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Published by tanyapoleen, 2021-09-14 09:36:23

Description: SLP1043L_1stShifting_E-Portfolio_MacaraegTanyaPoleen


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table of 1 CONTENTS 2 3 This e-portfolio is designed to 4 enable individuals to understand the anatomy and physiology of 5 hearing, respiration, phonation, 6 resonation and articulation 7 systems that are necessary for speech production and vegetative purposes like swallowing. The e-portfolio focuses on normal function and development of the structures for speech, hearing, and swallowing. The individuals should be able to exhibit understanding of the different structures and functions of the human body that enables production of speech, the ability to hear, and the ability to perform swallowing.



BASICS OF ANAPHY ANATOMICAL POSITION Understand how the human body works Point of reference when studying the Which parts are affected when there is a human body condition or disease Why study Anatomy and Physiology? PLANES OF REFERENCE Anatomy comes from the Greek word 1.Coronal Plane 'anatomia' and 'anatemnein' meaning to Vertical plane of reference cut up or cut open Allows us the identify the anterior and Physiology is the function in relation to the posterior sides (forward and anatomy backward) Pathology is the study of disease; focused 2.Sagittal Plane on the structural and functional changes Vertical plane of reference as a result of the disease. Separates left and right portion Named in reference to the sagittal *good understanding cannot be achieved without good suture that runs lengthwise the center understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the organism of the top of the skull Midsagittal - If body or body part is SPEECH PROCESSES divided down the middle so that there is an equal left and right portion Motions and events that enable us to Parasagittal - section that is parallel to communicate or produce speech the midsagittal plane RESPIRATION 3.Transverse Plane Power behind speech Horizontal plane of reference Breath is turned into energy via the Separates body into the superior and vibration of the vocal cords. Control over inferior portion (upper and lower) breath influences pitch, loudness, and timing of speech Saggital Plane Coronal PHONATION Plane Enables to produce voice; Sound source. The respiratory system is its power generator via the breath passing through the larynx from the lungs. RESONATION & ARTICULATION Modify the sounds in the larynx that are heard and perceived as speech sounds. Configuration of the vocal tract i.e. lengthening / constriction of the pharynx, the elevation of the tongue, closure of the lips, the elevation of velum, closure of the oral, nasal, and cavities. *Resonance is the most affected when the person has Transverse colds as passageways are congested. Plane *Articulation changes in the structure of our oral extremities affect how we produce speech sounds.

terms of ABDUCTION Separation of structures SPATIAL ORIENTATION ADDUCTION Bring together structures ANTERIOR Posterior (front - back) CIRCUMDUCTION Circular motion CENTRAL Centrally (middle or source) DEGLUTITION Process of swallowing PERIPHERAL Outside MASTICATION Process of chewing CONTRA Opposite side (one-another) ex. Turn foot IPSI Same side (one-Structure in the EVERSION Turning outward outward or same side) lateral DEEP Away from the surface INVERSION Turning inward ex. Turn foot SUPERFICIAL On the surface sole medially DISTAL Away PROTRACTION Sliding/moving forward PROXIMAL Toward (near to point of origin) RETRACTION Sliding/moving backward DORSAL Back side EXTENSION Stretching out VENTRAL Front (toward the belly) FLEXION Bending of a structure EXTERNAL Structures outside ex. particular muscle contracts INTERNAL Structures inside DORSIFLEXION Moving foot superiorly EXTRINSIC Structure into another ex. Flexing INTRINSIC Muscles within structure PLANTARFLEXION Moving foot inferiorly INFERIOR Lower than reference point ex. Tiptoe SUPERIOR Higher than reference point DEPRESSOR Lowering a structure LATERAL Towards the side ex. Depressor anguli oris - muscle lowering corner of mouth MEDIAL Center most portion LEVATOR Raising a structure PRONE Face down ex. Levator veli palatini - muscle raising soft palate SUPINE Face up TENSOR Tensing a structure ex. Tensor veli palatini - muscle tensing soft palate OPPOSITION Move structure to another ex. Contacting the thumb and index finger AGONIST Help move the muscle ex. Quadriceps for muscle extension ANTAGONIST Opposite motion ex. Hamstring to the opposite direction terms of MOTIOIN

JOINTS AND CAVITIES Pivot Joint JOINTS Connection of one structure to another particularly one bone to another; enables motion Hinge Joint Types of Joints Condyloid Joint 1.Pivot Joint Enables rotation C1 and C2 vertebrae (Atlas and Axis) Enables to move/rotate your head Saddle Joint Ball and Socket 2.Hinge Joint Joint Enables to do flexion and extension Ex. Elbow Plane Joint 3.Saddle Joint Enables you to move laterally just like waving your hand without moving the arm 4.Plane Joint Joints between the tarsal bones 3. Abdominal Cavity Enables to do eversion and inversion, Houses the stomach, liver, pancreas, dorsiflexion and plantar flexion kidneys, parts of small intestine, and 5.Condyloid Joint parts needed for digestion Joints between radius and carpal Separated from the thoracic cavity via bones DIAPHRAGM Enables to twist your hand moving from one side then navigating to 4. Pelvic Cavity another Houses muscles; some abdominal, spine 6.Ball-and-socket Joint and leg muscles Enables you to do circumduction Allows movement for the excretory, Hip joint urinary, and reproductive systems CAVITIES Cranial Cavity 1.Cranial Cavity Superior Pleural Cavity Mediastinum Houses brain and parts of the spinal cord Main protection of the brain Thoracic Cavity 2.Thoracic Cavity Houses the heart, lungs, and trachea Divided into three parts: Mediastinum - space in between Pericardial Cavity the pleural cavity Abdominal Cavity Pleural Cavity - is the space for the lungs Pericardial Cavity - space that houses the heart Pelvic Cavity

TISSUES Development: Epithelial Types of Tissues Develops from Epithelial Tissue - covers all body endoderm/mesoderm/ectoderm from surfaces embryological germ layer Simple Squamous Epithelium Connective Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Develops from mesoderm (embryonic Simple Columnar Epithelium mesoderm origin) Stratified Squamous Epithelium Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium Arrangement: Stratified Columnar Epithelium Epithelial Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Arranged in layers which can be either Connective Tissue - found within the single/multi layer body Connective Areolar Tissue Cells are in scattered form in the matrix Dense Fibrous and doesn’t show arrangement Cartilage Adipose Tissue Surrounding: Blood Epithelial Bone Not surrounded by blood capillaries Connective Composition: Surrounded by blood capillaries Epithelial - made up of cells and SMALL amount of intercellular matrix Location: Connective - made up of cells and HUGE Epithelial amount of intercellular matrix Above the basement membrane Connective Role: Below the basement membrane called Epithelial lamina propia Covering of the organs both internally and externally Nutrition: Helps in transcellular and intercellular Epithelial absorption (chemicals, ions) Gains nutrition from cellular membrane Selective absorption for protection of Connective cells Gains nutrition from blood capillaries Connective Supports other tissues and organs Bounded Tissues that make up the frame of the Epithelial body Special proteins, desmosomes, Helps muscle and bone formation hemidesomes Helps in working of blood and lymph Connective Site of blood and lymph production Blood capillaries and elastic or collagen Bone marrow is the center for RBC fibres production Found: Epithelial Lungs, kidneys, skin, mucus membrane Covering of a surface Connective Bones, nerves, ligaments, tendons, blood Connects a structure to another (skeletal, ligaments, tendons, or even blood)

HUMAN ORGAN Main divisions of the body that has specific major functions. Each system contributes to different functions and the sustenance SYSTEMS and maintenance of the body The network of organs and tissues that help humans RESPI breathe is known as the respiratory system. This system RATORY SYSTEM assists your body in absorbing oxygen from the air so that your organs can function properly. It also removes waste gases from your blood, such as carbon dioxide. Parts of the Respiratory System maintain PH levels Lungs Bronchioles Trachea Alveoli Sacs Primary and Secondary Bronchi *every second of life begins with oxygen NERVOU S SYSTEM The nervous system is the control center of the body. It manages ones motions, thoughts, and automatic responses to the world. It also plays an essential role in the things that the body does without thinking. Other body functions and processes, such as digestion, respiration, and sexual development. *controls all the functions of the body Parts of the Nervous System Brain Nerves Spinal Cord DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The digestive system is designed specifically to convert food into the nutrients and energy humans require to live. When it's completed, it properly stores solid waste, or stool, for disposal the next time one has a bowel movement. Parts of the Digestive System Teeth Stomach *breaks down and absorbs nutrients for Mouth Intestines energy, cell growth, and repair Esophagus Pancreas

URINARY S YSTEM The urinary system functions as a filter, eliminating toxins and wastes from the body via urine. This waste is transported through a system of tubes and ducts. *maintain body’s water and electrolyte balance. Parts of the Urinary System Kidney Ureter Bladder Urethra INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM The skin and accessory structures protect the body from pathogens, chemicals, and other external elements, prevent dehydration, operate as a sensory organ, modulate body temperature and electrolyte balance, and synthesize vitamin D, among other things. Parts of the Integumentary System Hair Sweat Glands protects the rest of the body Nails Sebaceous Glands like a barrier Skin The skeletal system works as a support structure for the body. It gives the body its shape, allows movement, makes blood cells, provides protection for organs and stores minerals. SKELETAL *framework of the body!! SYSTEM Parts of the Skeletal System Bones Ligaments Cartilages The muscular system's primary role is to aid with movement. This works in pairs and are hostile to each other. The other muscle relaxes while one muscle contracts. This contraction helps with mobility by pulling on the bones. Muscles also help to maintain body posture. MUSCULAR SYSTEM Parts of the Muscular System Muscles Cardiac Smooth Skeletal

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM In both males and females, the reproductive system is a collection of internal and external organs that work together to procreate. Parts of the Female System Parts of the Male System Fallopian Tubes Sperm Duct Ovaries Penis Uterus Testis Vagina CIRCULATORY SYSTEM The circulatory system pumps blood through a system of blood vessels as the heart beats. The vessels are elastomeric tubes that transport blood throughout the body. Blood is required for survival. It transports oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the body. It is necessary to maintain life and the health of all body tissues. Parts of the Circulatory System Heart Blood cells Blood vessels ENDOCRINE The glands that make up your endocrine SYSTEM system are made up of various organs. Hormones are created and secreted by these glands, which are found all over the body. Hormones are substances that transmit information from the blood to your organs, skin, muscles, and other tissues, allowing them to coordinate various tasks in one's body. *instruct your body on Parts of the Endocrine System what to do and where Composed of the ductless glands

UNIT ONE: Main divisions of the body that has specific major functions. Each system contributes to different functions and the sustenance ACTIVITY and maintenance of the body ANATOMICAL POSITION AND TERMS OF DIRECTION It is essential to situate the body in anatomical posture when studying the human body. Anatomical position is defined as having the body facing itself, feet together, and feet flat on the floor. The arms are straight at the side, palms facing ahead, and the head is held erect. All references to the body are made as though it is in this posture, thus when we say something is higher than anything else, we're referring to the body's anatomical position. Anatomy has served as the educational foundation for all medical and health professions throughout history, as a thorough understanding of the structure and function of the human body is required for safe and effective clinical practice. Similarly, anatomical terminology, which is as complicated as anatomy itself, serves as the foundation for successful communication in all medical areas. (Goran et. al., 2018) REGIONS OF THE ABDOMEN Individuals believe that cross-sectional, dynamic, and other types of abdominal imaging can now replace physical examinations, but the latter should always come first. Physical findings, in combination with the patient's history, can help determine which imaging to use and how to interpret it, as well as provide some positive and/or negative diagnostic clues that ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear isotopic scanning cannot. (Reuben, 2016)

UNIT ONE: BODY REGIONS ACTIVITY The human body is divided into regions and organ systems. The organ system approach is used in this work, in which particular organs are grouped into a broader organ system. Physical structures and places make up the human body. In metabolic activities, these physiological gaps are crucial. These areas were frequently overlooked in earlier scientific studies. The study of their role in the body can aid in the scientific understanding of some of the most difficult medical issues we face today. (Zhang, K., 2020)

UNIT ONE: BODY REGIONS ACTIVITY The human body is divided into regions and organ systems. The organ system approach is used in this work, in which particular organs are grouped into a broader organ system. It may also aid in the detection and prevention of disease, particularly sickness caused by drugs. The scientific knowledge of the principles of acupuncture and moxibustion may be improved by properly interpreting the essence of meridians from the perspective of these places. (Zhang, K., 2020)

UNIT ONE: BODY REGIONS ACTIVITY The human body is divided into regions and organ systems. The organ system approach is used in this work, in which particular organs are grouped into a broader organ system. Focused on the physical structures that can be dissected and are made of tangible things and quantifiable, such as organs, tissues, cells, and molecules, in our knowledge of the human body's creation. However, another crucial component was entirely overlooked: the physiological gaps that exist in the body. In a study of Zhang, K. (2020) it was mentioned that space occurs widely in the human body, such as the nasal cavity, ear canal, mouth cavity, digestive tract, and lung, which are filled with gases and connect with the natural space outside the human body, from the perspective of a human body structure. These areas are critical for appropriate metabolism and function.


ALL ABOUT HEARING ANATOMY: THE OUTER EAR AUDITION Collect Sound curves, cartilages The process of hearing Localization sound source identification Hearing is an essential element of Resonator creates a distinctive imprint on the verbal communication and survival Protection acoustic wave traveling into the ear canal Audiologists Foreign Body for Assistive Devices experts that deal with the screening, assessments, hearing aids to lounge unto intervention of hearing and balance disorders t he pinna Helix Communication specialists take care of hearing skill/sensation prevents things that would make Darwin's tubercle Cymba Concha hearing less effective Tragus Antihelix 4 MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE EAR: 1.The outer ear Concha Cavum 2.The middle ear 3.The inner ear Lobule External 4.The neural pathway Auditory Meatus PINNA LOBULE HELIX General term for the outer Composed of connective The outermost portion of the ear. May also be called the tissues lacking the firmness auricular cartilage. Forms the auricale and is based of and elasticity of the other shape of the pinna and has a several muscles and parts of the auricle. It also has landmark called the “Darwin’s auricular cartilages. a large blood supply, serving a Tubercle”. warming mechanism. ANTIHELIX inherited from genetic line TRAGUS The opposite curve. It is INTERTRAGIC NOTCH another prominent ridge Flap of cartilage on the and ends inferiorly to anterior wall of the ear canal. Located in the middle of the form the antitragus. Pressing on the tragus serves tragus and the antitragus. nicely to close off the canal Serves the purpose of being EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS to dampen unwanted sound. like a funnel that drains cerumen. The ear canal. It is a CYMBA CONCHA continuous tube that is CONCHA CAVUM made up of cartilage, an The anterior extension of the extension of the auricle. helix in the anterior entrance The one that is more of the concha, which is the superior to the concha. It depressions inside the auricle. directs sound into the external acoustic meatus.

MARKERS OF ANATOMICAL VARIATION Part of Tympanic Membrane Variation in size Annula macrotia; microtia, anotia Space/depression between the annular ligament and EAM Variation in position Pars Flaccida Translucency is caused by sparseness low-set ears; posterior angulation of the ear of fibers in the superior region of TM Flaccida Variations of the individual anatomical flaccid; soft; not tense or not rigid Pars Tensa parts: Remaining fibrous portion antihelix, antitragus; concha; helix; lobe; scapha; tragus; triangular fossa. Named ear anomalies crumpled ear; cryptoia; cupped ear; lop ear; preauricular and auricular tags; preauricular ectopias; prominent ear; question mark detachment Manubrium: Long handle of the of ascending helix; satyr ear; shell ear; Stahl ear. malleus Composed of 3 layers: ANATOMY: THE MIDDLE EAR Central fibrous layer; sturdiness Central intermediate layer; circular fibers by connective tissues Air-filled cavity; more internal compared Outermost layer; thin epithelium that is to the outer ear continuous with the lining of EAM Typanum: Timpani or kettledrums Innermost layer (medial layer); Type of drum, consists of a skin called a mucosa that is continuous with the head stretched over a large bowl lining of the middle ear commonly made of copper. You have approximately effective Played by striking the head with a special vibrating area of 55mm drum stick called a timpani stick. Outer ring of TM is fixed to the tympanic sulcus; only the 55mm2 area is effectively Tympanic Membrane eardrums vibrating Separates the outer ear from the middle Outer ring of TM does not vibrate at all. ear Otoscopy Creates a barrier protecting the middle Small scope magnified with a light source and inner areas from foreign objects (penlight) Vibrates in response to sound pressure pars flaccida waves. Cone-shaped in appearance which lateral reflects light posterior process of About 17.5mm in diameter malleor fold malleus Little as one-billionth of a cm Cone of light anterior 5 o’clock - normal right tympanic membrane malleor fold 7 o'clock position - normal left tympanic membrane manubrium Detecting the cone of light of malleus Reflection of light due to the cone of light shape of the TM. umbo TM is circular and concave; a little bit depressed internally.

OSSICULAR CHAIN / OSSICLES Stapes Tiny bones that forms into a chain to Also known as the stirrup transmit mechanical energy Smallest bone of the ossicular chain Approximately 4mg and 3.5mm2 Tympanic Membrane Head articulates with the lenticular Translucent; Defines the border between process of the incus outer and middle ear Incudostapedial Joint Articulation of the incus and stapes Manubrium Ball and socket joint Opaque but the color depends on the Anterior and Posterior Crus temperature; has tendency to turn One of them is attached to a muscle yellowish Footplate Attached to the tympanic membrane the shape of it fits exactly the oval Draws the tympanic membrane inward window within the temporal bone towards the middle ear giving its concave Oval Window shape (manubrium of the malleus) Separation of middle ear to the inner ear Malleus Composed of the handle, neck, head, and *Sizes play a role in the amplification of the processes sound Anterior Process site of anterior malleolar ligament. This *Ossicles starts motion and with that there is a ligament attaches bones to another pressure generated by the movement of bone or muscle. Same goes for the stapes pressing against the oval window lateral process so that it will also have an attachment MUSCLES Head/Caput Serves as protection Biggest part of the malleus Stapedius Protrudes to the epitympanic recess of Tensor Tympani the middle ear 9mm long and 25mg Tensor Tympani 25 mm in length and nearly 6 mm^2 in Incus cross-sectional area Anvil; Middleman Arising from the anterior wall of the Provides the intermediate link between middle ear space, superior to the orifice of the ossicular chain the Eustachian tube. Articulates with head of the malleus by Cartilaginous part of the Eustachian tube means of malleolar facet and greater wing of the sphenoid Long process is nearly parallel with the Coursing through the canal for the tensor manubrium of the malleus tympani in the anterior wall of the middle 30mg and the long process is ear approximately 7mm The tendon for the tensor tympani emerges from the canal, courses around *Malleus and incus articulate by means of the a bony outcropping called the saddle joint trochleariform process Function: stiffen the middle ear *Although it looks like there is a limited movement, transmission system, thereby reducing both malleus and incus move transmission of acoustical information in pass one unit upon the vibration/motion the lower frequencies.

Acoustic Reflex CAVITIES The acoustic reflex (also known as the Landmarks in the ear. stapedial reflex) is a staple of the Epitympanic recess audiologist’s diagnostic toolkit. Area of the temporal lobe that passes The stapedius muscle applies a force on the middle ear, where your heads of the footplate of the stapes that reduces the malleus and incus will be located. the amplitude of excursion of the The oval window (fenestra vestibuli; footplate, thereby reducing the sound fenestra ovalis), in which the footplate of pressure level reaching the cochlea. the stapes is embedded. A basic protective mechanism for the Triggering the acoustic reflex will rotate cochlea, as it is triggered by loud sounds, the footplate. The footplate won’t fit the typically greater than 85 dB SPL. oval window The acoustic reflex may also include Auditory tube (Eustachian tube or response by the tensor tympani muscle. pharyngotympanic tube) - starts from the middle ear particularly in the portion of Stapedius temporal bone, terminates to the nasal Approximately 6 mm long and 5 mm2 in pharynx (when you yawn, you remove cross-sectional area pressure from ears). Embedded in the bone of the posterior Canal of tensor tympani-where tensor wall of the middle ear. tympani originates from Its tendon emerges from the pyramidal Tympanic nerve within the middle ear eminence in the middle ear space. cavity. Inserts into the posterior neck of the stapes, so that when it contracts, the ANATOMY: THE INNER EAR stapes is rotated posteriorly Muscle spindles have been found in the 1.Vestibular system - regulates balance. stapedius muscle SEMICIRCULAR CANAL & VESTIBULE stapedius 2.Auditory system- our hearing mechanism. COCHLEA tensor tympani VESTIBULE Central egg shaped cavity of inner ear. Space is continuous with both vestibular mechanism (semicircular canal and the cochlea) Marked by 3 prominent recesses. Spherical recess Elliptical recess Cochlear recess *Spherical recess- the medial wall contains perforation in macula cribrosa media. 2 end organs within membranous labyrinth Utricle - located superiorly. Larger. Cont to semicircular canal. Saccule - lies on the medial wall cont to cochlea.

SEMICIRCULAR CANALS Has the sense organ for the movement of PHYSIOLOGY: THE OUTER EAR the body space Peripheral Auditory System includes: Outer Ear Ability to maintain balance Middle Ear Inner Ear Composed of anterior vertical/superior, Auditory Nerve posterior vertical, horizontal/lateral OUTER EAR FUNCTIONS Several parts that compose the outer ear semicircular canal. Pinna or auricle Concha Each ring is in the right angle to each Auditory canal, or more specifically, external auditory meatus other so that the interaction of the 3 Tympanic membrane, or the border The external ear is responsible for field- permits the brain to code 3-d space. to-eardrum transfer that provides 10 – 15 dB gain from 2500 – 5000 Hz. X, Y, Z axis (int/pos,inf/sup,L/R) *This are sounds that cover part of speech sounds, Semicircular canal all open to the and some of the environmental sounds as well. vestibule by means of apertures although the vertical canals, the anterior and PINNA OR AURICLE posterior semicircle share an aperture Funnel acoustic vibration to the concha Vestibule technically has five openings and external auditory meatus. even if we only have three semicircular Aids in the localization of sounds, canals. meaning sounds that come from one direction, or the opposite direction will be COCHLEA easily heard/received by the ear closer to Resemble the shape of snail it. *the ears are more concave rather than flat. Spirals about 2-3 turns Sound localization is important to 3 canals understand speech better, especially in scala tympani isolating speech sounds to background scala vestibular noise. scala media The bony part where the cochlea spin is CONCHA the MODIOLUS and within that is where primarily for amplification of sound cranial nerve 7, particularly the acoustic because of its shape. branch of cranial nerve a, passes through funnel-like, where the bigger part of other structures that it innervates. the funnel would be the pinna, and The branch of the acoustic nerve goes to then the one that is closest to the the different spaces where it is now called external auditory meatus is the concha the spiral ganglion. Spiral ganglion *the narrower it becomes, more amplitude it will have, Covered by a sheath of membrane hence why it amplifies sound called the spiral lamina and it terminates to the organ of corti. Resonant frequency Organ of corti dependent on size; thus varies for each Find hair cells; Tectorial membrane individual and other support structures. amplifies 5000 Hz frequencies Stria vascularis Structure responsible for maintaining/supplying blood to the whole cochlea.

EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS PHYSIOLOGY: THE MIDDLE EAR Narrowest point of the external ear For amplification. The whole external MIDDLE EAR FUNCTIONS ear is for amplifying sounds you To protect against loud sounds receive or sense from the environment. To provide a means of pressure Resonant frequency is around 2500 Hz. equalization Sizes still vary for each individual, but To act as impedance-matching device the difference will be more minimal Compressed of the ossicular chain compared to the shape and size of the Acoustic reflex activates the stapedius concha. muscle and tensor tympani because Amplifies 2500 Hz frequencies and these muscles serve as protection from slightly above very loud and strong sound Has oil glands in the outer 1/3, which is If there’s an intense sound, the muscles called earwax or cerumen Protects the contract so the ossicular chain stiffens external auditory meatus from insects or Since reflex lang siya, it happens very fast other debris that can go inside the meatus It serves to lubricate *Minute movements allowed Cilia (EAM cilia) – hair follicles that help *Reflex happens very fast reduce dust and wax build-up The best way to clean the ears is to let EUSTACHIAN TUBE them be. Do not use Q-tips. Pushing of the Connection between middle ear and Q-tips into the canal would also push the nasopharynx or opening towards nasal cerumen closer to the tympanic cavity membrane, which can build-up over time. Helps equalize pressure between middle Do not clean your ears because they are ear cavity and surrounding environment self-cleaning. The shape of the external auditory meatus *air-filled is slightly curved downward, because it helps the cerumen slide down and go IMPEDANCE MISMATCHING external from the EAM. 99% of the sound energy is reflected by the tympanic membrane because of the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE AIR TO WATER IMPEDANCE leaving only 1% Round-like shape, opaque for most of its to be transmitted surface, and has a concave shape Outer ear - Air *atmospheric surrounding (bulging inwards or medially towards the Middle ear - Air ; link between tympanic middle ear) membrane and oval window is mostly the Airtight because of the annular ligament. ossicular chain Drum-like structure because it is Inner ear - Fluid-filled stretched from all of its sides from the When air pressure goes to fluid filled center cavity, it negates/disperses the energy Pars Tensa (75%) is tightly stretched, Sound is reduced to 30dB (the 1% sound which is called the pars tensa energy transmitted) Pars Flaccida (25%) is the superior one; Sound travels first through air then to the loose and floppy liquid in the inner ear (cochlea) Air is less dense and has resistance in water The use of a tympanometer to determine the state of the tympanic membrane and middle ear is crucial information for audiologists. According to Shanks & Shohet (n.d.), the same pathology can cause multiple tympanogram patterns, and the same tympanogram pattern can be caused by multiple middle-ear pathologies.

3 WAYS THAT COMPENSATES THE MISMATCH PHYSIOLOGY: THE INNER EAR 1.Area Difference Difference of the area of the tympanic INNER EAR LABYRINTHS membrane and the footplate of the Osseous Labyrinth (Bony Labyrinth) stapes. Walls made of temporal bone 2.Lever Action Contains Perilymph fluid Between malleus and incus Membranous Labyrinth 3.Buckling Action Tissue structure within the bone Tympanic membrane PARS TENSA structure Area is 55mm2 Contains Endolymph fluid Effective area of vibration STAPES FOOTPLATE VESTIBULAR PORTIONS (BALANCE) Area is 3mm2 Vestibule + Semicircular Canals Tympanic membrane is 18 times bigger Vestibule (18:1) space joining the semicircular Use of one thing to move another thing canals and the cochlea Lever action amplifies the force exerted responsible for linear acceleration from one force to another Semicircular Canals has three parts: the lateral, RATIO OF MALLEUS TO INCUS posterior and superior/ Inferior 1.3:1 Cochlear Portion (Transduction) Malleus is 1.3 times longer than incus Transducing mechanical energy to RATIO OF AMPLIFICATION electrical energy 2:1 coiled tube, roughly 35mm coils 2¾ to Buckling action of tympanic membrane itself, it is a labyrinth Peak displacement will be up to 1500 Hz 2 Windows of the Cochlea then a more complex action will happen due to the curve shape of the tympanic Oval Window - opens into the scala membrane vestibuli and is covered by the stapes membrane Helicotrema Round Window - opens into the scala tympani medially modiolus apex Helicotrema Area where the perilymph flows from vestibular vestibular the scala vestibuli to scala tympani nerve membrane Cochlear partition is also called Membranous labyrinth scala media scala spiral * Scala refers to the locations of vestibuli ganglion which canal is referred to the Scala Vestibuli, Scala Media, and Scala basilar scala organ of Tympani membrane tympani Corti * Basilar Membrane where organ of corti rests cochlear * Vestibular Membrane separates nerve scala media from scala vestibuli * Spiral Lamina covers the spiral ganglion

ORGAN OF CORTI STEREOCILIA Sits on top of basilar membrane Projections that go outside Within the scala media Each stereocilia bundle contains Runs longitudinal to the basilar approximately 60 stereocilia per inner membrane hair cell The stereocilia of the outer hair cell SPIRAL ORGAN follow a 'W' pattern Composed of the osseous spiral lamina Heights of the stereocilia varies with Spiral lamina the shortest on the inner hair cell protects the spiral ganglion or the nerves innervating the organ TECTORIAL MEMBRANE Basilar membrane Lays on top of the outer hair cell and inner Tough membrane which extends from hair cells (stereocilia) the osseous spiral lamina to the outer Comes from the spiral limbus. The inner wall of the cochlear edge is firmly connected to the spiral Spiral Ligament limbus Thick fibrous membrane located on The outer edge is connected to the the outer wall of the cochlea which supporting cells of the organ of corti holds the basilar membrane in place The longest stereocilia of the outer hair Stria Vascularis cell is embedded in the undersurface of Vascular layer of tissue that lines the the tectorial membrane outer wall of the scala media Secretes ENDOLYMPH *Gelatinous membrane that is composed of 99% Scala Media water. It is also almost transparent and is fibrous Contains endolymph Supplies blood to the cochlea According to Alberti, P. (n.d.), when the outer hair Spiral Limbus cells are injured, they lose their ability to contract in Base of the tectorial membrane response to minor sounds, and the inner hair cells are not activated. If the sound is louder, the inner hair cells HAIR CELLS are directly stimulated and respond appropriately, Considered as receptor cells of hearing allowing the ability to perceive louder sounds to be preserved. Loudness recruiting is a rather regular *When sound is amplified then impedance mismatched occurrence. Because inner hair cells are significantly and transmitted to the cochlea, the disturbance in the \"tougher\" than outer hair cells. Additionally, the ear is pressure middle ear most responsive to noises between 3000 and 4000 Hz, in part due to the amplifying mechanism of the ear Run longitudinally across the basilar canal, as previously stated. Once hair cells degenerate membrane they do not recover and a permanent hearing loss Nerve fibers pass through the inner tunnel develops. As a result, these frequencies create the most of corti to innervate to the outer hair cells strong stimulus, and the outer hair cells that respond to OUTER HAIR CELLS (OHC) these frequencies are the most vulnerable to injury. More than yung nerves here TRAVELLING WAVE Approximately 12 500 located further The basilar membrane serves as the base away from the modiolus of the organ of corti. It has the stiffest INNER HAIR CELLS (IHC) gradient. Change in stiffness is gradual Closer to the middle portion/modiolus along the length of the basilar membrane Approximately 3 500 lie on the side of Propagation of mechanical energy to a the organ of corti specific frequency-dependent point along the basilar membrane

Compression Wave: TONOTOPIC ORGANIZATION Fluid is displaced and it pushes the The variation between stiffness of the basilar membrane towards the scala basilar membrane places the different tympani frequencies depending on the stiffness of Fluid gets displaced and the round the basilar membrane window bulges out the middle ear Vibrations of different frequencies will cavity maximally displace the basilar membrane at different locations specific to the Rarefaction Wave: different frequencies Once the force reaches the maximum point, it will revert back to the opposite TONOTOPIC ARRANGEMENT OF THE BASILAR motion MEMBRANE It will bounce back a little more towards the middle ear cavity so once High frequency tone displaces the basilar the energy dissipates it will go back to membrane at the basal end (end near the resting position the base of the cochlea) and where the membrane is narrowest and stiffest * Fluids are displaced (incompressible) Low frequency tone displaces the basilar membrane at the apical end (end near compression rarefraction compression the apex of the cochlea) where the membrane is widest and most flaccid wavelength cochlea auditory nerve Helicotrema Enables the relief of additional low pressure generated by the frequency displacement of fluid and oval window Oval window pushes in, the round oval window bulges out window high frequency Will undergo rarefaction at rest (go to its resting position) round window The basal end is narrower meaning it is stiffer This organization penetrates all levels of the central The apical end or apex is wide and flacid auditory system, including the auditory nerve, The stiffer it is, the more vibrations it will subcortical nuclei, and auditory cortex, and serves as have basilar membrane one of the most distinctive functional concepts to guide our knowledge of auditory processing. (Langers & van oval Dijk (2011) analyzed that in this way, it's similar to how round retinotopy affects the visual system and how somatotopy affects the somatosensory and motor high-frequency waves 1,500-20,000 Hz systems. The tonotopic arrangement of the human apex auditory cortex, however, remains little known in comparison to various other topographic cortical mappings. Moreover, Moerel et al.(2012) mentioned that medium-frequency waves 600-1500 Hz the auditory cortex also contains representations of additional acoustic characteristics such as stimulus bandwidth, sweep direction, and lateralization, in base addition to tonotopic frequency maps. low-frequency waves 200-600 Hz

UNIT TWO: TONOTOPIC ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY Vibrations of different frequency will move the BM maximum in different areas unique to those frequencies because to the stiffness variation, Organization tonotopic. Looking for sounds using the sound 9. Whisper level meter. oLoudness – 43.6 dB oFrequency – 218 Hz 1.Leaves rustling oDisplacement – Displaced BM at the apex Loudness – 43.7 dB Frequency – 1041 Hz 10. Noise (i.e. people chatting in the background, tv Displacement – Displaced BM at oLoudness – 68.0 dB the middle of the apex and base oFrequency – 783 Hz oDisplacement – Displaced BM at the middle of the apex 2. Moderate rain/ Heels of a shoe and base Loudness – 73.3 dB Frequency – 946 Hz 11. Water droplets from faucet Displacement – Displaced BM at oLoudness – 42.7 dB the middle of the apex and base oFrequency – 711 Hz oDisplacement – Displaced BM at the middle of the apex 3. Conversational voice and base Loudness – 67.6 dB Frequency – 210 Hz 12. Shrilling Laughter Displacement – Displaced BM at oLoudness – 72.4 dB the apex oFrequency – 2012 Hz oDisplacement – Displaced BM at the base 4. Construction (hammer and nail) oLoudness – 83.8 dB (95.2) 13. Base Drum/ Knocking oFrequency – 1168 Hz oLoudness – 64.2 dB oDisplacement – Displaced BM at the middle of oFrequency – 465 Hz the apex and base Displacement – Displaced BM at the apex 5. Car Honking oLoudness – 84.3 dB oFrequency – 2376 Hz oDisplacement – Displaced BM at the base 6. Clapping oLoudness – 70.6 dB oFrequency – 975 Hz oDisplacement – Displaced BM at the middle of the apex and base 7. Bell Ringing oLoudness – 81.2 dB oFrequency – 8291 Hz oDisplacement – Displaced BM at the base 8. Cellphone Alarm oLoudness – 80.5 dB oFrequency – 2540 Hz oDisplacement – Displaced BM at the base The conversion of tonotopic representations of incoming acoustic waveforms into higher-level sound representations is required for auditory cortex processing of complicated meaningful sounds. An orderly succession of neuronal characteristic frequencies over the cortical surface is defined as tonotopic gradients. The characteristic frequency, on the other hand, is defined as the frequency at which a neuron's lowest response threshold is reached. (Langers & van Dijk, 2011)






anatomy and physiology REFLECTION. SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY As a future speech-language pathologist, the introduction of anatomy and physiology, and the discussion of it towards hearing is essential for us, as the investigation of a live being's structure through observation or examination. The ability to comprehend and understand the structure of organs, muscles, and bones, as well as their function, introduces us to the concept of human anatomy. Speech-Language Pathology concerns the study of human communication sciences and processes, which involves hearing, the ear. Life anatomy and physiology are included in the human investigation body. With that said, the human body can show non-obsessive anatomical irregularities known as variations, which should be able to be detected. Although technology allows us to see increasingly smaller details within the human body, we must still interpret what we see. Certain previously unseen structures will be difficult to spot, while others may be misinterpreted for disease.

REFERENCES: Alberti, P. (n.d.). 2 THE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE EAR AND HEARING. Alberti, P. (n.d.). THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF THE EAR. Goran, S., Galic, B., Sinisa, B., Vukadinovic, S. & Goran, S.(2018). Clinical Relevance of Official Anatomical Terminology: The Significance of Using Synonyms. International Journal of Morphology, 36(4), 1168–1174. pid=S0717-95022018000401168&script=sci_arttext_plus&tlng=en Langers, D. R. M., & van Dijk, P. (2011). Mapping the Tonotopic Organization in Human Auditory Cortex with Minimally Salient Acoustic Stimulation. Cerebral Cortex, 22(9), 2024–2038. Moerel, M., De Martino, F., & Formisano, E. (2012). Processing of Natural Sounds in Human Auditory Cortex: Tonotopy, Spectral Tuning, and Relation to Voice Sensitivity. Journal of Neuroscience, 32(41), 14205–14216. Reuben, A. (2016). Examination of the abdomen. Clinical Liver Disease, 7(6), 143–150. Zhang, K. (2020). The Significance of Physiological Spaces in the Body and Its Medical Implications. Research, 2020, 1–10.

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