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Home Explore Bulk Operations Manual - 01 Sep 2015

Bulk Operations Manual - 01 Sep 2015

Published by seateam.hsqe, 2016-03-02 03:42:30

Description: Bulk Operations Manual - 01 Sep 2015


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Bridge & Deck Procedures  The Master is to review the for correctness and approve the plan before commencing the intended voyage3.2 PreparationThe charts and publications for the intended voyage are to be on boardand corrected up to the latest Notice to Mariners, including temporary(T) and preliminary (P) notices and any radio navigational warnings(Navtex, EGC, etc.).Routing Charts and Current Atlases  Current directions and rate of set  Expected weather conditions, fog etc. and whether avoidable  Recommended routes  Tides - Times, heights, direction and rates of set  Draft of the ship during the voyage, allowances for squat and effects of heel - See under Keel Clearance Section  Advice and recommendations of Sailing Directions  Navigational aids: o Light characteristics, anticipated rising range etc. o Land marks, radar conspicuous and visual ranges (For beam bearings, transit bearings, parallel indexing etc.)  Traffic separation and routing schemes  Means of position fixing to be used: o Radio Navaids: availability, accuracy, frequency and limitations o Visual fixes: availability, quality and reliability  Vessel’s limitations i.e. draft, speed, manoeuvring characteristics, defects etc.Controlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 2 of 15

Bridge & Deck Procedures Port / Berth Limitations i.e. Allowed Size of Vessel – LOA, Breadth, Draft, Air Draft, Displacement, Deadweight, etc. Organisation of bridge watches: Identifying areas where additional manpower may be required as per bridge watch conditions VHF channels and Contact frequencies for vessel traffic systems and Pilot Availability of weather routing advice Directives contained in this guide Areas of political unrest / piracy Minimum Under Keel Clearance calculation for each leg of the voyage Charts and Publications:Charts Loadline Chart (as applicable) Passage Planning Charts (where available)Publications Routing Charts Navigational charts – appropriate in scale andSupplementary detailData Ocean Passages for the World Ships Routing Sailing Directions (Pilot Books) List of Lights List of Radio Signals Tide Tables Tidal stream atlases Guide to Port Entry Navigational warnings Weather reports / advice (long term and short term) T & P Notices to Mariners Local Notices to Mariners (if available) Local Port Information (if available)Controlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 3 of 15

Bridge & Deck Procedures3.3 PlanningHaving made the fullest preparation, using all available information, theNavigating Officer will make a detailed passage plan. This plan mustcover the whole passage i.e berth to berth, including all the waterswhere a pilot will be onboard. The formulation of the plan will involvethe following:  Plot the intended passage on the appropriate charts and mark clearly, on the largest scale charts available, all the areas of danger and the intended track, taking into account all the margins of allowable error. Where appropriate, due regard should be given to the need for an advance warning on one chart of the existence of a navigational hazard upon transfer to the next. The planned track should be plotted to clear hazards at as safe a distance as circumstances allow. A greater distance should always be accepted in preference to a shorter, more hazardous route. The possibility of machinery breakdown at a critical moment must not be overlooked  Indicate clearly, in 360 degree notation, the true direction of the planned track on all charts  Mark on the chart any transit marks, clearing bearings or clearing ranges, which may be used to advantage  Decide upon the key elements of the plan, these should include but not be limited to: o Safe speed having regard to the manoeuvring characteristics of the ship and, in ships restricted by draft, due allowance for reduction of draft due to squat and heel effect when turning o Speed alterations necessary to achieve desired ETA’s en- route, e.g. where there may be limitations on night passages, tidal restrictions etc. o Positions where a change in machinery status is required o Course alteration points with wheel over positions - where appropriate, on large scale charts taking into account the ships turning circle at the planned speed and the effect of anyControlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 4 of 15

Bridge & Deck Procedures tidal stream and current on the ships movement during the turn o Early Alignment to leading lights / Lock gate entry to avoid large alteration near the entrance / Navigational hazards. o Minimum clearance required under the keel in critical areas of each leg o Air draft clearance, where minimum requirement of 2.5 meters if to be maintained unless written permission to proceed with less is approved by the company o Points where accuracy of position fixing is critical and the primary and secondary methods by which such positions must be obtained for maximum reliability o Contingency arrangements i.e. alternative routes, emergency anchoring etc. in the event of an emergency o Point of no returnIn addition to noting the details of the plan onto the “Passage Plan”forms the prominent details of the plan should be marked on thecharts.3.4 Voyage Planning Standard FormatSeaTeam Form No. BRDG 001, Passage Plan is to be compiled inaccordance with the IMO STCW Code, and the ICS Bridge ProceduresGuide.  The plan is to be prepared by the officer responsible for navigation, and approved by the Master prior to commencement of the intended voyage  In case the port of destination is not known, the plan shall cover a minimum of 72 hours of the intended voyage prior to departureControlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 5 of 15

Bridge & Deck Procedures3.5 Information for Voyage Planning  General info  Intended speed shall be the speed as per charter-party or as indicated by the charterers  Acknowledgement o All officers involved in navigating the vessel, including deck cadets, are to study the plan prior to departure, and sign acknowledgement and understanding  Port of departure  Estimated Draft On Departure - this part must always be completed prior to departure  Port of destination o If the port of destination is known, the general details must be completed. Times of high and low water may be entered later when a more accurate time of arrival is available  General waypoint information  Charts and publications to be used during the voyage o The numbers of all charts to be used during the voyage shall be entered, followed by NZ for New Zealand, Aus for Australia, etc.  Navigational information between waypoints to be completed only when there is significant information between waypoints. If the additional information permits, more waypoints may be entered on one page (e.g. Ocean Passages, Great Circle, etc.). If more pages than available in this plan are needed, loose pages may be inserted  Parallel indexing information o Whenever possible, parallel indexing must be used as an aid to navigation, not only to keep the vessel on her intendedControlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 6 of 15

Bridge & Deck Procedures track, but also for accurate planning of course alterations. Officers must compare the intended course alteration against the actual track in order to become fully familiar with the behaviour of the vesselPre Arrival Information  Ensure the final berth & its location is known for completing the Passage Plan from Berth to Berth.  Collect & discuss information abort the port of call including the previous experience of officers  Port information from the Agents  Special attention to Pilotage, Tugs availability, Mooring pattern and mooring boats availability o If tugs are not available then Master to inform Operations and HSQE.  Specifically mention in Pre Arrival that Vessel is fitted with Mooring Wires & if requiring two mooring boats  Thorough Risk Assessment to be carried out on board prior to arrival and especially if Tugs & Mooring Boats are not available.  Always inquire about fendering at berth and if on approach the berth is not found well protected and take photos to avoid claims later.  When passing locks kindly confirm with Agents regarding the fendering of locks & gates. Keep portable fenders ready.  To facilitate safe and faster turn-around of vessel, please obtain following information in pre-arrival communications: o The vessel’s berthing schedule. o The berth number or name that has been designated for the vessel. Positions in Lat/Long of the berth. o The name of the terminal operator.Controlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 7 of 15

Bridge & Deck Procedureso Maximum arrival and sailing draft permitted.o Maximum depth available alongside the berth.o Whether the vessel will berth port or starboard side alongside.o Number and size of manifold connections.o Maximum loading / Discharging rate terminal can accept.o Estimated Loading / Discharging time in port.o If discharging by barges, barges fendering adequate & Hoses to be provided by barges.o If Cargo transfer at anchor, Anchor Position in Lat/long, local tidal chartso Number and power of tugs – whether tug’s or ship’s lineso Mooring Boats available. FYI, Vessel is fitted with Mooring wires and requests for Two Mooring Boatso Garbage Disposal facility and costs involved.o Any anticipated delays.o Information regarding pre-cargo safety inspections, if any.o Any local environmental legislation that needs to be complied with.o Security Level in Port & PFSO contact detailso Local Tides / weather restrictions if any.o Availability of Crew changes / stores / Tank Cleaning FW & De-slopping facility.o Crew shore-leave formalities.o Any other information deemed necessary.Controlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 8 of 15

Bridge & Deck Procedures3.6 MonitoringThe close and continuous monitoring of the ship’s progress along thepre-planned track is essential for the safe conduct of the passage. Ifthe officer of the watch is ever in any doubt as to the position of theship, he must at once call the Master and, if necessary, take whateveraction he may think necessary for the safety of the ship.The performance of the navigational equipment should be checked priorto sailing, prior to entering restricted or hazardous waters and atregular intervals during the passage.Advantage should be taken of all navigational equipment with which theship is fitted for monitoring, bearing in mind the following points:  Visual bearings are usually the most accurate means of position fixing  Every fix should, if possible, be based on at least three position lines  Transit marks, clearing ranges and clearing bearings can be of great assistance  When checking fixes, use systems which are based upon different data  Positions obtained by navigational aids should be checked by visual means  The value of the echo sounder as a navigational aid  Buoys should not be relied upon for fixing but may be used for guidance when shore marks are difficult to distinguish visually  The functioning and correct readings of instruments used  The frequency with which the position is required to be fixed o Watch Condition I = Hourly o Watch Condition II = 15-30 MinutesControlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 9 of 15

Bridge & Deck Procedures o Watch Condition III = 6-12 Minutes  Radar can be used to advantage in monitoring the position of the ship by the use of parallel indexing techniques. Parallel indexing, as a simple and most effective way of continuously monitoring the ship’s progress in restricted waters, can be used in any situation where radar conspicuous navigation marks are available o Parallel Indexing is compulsory when in coastal navigation3.7 PASSAGE PLANNING IN PILOTAGE WATERS The term “pilotage” refers to navigation in severely restricted waters, whether or not an authorised pilot is on board. During pilotage, the position course and speed of the vessel is continuously monitored by the Bridge Team under the direction of the conning officer, normally the Master, with or without the advice of an authorised pilot. It follows that where, in pilotage waters, the proximity to hazards and the grounding line, tends to require unrealistic plotting intervals, particular effort should be given to adjusting courses to make optimum use of continuous monitoring techniques such as parallel indexing, leading lines and clearing lines and ranges. Passage plans shall always be “berth-to-berth”, extending to include the full pilotage in detail, identifying any port & berth limitations. It is regrettably the practice at some ports that vessels are not serviced with pilots at the charted pilot embarkation positions and vessels may have to stand closer inshore than indicated on the chart. Similarly in bad weather, pilots may be unable to board in exposed locations. The passage plan must be adequate in scope and detail to allow for this and also the possibility that the vessel may be diverted to anchorage, without notice, and possibly also without the assistance of a pilot. Similarly, pilots may disembark early and passage plans should be adequate in scope and detail to deal with this possibility. When calling new or undeveloped port areas where manoeuvring in congested areas with poor infrastructureControlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 10 of 15

Bridge & Deck ProceduresDetailed Risk Assessment to be developed with specific controls for safetransit to berthMarine Superintendents to evaluate the adequacy of port entry riskassessments, monitor and provide guidance as need be to ensure safetransitPilots and Passage PlansIt is a common complaint among navigators that pilots totally disregardships passage plans. From the pilot’s perspective most ships’ passageplans are simply unworkable and the most common reasons are asfollows:  The course is plotted down the centre of the channel. Vessels (including most deep draught vessels) must be navigated on the starboard side of the channel.  Courses do not make use of natural features, leads, landmarks, etc. Pilots mainly work visually; at night or navigating by radar, they will often use different marks and may therefore follow a (slightly) different track.  No allowance for wheel over positions (pilots work from wheel- over not alter-course positions).  Turns depicted as a series of short straight lines – quite impossible to execute or monitor (no natural reference marks). Look for a “radius mark” on the inside of the bend (at the natural centre of the turning circle); it is often a beacon.  Good pilots welcome, and will not disregard, a passage plan that has been intelligently prepared.  If it has been properly researched and prepared, the passage plan should match the pilot’s actual route sufficiently closely for practical purposes.  If there are any significant differences, these should be discussed between the Master and the pilot and changes made accordingly.Controlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 11 of 15

Bridge & Deck Procedures  The passage plan must be updated to ensure that such changes are incorporated. This knowledge will then be carried forward into any future plans prepared from it.  In the navigation meeting prior arrival or departure, the different routes that the Pilot may take should be studied and the safe limits and hazards should be identified3.8 PASSAGE PLAN MEETING The master shall verify that all relevant information has been taken into consideration in the preparation of the plan and prepared in the correct format. The prepared passage plan shall be studied and discussed at a meeting prior undertaking a voyage, prior to pilot boarding, attended by the Master, all the Deck Officers and the Chief Engineer. The Master is to emphasize to the bridge team the pilot will effectively be as new member of the bridge team, who may not be familiar with specific equipment or handling characteristics. The passage plan must be discussed with the pilot as soon as he comes on-board. Any amendments to the plan should be agreed, and any changes in individual bridge team responsibilities made prior to commencement of pilotage. Where pre-arrival exchange has not taken place, extra time and sea room should be allowed to fully discuss the plan before pilotage commences. In case of any significant deviation regarding tug availability, berthing manoeuvre, changes or limitations to the berth should be considered a “No Go” until adequate risk controls are established in consultation with a Marine Superintendent. Masters should not hesitate to abort berthing and proceed to the identified contingency anchorage if in doubt Master / Pilot Exchange to be completed diligently Passage Plan to Berth or outward and any limitations to be discussedControlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 12 of 15

Bridge & Deck Procedures Vessel manoeuvring characteristics to be mentioned in Master to Pilot Exchange, including vessel specific peculiarities Any comments or previous experiences of the officers should also be taken into consideration and adjustments made to the passage plan if required.3.9 POST VOYAGE DEBRIEF / VOYAGE REVIEW On completion of the voyage the passage plan shall be reviewed by Navigating officer in consultation with Master and all deck officers. The review shall include but not limited to:  Any deviation from the planned passage. If so Reasons.  Any Near Misses reported / experienced.  Unexpected Weather and currents.  Calculated UKC and actual experienced during the passage at various legs.  Any security issues.  Compliance with local laws and regulations.  Review of the reporting procedures.  Review of the watch condition implementation.  Any feedback to office for Port info or at Sea experience.  Play back of relevant VDR / SVDR back up done during the passage for discussions / review.  Complete Port Specific Information Feedback Form for ShipNet Experience Transfer3.10 PORT INFORMATION To allow sharing of port experience and enhance port entry risk assessments, Masters are to transmit the following reports for inclusionControlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 13 of 15

Bridge & Deck Procedures in the ShipNet Alerts, Port Information Module for experience transfer to the fleet not later than 2 days after departure from port:  OPRS 047 A Bulk Carrier Port Information  OPRS 047 B Tanker Port Information  OPRS 048 Port Information Mooring Plan Additional observations may be entered in the remarks section of the form OPRS 047 A / B or it may be sent as a separate attachment. The additional information may pertain to any activity, person or operation at the port that will promote a better understanding of the port facilities and requirements. Examples are:  Service provided by the agents;  The competency of the pilot, his communication abilities, his briefing regarding the passage plan and the mooring plan;  The number of tugs used and their proficiency in carrying out their assigned tasks; any difficulties in communicating with the crew of the tugs;  Number of government officials boarding for immigration, customs, health pratique etc.;  Gifts requested by port officials etc.A Master List of Ports included is updated in SSA Manual Part B for EasyReference.Controlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 14 of 15

Bridge & Deck Procedures Documentation and Filing o SeaTeam Form No. BRDG 001 – Passage Plan o SeaTeam Form No. OPRS 47A – Bulk Carrier Port Information Report o SeaTeam Form No. OPRS 47B – Tanker Carrier Port Information Report o SeaTeam Form No. OPRS 048 – Port Information Mooring Plan Distribution o Full Management Vessels - File Originals References o ICS Bridge Procedures GuideControlled Revision: 01 Jan 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 003PASSAGE PLANNING Approval: WBF Page: 15 of 15

Bridge & Deck Procedures4.0 Safe Navigation  Purpose o To specify requirements for safe navigation  Application o SeaTeam Office o All Fully Managed Vessels  Responsibility o Master o Navigating Officers o Watch Keepers4.1 General Requirements4.1.1 Standing OrdersStanding orders must be composed by the Master. The Standing Ordersshould be signed and dated by the Master. The Master's Standing Ordersmust be posted on the bridge. • The Standing Orders should be read, signed and checked by each Deck Watch Officer prior to standing the first watch on the vessel • The Master may enhance the navigation practices set forth in this manual only by addition or expansion, to ensure the vessel’s safe operation4.1.2 Closest Point of Approach (CPA) • All SeaTeam vessels should maintain a safe CPA in accordance with circumstances and conditions having due regard to the available sea room and proximity of navigational hazards.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 1 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • As a guide at sea, a CPA of around two miles shall be maintained whenever conditions allow, and in accordance with Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (\"COLREGS\").4.1.3 Master on the BridgeAs outlined below, the Master should be on the bridge: • In periods of restricted visibility • When there is heavy traffic in the vicinity of the vessel, as determined by the Master • While underway in restricted waters • During heavy weather conditions • When entering or leaving port, docking, unlocking, or shifting the vessel • When embarking or disembarking a Pilot, or Mooring Master • When anchoring or weighing anchor and • At any other time when the Master judges conditions to be a potential threat to the vessel's safety4.1.4 Delegating AuthorityAlthough Masters remain responsible for their vessels at all times,conditions may arise under which Masters must rest or attend to otherresponsibilities. Masters, therefore, must pre-plan their presence on thebridge and consider delegating their authority to the Chief Officer or aDeck Watch Officer in order to allow themselves adequate rest.Deck Watch Officers must know where they can contact the Master at alltimes. Failing this, two short rings of the General Alarm or a PAannouncement shall be the preferred method for contacting the Master inan emergency.In the event that the Master cannot be located the Chief Officer must becontacted.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 2 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresIt must be clearly stated and logged whenever the Master relieves theDeck Watch Officer of the con, or returns the con to the Deck WatchOfficer. Unless otherwise stated it is to be accepted that the Master hasthe con when • The Main Engines are in a standby condition • On arrival Between End of Passage and All Fast • On departure between commence un-moor and Full Away on Passage o The navigation practices set forth in this manual shall be strictly followed by all Masters and Deck Watch Officers o The Company recognizes that unusual events may arise which are not addressed by orders. In any case, the Master and officers shall adhere to the intent of orders as closely as possible o The safety of personnel, environment, vessel, and cargo shall be the foremost consideration in choosing a course of action o At all times when the vessel is at sea or at anchor, the Bridge Watch must be under the control of a responsible, licensed Deck Watch Officer who is signed on as a Deck Watch Officer. The Deck Watch Officer must not leave the Bridge unless properly relieved4.1.5 Master’s Order BookEach Master must maintain a Master's Order Book. Entries are to bemade whenever specific circumstances occur that require instructions inexcess of those contained in this manual or his standing orders. Entriesshall include all information deemed necessary to enable the Deck WatchOfficer to navigate the vessel prudently. • Before relieving the watch, each Deck Watch Officer shall read, initial, date, and thoroughly understand the orders written in the Master's Order Book4.1.6 Use of Established Sea LanesConsistent with good seamanship and COLREGS, if water depth permitsand it is safe and practical to do so, the Master is expected to useControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 3 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresestablished sea lanes or other traffic separation schemes. The intent is tokeep the vessel in a position which exposes the vessel to the least risk ofencountering or creating hazardous traffic situation4.1.7 Officer of the WatchThe bridge shall be manned by a licensed deck officer at all times whenthe ship is at sea or at anchor. The officer of the watch shall at no timeleave the bridge until properly relieved.The officer of the watch is responsible for the safe navigation of thevessel. If at any time he is in doubt about what is expected about him hemust immediately advise the Master.It is the Masters responsibility to ensure that all deck officers are capableof using all the vessels navigational instruments and bridge equipmentproficiently. The Master must satisfy himself that newly joined Officersare familiar with all procedures and know how to set up and operate allappropriate equipment before allowing them to take over a watch.4.1.8 HelmsmenOfficers shall ensure that their vessels are properly steered. Helmsmenmust be supervised to ensure their understanding of and ability to executesteering orders properly. • Helmsmen shall have no other duties when assigned to the helm • It is the Deck Watch Officer's responsibility to ensure that the Helmsmen are trained to steer properly in the various modes and that they are fully aware of the vessel's steering peculiarities and capabilities • Helmsmen shall not change the steering mode (hand, gyro, non- follow-up control) unless supervised and instructed to do so by the Officer in charge. Changeover instructions must be prominently posted near the ship's wheel • When a Pilot's or Mooring Master's native language differs from the crew's, order acknowledgment and execution must be monitored closely, and extra supervisory care is required to prevent miscommunications between the Pilot or Mooring Master and the HelmsmanControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 4 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures4.1.9 LookoutsWhen underway every vessel should at all times maintain a proper lookoutby sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in theprevailing circumstances so as to make a full appraisal of the situation andany risk of collision.Lookouts are to be posted where they can perform best under the existingcircumstances. The Lookout are to have no other duties; specifically hisduties are separate to those of the helmsman. • The Lookout shall be posted: o In or approaching heavy traffic o In or approaching diminishing visibility o Arriving or departing a port, or in restricted waters o From sunset to sunrise o At any other time as directed by the Master • The Deck Watch Officer shall ensure that the Lookout: o Knows how to report for duty (alert, properly clothed) o Is properly instructed in what to observe, report, and how to report o Is relieved or rotated on station as necessaryIn addition to the Deck Watch Officer, a minimum of one additional crewmember shall be in constant contact with the bridge by radio at all timeswhile at sea to perform lookout duties if required. In coastal waters thecrew man should be on or near the bridge.The OOW may be the sole lookout during daylight provided that on eachoccasion: • The situation has been carefully assessed and it has been established without doubt that it is safe to operate with a sole lookout.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 5 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • Full account has been taken of all relevant factors, including but not limited to the following: o State of weather o State of visibility o Traffic density, including the presence of fishing vessels o Proximity of dangers to navigation o The attention required when navigating in or near traffic separation schemes o Assistance is immediately available to be summoned to the bridge when any change in the situation so requires.4.1.10 Radar UseRadar on Company vessels is for unrestricted use by all Deck WatchOfficers. • It is the responsibility of Deck Watch Officers to be proficient in and use properly all available means including electronic plots, radar reflection plotters, and plotting charts. The primary means of plotting shall be the efficient use of all Automatic Radar Plotting Aids, ARPA. • The use of a single bearing and range to fix the vessels position is to be avoided. A third position line or other navigation system will be used to verify position. • Radar will usually be operated in the North - Up mode. • It is the responsibility of each Deck Watch Officer to be knowledgeable about the radar's operation and limitations as set forth in the manufacturer's operating manual. • Radar must not be regarded as a substitute for a good all round visual look out.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 6 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures4.1.11 Corrections to Charts and PublicationsOne officer should be responsible for keeping charts and other nauticalpublications up-to-date using the latest available Notices to Mariners andhydrographic and navigational radio warnings. A record should be kept ofall hydrographic and navigational warnings, together with details ofcleared routes and areas still dangerous to shipping from mines or othercauses.Care should be taken when using charts which have differing scales anddifferent sounding units.It is the Master's responsibility to ensure that navigational corrections tocharts and publications from Notices to Mariners and other sources areproperly made. • It is the responsibility of all Deck Watch Officers to ensure that they are aware of these corrections and changes.Supply and Maintenance of Charts & PublicationsEvery ship shall be provided with an outfit of British Admiralty Charts,Light Lists, Sailing Directions (Pilot books), Master list 010- Ship manualsand publications etc. appropriate to the class and trade of the ship. Eachship shall be provided with an index detailing the minimum outfit to becarried by that ship. • SeaTeam management shall ensure that each ship or class of ship is provided with sufficient charts of the appropriate scale and all relevant publications for the safe and efficient prosecution of its anticipated voyages. • SeaTeam management shall arrange to supply every ship with New Editions of Charts and Publications appropriate to the ship’s catalogue, plus chart corrections contained in Weekly Notices to Mariners, through a Chart Contractor, as soon as practicable after their publication. When, for any reason, the Master determines that he/she requires additional or replacement charts he/she shall request their supply through the appointed Chart Contractor, but should this be impracticable due to time constraints he/she is authorized to procure charts locally. • Where charts and publications are procured locally, Master must ensure that the chart supplier is notified and the charts are includedControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 7 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures in the respective folio and the inventory. In a ship which receives chart corrections electronically via the Chartco System, officer in charge shall also enter details of the additional chart in the the Chartco receiver. This ensures that the ship will automatically receive corrections for the new chart. • On receipt of the additional chart details from the Master, the Chart Contractor shall update the ship’s chart index to include the additional chart. This ensures that the ship will receive New Editions of the chart as and when issued. When a non-Admiralty chart must be procured by the Master to meet a specific requirement, the chart shall be marked cancelled and disposed of immediately after use.Maintenance of Charts & PublicationsEach outfit of Charts and Publications shall be maintained in complete andefficient order, and shall be kept accurately corrected up-to-date. • The Master shall be responsible for the overall maintenance of the Chart Outfit but may delegate the responsibility for day-to-day maintenance to the Second Officer. • SeaTeam management may also periodically incorporate new charts into a ship’s standard folios to reflect changes in current or anticipated trading patterns. Instructions concerning any changes to standard folios shall be given to the Chart Contractor only by the nominated contact in SeaTeam management. • The Chart Contractor shall advise the Master by E-Mail when a package is ready for dispatch and the Master shall provide the Chart Contractor with details of the ship’s agent to which the package is to be sent. When the package is received on board the Master shall acknowledge receipt by E-Mail to the Chart Contractor.Correction of Charts & Publications • New Editions o New Editions of existing charts are supplied automatically by the Chart Contractor. To avoid duplication, they must not be ordered on an indent raised by the ship.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 8 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures o When a chart is replaced by a New Edition, the edition date changes and the New Edition is supplied to all holders of the replaced chart. The date of the New Edition is clearly shown on the chart. o New Nautical Publications, or New Editions of them, are supplied in the same manner as charts and must not be ordered on an indent raised by the ship. o Charts shall also be replaced if badly damaged or when worn to the extent that hydrographic detail is obscured and the chart becomes unsafe for navigation. o In these cases the replacement chart shall be ordered directly from the Chart Contractor by the Master by means of an E-Mail requesting supply. It is not necessary to raise an indent for the chart. o A chart should not be considered for replacement simply because it is dirty or contains tracks or positions which are difficult to erase but do not affect safe use of the chart. o The Master shall establish rules for the proper use of charts, specifying that courses, positions, etc. shall be entered only in soft pencil and that charts shall be thoroughly cleaned prior to next use. The use of highlighter pens etc. is prohibited. o The Second Officer is responsible to the Master for the correction of all Nautical Publications with the exception of Radio Signals Volumes, and Light Lists, which is the specific responsibility of the Third Officer. (In coastal vessels the Second Officer is responsible for all Nautical Publications.)• Disposal of Cancelled Charts o When a replacement for an existing chart is received and it has been inserted into its correct folio position, the replaced chart shall be removed from the folio and from the ship’s bridge. Subject to it being clearly marked “CANCELLED” in red ink, over the chart number and title and across the chart face in at least two places, it may then be retained on board for any purpose other than navigation.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 9 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures• Chart Index o The ship’s Chart Index shows in convenient geographical groupings the charts and main navigational publications carried by the class of ship. A brief explanation of its use is given as an introduction to the index. o When a new chart, a New Edition or an additional chart is inserted into a ship’s outfit, the index must be amended immediately. It may, however, be several months and several changes of navigational officer, before a particular chart is actually received on board. o It is essential that proper records are kept of details regarding a new chart, both as a list kept with the ship’s Chart Index and as a note on the chart to be replaced, so that navigating officers are aware of a current chart’s status and, when the new chart is received, it can be positioned correctly in the folio and the replaced chart(s) can be removed. o A new chart may be replacing a chart of the same number in the same folio position albeit with a title change; or it may be replacing more than one chart in widely differing positions in the folio or, in some cases, two or more new charts may be replacing one outdated chart. Notes of these changes must be kept and on no account must a chart be removed from the folio until its substitute or substitutes have been received on board. o The publication date shown for a new chart or nautical publication in Notices to Mariners is the date of the Friday of the week in which the final proof of draft was approved for printing by the Hydrography; it is not the date of availability. o The process of printing, finishing, binding and distribution takes some time and it may be many months before the chart or publication are available for purchase.• General o Although tracings have mostly replaced conventional chart correcting methods, all navigating officers must be proficient in the plotting of information from the text of Notices to Mariners, using parallel rules and dividers, and it is essential that Junior Officers and Cadets are taught these skills.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 10 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures o The need to maintain a high standard in chart correcting cannot be over emphasized. When a chart is published it is as up-to- date as the latest information available to the Hydrographic Department. It will only remain as a reliable aid to navigation if subsequent corrections are applied accurately. It must be remembered that many officers, in addition to the officer carrying out the corrections, will be relying on the accuracy of those corrections. o It must also be remembered that if the ship is involved in any form of incident associated with navigation, the chart in use at the time of the incident will almost certainly be removed and subjected to close scrutiny by investigators and the legal profession. The manner in which the chart has been maintained would be of critical importance to the investigators’ view of the way in which the ship was managed and navigated.• Chart Corrections o Chart correcting must be conducted in accordance with the guidance found in the publication How to Correct Charts the Admiralty Way, NP 294, and undertaken with the utmost care, using only the equipment listed at the end of this section. o A file containing all current Temporary & Preliminary Notices to Mariners shall be maintained on the bridge and all Temporary & Preliminary Notices must be entered # in pencil on the charts in use for the current passage. o Attention should be drawn to these corrections by penciling a bold entry in way of the chart title stating “T & P NOTICES APPLIED”. o Electronic charts shall be corrected in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and the information supplied by the Chart Contractor.• Chartco System o The Chartco system for electronic receipt of Notices to Mariners is installed on the majority of SeaTeam management-managed ships.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 11 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedureso The system consists of a dedicated Chartco 3000LR receiver and the software packages Ocean Master and StarDataClient with a colour jet printer installed adjacent to a networked PC for the printing of colour blocks and tracings.o Chartco transmit each package of Weekly Notices to Mariners data in a compressed format daily, for five consecutive days. This ensures that in the event of a vessel suffering a temporary loss of communications, all data is received.o Received data is transferred automatically from the Chartco receiver to a networked PC where the StarDataClient software converts the compressed information into a readable format and forwards it into the Ocean Master Software. The data can now be viewed on any networked PC.o Weekly Notices to Mariners may be printed either complete or in sections as required, i.e. Radio List and Light List corrections can be printed separately.o Approximately one to two days after the transmission of the Notices to Mariners the chart correction tracings and block corrections will be transmitted. Tracings and blocks can then be printed for application.o Ocean Master software as installed onboard contains details of the current chart index and folio numbering system for the vessel. On receipt of the Weekly Notices and tracings the charts requiring correction will be matched automatically by the software to indicate those charts which require correction. It is therefore important that neither the ship’s chart index nor the folio numbering system is amended in any way except as outlined in this work instruction.o Quarterly Folio listings will be supplied by the Chart Contractor and folio contents within the Ocean Master software must be checked on receipt of the listings to ensure that they correspond.o Sufficient tracing paper of the correct weight and quality must be maintained onboard.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 12 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures o Any chart procured by the ship which is not part of the ship’s standard folios must be entered into the Ocean Master software so that correction can be received and applied. o In the event that a correction is not received, this is clearly indicated by the software. Chartco should be E-Mailed or telephoned direct to request that the omitted data be retransmitted or sent to the ship as an E-Mail attachment. A 24- hour hotline and E-Mail address is provided. o In the event of short term non-availability of the system, while awaiting a simple repair or when the ship is in dry-dock, the Master shall contact Chartco and request provision of Weekly Notices to Mariners on CD ROM as a temporary measure. o In the event of a long term failure of the system, the Master shall contact both Chartco and the Chart Contractor and request that the Chart Contractor shall arrange for hard copy Weekly Notices to Mariners and tracings to be supplied.• Lists of Lights & Radio Signals o The Weekly Edition of Admiralty Notices to Mariners advises when New Editions of Light Lists or Radio Signals will be published. The same notice will also advise which week the Hydrographic Office will commence publishing corrections for the New Editions. A common request from ships is for back copies of notices to correct new volumes. To avoid the need to obtain these back copies, the corrections should be recorded and retained on board for insertion in the new editions when they are received.• Record Keeping o On Ships equipped with Chartco,  The Cumulative List of chart corrections issued by the Hydrographic Office in January and July each year shall be printed and retained as hard copy with the ship’s Chart Index until superseded by the next Cumulative List issued.  The corrections and tracings printed from Weekly Notices for correction of the ship’s charts, together with their summary list produced from Ocean Master, shall be retained on theControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 13 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures bridge for a period of 6 months corresponding to the interval between issues of the Cumulative List.  The objective is to ensure that hard copies of the current Cumulative List and all corrections applied to the ship’s charts in the interval since issue of the current Cumulative List is always available on the bridge for reference.  Copies of Weekly Notices to Mariners shall be retained for 18 months, by copying them to CD in 6-month blocks. o On Ships supplied with hard copy Weekly Notices to Mariners  Copies of the Weekly Notices, which include the Cumulative List in the appropriate weeks, shall be retained for 18 months. o Ships fitted with and Electronic Charts System  The most recently issued correction CD shall be retained and all previously issued correction CD’s shall be destroyed. o All ships  The “Record of Chart Correction” shall be retained in the chart-co and adequately backed up data for any loss of information due to PC problems. • Audits of Ships’ Chart Outfits o The Master shall maintain a “Record of Chart Correction” which shall be retained onboard and inspected by the visiting Superintendent during routine ship visits. o Marine Superintendent shall during his annual visit and bridge audit, carry out a representative sample of the chart corrections and will endorse the “Record of Chart Correction” to confirm that the check has been completed.Chart Correcting EquipmentThe minimum Storing Level for Chart Correcting Equipment, Rotring, orother suitable equivalent, is to be maintained in accordance with the listbelow:Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 14 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • Isograph 2000 pen 151025 –Two • 0.25mm Cones (5 pack) ART.751025 - One Pack • Blue/Violet Waterproof Ink AR.593212 - Two Bottles • Pen Cleaner (250ml) ART583 283 - Two Bottles • Compass ART.531140 – One • Compass Bar Extension ART.538146 - One • Compass Pen Attachment ART 533345 – One • Plastic Case of Equipment in Use – One • Plastic Protractor ART.840640 One4.1.12 Speed ConsiderationAt all times and particularly when sailing in waters known to be dangerousdue to currents, shoals, heavy traffic, or other obstructions, the vessel’scourse and speed shall be set to provide an ample margin for safenavigation. Speed and time, while important, must always be secondaryto safety.When heavy weather is encountered, it is the Master's responsibility toreduce speed and/or alter course as necessary.4.1.13 Changes of Course or SpeedDeck Watch Officers should not hesitate to alter the vessel’s course and/orspeed as necessary to:Ensure the safety of personnel, environment, vessel, and cargoAct in an emergency in the Master's absenceFollow the Master's planned track, advising the Master of adjustments forset and driftAvoid threatening traffic in compliance with international and local rulesand regulationsControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 15 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresTake early and decisive action to avoid close quarters situationsAvoid any suspicious craftAny alteration of course and/or speed must be substantial and taken insufficient time, especially if your vessel is the \"giving way\" vessel underCOLREGS or when your vessel is manoeuvring against traffic when not insight of the traffic. In altering course and/or speed, Deck Watch Officersmust leave other vessels with no doubt as to their manoeuvring intentions4.1.14 Beginning and Ending Sea PassagesSea passage begins and ends while the vessel is at full, or charterer'sspecified speed. The distance between sea buoy and speeding up to fullspeed or slowing down to harbour manoeuvring speed is consideredharbour approach and is not for use in the calculation of sea speedperformance.4.1.15 Manoeuvring Characteristics of the VesselAll Deck Officers must have a working knowledge of what can be expectedfrom their vessel’s performance. This includes engine manoeuvrabilityand limitations, turning information, stopping times, and distances. AllDeck Officers shall be completely familiar with the \"ManoeuvringCharacteristics\" placard on the Bridge. It must also be understood thatthe manoeuvring characteristics are for loaded and ballast drafts.Variables such as depth of water, under-keel clearance, draft, trim, andenvironmental conditions can greatly affect the handling characteristics ofthe vessel. Deck Officers should endeavour to familiarize themselves withthe handling characteristics of the vessel for all conditions of operation.4.1.16 Weather routeingFrom time to time charterers / operators may weather route the vessel.The Master is to be guided accordingly, however Master must at all timesmake the final decision regarding the safe navigation of the vessel.4.2 PilotageThe Master must employ a Pilot or Mooring Master whenever the safenavigation of the vessel or regulations makes it necessary, unless otherarrangements have been made with the company. With regard to Masterspiloting their own vessels, SeaTeam will evaluate each case on anControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 16 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresindividual basis, and not have a standardized policy applicable to all portsand all Masters. No Master will pilot a SeaTeam vessel without priorauthorization, except in cases of emergency.4.2.1 Pilot Embarkation and DisembarkationWhen the vessel’s pilot station ETA has been established, the Deck WatchOfficer or Master will contact the pilot station to arrange for the Pilot’sboarding. The Deck Watch Officer will communicate with the pilot boat assoon as possible via VHF to confirm ETA and to establish on which side ofthe vessel the Pilot will board, and the vessel's heading and speed at thetime of boarding.4.2.2 Pilot LaddersPilot ladders are: • To be maintained in clean good working order and be constructed of a single length of rope with spreaders and non-slip steps made of hardwood or equivalent except the bottom four steps, which may be constructed of rubber • To be rigged properly: o So that the pilot only has to climb 9 meters after which a combination ladder or gangway is rigged o On the parallel body and clear of over side discharges and scupper o With no tripping lines o Always secured to deck strong points • When pilots are embarking or disembarking there is to be: o A deck officer in attendance at the pilot ladder o Instant communication with the navigating bridge o Two man-ropes available o A life buoy with light availableControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 17 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures o Proper illumination (light facing forward and down) o A heaving line o A lee is to be provided from the weather4.2.3 Master-Pilot Data ExchangeWhen employing the services of a Pilot, Masters will use the Master/Pilotcheck list and Pilot card to facilitate the exchange of information betweenthe Master and Pilot. After reviewing local navigational and weatherconditions, the Master will discuss the vessels manoeuvring characteristicsand light or loaded condition with the Pilot or Mooring Master promptlyupon boarding, acquainting them with any unusual characteristics ormalfunctioning equipment.Manoeuvring Characteristic diagrams will be conspicuously posted in thewheelhouse for easy viewing by all ship handlers. At a safe andconvenient time after the Pilot or Mooring Master boards the vessel theMaster will complete the Master/Pilot Check List form. The Master shouldquestion the Pilot, using the checklist on the front of the card listingimportant questions regarding the Pilot’s intended transit plans, includingan understanding of the courses and speeds at which the vessel willproceed. The Master’s objective should be to ensure that the plan is safe,and that the expertise of the Pilot or Mooring Master is fully supported bythe Bridge team. The back of the card should provide a plan outline of thevessel for illustration of anticipated tug tie-up and mooring linearrangements by the Master or the Pilot or both. This activity must notdistract from the Pilot’s duties. • UKC Calculation Form should be attached to the Pilot Card4.2.4 Master, Deck Watch Officer and Pilot RelationshipThe Master is the ultimate authority on the vessel and is responsible forits safe navigation. Pilots and Mooring Masters are important advisers tonavigation, but the Master remains responsible for their actions, whetherthey are acting alone or with the Master. The Master will ensure that DeckWatch Officers are capable of acting on the Master's behalf with a Pilot orMooring Master should the Master need to leave the Bridge. Diplomacyand tact must govern commands made to the Pilot or Mooring Master toobtain the safest ship handling performance.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 18 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures4.2.5 Pilot’s or Mooring Master’s Compliance with RulesMasters and Deck Watch Officers must insist when proceeding in allwaters that the Pilot or Mooring Master complies with COLREGS andobserve speed restrictions when navigating rivers and narrow channels,with due regard for the conditions likely to be encountered on route to thevessel’s destination.4.2.6 Judging the Pilot’s or Mooring Master’s AbilityMasters and Deck Watch Officers must remain alert to the Pilot's orMooring Master's handling of the vessel and be prepared to intervenewhen necessary to safeguard personnel, environment, vessel, and cargo.Masters and Deck Watch Officers must observe the helm and engineorders advised by the Pilot or Mooring Master and promptly determinewhether the Pilot's or Mooring Master's orders will produce the desiredresults, based upon their understanding of the vessel's handlingcharacteristics.In the event that the Pilot or Mooring Master fails to act on the Master's orDeck Watch Officer's direction when the Master or Deck Watch Officerjudges the safety of the vessel to be in jeopardy, the Master or DeckWatch Officer must countermand the Pilot's or Mooring Master'sinstructions. He must act so as ensure the safety of the vessel. Fulldetails of any such actions must be entered in the Deck Logbook.4.2.7 Navigation with Pilot EmbarkedThe presence of a pilot does not relieve the Master or the Officer of theWatch of their duties and obligations. The Master should inform the pilotof the ship's characteristics using a pilot card. An example of a pilot cardrecommended internationally is reproduced in ICS Bridge ProceduresGuide. This card should be completed as directed by the Master andhanded to the pilot on boarding. The Master should request informationfrom the pilot regarding local conditions and his navigational intentions.This information should be in a form to enable the Master or Officer of thewatch to monitor the planned passage.The Officer of the Watch should cooperate closely with the pilot to assisthim where possible and to maintain an accurate check on the ship'sposition and movements. If the Officer of the Watch becomes unsure ofthe pilot's actions or intentions, he should seek clarification and, if still indoubt, should inform the Master immediately and take the necessaryaction before the Master arrives on the bridge. If the Master is of theControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 19 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresopinion that the Pilot is manoeuvring in an unsafe fashion or at speedswhich are too high, he should immediately express his concern to thepilot. In the event that the Pilot does not accept the Masters advice, thenthe Master should take appropriate action. Masters are reminded thatexcept in the case of the Panama Canal, the Master remains in commandof the vessel. In the case of the Panama Canal, it is suggested that a logentry be made and the Canal Authority be advised of the Pilots actions.In the event of an accident occurring whilst the pilot is on board, acertificate exonerating the pilot from responsibility for such mishap shallunder no circumstances be given. When a ship is under pilotage theMaster shall not be absolved from his responsibility for the safenavigation, even when the pilotage is compulsory. He shall intervene, ortake over from the pilot, whenever necessary in order to avoid a closequarters or dangerous situation.4.3 Readiness of AnchorsWhen vessel is approaching a port and after a competent seafarer haschecked that the anchor brakes are securely on, the lashings shall beremoved, both spurling and hawse pipes cleared. The anchor stopper barto be kept engaged until such time that the vessel enters its maximumanchoring depth based on the calculations as required by 4.3.10 below.Same shall be recorded in the Deck Log Book.4.3.1 General RequirementsAll deck Officers must fully understand the operation of the windlass andbrake assembly, this is not always obvious and may entail study of themanufacturer’s instruction manuals. Before using the windlass, thoroughlycheck the braking systems with special attention to:The remaining thickness of the brake liningThe amount of “take up” left on the brake operating spindle with thebrake screwed hard upThe proper greasing of the brake linkage and the free movement of thevarious pivot pointsAll personnel involved in anchoring should be wearing the appropriatePersonal Protective equipment. These should also include enclosed typegoggles. (Ref: Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seaman)Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 20 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresMaster shall ensure that anchor handling is supervised by a licensed DeckOfficer. In addition, the bosun and one deck hand shall also be assignedto Anchor stations. Prior anchoring a check should be made that no smallcrafts or other obstacle is under the bow. Prior approaching anchorageposition, Master shall ensure checks as per Anchoring Checklist.Prior to anchoring, it must be positively ascertained that the depth is lessthan the maximum anchoring depth of the vessel.4.3.2 Anchoring – Generic GuidancePreferably approach selected anchorage and anchoring position againstresultant of prevailing wind, tide and current. Reduce speed, in due timebefore let go, so that anchoring position is reached with vesselmaintaining steerage way stemming resultant. Use engines as required toprevent undue cable tension. Except in emergency situations, never let goanchors until vessel speed over ground is near zero. After letting go,vessel should be properly maneuvered in order to carefully pay outnecessary length of cable. Master shall be kept advised on amount ofcable paid out, direction and degree of tension. To ensure against anchordragging sufficient length of cable shall be paid out, taking intoconsideration prevailing and anticipated weather, tide, current anddraught conditions. Minimum amount of cable should be six times depth ofwater at anchor let go position. Master may use more cable lengthwhenever he considers it necessary to do so. Secure cable on windlassbrake.After anchoring lower guillotine bar into position over anchor cable, theOfficer of the watch shall take a number of bearings as soon as vessel hasbeen brought up into riding position. These should be identified on thechart for additional position fixing. Subsequent check bearings should betaken frequently (e.g. at least once every hour) however the frequency oftaking observations may change when taking into consideration prevailingenvironmental conditions.Anchor bearings/position shall be recorded in the log and passage plan. Asfar as possible Port and Starboard anchors shall be used alternatively. Therecord of anchor used shall be recorded in the Deck Log Book. • Anchor chains, shackles, and pins shall be inspected whenever anchors are being weighed.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 21 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures4.3.3 Anchoring – Specific Guidance4.3.3.1 Small and Medium Size VesselsFor anchoring small and medium size vessels (under 65,000 DWT) inshallow water (below 40 meters depth), the anchor should be walked outto the water, disengage the windlass clutch, holding the anchor on thebrake. When the vessel is in position and the vessel nearly stopped theanchor is “let go” and the chain paid out, controlled by the brake. Ifrequired, the engines should be used to take the weight off the chain. Theposition of the vessel should be recorded at the time of letting go so thatthe position of the anchor can be ascertained. For anchoring small andmedium size vessels (under 65,000 DWT) in deep water above 40 meters,the anchor should be walked out all the way controlled by the windlassand brake until the vessel is brought up to the required number ofshackles. The windlass should be disengaged and the anchor and cableheld on the brake and stopper bar. (The advantage is to avoid excessivestrain on the brakes and on the bitter end, less brake wear) Large VesselsFor anchoring large vessels, do not “LET GO” as the anchor should bewalked back with the windlass under power/gear. Under normalcircumstances when the vessel is at the required position and stoppedrelative to the ground, the anchor should be walked out to the bottom.Continue to walk out the anchor, controlled by the windlass gear until thevessel is brought up to the required number of shackles. Once anchoredthe stopper bar and brakes engaged prior disengaging the gear. Theposition of the vessel should be recorded at the time of anchoring so thatthe position of the anchor can be ascertained.4.3.4 Securing of Anchors and Cables while at AnchorWhen vessel is anchored, the following to be adhered to at all times: • Anchor should be secured by the stopper bar and pins once the anchor is brought up • Anchor not in use is housed and properly secured to prevent accidental release • The anchor windlass brake to be fully tightened and gear to be disengagedControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 22 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • Anchor to be marked using a flag for easy identification by the Bridge officer against anchor cable being paid out.4.3.5 Securing of Anchors and Cables for SeaPrior commencement of sea passage, each windlass shall be physicallyinspected by Chief Officer to ensure: • The anchor is hove right home before securing to eliminate any free movement and subsequent banging when underway • Stopper bar properly located and secured with pin • Secondary (additional) securing arrangement holds the anchor tightly against landing place • Is the stopper bar due to chain wear and tear and size deterioration does not sit then additional lashings taken to compensate Results shall be entered in the Deck Log Book.4.3.6 Adverse Weather4.3.6.1 When UnderwayThe Master is to ensure that additional securing arrangements are madein anticipation of adverse weather. The securing arrangements should bechecked every three days during prolonged periods of heavy weather (thismay mean altering course to allow safe access to the Forecastle). At AnchorWeather forecasts should be used to their maximum advantage in order tomake an assessment of the likely weather conditions on arrival at theanchorage and during the vessel’s stay at anchor. • In addition to the weather forecasts, the Master and the bridge team are to discuss the anchoring position, holding ground, depth of water, expected height of swell, draft of the vessel, duration of stay at anchor and traffic situation, including the number of vessels at anchor, and their proximity to own vessel. • The discussion should not be limited to the foregoing, other issues such as contingency, specific port requirements, pilot book advice etc, must also be considered.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 23 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • Where periods of adverse weather are expected, a risk assessment should be carried out to assist in making a decision whether to remain at anchor or proceed to sea. The Master and the bridge team should be guided by the OCIMF booklet \"Estimating the Environmental Load on Anchoring Systems\" to evaluate the risk on staying at the anchor. • All anchoring operations must be planned by the Master using his best judgment while taking into account the prevailing and forecast weather conditions.4.3.7 Bitter End HammersDesignated and appropriate hammers should be provided to release theanchor bitter ends, these hammers shall be conspicuously marked andplaced on site for easy availability (unless bitter end design does notmake it practicable to use hammer and some other approvedarrangement has been provided for quick release)4.3.8 Loss of Anchor / ChainIf the vessel loses an anchor, the vessel is to immediately contact theoffice emergency team, and local agent. The estimated position of theanchor should be verified and passed as part of the original message. Itmay be possible if time schedules permit for the anchor and chain to berecovered and reattached to the vessel. In any case, the vessel shouldreview and prepare all equipment to achieve this outcome, orderingadditional equipment as required.4.3.9 Emergency AnchoringMaster to be fully aware of the emergency anchoring specified in Section 5of the OCIMF publication “Anchoring Systems and Procedures” and followthe procedures in Section 5.4 when anchoring in emergency.4.3.10 Maximum Anchoring DepthIn deciding the maximum anchoring depth, the OCIMF publication“Anchoring Systems and Procedures” sections 3.1.3 and 4.7 to be takeninto consideration. • The maximum anchoring depth defined to be posted on the Bridge.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 24 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures4.4 Procedures for use of Voyage Data Recorders (VDR/SVDR)The Voyage Data Recorder, or VDR, is a data recording system designedfor all vessels required to comply with the IMO's International ConventionSOLAS Requirements (IMO Res.A.861 (20)) in order to collect data fromvarious sensors on board the vessel. It then digitizes, compresses andstores this information in an externally mounted protective storage unit.The protective storage unit is a tamper-proof unit designed to withstandthe extreme shock, impact, pressure and heat, which could be associatedwith a marine incident (fire, explosion, collision, sinking, etc).The protective storage unit may be in a retrievable fixed unit or free floatunit. As per SOLAS requirement the time for which all stored data itemare retained should be at least 12 hours (in some models more than 12hrs.). Data items which are older than the time specified by the makersmay be over written with new data. The stored data in protected unit canbe recovered and replayed by the authorities or ship owners for incidentinvestigation. The VDR also provides an interface to download andplayback the data for investigation purposes.4.4.1 Simplified VDRsThe S-VDR is not required to store the same level of detailed data as astandard VDR, but nonetheless should maintain a store, in a secure andretrievable form, of information concerning the position, movement,physical status, command and control of a vessel over the period leadingup to and following an incident. To assist in casualty investigations, cargoships, when engaged on international voyages, shall be fitted with a VDRwhich may be a simplified voyage data recorder (S VDR) as follows: • Simplified Voyage Data Recorder (S-VDR), as defined by the requirements of IMO Performance Standard MSC.163 (78), is a lower cost simplified version VDR for existing ships with only basic ship's data recorded.4.4.2 Annual Performance Check & CertificationThe voyage data recorder (VDR) system, including all sensors, shall besubjected to an annual performance test. The test shall be conducted by amanufacturers authorized testing or servicing process to verify theaccuracy, duration and recoverability of the recorded data. In addition,tests and inspections shall be conducted to determine the serviceability ofall protective enclosures and devices fitted to aid location. A copy of a thecertificate of compliance issued by the testing facility, stating the date ofControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 25 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedurescompliance and the applicable performance standards, shall be retainedon board the ship.4.4.3 Inspection OnboardOnboard inspection of equipment is to be carried out to ensure batteries,enclosures and location aids are in good condition and operational. Thisshould be undertaken in accordance with the manufacturer's instructionsby suitably qualified / experienced personnel. Successful completion of themaintenance routine should be recorded in the ship's onboard plannedmaintenance system.4.4.4 TrainingAt the time of the VDR Annual Performance Check and Certification theMaster must request the attending technician to instruct all deck officersin the use of the VDR and the procedures for the recovery andpreservation of the data in case of an accident.4.4.5 Voyage Data Recorders (VDR) Ownership and RecoveryOwnership of VDR/DataThe ship owner will, in all circumstances and at all times, own the VDRand its information. However, in the event of an accident the followingguidelines would apply. The owner of the ship should make available andmaintain all decoding instructions necessary to recover the recordedinformation.Procedures to Follow in the Event of an IncidentIn the event of any incident on board ship where it is possible to continuethe voyage after the incident the master should take a backup of the dataas per the instruction from maker's and in consultation with the MarineManager or the Office Emergency Response Team and in any case in theevent of a major incident should switch off the VDR in order to save thedata from being overwritten. As per SOLAS, if the ships emergency sourceof electrical power fails the VDR should continue to record the Bridgeaudio from the dedicated reserve source of power for a period of 2 hours.At the end of this 2 hour period recording should cease automatically.The Master should ensure the proper instructions are displayed near theVDR as follows:Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 26 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • Recording time of the VDR • Source of Power including emergency source • In case of incidentsMaster is to contact the Office Emergency Response Team to take specificinstructions regarding the time when to stop the VDR. Normally the VDRmust be stopped within 2 to 8 hours after a Marine Casualty Incident • The OOW should monitor the VDR /S-VDR is functioning properly and in case of any alarms of the system should inform the Master immediately. In the case of any faults in the system which cannot be rectified, the master should immediately contact the office so as to provide the vessel with the necessary assistance from equipment makers. An entry should be made into the log book in the case of any faults in the system stating the time of failure and the alarm condition and further on rectification of the faultRecovery of VDRRecovery of the VDR is conditional on the accessibility of the VDR or thedata contained therein. • In the case of a non-catastrophic accident: o Master is to back up data immediately. Follow manufacturer's step by step instructions o This action will have to be taken soon after the accident to best preserve the relevant evidence for use by both the investigator and the ship owner. • In the case of abandonment of a vessel during an emergency: o Masters should, where time and other responsibilities permit, recover the memory and remove it to a place of safety and preserve it until it can be passed to the investigator. • In the case of a catastrophic accident: o If possible, Master is to back up data immediately. Follow manufacturer's step by step InstructionsControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 27 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures o This action will have to be taken soon after the accident to best preserve the relevant evidence for use by both the investigator and the ship owner.4.4.6 Playback Equipment for VDR for Investigation PurposesA copy of the software program providing the capability to download thestored data and playback the information onto a connected externallaptop computer or PC and for the playback of the data should beprovided for each S-VDR installation. The software should be compatiblewith an operating system of PC used onboard or external laptop computerand provided on a portable storage device such as a CD-ROM, DVD, USB-memory stick, etc. Instructions for executing the software and forconnecting the external laptop computer to the S-VDR should be providedthe portable storage device containing the software, the instructions andany special (not commercial-off-the-shelf) parts necessary for the physicalconnection of the external laptop computer, should be stored within themain unit of the S- VDR.4.5 Procedures for use of Automated Identification System (AIS)The Automated Identification System (AIS) shall be kept operational at allthe times unless and except when safety considerations such as duringloading and discharging of volatile cargo in bulk, prohibit it's continuedoperation. Once the cargo is loaded or discharged, the AIS will bereactivated. The Ship Security Officer shall inform the Port FacilitySecurity Officer immediately before and after the activation andreactivation of the AIS respectively. Relevant information such as Staticdata, Voyage related data and Dynamic data shall be checked by use ofDaily and Pre departure Bridge Checklists ( OPS - Part B : Deck Checklist )4.5.1 Use and Limitations of AIS in NavigationAIS is designed to be able to provide additional information to existingRadar or ECDIS displays. AIS provides identification of targets togetherwith static and dynamic information. This information must be used withcaution noting the following important points: • Collision avoidance must be carried out in strict compliance with the Collision Regulations. There is no provision in the Collision Regulations for use of AIS information therefore decisions should be taken based primarily on visual and / or radar information.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 28 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • The use of VHF to discuss actions to take between approaching ships is fraught with danger and is discouraged. The identification of a target by AIS does not remove the danger. Decisions on collision avoidance should be made strictly according to the Collision Regulations. Not all ships will be fitted with AIS, particularly small craft and fishing boats. Other floating objects which may give a radar echo will not be detected by AIS. • AIS positions are derived from the target's GNSS position. (GNSS = Global Navigation Satellite System, usually GPS). This may not coincide exactly with the target. • Faulty data input to AIS could lead to incorrect or misleading information being displayed on other vessels. Mariners should remember that information derived from radar plots relies solely upon data measured by the own-ship's radar and provides an accurate measurement of the target's relative course and speed, which is the most important factor in deciding upon action to avoid collision. Existing ships of less than 500 gt. which are not required to fit a gyro compass are unlikely to transmit heading information. • A future development of AIS is the ability to provide synthetic AIS targets and virtual navigation marks enabling coastal authorities to provide an AIS symbol on the display in any position. Mariners should bear in mind that this ability could lead to the appearance of \"virtual\" AIS targets and therefore take particular care when an AIS target is not complemented by a radar target. AIS will sometimes be able to detect targets which are in a radar shadow area.4.5.2 Limitations of AISThe officer of the watch should always be aware that other ships, inparticular leisure craft, fishing boats and warships, and some coastalshore stations including Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) centers, might not befitted with AIS.The Officer on watch should always be aware that other ships fitted withAIS as a mandatory carriage requirement may switch off AIS undercertain circumstances by professional judgment of the master. In otherwords, the information given by the AIS may not be a complete picture ofthe situation around the ship.The users must be aware that transmission of erroneous informationimplies a risk to other ships as well as their own. The users remainControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 29 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresresponsible for all information entered into the system and theinformation added by the sensors. The accuracy of the informationreceived is only as good as the accuracy of the AIS informationtransmitted.The Officer on watch should be aware that poorly configured or calibratedship sensors (position, speed and heading sensors) might lead to incorrectinformation being transmitted. Incorrect information about one shipdisplayed on the bridge of another could be dangerously confusing.If no sensor is installed or if the sensor (e.g. the gyro) fails to providedata, the AIS automatically transmit the 'not available' data value.However the built in integrity checks cannot validate the contents of thedata processed by the AIS.It would not be prudent for the Officer on watch to assume that theinformation received from the other ship is of a comparable quality andaccuracy to that which might be available on own ship.4.5.3 Use of AIS in Collision Avoidance SituationsThe potential of AIS as an anti-collision device is recognized and AIS maybe recommended as such a device in due time. Nevertheless, AISinformation may be used to assist collision avoidance decision making.When using the AIS in the ship to ship mode for anti-collision purposes,the following precautionary points should be borne in mind:AIS is an additional source of navigational information. It does notreplace, but supports, navigational systems such as radar target trackingand VTSThe use of AIS does not negate the responsibility of the Officer on watchto comply at all times with the Collision Regulations.The user should not rely on AIS as the sole information system, butshould make use of all safety relevant information available.The use of AIS on board ship is not intended to have any special impacton the composition of the navigational watch, which should be determinedin accordance with the STCW Convention. Once a ship has been detected,AIS can assist tracking it as a target. By monitoring the informationbroadcast by that target, its actions can also be monitored. Changes inheading and course are, for example, immediately apparent, and many ofthe problems common to tracking targets by radar, namely clutter, targetControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 30 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresswap as ships pass close by and target loss following a fast manoeuvre,do not affect AIS. AIS can also assist in the identification of targets, byname or call sign and by ship type and navigational status. • Switching Automatic Identification System (AIS) to Low Power Transmission Mode during cargo operation, purging, inerting or gas freeing o In order to reduce the overall radio transmission from the vessel during cargo operations, please note that the AIS is to be switched to \"low power emission\" mode at Oil Terminals, Single Buoy Mooring (SBM), or Ship To Ship (STS) locations, unless otherwise as spelled out by the Terminal Operator at the time of cargo operation. o In the event that the AIS is unable to be switched to \"low power emission\" mode, due to limitations of \"password entry\" or if the unit lowest power is 2W, Terminal Operator's permission shall be sought prior to switching off the AIS, and it shall be switched on upon completion of cargo operation and prior to vessel's departure from the Terminal.Note: For AIS operations in port, also refer ISGOTT Ch. AIS MaintenanceAIS maintenance records must be available for Class review. Thepreferred method of record keeping is by inclusion in the PlannedMaintenance System. All vessels with computerized maintenance systemsshould ensure AIS Maintenance is carried out and recorded, in accordancewith the makers' instructions.Pilot plugs are required to be fitted in the AIS for use by the Pilot whenentering and leaving port.Guidelines and details of Handling of AIS could be found in respective AISInstruction Manual on board and should be fully complied with at all thetimes. Additional guidelines for AIS are also given in ISGOTT 5th Edition4.8.4 and 26.4 - \"Guidelines to Completing Checklist Item 40\".4.6 Bridge Navigation Watch Alarm System (BNWAS)A bridge watch alarm system is a device which triggers an alarm if anOfficer on Watch (OOW) becomes incapable of performing the OOW’sControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 31 of 84

Bridge & Deck Proceduresduties and complies with the performance standard as adopted by IMOMSC.128 (75).The Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm System (BNWAS) is designed toprevent marine accidents by improving the standards of navigationalsafety and by monitoring the presence of the OOW on the Bridge, wherefitted, this equipment must be used without fail.The BNWAS must be operational at all times when the vessel is underwayat sea. It should be kept operational whenever the ships heading or trackcontrol system is engaged, unless inhibited by the Master. It must bereset periodically by the OOW to avoid activation of visual and audiblealarms.There are 3 levels of alarms, as detailed below. When alarms areactivated in cabins or common rooms, the Master and the backupofficer(s) must proceed to the Bridge immediately. Alarms can only bereset from the Bridge.An emergency call button will also be available to allow the OOW to callfor assistance in an emergency. The BNWAS has certain parameters thatcan be programmed. Only the Master is authorized to adjust thesesettings. The dormant period must be set no higher than 10 minutes; thisinterval may be reduced when transiting areas deemed to be hazardous tosafe navigation.All items of equipment forming part of the BNWAS are tamper-proof sothat no member of the crew may interfere with the systems operation.All officers must be familiarized with the operational use of the equipmentby referring makers manual and with the alarm functions of BNWAS fitted.Dormant PeriodPeriod to be set to 10 minutesPre-Alarm warningAfter 10 minutes of inactivity a light flashes on the Bridge for 15 secondsto alert the OOW that the dead man alarm need to be reset.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 32 of 84

Bridge & Deck ProceduresLevel-1 AlarmA continuous warning light will illuminate and corresponding audible alarmwill sound on the Bridge for 15 seconds. This can be reset by the OOW.Level-2 AlarmWarning light and audible alarm will be activated in the Captain's andBack-up-officer's cabin. After 2 minutes, if the alarm is not acknowledgedon the Bridge, a Level 3 Alarm will be initiated.Level-3 AlarmA warning light and audible alarm will be activated in the ECR, officersMess & Lounge and Common rooms. This alarm will continue until reseton the Bridge.4.7 Electronic Chart Display & Information System (ECDIS)The SOLAS Convention includes a requirement for all ships to carry to up-to-date nautical charts and publications for the intended voyage. Thiscarriage requirement may be satisfied fully or partly by electronic means.A navigational electronic chart system is a general term for all electronicequipment that is capable of displaying a vessel’s position on a chartimage on a screen.The requirements for charts and publications to be carried as required bySOLAS Chapter V can be fulfilled by: • Carriage of official and up-to-date paper charts, or • Carriage of a type-approved ECDIS, using official and up-to-date Electronic Navigational Charts (ENC) together with an appropriate back up arrangement.After the amendment of SOLAS regulations 1 July 2002 it is allowed toreplace the paper charts and publications by electronic means if a suitableback up is provided.IMO Performance Standards require that the “overall system” include botha primary ECDIS and an adequate independent back up arrangement thatprovides:Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 33 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • Independent facilities enabling a safe takeover of the ECDIS functions in order to ensure that a system failure does not result in a critical situation; and • A means to provide for safe navigation for the remaining part of the voyage in case of Primary ECDIS failureDifferent Back up arrangements is acceptable by different nationalmaritime administrations and this should be verified with the Flag State ofthe vessel.4.7.1 Main components of ECDIS i) An ECDIS has four main components: 1. A computer system or processing unit, along with the necessary software programs to run the system or unit. 2. Electronic charts in the form of a digital database or library of either ENC’s (Officially approved vector charts) or, where these are not available, RNCs (Officially approved raster charts). 3. A colour display screen. 4. A control panel or operator interface which enables the mariner to operate the system.Additionally, an ECDIS can accept inputs and display data fromnavigational sensors and other instruments, such as GPS, gyro, radar,ARPA or echo sounder.The three most important operating features of ECDIS are the clarity ofits screen, ease of use of the controls and the quality and versatility ofthe navigational information displayed on its screen.There are three levels of information which can be displayed on an ECDISScreen: • The Display Base is the basic display provided by the SENC and is required for all charts. It is unchangeable basic data which cannot be altered by the operator. The Display Base contains information on coastlines, safety contours, danger indications, traffic routing, scale, range, orientation and display mode, as well as units of depth and height. The Display Base is not intended to provideControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 34 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures enough information for safe navigation just by itself. • The Standard Display, which is also a pre-arranged chart display, but which can be modified by the operator, and which is automatically shown when the ECDIS is first switched on. It contains the Display Base, plus boundaries of channels etc, conspicuous features, restricted areas, chart scale boundaries and cautionary notes. The operator can modify the amount of information displayed for the purposes of route planning and navigational monitoring. The operator decides what level of information is displayed during any particular situation or task. However, when working with these other levels of information display, an operator must immediately be able to return to the Standard Display with just one single action of the controls. • The ‘All Other Information’ Levels. After the first two main levels of chart display mentioned above, extra layers of information known as 'All Other Information' can be called up on the ECDIS and added to the Standard Display when required by the operator. These may show spot soundings, undersea cables and pipelines, ferry routes, lines of magnetic variation, the chart graticule, place names, extra details of navigation aids, hazards and notes.Some ECDIS systems also have a 'Windows' capability, which can showseveral smaller screens at the same time, allowing the operator to viewdifferent types of information, separately but alongside each other. Suchdisplays may show as the present position chart, the next chart and thewaypoint library, for example. ECDIS on board will be used in “All Other Information” Level to show & provide adequate warning to OOW. ii) Standard ECDIS functionsThe ECDIS, either with an ENC on display mode, must at all times be ableto perform the following tasks, each of which the ECDIS operator must beable to execute and monitor: • show automatic and continuous plotting of the vessel's position on the display • generate an alarm about navigational dangers to the vesselControlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 35 of 84

Bridge & Deck Procedures • show deviations from the vessel's planned route • generate an alarm when crossing a safety contour • maintain an electronic ship's logbook • display acquired ARPA targets to indicate other vessels' manoeuvres • show the latest update added, and be able to show that all updates have been correctly added • show the Standard Display through one single adjustment by the operator • allow easy movement from one item of information to another or from one chart to another • enable the operator to select a safety depth contour, which the ECDIS can then highlight • show that vessel's radar and ECDIS are working to the same scale when shown together on the ECDIS screen • Make it easy for the radar information to be added on or removed from the ENC display by the operator, and allow other sources of information to be added to the ENC with a common system of references. If this is not done, then the ECDIS should make it apparent to the operator • allow the ENC to be shown in a north-up, course-up or head-up display, and be able to switch easily between them • allow the operator at any time to switch the display from showing the vessel's present position to another image 'looking ahead' further along the planned route iii) Symbols & information displayStandard display means the SENC information that should be shown whena chart is first displayed on ECDIS. The level of the information it providesfor route planning or route monitoring may be modified by the marineraccording to the mariner's needs.Controlled Revision: 01 Sep 2015BOM Part A - BDP Doc No. 004SAFE NAVIGATION Approval: WBF Page: 36 of 84

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