navigating for safe navigation, OOWs must use the radar overlaysparingly only to check position of charted objects on the ENC vis a vis theradar. The radar overlay may cause too much clutter.Because the radar uses speed through water while the ECDIS uses Speedover Ground. Therefore radar is best suited for collision avoidance whilethe ECDIS replaces the paper chart and is to be used for safe navigation(checking the vessels position).A radar range and bearing (the user is not to take radar range andbearing from the ENC overlay, but from the actual radar) can be used tofix a vessels position on the ECDIS to compare with the GPS position thatis input on the ENC.4.7.8 Guidance on CATZOC (Category of Zone of Confidence)The sea ground is always liable to change. Changes depend onsea bed structure or on tidal influences.The images below present possible variations of the sea ground betweentwo surveys.Survey old Survey newControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 49 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresSurvey Accuracy of ENC Sources & CATZOC (Categorization of Zoneof Confidence)The accuracy of a survey data depends on survey frequency, time andmethod and can vary from very accurate to unassessed.The CATZOC overlay indicates the quality of the ENC, as it gives confidencewhen using. This is available as required as an M-Qual overlay facility ofthe ECDIS. The M-QUAL button that can be switched on or off as required.This should be used to check chart quality and then switched off as it maycause excessive clutter.CATZOC allows a hydrographic authority to encode data against fivecategories (ZOC A1, A2, B, C, D) with a sixth category (U) for datawhich has not been assessed. The categorization of data is based onthree factors (Position accuracy, depth accuracy and sea floor coverage)as shown in the following table which gives a brief overview of chartsymbols for different zones of confidence and the related accuracies.As the information displayed on an ECDIS screen is derived fromvector data the presentation of information is always sufficiently accurate.For further details the ENC Standard should be consulted.The Safety depth is to be selected by taking into account:Ship’s draught + required UKC + dynamic components (tidalrange, squat, salinity, etc) + Zone of Confidence dataControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 50 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 51 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresThe image below shows how the presentation of the relevant Zones ofConfidence in ECDIS is presented.4.7.9 ECDIS Integration and Input from SensorsNavigation systems incorporated into ECDIS can include but are notlimited to: • GYRO • Autopilot • AIS (automatic identification system) • RADAR (radar image overlay RIO) • VDR (voyage data recorder) • Echo sounder • NAVTEX • Meteorological instruments such as anemometersNavigation officers should be aware of which electronic systems areproviding sensory inputs into their on board ECDIS and the consequencesControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 52 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresof the inputs failing or malfunctioning due to local electronic systemfailure.If GPS sensors fail to provide position fixing input to the on board ECDIS,navigation officers must be fully ready and practiced in carrying outposition plotting directly onto the ECDIS using traditional position fixingmethods, for example visual bearings, radar ranges, radar bearings andtransits. There is the risk with ECDIS that navigators may becomedependent on monitoring and that when a sensor fails, the navigatormust return to first principles to deal with the situation. This in turn maylead the navigator to incur additional errors in dealing with the situationknown as ‘knowledge based errors’. Only through training, in-depthknowledge of ECDIS and its integrated electronic systems and a definedprocedure for sensory failure, can the navigator expect to effectively dealwith input failures to ECDIS.4.7.10 Risk Assessment for use of ECDISBelow are some generic examples when conducting riskassessment when using ECDIS. Vessels are encouraged to usethe same to make their own ship specific risk assessments whenusing ECDIS. Sample risk assessments are also provided to thevessels for their additional guidance. • Accuracy of chart less than position fixing system • Failure to update charts correctly • Hardware failure • Important navigational information obscured • Input failure - course and speed • Input failure – position • Lack of anticipation • Loss of navigational data • Navigational info not readily available • Next RNC chart unavailable • Planned passage may cross danger areasControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 53 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • Power failure • Software failure • Vessel may enter designated areas • Vessel's position may shift • Virus infection4.7.11 ECDIS OperationsIt is important that the operators familiarize themselves thoroughly withtheir own vessel's ECDIS to become fully proficient with its controls andoperation. Proficiency in using ECDIS is now recognized as an importantwatch keeping requirement. The master and any watch-officer mustbe fully familiarized with the ECDIS installed on board before the officerstands his own watch.Although all ECDIS and ENCs conform to the same official standards,there may be some differences in how a particular ECDIS systeminterfaces with some charts and sensors. The operator must know thecharacteristic operational features of their vessel's ECDIS, along with theENCs and RNCs they will be using, as well as its other sensor inputs.Although the ECDIS should already be programmed with vessel'sperformance and manoeuvring data this must still be checked when it isfirst switched on. The operator must also check that previously setdisplay features are all still appropriate to present requirements. If not,then these parameters are to be re-entered.The Master shall, prior to every voyage, issue instructions as to whatsettings are to be used in the ECDIS.These must include: • Watch Vector / Safety Frame / Anti Grounding Cone • Safety depth • Safety contour • Chart orientationControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 54 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • Other relevant on-screen data.4.7.12 ECDIS Safety FunctionsNavigating Officers must take precautions to make sure they are not onlygetting accurate information from their ECDIS, but are also prepared forany unforeseen difficulties which may arise. The following safetyprecautions should always be followed: • The ECDIS must always have an appropriate back-up system • Never try to remove information from the ENC databaseThe accuracy of vessel's position, as displayed on the ECDIS screen,must not be considered to be exactly correct. Some systems claim anaccuracy of position to within 20m. This can mean that the trueposition of the vessel may actually be more than 20m away from thatshown on the ECDIS screen. Such a margin of error can have seriousconsequences. Never accept the displayed position as being alwayscompletely accurate. Only believe what can be visually observed from thebridge. The quality of information deteriorates when relying on lesssensitive sensors.For example, when one switches from DGPS to GPS the accuracy of thevessel's indicated position can possibly fall from being within 10m toperhaps anywhere between 20m to 100m. Be aware of these changingcircumstances calculated values such as ETA at the next waypointdepend on the accuracy of the sensors. Accuracy of vessel positions onECDIS are thus to be doubled checked by visual observations andcalculations.In coastal waters visual bearings and radar distances must be used toverify the position obtained from ECDIS. Record of vessel’s positionduring the voyage must be retained so that it is possible to re- create thetrack followed, if required, at a later date.Definitions:Watch Vector / Anti Grounding Cone: is intended for setting the sizeof area that will be used for the chart data analysis and for generation ofthe Anti-Grounding alarms, Area Alerts and Navigational Alarms. Thetrigger points for Alarms and Warnings are defined by an Anti-GroundingCone projected Ahead, Port and Starboard of the vessel. The size of theAnti- Grounding Cone will depend on the ECDIS system in use as well asControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 55 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresthe size of the vessel. Once a danger has been picked up in the Anti-Grounding Cone, it will be necessary for the vessel to avoid it and thisdelay and time to manoeuvre must be taken into account when settingup.Safety Depth: It is the sum of vessel’s draft, dynamic squat and thesafety Margin (UKC). This is the Value set by the user such that it isused by ECDIS to portray soundings as black if they are equal to orshallower than the value and gray if they are deeper.Safety Contour: A specific depth contour set by ECDIS. It demarks theboundary between “safe-water” and shallow water with an extra wideisoline and is used to give an alarm if the ship, within a time specified bythe mariner, is going to cross the safety contour. It is also used todetermine the tints used for depth areas and for other purposes.Safety Contour Depth: This is a Value set by the user such that it isused by ECDIS to select a “Safety Contour” from among the depthcontours available in the SENC that is equal to or deeper than the value.Safety Frame: The safety frame is intended for setting the size of theframe which will be used for the chart data analysis and for the generationof the anti-grounding alarms, alert areas and navigational alarms.Look Ahead – window for the input of advance time for alarm / warninggeneration. This would need to be determined by the master and isdepending on the ship’s speed, traffic situation, geographical limitationsand manoeuvrability.Port and Starboard corridor width – This also would need to bedetermined by the master as it is depending on expected traffic situation,ship particulars and geographical limitations (channels, fairways, etc).As a minimum the corridor width to either ship side should be set to 1cable (185 m).Settings –The Vessel Safety Depth, Anti Grounding Cone (or equivalent) and othersafety functions in ECDIS make a significant contribution to the shipsnavigational safety. (Once configured correctly, they will alarm to warnthe OOW if the vessel is approaching shoal waters or other hazards tonavigation so that timely action can be taken to avoid them. There is nosuch thing as a spurious alarm in ECDIS and only the OOW is permittedto acknowledge Alarms and Warnings.To maximize the efficiency of these safety functions, the standardprocedures for setting them are to be followed in accordance with belowControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 56 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduressections. It must be noted that, when conducting Route Planning, theSafety Depth value may differ at various stages of the voyage and thismust be taken into account during the planning phase.At voyage planning stage it is imperative that the following safetysettings are applied: • Safety Contour Depth • Safety Depth (draught + Squat + UKC) • Look Ahead Function to be either time or distance controlled • Safe Channel Width – May also be known be known as OTL or Off Track LimitWhen selecting safety contour depth the mariner should consider thefollowing: • Draft of the Vessel • Squat • UKC requirementsThe safety contour depth is ideally linked to the cell contours in use andwill display distinctive colour changes for areas that are shallower ordeeper than the safety contour depth entered.If the selected contour depth does not align with cell contours then thenext deepest contour will be automatically selected.The safety depth is a user supplied depth that will affect the appearanceof spot soundings, if they are selected to be displayed on the ECDIS.The Master shall, prior to every voyage, issue instructions as towhat numerical values are to be input into the ECDIS regardingcontour depth and safety depth.Records of the numeric values to maintained in the Passage Plan which issigned by all watch keeping officers and the Master.Once the voyage plan and the safety parameters have been input intothe ECDIS planner this must then be checked using the route plannerauto check function and verified by the Second Officer and the Masterthat all is correct. On some systems this is automatically activated whenRoute is selected and may be shown as ―Chart Warnings which shouldbe reviewed.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 57 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresTo avoid intrusive alarming the safety channel width and look aheadvalues will have to be re-addressed dependent upon the ship‘s positionrelative to banks/shallow water as the voyage progresses, values shouldbe incorporated into the passage plan.The Safety Depth is a value set by the operator that serves to detectdepths that are a danger to navigation. By default, the Safety Depth isset to 30 m. A depth equal to or less than the Safety Depth is highlightedon the chart in bold type when the display of spot soundings turned on in“Other Info Display” or “Full Display Function”. It such a danger isdetected, the Navigation Danger alarm may be triggered (see notebelow). It could be set, for example, to the ship‘s draught plus underkeel clearance. For example, if you entered a Safety Depth value of 2 m,it would not alarm on a 5 m shoal.It is recommended that Safety Depth be likened to a critical depth andset as follows in all environments:Safety Depth = Vessel Draft + Dynamic Squat + Safety Margin(UKC) + ZOCThe company UKC procedures as Stipulated in the BDP 006 Under KeelClearance should be followed to determine Dynamic Squat.Note: Not all ECDIS will alarm when the Safety Depth is encountered.Therefore, great care must be taken to ensure that the Safety Depth andSafety Contour values are configured correctlySafety Contour: This set value distinguishes between safe and unsafewater and generates alarms and warnings against your planned andmonitored route. By default, the Safety Contour is set at 30 m. TheSafety Contour is highlighted on the chart with a bold line (ENCs only). Ifwith a change of chart under the ship position the previously selectedSafety Contour becomes unavailable, the Safety Contour alarm isgenerated. In this case, the system should automatically set the SafetyContour as equal to a deeper available depth contour.Determination of the Safety Depth and Safety Contour required to givethe necessary Under Keel Clearance is the responsibility of Master. If aSafety Contour other than the standard setting is required, it should berecommended for approval a particular Route at the briefing stage. Onceapproved by the Master, the Safety Depth and Safety Contour should bestated in the Passage plan and discussed among all the NavigatingOfficers as appropriate. The authorized Safety Depth and Safety ContourControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 58 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresmust always be known to the OOW. Therefore, the subject informationshould be part of the Watch Handover and is available in ECDISPlanning Checklist BRDG 011.Shallow and Deep Contour:The Shallow and Deep Contours are not alarmable and as such are forinformation purposes only. However, although it does not provide anindication of a dangerous depth contour, the Deep Contour can be usefulin displaying contour information that has significance on ship handling.For example, if the 50 m contour is the onset depth for squat, then theDeep Contour setting could be set accordingly to give an indication of the50 m contour to the OOW.The Shallow and Deep Contours provide the following: • Shallow contour — shades the area from the shallow contour to zero depth • Deep contour — shades the area below the deep contour (above is white)If all Contours are correctly configured, the following depth information isshaded and distinguishable from each other: • Zero to shallow contour (dark blue) • Shallow contour to safety contour (light blue) • Safety contour to deep contour (light grey) • Greater than deep contour (white).If Four Shades is not selected then Two Shades are used. This has theeffect of displaying depth in two shades only: • Zero to safety contour (blue) • Greater than safety contour (white).The Two Shades setting is of benefit to the OOW when navigating usingthe dusk or night palette as the contrast between safe and unsafe waterand ARPA and AIS targets is improved.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 59 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresIn-Correct Contour SettingsSafety Contour 20 m; Safety Depth 16mIncorrect Deep Contour and Shallow Contour settings may causeproblems with alarms based on those settings. Additionally, the chartpresentation of the ECDIS system is in that case is insufficient.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 60 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresCorrect Contour SettingsSafety Contour 15m; Safety Depth 16m. Limiting Danger Lines(Draft + Safety + Squat – HOT) indicated in redAs depth contours on an ENC are normally only drawn at fixed intervals,the system automatically uses the deeper contour when the selectedsafety contour depth lies between contours.The safety depth applies to spot soundings, the depth of which isinsufficient for a vessel to safely pass over. Spot soundings less than thesafety depth are displayed in bold type to provide a more accuraterepresentation of a vessel’s ‘no-go’ line than the safety contour.The shallow and deep contours are utilized when the multi-colour depthdisplay is selected. The deep contour is normally set at twice a vessel’sdraught to indicate when squat is likely to be experienced. The areabetween the 0m contour and the shallow contour is coloured dark blue,the area between the shallow and safety contour is coloured light blue,and the area between the safety contour and the Deep contour isControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 61 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedurescoloured grey. This allows the gradient of the seabed to be graphicallydisplayed. All of the area between the 0m contour and the safety contouris also hatched.For Coloured representation of above pictures please refer HDIR-SHORE-15-5003 – ECDIS Passage PlanningAlarm setting adjustments:It should be noted that the alarm parameters may require to be amendedfrom their previous settings when beginning a new voyage. Changes tothe alarm settings are to be done with the Masters consent. Only theMaster is authorized to disable alarms when entering shallow waters toadjust the safety contour etc.It is further recommended that Alarm parameters are adjusted by theMaster throughout the voyage to ensure that they are optimised for theprevailing circumstances and conditions. Checks should be made toensure that user defined limiting parameters, such as the safetycontour, are not violated when the passage plan is adjusted afterdeparture.New Passage Plan: It should be noted that the alarm parameters mayrequire to be amended from their previous settings when beginning a newvoyage. Changes to the alarm settings are to be done with the Master’sconsent. Only the Master is authorized to disable alarms when enteringshallow waters to adjust the safety contour etc.At Change of Watch: At Change of Watch, the handing over officer mustinform the taking over officer using the handover checklist of the Settingsof the Alarm & Safety parameters at that time. The taking over officer isnot to change the Safety parameters without the consent of the Master.During Voyage: It is further recommended that Alarm parameters areadjusted by the Master throughout the voyage to ensure that they areoptimised for the prevailing circumstances and conditions. Checks shouldbe made to ensure that user defined limiting parameters, such as thesafety contour, are not violated when the passage plan is adjusted afterdeparture.As a guideline following settings are recommended however these do notalter the Master‘s authority to modify Anti Grounding settings. The Anti-Grounding setting should be agreed when the Route is presented forapproval, among all the Navigating Officers. Authorization to modify,Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 62 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresaugment or, by exception, turn off the Anti-Grounding settings to bestsupport the execution of navigation is to be recorded in the Passage Planor Deck Log Book.The following settings should be used in Pilotage and Confined Waters: Ahead: 3 mins Port: 0.1 nm Starboard: 0.1 nmThe following settings should be used in Coastal Waters: Ahead: 6 mins Port: 0.1 nm Starboard: 0.1 nmThe following settings should be used in Open Ocean: Ahead: 12mins Port: 0.2 nm Starboard: 0.2 nmAmending the Safety parametersThe safety parameters as required by the Master’s orders must not bechanged by the watch officer. Should the safety parameters stipulated bythe master in the Passage plan need to be amended during the voyagethen this must be approved by Master and recorded in the Deck logbook.Alarms and Alarm Management Alarms and IndicationsWhile operating in RCDS mode the electronic chart system is not capableof automatically triggering an alarm about events such as possiblegrounding, passing safety lines or approaching danger areas. Such alarmscan only be pre-set when using RNCs in RCDS mode if the mariner firstidentifies all the hazards concerned during his passage planning process,and then manually enters each of them as individual electronic markerson the RNC. These alarms can include: • clearing lines vessel safety contour lines • Isolated dangers • Danger areasControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 63 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresIn full ECDIS mode when using ENCs, however, the system canautomatically trigger such alarms, as well as responding to a wider rangeof additional data about navigational hazards, such as signals picked upfrom VTS traffic information relayed from outside the vessel's radar andvisual range, or lines of magnetic variation. In full ECDIS mode thesystem is also capable of triggering alarms based on notes entered earlierduring passage planning.In this regard, the Master and all deck officers on board are to be familiarwith: • The types of alarms available on their ECDIS • The types of warning (visual, audible or a combination of both) associated with each alarm • The procedure to switch on and set alarm parametersThe vessel/voyage specific parameters/alarms should be set during theappraisal stage of passage planning and must be approved by the Master.The picture above gives guidance on the safety contour setting.Types of Alarms & warning indications:The ECDIS will have a means of warning if something is wrong witheither the ECDIS itself developing a fault, or if it has detected anapproaching navigation problem.There are three categories of problems which can trigger warnings: • Navigational hazards, alerting the operator to a potential navigational hazard during route planning or monitoring, such as the ship crossing a safety contour. • Information in-put malfunction, indicating the breakdown of a sensor, such as the failure of the GPS or of the ECDIS itself. • Information conflict, indicating a datum or chart mis-match, such as a changed horizontal geodetic datum or a wrong scale setting which could cause a miscalculation of distances.An ECDIS uses two levels of warning signal to alert the operator thatsomething needs his immediate attention. These are “an indication” and“an alarm”.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 64 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresThe IMO publication (Code on Alarms and Indicators, IMO-867E) appliesfor identification of the Alarm System for an ECDIS.In accordance with this Code, Alarms or indications should beactivated for the following:ALARMS INDICATIONS\"Largest Scale For\" alarm Information over-scaleOff-Track alarm Larger scale ENC availableCrossing safety contour Different reference systemDeviation from route Route planning across safety contourPositioning system failure Route planning across specified areaApproaching a critical point System test failureChange of geodetic datumAlarm and/or IndicatorArea with special conditions applyingMalfunction of ECDIS4.7.13 ECDIS - Passage Planninga. GeneralPassage planning is different on an ECDIS compared to a paper chart.There are a number of available features, such as safety contours, alarms,click-and-drop facilities for waypoints and markers, etc.While it is still possible to make errors in Passage plan they are likely tobe different in type from the errors most frequently observed on papercharts. Consideration should be given to developing a “best practice” forECDIS passage plan.Issues such as which chart types are available in the ECDIS for thesegments of the voyage should be considered. The process analysisshould also cover the situations where vessels are operating ECDIS inaddition to traditional paper charts, where passage plan are drawn onpaper charts as well as programmed on the ECDIS.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 65 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresThe passage plan format HSQE BRDG 001 should be considered whenusing the ECDIS for the passage planning which should be in consistencewith HSQE BDP doc no 3.0 Passage Planning section.b. Passage Planning Considerations (Appraisal)In preparation for passage planning, a wide array of information must bereviewed and considered. The following is a list of some items the officerin charge of passage planning might consult: • Up-to-date charts of an appropriate scale • Up-to-date sailing directions, pilot books and lists of lights • T&P notices and Navigation Warning • Passage planning charts • Current tide atlases and tide tables • Notices to mariners • Radio signal information • Load line charts • Applicable local regulations, including Vessel Traffic Services (VTS), tug escort or assist services, and pilotage requirements, etc. • Predicted weather, current, tidal, wind, swell, and visibility conditions along the route • Vessel traffic patterns and areas of expected high traffic density • Internal and external communication procedures and requirements • Vessel operations which require additional sea room, such as ballast exchange or pilot embarkation, anticipated watch conditions, and Company’s regulations such as ships’ routing schemes and reporting systems • Vessel's manoeuvring data • Company's procedures & policiesControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 66 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresECDIS Tools can be used for display above information. Also, you mustcheck that your ECDIS operates in accordance with IMO's more extensiveguidelines to route planning (IMO Resolution A.893).c. Order of Chart Type selection (mandatory for double ECDIS use): • ENC’s covering the entire berth to berth passage plan • ENC’s covering the majority of the berth to berth passage plan while additional chart licenses being sought on a short term or long term basis (namely will it be a single voyage for the vessel or is the vessel unlikely to return there in multiple occasions in the future).Reference to be sought to the equipment manufacture’s guidance; ingeneral Official ENCs are purchased based on the voyage requirementthrough approved vendors such as DPM. Electronic permits areimmediately dispatched to the vessels which are uploaded and the ENCcells are unlocked to view and use the charts. Updates may reach the shipvia different ways depending on the update system and the typecommunication facilities available on board; • On data distribution media, e.g. DVD, • As e-mail attachment via Fleet Broadband • Through Chartco or similar Passage managerNote: The vessel should not proceed on the intended passage until theENC access codes are received on board to unlock the required ENC.Use of Paper Charts: These charts should only be used when ENC forthe area are not available and every effort should be made to ensure theyare fully corrected and up to date at the time of delivery on board. Oncethe berth to berth passage is concluded these charts should be filled in asleeping folio, only to be used again if the chart in question is corrected upto the latest Notice to mariners at the time of the intended reuse. If thisinformation cannot be sourced then a new edition of chart for the areashould be purchased.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 67 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresd. Using unofficial charts The use of unofficial charts is PROHIBITED & not permitted. e. Passage Planning Elements (Planning)The procedures for general passage planning are given in BDP 3.0Passage Planning. Reference to be made to ECDIS Passage Planning(WITH 313) provided on board in vessel publications.A comprehensive voyage plan will include details marked on theappropriate ENC for the entire voyage duration. The voyage plan shouldinclude all details as specified below: • Planned track with true course and distance of each leg, plotted out on appropriately-scaled charts • Safe speed for each leg of the passage, taking into account navigational hazards, manoeuvring characteristics, and draft in relation to water depth including squat and heel effect when turning, as applicable • Estimated times of arrival at critical points in the plan, wheel over positions, as applicable • Turn radius for each alteration, as applicable • Areas to be avoided where the vessel is restricted either by local regulations (i.e., marine sanctuaries) or restricted due to water depth or local dangers • Areas covered by local regulations such as VTS, tug escort or assist services, and pilotage requirements • Areas with high traffic density and/or ferry crossings • Areas considered to be pilotage waters where the Master, an area license holder, or a Pilot should be on the bridge • Areas where it is considered that the engine room should be at an increased state of readiness • Navigational marks to use when navigating visually near a waypoint indicating an alteration of courseControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 68 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • Method and frequency of position fixing, including primary and secondary alternatives • Contingency plans for emergencies including abort points for port, channel, and/or berth approaches, and actions to take to place the vessel in deep water or proceed to a port of refuge or safe anchorage. • Route check previous passage plans after chart updating to ensure that any new dangers added don’t present a risk to the ship • Modifications to the passage plan may be necessary to accommodate new chart features such as reporting schemes, traffic separation schemes (TSS), isolated dangers, etc. • When planning new waypoints and courses, always use the largest scale possible so all features of the chart can be readily identified and risk assessed • Ensure that the plan takes into account sufficient cross track error (XTE) to accommodate any deviations for collision avoidance or currents • Ensure adequate values are inputted for safety contour and depth alarms • Once the route has been planned, check the entire passage plan berth to berth on a 1:1 scale by manually scrolling along the trackf. ECDIS Route CheckIt is critical to note that the Route Check function will only detect certaindanger to navigation parameters that have been detected within the XTDof the planned route. Moreover, they will only be detected on ENCs. Thatis to say that the system will not detect dangers on RNCs unless a ManualCorrection with a Danger Attribute associated with it has been detectedwith in the XTD. The Route Check is therefore not an infallible safetycheck and it will be necessary to check the entire route at 1:1 scale as afinal safety check.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 69 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresRoutes should be routinely checked as follows: • During and on completion of Route Planning • After a Route has been modified • After any charts used by a Route have been updated • During the Master‘s approval of the Route.If the ECDIS in use conducts the Route check on operator specified chartscales, it is recommended that a setting of at least equal to the smallestscale ENC that will be in use when executing the Route be used. TheRoute is checked automatically for the presence of dangers to navigationsuch as the Safety Contour within the zone limited by the XTD. Theparameters that the ECDIS in use utilizes to highlight potential hazardsand dangers is to be known by the operator, noting that in some systemsit is possible to configure certain parameters used to conduct the check.The following are considerations when conducting the Route Checkingphase: • Select ENC as the chart priority and configure the display so that all navigation dangers may be viewed • If it is possible to set route check parameters, ensure that the system is configured appropriately • If the system conducts the check on operator specified chart scales, ensure that a setting of at least equal to the smallest scale ENC that will be in use when executing the Route is set • ensure that you have adequate XTD for the various legs of your route to take into account the nature of the environment and expected possible deviations, lateral separation from the route and collision avoidance • use the check Route planning function to check the Route • cycle through the generated alarms and view each in turn, editing the Route as necessary • once all alarms have been checked and verified, check the Route in its entirety on 1:1 scale by manually scrolling along it • add relevant additional information and manual correctionsControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 70 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • double-check distance, ETD, ETA and Tidal Constraints • print Route information as necessary • save the Route • protect the Route as necessary arid save a backup. Note that on some systems the Route can only be protected once it has been saved • obtain the Master’s verification & Approval for the Route. Note that on some systems the Route can only be approved once all Alarms have been accepted and the Route saved • Record approval • ensure both the Route and Schedule are uploaded into all ECDIS • create a pilotage note book as necessary using the Screenshot function if available • After updates are installed prior to sailing or during the execution of the Route, ensure that the Route is checked again, as updates may affect the planned Route • make your Route Active prior to execution.Note that, the check does not result in any detected dangers, it is likelythat an appropriate value has not been set for XTD or that the SafetyScale parameter or equivalent has not been configured correctly. In suchcircumstances, set the values as required and check the Route again.Voyage Notes and supplementary information to aid in the execution ofthe Route should be added using the relevant function.If there is a requirement for an alarm to sound when additionalinformation is detected by the Anti-Grounding Cone during execution ofthe Route, normally it must be given a Danger Attribute. This is systemdependent arid it is the responsibility of the operator to know how toconfigure the system in order to do so. Moreover, to ensure that inserteddata is positioned correctly, the operator must ensure that data is insertedon the same scale chart that the operator will be using to execute thenavigation. An appropriate SCAMIN value should also be attributed, ifControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 71 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduressuch a function is available, to ensure that this information is highlightedeffectively on relevant chart scales.Additional information files that are relevant to the active Route should besaved with an appropriate filename and loaded prior to sailing.Examples of the type of supplementary information that may be applicableare as follows: • Planned changes to Safety Depth, Safety Contours, or Deep and Shallow Contour values • Ships routeing and reporting systems with instructions changes in IALA systems of maritime buoyage • Weather concerns and measures to be taken (Safe Care of Cargoes and Personnel) • Information relevant to international regulations, codes and guidelines (eg MARPOL) • Points of No Return and Contingency decisions • Pilotage obligations with Reporting Points, RVs (including Marine declarations of health and requirements of the international health regulations) • Applications of the International Safety Management (ISM) Code • Areas of special interest or concern such as Piracy measures to be taken during Day or Night.g. ECDIS Route ExecutionThe planned route should be available on the Primary ECDIS and its back-up system.ECDIS should be updated to all the recent updates received to keep itscharts accurate. Use the largest scale electronic chart during each legappropriate for all alarm indicators or for entering safety contours andprohibited areas.WARNING: ENC alarms will operate automatically from the largest scaledata, while data to trigger an alarm on an RNC has to be manuallyControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 72 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresentered by the operator on the largest scale chart when enteringwaypoints on the preferred selected route into the ECDIS.h. Route monitoringECDIS makes route monitoring very easy however over reliance should beavoided on ECDIS or RADAR. They should not be the only methods ofsafeguarding the safe navigation of the vessel. It is important to alwayscontinue maintaining a regular look-out from the bridge. Vessel shouldmaintain a navigation log on paper as well as the automatic ECDIS log.The Master must specify at the outset of a voyage what standardinformation is needed to be on ready display on the ECDIS, such as chartorientation, range on display, safety zone and contour, he must also verifythe same during route monitoring stage and verify that Watch keepers areaware of same.Under special circumstances such as severe weather, if the Officer of theWatch wants additional information to be displayed for quick consultation,he can do so provided the display is set back to show standardinformation thereafter.Adjusting a passage plan is easy as the voyage progresses. During routemonitoring the ECDIS display will not only show the ship's position, butcan also provide such information as the distance left or right of theintended track, time-to-run, distance-to-turn, position and time of 'wheelover', and past Track history. Your ECDIS system should be able to keep aconstant calculation of your passage, showing your ETA, required speedand elapsed time.Execution and monitoring tips: • Check that the display has been set-up properly prior to sailing, otherwise important information may not be displayed • Always operate ENC on the best scale possible to avoid crucial information being auto-filtered and subsequently not being displayed • Do not use ‘base display’ mode as this only displays the minimum amount of features and informationControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 73 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • Use “All Other Information” mode, but layers of information may need to be de- selected to avoid cluttering the display with too much information • Auto-filter or ‘SCAMIN’ may affect the display as it tends to remove information from the display if the best scale chart is not being used. Operators should know how to select the best scale chart to avoid the auto- filter feature removing information when using ENCs • Ensure the GPS unit providing constant position fixing information to ECDIS has been updated with any relevant chart datum offset if the chart datum used in the raster chart is different from WGS (84). Failure to do so may result in positions being inaccurate • Do not solely rely upon GPS position fixing when there are alternative position fixing facilities available. GPS is subject to a variety of different errors • Traditional forms of position fixing should never be overlooked or replaced when using ECDIS. • The Radar & Visual fixes should be plotted as per BDP 3.6 as required for Paper Charts. • Make use of the Marine Information Objects (MIO) capability to plot electronically navigational warnings (e.g. NAVAREA warnings)Whenever possible two electronic navigational systems should be inoperation for establishing your vessel's position, a generous time periodset for the ECDIS alarm to sound before vessel crosses any safetyboundary or begins to deviate from its planned route. When linked up withradar set a CPA / TCPA as per Master’s standing instructions for the ECDISalarm should be set.ECDIS usually offers the capability to overlay radar data onto the chartdisplay. This may be selected targets or the full picture. According to thedesign, this option should be used frequently to verify the stabilization ofthe ECDIS image. Discrepancies between the radar image of a fixedobject and its depiction as an electronic chart feature should beresolved by the “offset function” provided on the equipment.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 74 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresThe ECDIS must not be relied upon if the discrepancy between the radardisplay and the ECDIS image persists, despite the use of the offsetfunctions.Target vectors, which are based on own ship’s speed through the water,will display incorrectly when overlaid on an electronic chart. Thereforewhen overlaying radar targets on an ECDIS display, the radar should beset to ‘ground- stabilized’ (this should not be the radar used for collisionavoidance).The Master shall also ensure that navigation officers are aware ofthe potential dangers of over reliance on this equipment. The informationfrom the ECDIS must not be over relied on as it is intended as an aid tonavigation.All on board involved in the navigation of the vessel must ensure theECDIS must not be used as the primary means of navigation unless thevessel is equipped with two independent, certified ECDIS units. Themeans for primary navigation remains the largest scale paper chartsappropriate to the navigation of the vessel which is being used to monitorthe vessel’s passage and plot the vessel’s position at intervals specified inthe passage plan.Where information, such as the vessel’s position is obtained from ECDISor equivalent, this must be cross referenced with an alternative andreliable source.ECDIS provides instant monitoring of the vessel’s position in relation tothe Electronic Chart. As a cross check of this instant monitoring, duringcoastal and port passages Parallel Indexing (PI) should be used as acomparison and must be recorded.Master must be informed in event of failure or problems with the ECDIS.4.7.14 Routine ChecksWhile on watch, the OOW is responsible for the operation andmanagement of ECDIS. Following checks should be carried out priordeparture and before taking over the watch. If there is in any doubt aboutthe state of the ECDIS configuration, the Master should be consultedimmediately.The OOW is to annotate on the ECDIS console the configuration in force,that is to say whether it is set up for Confined Waters, Coastal or OpenSea.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 75 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresThe OOW is to check the system setup to view any changes or errors insetup. The position of the ship should be confirmed by taking a ManualFix. Wherever possible, this fix should be by means independent of thePrimary Position Source such as but not limited to visual or radar and theuse of Radar Information Overlay, if available.As a minimum, the following checks and actions are to be conducted priordeparture / during watch handover: • Correct Display setting is shown • Correct Route is loaded in Route Monitoring • Route Safety Check has been completed • Secondary Route is loaded in Route Editor (if required) • In True Motion, check that the Look Ahead is configured correctly • The Safety Depth and Contour settings are configured correctly • The Anti-Grounding Cone is set for the prevailing conditions • The XTD is applied and displayed correctly • The Vectors are configured correctly • The chart in use is on the best scale • The ENC are corrected up to latest Update • Interrogate the quality of data and review all Chart Notes • Fix the ship‘s position on ECDIS arid prove ECDIS correct • repeat the above steps at the Secondary ECDIS terminal • If in RCDS mode, confirm the geodetic datum in use • If in RCDS mode, view the source data diagram and review all Chart Notes • If in RCDS mode, ensure that paper backup is available and corrected to latest NTM.4.7.15 Anchor Watch PlanningWhen planning anchorages, the distance between the anchor and thePelorus (stem to standard distance) should be used to establish theposition of the Pelorus at the moment of Letting Go. This Let Go positionis therefore also the final Waypoint of the anchorage leg. When at anchor,the Anchor Watch settings should be used to display the position of theanchor and provide an alarmable drag circle whereupon the system willalarm it the ship leaves the circle. When at anchor, the GNSS position ofthe vessel can be checked using Radar Information Overlay, if available.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 76 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures4.7.16 Man OverboardIn the case of a Man Overboard (MOB), the MOB icon or shortcut key is tobe pressed on all systems. This initiates the input or a reference point inECDIS, and a constant range and bearing from the ship is provided. If theMOB is not being tracked visually, ECDIS should be used to direct thelookout bearing, although the position of the MOB may not take intoaccount Set and Drift (system dependent). Any time delay between theMOB entering the water and activation of the MOB marker should beestablished as quickly as possible. It may be possible to offset the locationof the MOB marker (system dependent).If visual contact has been lost and a significant delay in activating theship‘s MOB marker has occurred, the OOW should estimate the likelyposition of the MOB against the Primary Vessel Track history. The positionof the MOB can then be offset to this new position (system dependent).4.7.17 ECDIS Information during PilotageThe Master Pilot Exchange shall include brief of following: • ECDIS Orientation & Passage Plan • Safety Parameters & Alarm Settings • Prevailing Navtex / Local Area Warnings relevant for the passageOne ECDIS may be set as per Pilot’s requirements: • Orientation, • Targets – Radar & AIS, • Alarms – CPA, TCPA, Wheel Over, Anti-grounding Vector, etc.The Safety Contours and Safety Depths will always remain as perCompany UKC Policy. Bridge Team will always remain responsible forPosition Fixing and Monitoring of the Vessel under Pilotage.4.7.18 Applying Corrections on ECDISKeeping the ECDIS fully up to date should be a high priority for the bridgeteam and should be treated as equally important as normal paper chartcorrections. The Master must ensure that all ENC charts are operatingunder the latest updates from CD/ROM’s.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 77 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresThere are only three types of updates on an ENC – these are manualupdates, automatic, and semi-automatic.Auto and semi auto updates (the method of update is different) arecumulative and are sent as weekly updates on an update disc asconsolidated by an RENC, these are sent to the vessels by the ENC updateprovider.Admiralty Information OverlayThe Admiralty Information Overlay is a digital dataset that is designed tobe displayed over ENCs in ECDIS and other chart display systems toprovide additional information to the navigator.The Admiralty Information Overlay contains all Admiralty Temporary &Preliminary Notices to Mariners (T&P NMs) and provides additionalpreliminary information that is specific to ENCs, such as reportednavigational hazards that have been incorporated on paper charts buthave not yet been included in ENCs.The Overlay gives seafarers an easy way to view the information theyneed, in addition to the standard chart, to navigate safely andcompliantly. The Overlay makes passage planning simpler and safer byclearly showing where important Temporary or Preliminary changes mayimpact a voyage.It also gives seafarers the same consistent picture of the maritimeenvironment on their ECDIS as they have always had with the Admiraltypaper chart.The Overlay includes all Admiralty T&P NMs in force worldwide andadditional information that relates specifically to ENCs, published as ENCPreliminary NMs (EP NMs).The AIO overlay can be switched on or off – during a passage, the OOWsare to switch on when route monitoring to ensure safe navigation.Correction ProceduresIn case the corrections are being received directly via the communicationcomputer from the provider then these corrections should be receivedonce per week and a Base DVD will be received quarterly.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 78 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresIn the event of not receiving the weekly updates from the providerdirectly via communication computer or through CD/ROM, Master mustimmediately contact the Technical Department and/or the AdmiraltySupplier.The sequence of installing corrections is also one of the reasons why T&P’smay not be applied even if they are contained in the updates. Base CDs,weekly CDs and internet updates are all necessary to be in sequence andof the latest issue to have an updated system, if the updating is out ofsequence, the subsequent updates will not be loaded or will create anerror in the system.It is important that the Master checks the expiry date of allpermits/licenses and records them, to avoid unplanned and dangeroussituations such as losing the chart’s display.Once the latest update CD is received on board, transferring and updatingprocedure should be carried out immediately as described in Operator’sManual.On Vessels equipped with full ECDIS (two fully independent ECDISprovided) the requirement for the reception of weekly NTM, including allcorrections applicable to chart folios in use, must be met. If, for whateverreason, this requirement is not met, such as corrections are not receivedtimely, or a technical failure to upload the corrections is experienced, theMaster must immediately notify the Marine Superintendent and Purchaser.Temporary and preliminary notices have not yet been fully integrated intoENC data by all National Hydrographic Offices. Caution must be exercisedwhen navigating solely with ECDIS as some ENC data may not takeaccount of temporary or preliminary notices.The only guaranteed source for T&P information at present are Notices toMariners issued by National Hydrographic Offices. Depending on vessel’sroute and ENCs used, it should be confirmed whether onboard ENCsinclude T&P NTM or not. If onboard ENCs do NOT include T&P NTM,manual means for correction of T&P NTM should be done through relevantNTM strictly in accordance with the procedure described in Manufacturer’sOperator’s Manual.Navigational warnings transmitted by satellite communications (forexample, SAT C telex), NAVTEX receiver and radio-broadcasted warningsare by nature more short term and urgent than temporary or preliminarynotices. Navigators using ECDIS should be aware of the ability to plot newControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 79 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresdangers on electronic charts through the use of the Marine InformationObjects (MIO) capability. The purpose of the MIO is to highlightnavigational warning information on the electronic chart.Navigational warnings should be marked on the charts relevant to thevoyage.Since T&Ps are corrections with expiry dates, some of these correctionswhen applied will not be cancelled by themselves for the corrections mademanually; hence another remark instead of the actual plotting of the T&P’notice should be made. When the ECDIS has auto update facility for theT&P Notices, this does not apply.Verification of ENC CorrectionOnce all ECDIS have been updated, a Spot Check should be conducted ofa random selection of charts in both ENC and RNC formats to check thatCorrections, New Editions and New Charts have updated correctly on allsystems. The results should be recorded for the Primary and SecondaryECDIS. Furthermore, all extant Routes are to be checked to ensure thatthey remain navigationally safe. This is also to include a manual 1:1 checkof the entire Route in accordance with Route Checking procedures.The Master is responsible for ensuring that all ECDIS are updatedcorrectly and that all Navigating Officers know the process by which thesystems are updated. Under the guidance of the Master, all NavigatingOfficers are to conduct routine Spot Checks.The Navigation Officer is responsible for safeguarding the latest Updatedisc, Permit file, Licence file and the last set of ENC and RNC Base discs,and to maintain records.Records of ENC Correction:Vessels will maintain ENC Maintenance Record (NP133C). It is designed tostreamline the management of paper records of ENC and ECDISmaintenance and make information on official digital charts moreaccessible for bridge team. The ADMIRALTY ENC Maintenance Record aidsinspections, assists SOLAS chapter V carriage compliance and streamlinesinformation management.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 80 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures4.7.19 ECDIS MaintenanceIn order to ensure trouble-free operation of the ECDIS Equipment, Mastershould ensure that regular maintenance of ECDIS is carried out inaccordance with manufacturers' instruction manuals.The upkeep and maintenance of individual items of ECDIS should be theresponsibility of the nominated officer.Operational status is monitored during watch conditions and status shouldbe recorded in the deck log book.Basic maintenance to be carried out on Monthly basis is as follows:- • Regular Cleaning and Wiping off the dirt/ dust from the monitor display using a soft, dry cloth and wiping off any dust from the air vents to improve air circulation. • Inspection of the Panel Brilliance , trackball operation, Knobs/Dials on the Panel for EBL / VRM, Panel Lighting, Brightness/ Contrast settings, Grey scale. • Cleaning of the PC filters, UPS batteries maintenance, Connection cables etc. • The Maker's manual should be checked whether there are any Consumables / Equipment Parts having requiring replacement due to limited service life and Requisition / service should be timely requested. • Maker’s specific requirement for Hard Disk, UPS Battery and LCD Backlight and the time line for replacement to be identified.In case of failure or any defects in ECDIS should be reported to TechnicalDepartment for arranging troubleshooting or service by Maker.4.7.20 Precautions against VirusIt is identified that the ECDIS equipment which is connected to othersystems with other Software and data transfer done via USB/CD can beinfected by Virus Infection.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 81 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresIf ECDIS is fitted with Anti-Virus software then the ECDIS willautomatically detect the Virus and if fitted with an alarm, same shouldtrigger. However many Units in use do not have such functions.The ECDIS if not fitted with an Internal Anti Virus, it is prudent to ensureall Hardware, E.g. ,USB Sticks and CD/DVD should be scanned prior everyuse for downloading chart correction or updating of charts before insertinginto the ECDIS Unit.These corrections received on the communication system should betransferred onto a standalone computer for ECDIS functions. The USBSticks and CD/DVD should be labelled and kept separately and used onlyon the Stand alone computer and then connected to the ECDIS Unit fortransferring data.If the Correction is received through a broadband connection to theCommunication Computer then it is essential for a Firewall to be presentbetween the Communication Computer and the ECDIS Unit. In this case itis possible to download correction and updates automatically onto theECDIS Unit.Master must ensure strict adherence that the Stand Alone Computer, USBsticks and CD used for transferring data is not used for any other purpose.The Anti-Virus Protection is up to date in order to prevent any Malfunctionof the ECDIS Unit.4.7.21 ECDIS FailureAs part of Bridge Watch keeping and Watch change over procedures theECDIS should be checked to be working without any outstanding alarmsor failure warnings.Sensory input failure:In the event of sensory input failure to ECDIS, the safe navigation of theship may be affected. The below items should be checked in order to dealwith the emergency: • Inform Master • Identify the failed sensory input to ECDIS • Master to determine if the failed sensory input affects the safe navigation of the ship. Advise office.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 82 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • Master to decide if an additional navigation officer requires need to take over the watch? • Determine if the failed sensory input affects any other electronic systems? • Determine if the backup ECDIS can be used • Commence traditional position fixing methods. • Try to identify the failed sensor. Determine if it is possible to rectify/ repair the sensory input? • Master to decide if the ship’s passage plan requires to be amended? • In case the vessel requires proceeding without operational ECDIS, Office approval must be taken and Risk assessment carried out.A vessel specific checklist should be established on the bridge with clearinstructions on how to deal with sensory input failures and how it mayaffect the safe navigation of the ship.Power failure:Investigate the ECDIS power supply and connect it to an emergencypower supply if the main supply fails. If the primary power source failsthen regulations (SOLAS Regulation II-I, require that theemergency power supply can keep the ship borne navigation equipmentfunctioning (as required under SOLAS V/12) for a period of 18 hours.Vessel must also check with the manufacturer’s manual whether in theevent of ECDIS power failure it would automatically switch over to analternative back-up power supply, or whether you would have to do itmanually. There is a slim possibility that an interruption in the powersupply to the ECDIS, or an unusually strong power surge going into it, forexample generated by a lightning strike on the vessel, might cause theECDIS to fail and that you would then have to re-install its software.Again, check with the manufacturer’s manual whether this is a possibility.If it is, you should learn how to re-install the software.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 83 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures Documentation and Filing o SeaTeam Form No. BRDG 001 – Passage Plan o SeaTeam Form No. BRDG 005 – ECDIS Familiarization Checklist o Master's Standing Orders - Posted on the Bridge o Manoeuvring Characteristics Placard (Turning Circle) - Posted on the Bridge o ICS Pilot Card - Discussed with Pilot o ICS Master/Pilot Check List o UKC Calculation Form o Deck Logbook - Entries as required o ECDIS Planning Checklist  Distribution o Full Management Vessels - File Originals  References o ICS Bridge Procedures GuideControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 84 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures5.0 Navigational Equipment  Purpose o To specify requirements for use and maintenance of Bridge Navigation Equipment  Application o All Vessels  Responsibility o Master o Navigating Officers o Watchstanders 5.1 General It is stressed that it is vitally important that watch-keeping officers are completely familiar with all navigational equipment on board. Navigational equipment should be checked each watch by the Officer of the Watch to ensure that it is fully operational. Defects should be recorded and brought to the attention of the Master. It is of prime importance that bridge watch-keeping officers acquaint themselves with the contents of operating manuals for equipment, particularly with regard to the setting up of controls and the procedure to be followed in the event of a fault. The Master should ensure that regular maintenance of all navigational equipment is carried out in accordance with manufacturers' instruction manuals. The upkeep and maintenance of individual items of navigational equipment should be the responsibility of a nominated officer, and their operational status should be recordedControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 005NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT Approval: WBF Page: 1 of 10

Bridge & Deck Procedures5.2 Radar and Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA)The Master should ensure that at least one radar is available for use bythe Officer of the Watch:• As an instrument for fixing and monitoring positions parallel indexing, etc;• As an aid for assessing the risk of collision;• For practicing plotting, etc.The radar should be switched on in sufficient time before it is requiredin order to establish that it is operating correctly and to adjust it toobtain optimum performanceRegardless of weather conditions, the ship's radar should be operatingat all times to monitor for SART signals and especially in reducedvisibility. The display should be observed as frequently as the prevailingcircumstances require.The life and operating efficiency of radar sets are affected less bycontinuous operation than by frequent switching on and off. If two setsare fitted, at least one should be operating at all times.The performance of the radar equipment should be checked beforesailing and at least once every four hours while radar watch is beingmaintained. Where fitted, a performance monitor should be used forthis purpose.Whenever the ship's radar is switched on and at the commencement ofeach watch if the radar is in operation, the trace should be checkedand, if necessary, adjusted to ensure that it is rotating about the centreof the display. At the same time the alignment of the heading markershould be checked as shown in the operating manual.When using radar for fixing or monitoring the ship's position thefollowing should be checked:• the radar's overall performance• the identity of the fixed objects observedControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 005NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT Approval: WBF Page: 2 of 10

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