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Home Explore ဗိုလ်မှုးချုပ်ဟောင်းကျော်ဇော အတ္ထုပ္ပတ္တိ -၅

ဗိုလ်မှုးချုပ်ဟောင်းကျော်ဇော အတ္ထုပ္ပတ္တိ -၅

Published by accmelibrary, 2022-11-18 09:05:36

Description: ဗိုလ်မှုးချုပ်ဟောင်းကျော်ဇော အတ္ထုပ္ပတ္တိ -၅

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yOPrykdif; 1957 ckESpf/ Zlvkdifvqef;rSm u|efawmf &[email protected]/ prf;acsmif;&yf/ qDqHkvrf;/ tdrftrSwf [email protected] r*Fvm'Hk {nfhcHa*[mrS ajymif;a&[email protected] oGm;cJhygonf? u|efawmfpkaqmif;xm;wJh aiGav;u oHk;axmifausmfavmufyJ&[email protected] tJ'Dtdrf0,[email protected] vkdtyfwJhaiGukd u|efawmfhtpfukd}uD; OD;yku xwk af y;ygon?f aemiuf srS u|eaf wmahf jruuG uf dk a&mi;f +y;D qyEf idk yf gon?f u|eaf wmZhf e;D &@J zcivf n;f u,G vf eG of mG ;+yjD zp+f y;D / [email protected] if a':wiuf u|[email protected];[email protected] [email protected] [email protected]&[email protected] oHk;q,ftdrf}uD;ay: vliSm;wif+yD;/ tdrfaxmify&dabm*awGudkawmh u|[email protected] tckaer,fh prf;acsmif;tdfrfukd o,f,l+yD; oHk;pGJcJh&ygawmhonf? u|efawmfhom;orD;rsm;ukdawmh [email protected];onfh [email protected]; (aemifprf;acsmif; txu 2) rSm xm;ygonf? rdef;uav; ausmif;jzpfaomfvnf; a,musfm;av;rsm;ukd av;wef;txd vufcHojzifh armifESpfr ig;a,mufpvHk;ukd tJ'Dausmif;rSmyJ xm;vkdufygonf? u|efawmfhESpfr0rf;uGJrsm;rSm xkdausmif;xGufrsm;jzpfojzifh xkdausmif;rS c&pf,mefr,foDv&ifq&mr}uD;rsm;[email protected] &if;ESD;ojzifh [email protected],l ausmif;tyfay;cJh=uygonf? om;orD;rsm; ausmif;udpP+yD;[email protected] u|efawmf a&[email protected]&;udpPtwGuf pOf;pm;vkyfaqmif&ygawmhonf? tJ'Dacwf (zqyv tpkd;&acwf) wkef;u 'Drkdua&pDvnf; toifhtwifh&[email protected] a&[email protected]#muf wkdif;[email protected] jynfolvlxk twGuf EkdifiHa&;vkyfrnfqkdv#if vkyfEkdifwJh tcGifhtvrf;awG &Sdaeygonf? 'DtwGuf jyifqifonfhtaejzifh u|efawmfwyfu rxGufrD trsdK;rsdK; ajymqkdcsufrsm;ukd &Sif;vif;ajymjy&ef owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJw&yfukd u|efawmfjyKvkyfcJhyg onf? 1957 cEk pS f/ Zlvidk vf 6 &uaf [email protected] u|eaf wmaf exdkif&m aetrd fwiG yf if owif;pm&Si;f vi;f yJG jyKvyk cf hjJ ci;f jzpfygonf? owi;f pmwkud f toD;oD;rS owif;axmuftawmfrsm;rsm; wufa&mufcJhygonf? u|[email protected] t\"duxm; ajymqkdcJhr_rsm;uawmh u|efawmfhtay: pGyfpGJcsufrsm; rckdifvHkyHk/ oufaorjynfhpHkyHk/ txl;ojzifh u|efawmfhukd pepfwus w&m;r#wr_ &SdpGm ppfaq;jcif;/ xkacscGifhjyKjcif;rsm; r&SdyHkawGukd u|efawmfajymqkd&Sif;vif;cJhygonf? aemuaf [email protected];f pmrsm;wiG f u|eaf wm.f ajym=um;csutf jynthf pukH dk xnohf iG ;f azmjf y=u+y;D t,'f wD mtmabmf tce;f rsm;rvS n;f u|efawmf. awmif;qkdcsufjzpfaom‘±Hk;wifppfaq;yg’qdkonfh tcsufukd txl;tav;ay;a&;om;=uygonf? txl;ojzifh vuf0Jbuf ,drf;onfh owif;pmrsm;/ *sme,frsm;u u|efawmf. wkdif;jynftay:pGrf;pGrf;wrH aqmif&GufcJhr_rsm;tay: tus,fw0ifh a&;om;=uygonf? [email protected];u u|efawmfhukd av;pm;=unfndK=uonfh wyfrSL;wyfom;rsm;uvnf; u|[email protected] wkdufyGJrsm;rSm yg0ifcJh=uyHk/ u|efawmf. aqmif&Gufcsufrsm; pwmrsm;ukd tcef;qufaqmif;yg;rsm;tjzpf a&;om;=uygonf? xkdpOfu zqyv tpkd;&twGif; jcpm;r_/ vmbfpm;r_/ tcsif;csif;tjyeftvSefpGyfpGJr_rsm;[email protected] [email protected]; wkdufqkdif aeojzifh tpkd;&ukdwkdufckdufa0zefonfh t&Sdefjzifhvnf; a&maeygonf? xkdowif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJwGif owif;axmufwOD;u jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;[email protected] ywfoufI u|efawmf.oabmxm;ukd ar;jref;&m u|efawmfu oD;jcm;xkwfjyefygrnf[k ajymqkdvkduf+yD; u|efawmfru|rf;usifonfh EkdifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;jy\\emrsm;ukdyg tus,fw0ifh tcsdef,l avhvm+yD;rS atmufwkdbm 27 &ufwGif ‘jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh ywfoufI u|efawmf. oabmxm;’qkdonfh pmwrf;wapmif xkwfjyef vkdufygonf? xkdpmwrf;ukd tykdif;rsm;cGJI owif;pmrsm;u azmfjy=u+yD; aemufykdif;wGifvnf; pmtkyftjzpf xkwfa0cJhygonf? xkdpmwrf;i,fwGif tykdif;av;ykdif; yg&Sdygonf? 1? yxrykdif;wGif jynfwGif;ppf 10 ESpfc&D;ukd t=urf;zsif; azmfjyxm;ygonf? 1948 ckESpfukefcgeD;rSpI wkdufcJh&aom autif'Dtkd (KNDO) [email protected] tjcm;vufeufukdif [email protected];rsm;jzpfonfh tvHjzL/ tvHeD uGefjrLepf/ &JabmfjzL/ &ckdifolykefrsm;ponfh wjynfvHk; twkdif;[email protected] [email protected];jzpfcJhonfh wkdufyGJrsm;ta=umif; azmfjyxm;ygonf? 2? 'wk ,d yidk ;f wiG f ‚ 10 EpS cf &;D twiG ;f tp;dk &EiS ohf yl ek rf sm; EpS Of ;D EpS zf u.f vu&f tdS ajctaersm;udk a0zeof ;kH oyxf m;+y;D / tu,If Ttwkdif; qufwkdufckdufygu tem*wf. tvm;tvmukd u|efawmfa0zefwifjyxm;ygonf? Ttykdif;wGif u|efawmfu “EdkifiHa&;onf jynfwGif;ppftwuftus. ausm±kd;r¾dKifjzpfonf? ppfa&;onf taxmuftul tykdif;om jzpfonf? olykefta&;edrhfaprnfh xl;jcm;onfh EkdifiHa&;ajymif;vJr_ rygbJ ppfa&;oufoufjzifhom &ifqkdifaev#if olykefta&;rSm tvGef&Snf=umcufcJEkdifa=umif;/ vuf&Sdtpkd;&[email protected] ppfa&;oufoufcsnf; tm;rukd;bJ EkdifiHa&;t& }udK;pm;oifha=umif;/ Ttwkdif; qufoGm;aeygu jynfwGif;ppf}uD; &Snf=umoGm;rnfh tvm;tvm&Sda=umif;/ ppfwyfwkd;[email protected]&I jynfwGif;pD;yGm;a&;vnf; usqif;Ekdifa=umif;” pwmrsm;ukd tao;pdwf tcsuftvufrsm; xkwfjy/ &Sif;vif;jy+yD;/ ppfa&;oufoufjzifh aemufxyf 7 ESpfqufwkdufv#ifvnf;/ olykeftiftm; rusqif;Ekdifa=umif; a&;om;xm;ygonf? 3? ww,d yidk ;f wiG f ppEf iS Ehf idk if aH &;. &n&f ,G cf surf sm;/ ppEf iS jhf ynof vl xl /k ppEf iS Ehf idk if aH &;acgi;f aqmirf sm;. wm0eqf upf yaf eyrkH sm;udk tus,fw0ifh a&;om;xm;ygonf? txl;ojzifh EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;taejzifh ppfEkdifa&;twGufomru ppfukdrlv EkdifiHa&;&nfrSef;csufrS aoGzDroGm;atmifESifh ppf+yD;aemuf +idrf;csrf;a&;umvwnfaqmufa&;twGuf wm0ef&Sda=umif;pwmawG yg&Sdygonf? ppfonf jzpf&efvG,fulaomfvnf; t+yD; owf&ef cufcJwwfa=umif;ESifh ppf.'%fukd jynfolvlxku t\"du cH&a=umif;awG yg&Sdygonf? 4? pwkwÎykdif;wGifrl vuf&SdjynfwGif;ppfukd [email protected] tqHk;owfoifhonfukd a&;om;wifjyxm;ygonf? xkdpOfu 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek ajym=um;onfh [email protected];ukd ukd;um;+yD; jynfolvlxku ppftwGuf ay;&aomtzkd;tcrsm;ukd axmufjy+yD; “jynfwGif;ppfjzpf&jcif;tay: Ekdiif Ha&; acgif;aqmifrsm;[email protected] wm0ef&Sda=umif;/ EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;[email protected] [email protected] ywfoufI xifjrif,lqyHk ayghqrSm;,Gif;jcif;ta=umif;&if;rSm 2


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(xkdtcsdefu q&m}uD;ocifukd,fawmfr_dif; OD;pD;I v_yf&Sm;aeaom jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_ vlxkqENjyyGJ}uD;rsm;vnf; w+cdrfh+cdrfhESifh wEkdifiHvHk; usif;yae=uygonf?) u|efawmfxkdpmwrf;a&;om;&ef jynfwGif;ppfjy\\emukd tao;pdwfavhvmavav jynfwGif;ppfa&&Snf+yD; [email protected] qif;&J'kuQ tE W&m,frsm;ukd jrifavavjzpfum jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;onfom tem*wfEkdifiHopf xlaxmifEkdifa&;twGuf aomhcsufjzpfa=umif; ykdrkdI oabmaygufvmygonf? vuf&[email protected] 'kuQrsdK;pHk qHkcsufjzpfaeonfh jynfwGif;ppf}uD;ukd jynfolvlxktusdK;pD;yGm;jyK EkdifiHa&; tajccHay:wGif &yfpJEkdifygu wkdif;jynftay:t}uD;rm;qHk; tusdK;jyKEkdifcsuf[kvnf; ,Hk=unfvmrdygonf? [email protected]=umifhyif u|efawmfonf q&m}uD;ocifukd,fawmfr_dif;. “jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; &SpfOD;aumfrwD”[email protected]@ESifh aqG;aEG; wkdifyif+yD; [email protected];aygif;v_yf&Sm;&ef pDpOfygawmhonf? [email protected] 1958 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmvwGif yxrt}udrf Akdvfae0if;OD;pD;I ppftm%modrf;yGJ ay:aygufvm&m v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; cufcJvm+yD; 1959 ckESpfwGif xkdjynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; &SpfOD;aumfrwDukd zsufodrf;ypfcJh&onf? zqyv tpkd;&uGJ/ [email protected]&Sif;tpkd;&[email protected] tajctaeawG ±SKyfaxG;ae&mrS 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Eku AkdvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;ukd tm%mv$Jajymif; ay;onfqkdum tdrfapmifhtpkd;&wufvmjcif; jzpfygonf? tdrfapmifhtpkd;&uvnf; 1960 ckESpf/ azazmf0g &Dv 6 &[email protected] a&G;aumufyGJ usif;yay;cJhonf? xkda&G;aumufyGJwGif u|efawmfonf woD;yk*~vtrwfa[mif;tjzpf =unfhjrifwkdifawmifykdif; rJqENe,frS yg0if,SOf+ydKifcJhygonf? [email protected]&Sif; zqyv rS ocifpHa0/ wnf+rJ zqyv rS Akdvfp=umESifh yrnw rS EkwfxGufvm+yD; woD;yk*~vtjzpf 0ifvmonfh OD;atmifoef; (AdkvfcsKyftpfukd) [email protected] ,SOf+ydKif&jcif; jzpfygonf? rJqG,fw&m;yGJrsm; jyKvkyf&mwGif tpyxrykdif;wGif u|efawmfu wkdif;jynfwnfaqmufa&;/ xlaxmifa&; vkyfief;pOfrsm;ukdom tav;ay;a[majym&m vltrsm;u }udKufESpfoufjcif;r&SdvSay? u|efawmf. a&G;aumufyGJulnDa&; [email protected];u EkdifiHa&;t&wkdufckduf ajymqkdae=uonfh wjcm;trwfavmif;rsm;. a[majymcsufrsm;ukd oGm;a&mufem;axmif=u+yD; u|efawmfhukd jyefvnfajymjyum jyef&Sif;vif; ajym=um;&ef wkdufwGef;=uygonf? [email protected] u|efawmfrSm aemufykdif;rJqG,f w&m;yGJrsm;wGif EkdifiHa&;t&a&m/ yk*~dKvfa&;t&yg ajymqkdr_rsm; yg0ifvm&ygawmhonf? txl;ojzifh wnf+rJ zqyv (qkd&S,fvpfrsm;) ta=umif; ajyma[mojzifh [email protected]; todenf;ao;aom twGif;a&;rsm;ygojzifh vltrsm; tawmfoabmus=uygonf? rJqG,fw&m;yGJrsm;rSmvnf; tvGefpnfum; }uD;us,fvmygonf? u|efawmf. a&G;aumufyGJ ulnDa&;[email protected] u|efawmf. ,cifwyfrawmfxJwGif wm0eftwlxrf;aqmifcJhzl;onfh &Jabmf a[mif;rsm;/ [email protected] awmjyefvufeufcsrsm;/ [email protected] awmifykdif;rJqENe,f &yfuGuftoD;oD;rS u|efawmfhtm; yk*~dKvft& av;pm; =unfndKolrsm;/ [email protected]&ifwkdif;&if;om; acgif;aqmifrsm; pojzifh tv$maygif;pHkrS vlyk*~dKvftrsdK;rsdK; yg0ifcJh=uygonf? EkdifiHa&;e,fy,f txl;ojzifh vuf0Jbuf,drf;onfh [email protected];rsm;rS vlyk*[email protected]; vma&mufulnD=uygonf? vltm;[email protected] ulnDEkdifolu ulnD/ aiGtm;[email protected] ulnDEkdifolu aiGtm;[email protected] bufpHku 0kdif;0ef;ulnDol tawmfyifrsm;jym;cJhygonf? xdkolrsm;tm;vHk;ukd u|efawmf,cktxd owd& aus;Zl;wifvsuf &Sdygonf? [email protected] 1960 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv 6 &uf a&G;aumufyGJwGif taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ usif;ycJh&m u|efawmf±_H;edrfhoGm;+yD; yxp trwfavmif; ocifpHa0 EkdifoGm;ygawmhonf? u|[email protected] Armjynfolrsm;onf EkdifiHa&;t& [email protected] pOf;pm;wwfolrsm; jzpfygonf? [email protected] wnf+rJ zqyv (qkd&S,fvpfrsm;) tay: tawmfjywfom;pGmjrifxm;+yD; jzpfygonf? &&Sdvmonfh EkdifiHa&;tm%mudk ppfwyfESifhaygif;+yD; ukd,fusdK; pD;yGm;vkyfrnfholrsm;/ jynfolvlxktrsm;pkukd eif;zdxm;rnfholrsm;tjzpf ([email protected]&) odjrifxm;+yD; jzpfonf? 1958 ckESpf ZGefv 9 &[email protected] wnf+rJ zqyv u v$wfawmfwGif [email protected]&Sif; zqyv ukd t,Hkt=unfr&Sd tqkdwifoGif;+yD; rcJ cJG phJ Ouf [email protected]&iS ;f rsm;buuf tomrJ &pS rf aJ v;jziohf m tEidk &f omG ;czhJ ;l ygon?f xadk [email protected] vw$ af wmwf iG ;f tajctaersm;udk a&',D rdk S wudk ±f udk f toHv$ifhay;&m wEkdifiHvHk; &ifwrrjzifh aecJh&onfukd wkdif;oljynfom;rsm;u rarhEkdifao;yg? tdrfapmifhtpkd;&vufxufwGifvnf; ppfAkdvfrsm;. rw&m;&rf;um;r_ukd trsdK;rsdK;cHcJh&onfh tjzpfoepfrsm;uvnf; &Sdaeygonf? jynfwGif;ppf}uD;twGif; txl;ojzifh wkdif;&if;om; a'orsm;ESifh e,frsm;wGif ppfwyf.vkyf&yfrsm;ukdvnf;aumif;/ jyLapmxD;/ vJAD;ponfh ppfwyf. vufukdifwkwfrsm;. ESdyfpufr_rsm;ukd vnf;aumif;/ a&G;aumufyGJjyifqifcsdefumvrsm;twGif; 'Drkdua&pDwpHkw&m zGifhay;xm;&csdefwGif jynfoltrsm;od&Sdatmif ajymqkdolrsm;/ a&;om;olrsm; ay:aygufcJhygonf? [email protected]=umifhyif jynfolvlxku ppfwyf.axmufcHr_&aeonf[k xif&aom wnf+rJukd tjywfz,f&Sm;ypf vkduf+yD;/ [email protected]&Sif;ukd yHkatm+yD; tonf;=um;u rJjym;rsm;ukd ay;ypfvkdufjcif;jzpfonf? wEkdifiHvHk; 0gxdefoGm;ygawmhonf? ([email protected]&Sif;. ta&mifrSm t0ga&mifjzpfygonf?) u|efawmf a&G;aumufyGJ±_H;&onfh t\"duta=umif;&if;rSm Tjynfolvlxk. [email protected]&Sif; zqyv rsm;tay: tm;ukd;tm;xm; yHkatmvkdr_pdwf\"mwf tajccHa=umifh jzpfygonf? 3


tjcm;ta=umif; tao;tr$m;rsm;vnf; &Sdygao;onf? Oyrm wnf+rJtrwfavmif; Akdvfp=umtwGuf t&efxm;aomrJrsm;ukd [email protected] rEkdifEkdifawmhrSef;odvmwJh naeykdif;wGif [email protected]&Sif;trwfyHk;xJyJ xnfhay;vkdufr_/ [email protected]&Sif;rsm;bufu rJqG,fa[majymyGJrsm;wGif [email protected] tpkd;&[email protected]@om ta&;}uD;a=umif;/ [email protected];&jzpfvmv#if AkdvfausmfaZmudk ypfxm;rSm r[kwfa=umif;pojzifh a[majymr_rsm;/ u|efawmf. rJykH;wGif u|efawmfppf0wfESifh ±kdufxm;aom \"mwfyHkukd uyfxm;jcif; ([email protected] ppfqkdv#if a&awmif ppfraomufvkdyg[k ajymqkdaeaomtcsdef) ponfrsm;jzpfygonf? wu,af wmh xadk &;G aumuyf rJG mS jynof vl xl .k “torH xuG af om awmvf eS af &;w&y”f om jzpcf yhJ gawmoh n?f xadk &;G aumuyf jJG zihf u|[email protected] Armjynfolrsm;u ppfwyfukd yxrOD;qHk;t}udrf EkdifiHa&;t& z,fcsvkdufjcif; jzpfygonf? [email protected]&iS ;f tp;dk & wuvf m+y;D aemuf Avdk af e0i;f onf xvdk xl .k wn+f rqJ [email protected] &;vid_ ;f updk ;D +y;D / wyrf awmxf rJ S “rrd .d burf vudk af &; n¸ef=um;csufukd rvkdufem”[kqkdum a&G;aumufyGJtwGif; wnf+rJbufu yif;ay;cJhonfh wyfrSL;}uD;rsm;ukd xkwfy,fypfvkdufygonf? Akdvfae0if;. wu,fh&nf&G,fcsufrSm [email protected];+ydKifqkdifEkdifonfh ppfbuf0gcsif; rwdrf;r,drf;jzpfaeonfh wyfrSL;}uD;rsm;udk [email protected]&mxl; vHk+cHKa&; twGuf z,f&Sm;&efom jzpfygonf? xkdz,f&Sm;cH&onfh wyfrSL;}uD;rsm; tkyfpkwGif ,ck NLD OuUÏjzpfaeonfh OD;atmifa&$ (xkdpOfu ajrmufykdif;wkdif; - wkdif;rSL;/ AdkvfrSL;csKyf) vnf; yg0ifoGm;ygonf? xkdpOfu jyKwfoGm;onfh wyfrSL;rsm;ukd EkdifiHjcm;[email protected] oHtrwf}uD;rsm;tjzpf [email protected];r_rsm;a=umifh jzKwfcscH&onfh wyfrSL;}uD;rsm;uvnf; auseyf=uygonf? jynfoltrsm;.tjrifwGifvnf; Akdvfae0if;rSm awmfwnfhrSefuefol[k xifrSwfoGm;Ekdifygonf? Tenf;jzifh Akdvfae0if;onf rdrdtm;wifay;cJhonfh jynfolvlxk. [email protected];cHvkduf&+yDjzpfaom q&m&if;wnf+rJrsm;ESifh vrf;cGJ vkdufygawmhonf? wyfwGif;wGifvnf; wpHkw&m =oZm&Sdaeonfh qkd&S,fvpfwyfrSL;rsm;ukdvnf; z,fxkwfvkdufEkdif+yDjzpfonf? Akdvfae0if;. Tvkyf&yfonf [email protected],fusdK;twGufawmh tvGefajymifajrmufonfhvkyf&yfwck jzpfygawmhonf? jynfolvlxktwGif;rSmvnf; [email protected]: EkdifiHa&;t& tjrifaumif;rGefap+yD; ppfwyfwGif;rSmvnf; [email protected];,SOf+ydKif Ekdifonfh tvm;tvm&Sdonfh wyfrSL;[email protected] z,fxkwfvkduf Ekdifygonf? Ta&G;aumufyGJwGif tEkdif&vmaom [email protected]&Sif;tpkd;&wufvmaomtcg jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;vkyfief;rsm; jyefvnf touf0if vmygonf? [email protected]=umifh 1959 ckESpfu ysufoGm;aom yxrjynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;[email protected]; 'kwd,jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;[email protected] aqmif&Guf&ef EkdifiHa&;acgif;[email protected] aqG;aEG;wkdifyif=u+yD; “jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; E_d;aqmfa&;[email protected]” ukd 22-5-60 [email protected] u|efawmftyg yk*~dKvf ajcmufOD;jzifh [email protected]? xkdolrsm;rSm 1? q&m}uD;ukdf,fwkdif OD;aqmifum 2? u|efawmf AkdvfausmfaZmu t}uHay;tjzpfvnf;aumif; 3? OD;baomf 4? OD;ausmf 5? v$wfawmfa&[email protected]}uD; OD;xGef;[email protected] 6? OD;[email protected] (awmfbk&m;av;) [email protected] jzpf=uygonf? [email protected] E_d;aqmfa&;[email protected] jzpfygonf? xkdtcsdefu q&m}uD;ocifukd,fawmfr_dif;rSm touf 80 ausmfae+yDjzpfojzifh tawmf tiftm; [email protected]+yDjzpfaomfvnf; u|efawmftygt0if vlawmfawmfrsm;rsm; yg0ifv_yf&Sm;vmojzifh vnf;aumif;/ 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ekukd,fwkdif uvnf; +idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf urf;vSrf;csuftopfrsm; jyKvkyfvmojzifhvnf;aumif; tm;wuf&$ifvef;vmygonf? q&m}uD;tawmftwef usef;rmvmaomtcg rsufpdwGif;rS wdrfukd cGJpdwfuko&ef ta&[email protected]*smr%[email protected] xGufcGmoGm;ygonf? u|[email protected] E_d;aqmfa&;[email protected] jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;tay: [email protected] jyefvnfpdwf0ifpm; wufºuvmap&ef E_d;aqmfjcif;/ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;atay: xm;&Sdonfh jynfolrsm;. oabmxm;ESifh EkdifiHa&; acgif;aqmifrsm;. oabmxm;rsm;ukd wD;acgufavhvmjcif;/ [email protected];rnfh “jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;[email protected]”twGif; yg0ifrnfholrsm;udk &SmazGa&G;cs,fjcif;ponfh vkyfief;rsm;ukd qufwkdufvkyfukdfif=u& ygawmhonf? [email protected] jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;[email protected] [email protected];a&;twGuf vHk;yef;aepOfrSmyif ArmjynfY trsdK;om;a&;jy\\emwck ay:aygufvm ygonf? 1961 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif Armhwyfrawmf. w±kwfjzLwkdufa&; rJacgifppfqifa&;}uD;twGif; w±kwfjzLppfXmecsKyftwGif;rS tar&ud evf yk vf uef urf sm; zr;f q;D rjd ci;f / tar&ud evf yk f puaf v;v;kH wyf w±wk jf zLav,mO}f u;D u w±wk jf zLwyaf wtG ay: &ud mQ csay;aepOf Armhwkdufav,mOfESifhwkdufyGJjzpf&m xkdav,mOf}uD;vnf; ysufus+yD;/ Armhwkdufav,mOfwpif;vnf; ysufusoGm;ygonf? xkdav,mOfrS av,mOfrSL; AkdvfyDwm usqHk;oGm;&ygonf? [email protected]=umifh ArmjynfwGif w±kwfjzLta&;tcif;}uD; xyfrHay:aygufvm+yD; vlxku tar&duefoH±kH; a&[email protected] qENjyr_rsm; ay:aygufvmcJhygonf? [email protected]=umifh xkdta&;tcif;ukd vlxkod&Sdyg0ifvmap&ef pnf;±Hk;[email protected]&ef&nf&G,f+yD; &[email protected];&Sd EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;/ ausmif;om; [email protected];rsm;/ 1961 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv 27 &ufwGif pk±Hk;aqG;aEG;wkdifyif=u+yD; “Armjynf w±kwfjzL usL;ausmfr_ESifh e,[email protected]@usifa&; trsKd ;om;aumrf w}D u;D ”udk [email protected];f c=hJuygon?f u|eaf wmthf m; OuÏU wiaf jrm‡ u=f u+y;D / 'Ok uÏU rsm;tjzpaf wmh Avdk tf ek ;f wi/f Ae;f armwf iaf tmif polrsm; jzpfygonf? [email protected] ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;/ [email protected]&Jabmfacgif;aqmifrsm;/ vlrsdK;pkacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh xkdtcsdefu ao'%fu vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh &vmonfh AkdvfrSL;cspfaumif;vnf; ygvmygonf? [email protected] tv$mtoD;oD;rS yk*~dKvfpHk ygvm&m/ pma&;q&mrsm;/ *Dwpm qkdrsm;/ owif;pmq&mrsm;/ trsdK;orD;[email protected] acgif;aqmifrsm;/ &[ef;oHCmrsm;pojzifh tawmfyifpHkvifygonf? [email protected];aygif; 29 [email protected] woD;yk*~v rsdK;cspfrsm; yg0if=uygonf? &[email protected] t&Siftm'dpP0Ho ausmif;wkdufwGif usif;yjcif;jzpfygonf? xkdtpnf;ta0;}uD;wGif u|efawmfu w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_orkdif;ESifh e,[email protected]_rsm;ukd twkdcsKyfI ajryHkESifhwuG &Sif;vif;wifjy+yD; ,if; tE W&m,frsm;ukd [email protected],f&ef/ [email protected]&efenf;vrf;rsm;ukdyg aqG;aEG;wifjycJhygonf? [email protected];. ed*Hk;ykdif;wGif u|efawmfu atmufygtwkdif; wifjycJhygonf? “,cktcg rJacgifppfqifa&;rSm qDwkd;.vuf&mjzpfa=umif; vufyl;vuf=uyf [email protected]&[email protected] rdxm;+yD;jzpfygw,f? Arm tp;dk &buuf ouqf idk &f my*k Kd~ vrf sm;uvn;f '[D maw[G m qwD ;dk vuaf tmucf jH zpaf =umi;f [email protected] w±wk jf zL[m tar&ud e&f @J wynvhf u&f i;f awG 4


jzpfa=umif; ajymcJhygw,f?” “'Dawmh &efol&[email protected] &nfrSef;csufrsm;ukd tcktcg [email protected] od=u+yDjzpfygw,f? ” “e,cf [email protected];rsm;[m Armjynrf mS o&l @Jvuef uuf idk zf Ed ydS af &;wyf w±wk jf zLwyuf odk m csxm;wmr[wk bf ;l ? rrd wd @kd&@J trsKd ;om;a&; rausreyf yËdyuQjzpfae=uwJh vlrsdK;pkrsm;&[email protected] [email protected];rsm;ukdvnf; jzm;a,mif;aoG;aqmif+yD;/ [email protected]&[email protected] ppftiftm;ukd wkd;[email protected]+yD; wzufu jynfwGif;ppfeuf±_dif;atmif vkyfaew,f?” “'Dr#[email protected] &efol&[email protected] &nf&G,fcsuf[m a&&SnfzdESdyfusL;ausmfa&;[email protected] tvGef}uD;rm;a=umif; xif&Sm;ygw,f? &efol[m wu,fvnf; tiftm;}uD;wJh &efoljzpfw,f? 'Dvkdtiftm;}uD;wJh &efolu jywfom;wJh EkdifiHa&;&nfrSef;[email protected] usL;ausmf pGufzufaewmukd ayghayghqq ,lq&if rSm;ygvdrfhr,f? 'Djy\\em[m tE W&m,f}uD;rm;vSygw,f?” “'D&efol&@JaemufrSm }uD;rm;whJ ppfa&;/ EkdifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;tiftm;&[email protected] 'D&efolukd ppfa&;wckwnf;[email protected] b,fvkd enf;[email protected] t+yD;wkdif ajz&Sif;Ekdfifr,fr[kwfyg? ppfa&;oufoufqkd&if &efolqDwkd;ppftkyfpk[m ppfa&;tiftm;}uD;oljzpfygw,f? a=umuf&[email protected] r[kwfyg? aemuf+yD; abmf'ge,fpyfrsm;rSm aemufqHk;EkdifiHa&;enf;rygbJ/ oHwrefa&;&m v$rf;rkd;r_rygbJ &efolukd tukefarmif;xkwfEkdifonfxm;OD;/ tiftm;}uD;wJh &efol jyefr0ifEkdifatmif qufvufxdef;odrf; umuG,fxm;[email protected][m rvG,fygbl;? ” “'ga=umifh ppfa&;oufoufomru wwkdif;jynfvHk; jynfolvlxk pnf;±Hk;tHkºuv_yf&Sm;r_rygbJ t+yD;wkdif armif;xkwfajz&Sif;Ekdifr,f r[kwfyg? e,[email protected];rsm;[m Twkdif;jynfay:rSm [email protected]&[email protected],fusdK;pD;yGm;rsm;&SdwJhtwGuf jynfolawGu tHkºuv_yf&Sm;vmrSmukd ta=umufqHk; jzpfygw,f? aemuf+yD; urBmt&yf&yfrS e,[email protected];ausmfr_rsm;ukd wrsdK;om;vHk; jynfoltrsm; pnf;±Hk;v_yf&Sm;rSom atmifjrif=up+rJjzpfygw,f? e,[email protected];rsm;[m wjcm;t&mxuf jynfoltrsm; Ekd;=um;odjrif+yD; pnf;±Hk;[email protected] tpkd;&drfqHk;jzpfw,f? ta=umuf&[email protected]; jzpfygw,f? 'g[m usL;ausmfvmol e,[email protected]@udk wkdufxkwfa&;rSm txda&mufqHk;vufeuf jzpfw,[email protected] ,lqygw,f?” “'Dvkd vlxkwkdufyGJrsm; 0ifrSom wzufu ppfqifa&;ESifh oHwrefa&;&mwkdufyGJrsm;rSm rsm;pGmtaxmuftul&apygw,f? 'ga=umifh ppfrsufESm 3 &yf/ ppfa&;/ oHwrefa&;/ [email protected] wkdufyGJ0ifrSom jywfom;pGm atmifjrifEkdifr,fjzpfyg w,f? ” “'DtxJrSm vlxkwkdufyGJ[m ta&;t}uD;qHk; jzpfygw,f? usaemfhukd,[email protected]& jynfolvlxk&[email protected] axmufcHv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;[m ppf ajrjyifrSm rsm;pGm tusdK;&SdapcJhygw,f? 1954 ckESpf/ bk&ifhaemifppfqifa&;rSm vlxkv_yf&Sm;[email protected] eD;[email protected] [email protected]}uHK&[email protected] ppfa&;rSm rsm;pGm wyef;omcJhygw,f? wyfrawmfom;awG[m zufqpfawmfvSefa&;aemufykdif;rSm 'Dwkef;uavmuf pdwf\"mwfwufºur_ wcgr# r&SdcJhyg?” “&efolqkd&if pdwf\"mwfwkefv_yfygw,f? olrsm;EkdifiH usL;[email protected]&efol[m tdrf&SifwtdrfvHk;u [email protected]&if b,fvkd a&&Snf aexkdif [email protected] jzpfEkdifyghrvJ? tenf;qHk; 'DEkdifiHrSm [email protected],fh opPmazmufenf;enf; &SdrS/ 'DopPmazmufawGuvnf; tdrfrSm =oZm&SdOD;rSom jzpfEkdifwm? 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[email protected] tb,fa=umifh [email protected] usL;ausmf&onfqkd onfh&nf&G,fcsufukd tus,f w0ifh aqG;aEG;xm;jcif; r&Sdyg? [email protected] ppfrufa&;wGif &efol. EkdifiHa&;&nfrSef;csufukd rSefuefpGm roHk;oyfEkdifygv#if xkdjy\\emukd atmifjrifpGm rajz&Sif;Ekdif±Hkr#ru ykdIyiftE W&m,fusa&mufEkdifygonf? [email protected]=umifh u|[email protected] trsdK;om;aumfrwDu rwfv 15 &[email protected] owif;pmrsm;[email protected] xkwfjyefcsufwapmif xkwfjyef+yD; OD;Ek. [email protected];onf tE W&m,f&Sda=umif;/ w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_. aemufuG,frS e,[email protected];rsm;. [email protected];pD;yGm;twGuf urBmt&yf&yf wkdif;jynf trsm;tjym;wGif Tenf;rsm;twkdif; ppfa&;/ EkdifiHa&;/ aoG;cGJa&;enf;aygif;pHkjzifh aESmifh,SufzdESdyf+cdrf;ajcmufaea=umif;/ TtE W&m,f}uD;ukd ppfa&;enf;jzifhomru EkdifiHa&;enf;jzpfonfh wrsdK;om;vHk; pnf;vHk;nDnGwf+yD; [email protected]_yf&Sm;=u&efvkda=umif;[email protected] wifjyvkdufygonf? [email protected] u|[email protected] &[email protected]; &yfuGuftoD;oD;wGifvnf; [email protected];udk [email protected];wnfaxmifcJhygonf? &yfuGufvkduf aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;a[majymyGJrsm; jyKvkyf&m/ tif;pdefc±kdifonf twufºuqHk;jzpfcJhonf? aqG;aEG;a[majymyGJrsm;rprD *Dwpmqkdrsm;jzpfonfh ukdjrwfav;/ pEN,m;cspfaqG polrsm; acgif;aqmifonfh [email protected] aw;oDcsif;rsm;/ oDqkdajzazsmf=uygonf? tvGefwufºuvef;qef;onfh EkdifiHa&;ywf0ef;usifw&yfukd zefwD;EkdifcJhygonf? 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[email protected]}uHKt& od+yD;jzpfIvnf;aumif;/ wpHkw&m od&Sdar;jref;vkdaomf tcsdefra&G;ulnD&ef toifh&Sdygonf?” “EkdifiHom;wa,muftaejzifhvnf;aumif;/ u|efawmfhtaejzifhvnf;aumif; [email protected]&ef rsm;pGmvkdvm;ygonf? 0wW&m;vnf; &Sdonf[k ,lqygonf”[k a&;om;yef=um;xm;ygonf? 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[email protected] u|[email protected] wifoGif;=uonfh aºu;a=umfoH 3 &yfrSm- - w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_ wkdufckduf=u/ wkdufckduf=u - tar&duefe,[email protected]_ [email protected]=u/ [email protected]=u - trsdK;om;nDnGwfa&; wnfaqmuf=u/ wnfaqmuf=u æ æ [lI jzpfygonf? Te,[email protected]@usifa&; trsdK;om;aumfrwD vkyfief;jzifh u|[email protected] tvkyfrsm;ae=u+yD;/ wwkdif;jynfvHk; vSnfhvnfpnf;±Hk; a[majymae&ygon?f Tonrf mS e,cf [email protected]@fusiaf &;tajccjH zp+f y;D jynwf iG ;f +ird ;f csr;f a&;vy_ &f mS ;rt_ wuG vf n;f taxmutf ul jzpaf eygon?f [email protected] jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; 'kwd,[email protected] 1961 ckESpf/ rwfv 9 &[email protected] q&m}uD;r_dif;.aetdrf/ prf;acsmif;/ trSwf 5 csrf;omvrf;wGif [email protected];cJhygonf? [email protected] yg0ifolrsm;rSm OuUÏrSm q&m}uD;ukd,fwkdifjzpf+yD;/ 'kOuUÏtjzpf u|efawmfu aqmif&Gufonf? [email protected];rSm 1? O;D baomf (,cif &pS Of ;D aumrf w0D i)f 2? O;D xeG ;f wif (vw$ af wmaf &@Sae}u;D / [email protected] taxaG xG twiG ;f a&;rLS ;) 3? 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[email protected] rdrda&[email protected] AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;ukd owfjyxm;jcif;a=umifhvnf;aumif;/ [email protected],f tajccH&yfwnfcsufa=umifhvnf;aumif;/ OD;Ekonf aysmhnHh ,drf;,kdif+yD; e,[email protected] t*Fvdyfukd tvGefvkdufavsmaphpyfum ‘Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf’ukd csKyfqkdcJhygonf? xkdpOfu u|[email protected] e,[email protected];ESifh raphpyfbJ vGwfvyfa&;ukd qufvuftjywftowf wkdufyGJ0ifcJhygu jynfwGif;ppf jzpfp&m ta=umif;r&Sday? [email protected] ‘Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf’ csKyfqkdvm+yD;aemuf TpmcsKyfukd vufcHol/ vufrcHol uGJ=u&mu jynfwGif;ppf}uD; jzpfay:vmcJh ayonf? xkdpOfu ‘Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf’ukd vufrcHolrsm;/ +Adwdo#e,[email protected];ay;aom vGwfvyfa&;onf EkdifiHa&;t&yif jzpfonf? pD;yGm;a&;t& rvGwfvyf[k ajymqkdrdcJholrSefor#ukd “uGefjrLepfwHqdyf” wyfay;cJhygonf? oufouf zqyv tpkd;&ukd [email protected]@/ [email protected][k orkwfcJhygonf? (1988 ckESpf/ ta&;awmfyHk}uD;twGif; usif;ycJhonfh rqv . aemufqHk;tpnf;ta0;wGif rqv ygwDOuUÏ}uD; OD;ae0if;u t*FvdyfawGu [email protected];cJhwJh vGwfvyfa&;[m EkdifiHa&;t& vGwfvyfwmyJjzpf+yD;/ pD;yGm;a&;usawmh vGwfvyfcGifh ray;cJhygbl;[email protected] 0efcH ajymqkdoGm;wmukd tHh=ozG,f=um;&ygonf?) [email protected] e,[email protected];ESifh aphpyfcJh&aoma=umifh u|[email protected] wkdif;jynfvGwfvyfa&; &+yD;aomfvnf; ukd,fykdif trsdK;om; pD;yGm;a&;ukd atmifjrifatmif rxlaxmifEkdifcJhyg? wkdif;jynf. pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&; +ydKuGJatmif zqyv vuf,m*kd%f;u jyKvkyfcJhonfukd ,cktcg OD;Eka&;onfh ‘wmawpaeom;’wGif tawmfjynfhjynfhpHkpHk [email protected]&ygonf? wu,fawmh OD;Ekonf ukd,fvGwf±kef;+yD; a&;jcif;om jzpfum/ xkdpOfu OD;Ekvnf; tvkdwltvkdygyif jzpfygonf? xkdpOfu ArmhEkdifiHa&;ZmwfcHkay:wGif a&muf&Sdaeonfh ArmhEkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmiftm;vHk;rSmvnf; touft&G,f i,f&G,fEke,fcJh =u+yD;/ pdwf\"mwfrmefrmeawGuvnf; t+ydKiftqkdif }uD;rm;aecJh=uygonf? e,[email protected];. y&d,m,fa00kpfukdvnf; rjrifEkdifcJh=uyg? 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acgif;aqmiftrsm;pkrSmvnf; xkdtcsdefu vkyf}uHcHvkduf&+yD; jzpfayonf? [email protected] EkdifiHa&;t& trsdK;om;nDnGwfa&;}uD; +ydKuGJ+yD; jynfwGif;ppf}uD; jzpfay:vmonfhtcg useftusyftwnf; aygif;pHkvnf; usa&mufvm+yD; zqyvtpkd;&rSm vHk;0yif e,[email protected]=oZmcH/ trSDcdkcH jzpfoGm;&ygawmhonf? Oyrm - xkdacwftcsdefu Armjynf pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;}uD;rsm;ukd =unfhyg? yxrtcsufrSm e,[email protected];rsm;u ukdvkdeDa[mif;u pD;yGm;a&;tajccHrsm;ukd yHkpHopfwrsdK;ESifh qufvufcsKyfukdifxm;onf? zqyvtpkd;& taeESifh bD-tkd-pD ukr`%DESifh erRwlabmfwGif;rsm;wGif zufpyfvkyf&jcif; jzpfonf? xkdvkyfief;rsm;udk wefzkd;jzwf+yD; tpkd;&u w0ufukd tpkxnfh0if+yD; zufpyfukr`%D xlaxmif&jcif;jzpfonf? u|[email protected] xkdvkyfief;rsm;ukd jynfolykdifvkyf&rnfhtpm; ukdvkdeDa[mif;u e,[email protected];yGm;a&;udk w&m;0ifwnf&Sdatmif u|[email protected] [email protected]¾maiG t&if;pkdufxkwf+yD; vkyfay;cJh=u&ygonf? 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[email protected] 'gawGukd [email protected] razmfEkdifatmif e,[email protected];rsm;onf jynfwGif;azmufjyefa&;orm;rsm;/ ru|rf;usif orl sm;/ r±;dk om;orl sm;EiS hf vr;f vzJ$ suqf ;D c=hJ uon?f jynof rl sm; &&xdS m;onhf tjrwaf irG sm; a&xJ tv[\\ arsmomG ;atmif vyk =f uygon?f u|[email protected] ukaËESpf&mausmf ukefusonf[k qkdaom ‘jynfawmfom pDrHudef;’rSm Tenf;jzifh vrf;v$JzsufqD;onfh enf;vrf;jzpfonf? xkdpOfu OD;Eku vlwukd,f/ wkdufwvHk;/ um;wpD;/ vc &Spf&musyfjzifh jynfawmfomap&rnf[k uwday;aºu;a=umfcJhzl;ygonf? zqyv tpkd;&taeESifh pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;rsm;ukd a&;[email protected] tar&dueft}uHay;rsm;ukd ac:zdwf+yD; pDrHudef;rsm; a&;qGJckdif;&m tvGJvGJ tacsmfacsmfawGjzpfatmif vkyfypf=uygonf? t\"duukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfa&;wGif rjr‡KyfESHbJ ukefypPnf;o,f,[email protected]&;vrf;yef; taqmuf ttvkH yk if e;f rsm;rmS aitG &i;f tE;DS rsm; jrK‡ yEf vHS udk yf gon?f wu,af wmh xudk ohJ @dk vr;f rsm;azmuvf yk jf ci;f rmS vn;f e,cf [email protected];rsm;. p;D ymG ;a&;/ zdESdyfa&;&nf&G,fcsufrsm;twGufyif &nf&G,fygonf? trsdK;om;pufr_vufr_ xlaxmifa&;vkyfief;rsm;rSmvnf; apwemrrSefwmrsm;ukd [email protected]? 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[email protected] t*FvdyfESifh zufpyfwnfaxmifonfh bD-yD-tkdif ac: aq;0g;xkwfvkyfa&;puf±Hk/ oH&nf}udKpufpwmrsm;rSmvnf; 'Dvkdyif jy\\emaygif;pHk ay:ygonf? e,[email protected]%fwdkuf}uD;rsm;tm;vHk;ukdvnf; qufvufzGifhvSpfxm;&SdcGifhjyK+yD;/ ‚[email protected] }uD;rm;vSonfh aiGt&if;tESD; rsm;jzifh ArmEkdifiH pD;yGm;a&;xJ wkd;0ifvmonfukd vufykduf=unfhaecJh=u&ygonf? jynfwGif;ppfukdvnf; zqyvu wtm;zdwkdfufaeojzifh vufeufcJ,rf;rD;ausmufrsm; 0,f,l&efaiG rvHkavmufonfhtcg urBmh b%fponfh e,[email protected]%ft&if;tESD;rsm;ukd tm;ukd;+yD; twkd;}uD;ay; aiGacs;&onf? 0,f,l&onfh ypPnf;rsm;uvnf; e,[email protected];rsm;. vufeuf+ydKifqkdifwyfqifr_a=umifh acwfrrDawmhonfh ([email protected]; toHk;rusawmhbJ ykdv#Haeonfh) ppfvufeufypPnf;rsm;ukd [email protected] }udKufaps;ESifh 0,f,l&jyefygonf? e,[email protected];rsm;rSm Tenf;jzifh ypPnf;tay:rSma&m/ acs;aiGtay:rSmyg ESpfxyftjrwf&=uygonf? u|[email protected] EkdifiHrsm;uawmh rdat;ESpfcgem jzpf&yg onf? Tenf;jzifh zqyv tpkd;&onf e,[email protected];ESifhaygif;I pDrHudef;trsdK;rsdK;/ vkdifpiftrsdK;rsdK;xGifum AsL±kdu&uft&if;&Sifvlwef;pm; w&yfukd arG;jrLay;vkdufygawmhonf? rdrdukd,fusdK;pD;yGm; wkd;wufa&;ay:rSmom tajccHvm=uojzifh jynfolvlxkukd tm;rukd;EkdifawmhbJ/ e,[email protected];ukdom vHk;0pD;yGm;a&;/ EkdifiHa&;/ ppfa&; tm;vHk;rDSckd&onfh tajctae jzpfvmygonf? e,[email protected];rsufESmom =unfhae&onfhb0 a&muf&ygawmhonf? xkdpOfu 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek tar&duefe,[email protected] b,fvkdrsufESmvkyfonfukd u|efawmfhukd,[email protected] ajymjyvkdygonf? 1954 - 55 ckESpf/ u|[email protected] w±kwfjzLwkdufckdufa&; ppfqifa&;rsm; vkyfaepOfumvwGif 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Eku a&[email protected];u &Jabmfrsm; tm; ar;jref;tm;ay;pum;ajym=um;&ef u|[email protected] a&[email protected];XmecsKyf ±Hk;pkduf&m rkdif;[email protected] wyfrawmfav,mOfi,fwpif;ESifh a&muf&Sd vmygonf? u|[email protected] wyfrsm;ukd wef;pDay;+yD; OD;Ekukd =o0g'pum;ajym=um;&ef awmif;qkd&ygonf? O;D Euk wyrf awmof m;rsm;udk pwd \"f mwxf uof epf mG / o&l owadW jymiaf jrmupf mG jzihf wudk cf udk =f u&ef wudk wf eG ;f +y;D / o&l aJ umi;f wO;D udk Oyrmay; ajym=um;omG ;ygon?f oOl yrmay;ajym=um;onhf o&l aJ umi;f rmS ‘a*sm0h g&iS wf e’f O;D aqmiwf udk cf udk cf ohJ nhf tar&ud ef vwG vf yaf &; wkdufyGJtwGif;u tar&duefol&Jaumif;av;wa,mufta=umif; jzpfygonf? tar&duef tm;ay;ulnDr_jzifh Armjynftm; usL;ausmfvmonfh w±kwfjzLrsm;tm; t±kd;a=ua=u t&nfcef;cef; wkdufckduf&rnfh olrsm;ukd tar&duefol&aJ umif;ta=umif; tom;ay;ajym=um;onfh OD;Ektay: u|[email protected] tawmfyif pdwfqkd;a'goxGufrd=uonf? aemufrS wGufrdonfrSm OD;Eku tar&dueftpkd;&ukd rsufajzpum;yg;vkdufwmyJ[k wGufqrdygawmhonf? [email protected] e,[email protected];rsm;ukd rsufESmvkyf t}udKufay; qufqH&onfh zqyv tpkd;&onf 'Drkdua&pDukdvnf; zdESdyfvm&ygonf? u|[email protected] vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;v#if 'kwd,tqifhrSm 'Drkdua&pDwnfaqmufa&;/ xGef;um;a&;yif jzpfygonf? wu,fawmh jynfolrsm;. 10


vwG vf yaf &;rmS 'rD udk a&ptD ciG thf a&;rsm; r&vdS #if t\"yd m` ,f r&ydS g? jynof vl xl tk aeEiS hf rrd wd @kdtusKd ;twuG f vwG vf ypf mG ajymqcdk iG /hf a&;om; ciG /hf pn;f ±;kH ciG /hf vyk af qmicf iG Ehf iS hf vwG vf ypf mG ,=kH unuf ;dk u,G cf iG rhf sm; &&dS ygrn?f Tonrf sm;rmS jynof rl sm;. tajcctH ciG thf a&;rsm; jzpof n?f u|eaf wmwf @dkonf uvdk edk bD 0wiG f TtciG thf a&;rsm;udk EpS af ygi;f rsm;pmG q;kH ±;H_ c&hJ on?f vwG vf y+f y;D &iaf wmh xtdk ciG thf a&;rsm; tjynthf 0&&zdS @dk ar#mfvifhcJh=uygonf? &&[email protected] vkdvnf;vkdtyfygonf? xkd'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;rsm; &&SdrSomv#if rdrdwkdif;jynf. trsdK;om;pD;yGm;a&;ESifh wkdif;jynf wnaf qmuaf &;vyk if e;f rsm;udk jynof vl xl }k u;D w&yvf ;kH wuºf upmG yg0ivf matmif [email protected]_aqmpf n;f ±;kH Eidk rf nf jzpyf gon?f e,cf [email protected] udk i;f onhf trsKd ;om;prD uH ed ;f p;D ymG ;a&;}u;D rsm;udk jynof vl xl .k rsm;jym;vaS om wxD iG zf ewf ;D Eidk af om [email protected]}uKH t&ntf csi;f rsm;udk tm;u;dk trDjS yKI atmifjrifus,[email protected] azmfxkwfEkdifrSm jzpfygonf? [email protected] jynfolvlxk. tusdK;ukd ukd,fpm;rjyKbJ e,[email protected];um ukd,fusdK;pD;yGm;&Sm csrf;omvm=uonfh tkyfpkd;ol zqyv tpkd;&onf zdESdyfa&; Oya'trsdK;rsdK;ukd ykdrkdqkd;0g;pGm wkd;[email protected];csvmygonf? wkd;wufwJh EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;/ owif;pmq&mrsm;/ pma&; q&mrsm;/ ausmif;om;rsm;ponfh wkdif;jynf. om;aumif;&wem trsm;tjym;ukd ESpf&Snfaxmifcs ESdyfpufcJh=uygonf? Ten;f jzihf Armjyn}f u;D onf vwG vf yaf &;&+y;D cahJ omvf n;f [email protected]+zKd ;w;dk wuof nvhf yk if e;f rsm; rvyk Ef idk =f ub/J jynwf iG ;f ppaf csmuwf iG ;f usum tusyftwnf;aygif;pHkESifh &ifqkdifvm&jcif; jzpfygonf? TyËdyuQwkdufyGJrsm;onf u|[email protected] &efole,[email protected];rsm;ESifh wkdufvm cJh&onfh wkdufyGJrsm;.tquf (wenf;) trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;.tquf jzpfygonf? u|[email protected] e,[email protected] tjywftowfwkdufyGJ0ifum awmfvSefa&;enf;jzifh vGwfvyfa&;ukd t&,lum/ e,[email protected] vGwfuif;onfh trsdK;om;pD;yGm;a&;ESifh 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiH xlaxmifEdkifcJhrnfqkdygu jynfwGif;ppfjzpfEkdifp&m ta=umif;r&Sdyg? e,[email protected];rsm;u ‚[email protected] vufa0cH jynfwGif;azmufjyefa&;orm;rsm; (zqyv vuf,m*kd%f;) ukd topfarG;jrL+yD;/ [email protected]; toHk;csI u|[email protected] trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;vrf;a=umif; wvGJwacsmf jzpfoGm;atmif vkyfvkdufjcif; jzpfygonf? TonfrSm 1948 ckESpfu u|[email protected] &cJhonfh vGwfvyfa&;ESifh ywfoufonfh u|efawmhftjrif jzpfygonf? trsdK;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;ukd rwnfaqmufEkdifbJ/ trsdK;om;pD;yGm;a&;ukd rwnfaqmufEkdifyg? 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vud_ vf pSJ mG }uKd qakd xmucf aH =umi;f / jynwf iG ;f +ird ;f csr;f a&;[email protected]}u;D taeEiS hf quwf udk af tmijf riaf tmif aqmi&f uG zf @dkEiS hf owl @[email protected] jynwf iG ;f ppf a=umifh &Gmysufv#if [email protected]; r[kwfI tvGef'kuQa&muf=u&a=umif;/ [email protected]=umifh +idrf;csrf;a&;&atmif }udK;pm;[email protected] tvGefv_dufvSJpGm ajymqkdcJh=uyg onf? [email protected] aus;vufa'orsm;rS jynfolvlxk. qif;&Jusyfwnf;r_rsm;onf u|[email protected] xifwmxuf trsm;}uD; ykdrkdqkd;0g;[email protected]&ygonf? jynfolvlxkonf xkd 13 ESpfausmfumvtwGif; ‘olykef’trnfwyf+yD; jzpfyGm;cJhaom tzdtESdyf/ txktaxmif;/ tcuftcJrsm;=um;wGif }uD;pGmaomZGJESifh &yfwnfcJh=u&ygonf? [email protected] aus;vufvlxkonf tjyKwfwkdufa&;qkdwmukd tveG &f rHG ek ;f +y;D / rEpS of uwf muvdk n;f [email protected]&ygon?f [email protected]=umiyhf if u|eaf wmwf @dk. 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Akdvfae0if;ukdvnf; r}udKuf/ r=unfndK/ Akdvfae0if;vkyfaeonfh rqv qkdwmukdvnf; r}udKuf? [email protected];rSm Akdvfae0if;[email protected] vmusif;yonfh v,form;aqG;aEG;yGJ}uD;rsm;udkvnf; rwufa&muf/ a&SmifaewwfwmawGukd Akdvfae0if;u +idK;xm;+yD; [email protected] wyfu xkwfypfcJhwmjzpfygonf? ukd=unfarmif taeESifh uGefjrLepfukd [email protected]; uGefjrLepfawGrSm 'Drkdua&pDr&Sd[k xifjrifaewma=umifhvnf; jzpfygonf? [email protected] tar&duef'Drkdua&pDukdvnf; tawmftxif}uD;ygonf? ol. t\"dutm;enf;csufrSm ArmjynfolawG EkdifiHa&;t& wkd;wuf vnS afh jymif;oGm;onahf cwf 1942 - 45 twGi;f ol Armjynfr&dbS /J *syefwGif ppyf nmoif omG ;ae&onhtf wGuf Armjynof rl sm;. Eidk fiHa&;ESifh olru|rf;0if/ r&if;ESD;jzpfoGm;&jcif; jzpfygonf? 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tcgrsm;wGif q&m}uD;u [email protected][email protected];t±Hk;’twGuf e,frsm;ukd vSnfhvnfpnf;±Hk;&mrSm ocifxdyfwifukd,fawmf}uD;ukd xdyfqHk;u ae&may;I vlxkukdpnf;±Hk;&yHk/ txl;ojzifh aus;vufvlxkrsm;u rif;om;ygvmw,fqkdI 0rf;omtm;& vma&mufE_wfquf uefawmh=uyHk rsm;ukd jyefvnfpm;[email protected] ajymjywwfygonf? wqufwnf; q&m}uD;u “at;-rif;[email protected]; *±kpkduf=u/ awmfbk&m;av;ukd a&[email protected]+yD; pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;=uuGm”[email protected] &,f&$ef;zwf&$ef;ESifh awmfbk&m;av;ukd pwwfaemufwwfygonf? wu,fvnf; u|[email protected],fbuf pnf;±Hk;a&; qif;&mwGif oDaygrif;.ajr;awmf ygvmonf[laom owif;[email protected]@a&muf&Sdonfh aus;vufrsm;u vlxkrsm; wckwfw& [email protected]:wufvm+yD; w&m;yGJ wuf=uygonf? rif;om;}uD;rSm vlyHkyef;uav;u [email protected];aemif; ykykysyfysyfuav;om jzpfonf? pum;ajym tvGefcsdKomat;aq;+yD; ±kd;om; yGifhvif;olvnf; jzpfygonf? tvGefcspfp&maumif;ol jzpfygonf? vlyHku at;at;aysmhaysmif;aomfvnf;/ pdwf\"mwfuawmh tvGefrma=um ckdifrmoljzpf+yD; [email protected]; jynfolrsm;bufu wpkdufrwfrwf &yfcHoGm;olom jzpfygonf? zrf;qD;axmifcs/ n‡Of;yef;r_rsm;vnf; cHcJh&ol jzpfygonf? 4? a'gufwmqifzkd;? ? u|[email protected]=um;wGif EkdifiHa&;orm;r[kwfbJ t+rJwef;[email protected]@[email protected]@ ygaeolwOD; &Sdygao;onf? oul awmh a'guwf mqizf ;dk jzpyf gon?f ool nf q&m}u;D rid_ ;f tm; y*k Kd~ vaf &;t& tveG af v;pm;=unnf Kd owl O;D jzpuf m/ q&m}u;D . y*k Kd~ vaf &; q&m0ef}uD;tjzpf arwWmjzifh olbmomol owfrSwf+yD; vma&mufapmifha&Smufukoay;aeol jzpfygonf? olonf vef'[email protected] ynmawmfoif apv$wfjcif;cH&aomfvnf; vef'ef&Sd “um;vfrmhufpf” .tkwf*lukd oGm;a&muftav;jyKrdojzihf [email protected]&&SdbJ jyefvm&oljzpfygonf? aemufykdif; ukd,fykdifaq;cef;av; zGifhxm;&m EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;/ awmjyefrsm;ESifh [email protected];pkrsm;rsm;ponhf aiGa&;a=u;a&;racsmifvnfolrsm; tm;vHk;. tm;xm;rSDckd&m aq;cef;av;jzpfvm ygawmhonf? olu aq;tvum; ukoay;±Hkomru [email protected];ukd qkdufum;cyif qD;ay;&onfhtjzpfrsdK; r=umc%}uHK&ygonf? tvGefapwem}uD;onfh q&m0efwOD;jzpfygonf? q&m}u;D rid_ f;tm; ykHrSevf ma&muf =un±fh p_ pfaq;+y;D tcsdefrSefrSef tm;aq;xkd;/ tm;aq;oiG ;f ESihf vyk uf kdifuok ay;ygonf? q&m}uD; Tr#txd touf&SnfI temrJhpGm aexkdifoGm;Ekdifr_rSm a'gufwmqifzkd;.aus;Zl;yif jzpfygonf? q&m}uD;. 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OD;wifa&$ (rHk&Gm)? ? ukdwifa&$ukd u|efawmf +idrf;csrf;a&;vkyfief;rsm; yg0ifvkyfaqmif&ef pwifavhvm csdefupI ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifa[mif;wa,muftjzpf od&SdcJh&ygonf? v$wfawmfa&[email protected]}uD; OD;xGef;wifESifhawmh tapmuwnf;u od&Sd&if;ESD;+yD; jzpf[efwlygonf? aemifjynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;[email protected] [email protected];&mrSmvnf; [email protected]}uD;ukd xdxda&mufa&muf us,fus,[email protected]@ tultnD ay;aqmi&f uG Ef idk &f etf wuG f &n&f ,G +f y;D twiG ;f a&;rLS ;[email protected]&yuf dk [email protected];f &m xtdk [email protected] f uwdk iaf &$ yg0ivf mygon?f xtdk [email protected] iG f xil ,rf sm; jzpf=uaom udkwifa&$ESifhOD;pkd;rif; (Avp) [email protected] toGufvufqHk;/ tvkyftrsm;qHk;jzpfum taxGaxGwm0efrsm;ukd tao;tr$m;txd tm;vHk;odrf;usHK; vkyfaqmif=uolrsm; jzpf=uygonf? u|[email protected];vHk; tawmfyiftm;xm;&ol jzpfygonf? u|efawmf jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;[email protected] 0ifv_yf&Sm;aomtcsdefwGif q&m}uD;r_dif;rSm usef;rma&;t& tawmfusqif;p jyKvm+yD jzpfojzifh [email protected] tpnf;ta0;rsm;ukd u|efawmf. prf;acsmif;/ qDqHkvrf;tdrfwGifom jyKvkyfwmrsm;vmygawmhonf? wcgw&H u|[email protected] e,frsm;rS jyefvmonfhtcg ([email protected][kwf) q&m}uD; pdwf&$ifvef;apcsifonfh tcgrsm;wGifom q&m}uD;. csrf;omvrf;tdrf/ q&m}uD;. tdyf&m ab;wGif jyKvkyf=u+yD; ta=umif;t&mtm;jzifhvnf; ayghayghyg;yg; ta=umif;t&mrsm;om aqG;aEG;=uygonf? rsm;aomtm;jzifh e,frsm;rS vlxkrsm;u q&m}uD;tm; qkawmif;[email protected] ta=umif;t&mrsm;/ vufaqmifypPnf;rsm;/ vrf;c&D;twGif;}uHK&onfh &,fp&m/ armp&mrsm;om ajymqkd=uygonf? [email protected] ukdwifa&$onf u|[email protected] r=umc% 0ifxGufoGm;vm&mrS u|efawmfhrdom;pkrsm;ESifhyg odu|rf;cif rif&if;ESD;vm ygonf? u|efawmfhZeD;u wcgw&H aemufajymif+yD; [email protected] ‘vlysdK}uD;’[k ac:vmygonf? OD;xGef;wifuvnf; wcgw&H ac:a0:aemufajymif wwfygonf? Tvkd aemufzefrsm;vmawmh olu u|efawmfhrSm vufxyfr,fh ZeD;avmif; &Sdygw,f? u|[email protected] +idrf;csrf;a&;&+yD;rS vufxyfr,[email protected] pDpOfxm;ygw,f’ [email protected] u|[email protected] &if;&if;ESD;ESD; ajymjyygonf? xkdpOfu ukdwifa&$onf &efukef&Sd qkdAD,ufoH±Hk;wGif bmomjyefwOD;tjzpf 0ifa&mufvkyfukdifaeygonf? [email protected]&mwGif xkdtcsdefu qkdAD,uf±k&Sm;rSm jyefvnfjyifqifa&;orm;[k emrnfqkd;ESifh ausmf=um;aeojzifh urBmhvuf0Javmu. a0zef±_wfcsjcif;udk cHae&&m uwdk iaf &r$ mS jyevf njf yiqf iaf &;orm;rsm; vuaf tmuwf iG f raev/dk tvyk rf vyk vf odk jzihf &awmi&hf cJ xtdk vyk rf S Ewk xf uG vf udk yf gawmoh n?f xkdqkdAD,ufoH±Hk;tvkyfrS EkwfxGuf+yD;v#if+yD;csif; u|[email protected] a&mufvmum tvkyfxGufvm+yDjzpfa=umif; tm;&yg;& ajymjyygonf? u|efawmfvnf; Tvkyf&yfrSm csD;usL;zG,fjzpfaomfvnf; [email protected];yGm;a&;twGuf ylyefrd&m cifAsm;bmvkyfpm;rvJ[k ar;rd&m olu a&[email protected][k qkdygonf? ola&[email protected]&mwGifvnf; EkdifiHa&;orm; tr_onfrsm;/ aiGa=u;rwwfEkdifolrsm;xHrS tca=u;aiGr,l±Hkru xkdolrsm; twGuf pm;zG,faomufzG,frsm;yif 0,fjcrf;ay;wwfao;onf[k =um;od&ygonf? olu wzufu a&[email protected]&if;/ wzufu pmaypmwrf;/ bmom jyefrsm; a&;om;xkwfa0&m tawmfatmifjrifwmukd [email protected]&ygonf? 15


olESifhu|efawmf &efukefc±kdiftwGif;a&m e,[email protected];[email protected] twlwl c&D;xGuf pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;&zl;ojzifh ykdrkd&if;ESD;vmygonf? olESifh ol.ZeD;avmif; [email protected] +idrf;csrf;a&;&rS vufxyf=urnf[k pDpOfxm;aomfvnf; 1963 ckESpf/ Akdvfae0if;. +idrf;csrf;a&; aq;G aE;G yJG ysuof mG ;aomtcgwiG rf l vuxf yvf udk =f u&ygawmoh n?f owl @dk vuxf y+f y;D aemuf owl @dkZe;D armiEf HS u|eaf wmwf @dktrd of @dk vma&muf vnfywf=uygonf? u|efawmfhorD;rsm;u ukdwifa&$.ZeD;ukd ‘rr-rr’ [k ac:a0: E_wfquf&m ukdwifa&$u u|efawmfhorD;rsm;ukd rif;[email protected] ighukdawmh OD;av;ac:+yD; [email protected] ‘rr-rr’[email protected]:aewm rw&m;bl;[kajym&m u|efawmhforD;rsm;u 'guawmh rru vSwmukd; æ [email protected] jyefajymygonf? 'gukdawmh olu oabmusyHk &ygonf? w[J[J &,faewm [email protected]&ygonf? u|efawmf awmckdvm+yD;aemuf olESifha0;uGmoGm;&m 1990 ckESpf/ a&G;aumufyGJt+yD; ukdwifa&$ tzrf;cH&+yD;aemuf axmifxJrSmyif uG,fvGefoGm;a=umif; =um;od&ygonf? [email protected] xm0pOf&yfwnfcJh+yD; pum;ajymqkd&mwGif +yHK;+yHK;+yHK;+yHK;ESifh tvGefoabmoum, aumif;vSonfh [email protected] u|efawmft+rJtrSwf&aerdygonf? u|efawmf [email protected];vHk;udk trSwf&aerdygawmhonf?? xkdtawmtwGif;u u|efawmfESifh e,fc&D;vkdufolrsm;vnf; rsm;ygonf? usKHrai; ocifwifarmif/ a';'&JrS OD;cifarmifjrifh/ [email protected] &aJ bmaf cgi;f aqmiaf [mi;f rsm; pojzihf tawmrf sm;rsm; yg0i&f m/ u|eaf wmvf n;f xvdk y_ &f mS ;ru_ dk tawmf yif tm;&auseycf yhJ gon?f e,rf sm;u w&m;yGJrsm;omru &[email protected]; w&m;yGJrsm;uvnf; =umav t&Sdefaumif;av jzpfvmygonf? 'D=um;xJwGif wuUodkvfwGif wuo rS }uD;rSL;Iusif;yonfh a[majymyGJrsm;wGifvnf; u|efawmfhukd zdwf=um;wwfojzifh r=umc%oGm;a&muf a[majymcJh&ygonf? [email protected] pn;f ±;kH vy_ &f mS ;vmc&hJ m yxrt}urd f +ird ;f csr;f a&;[email protected] (q&m}u;D rid_ ;f O;D p;D cahJ om 1954 cEk pS f tapmyidk ;f rsm;umv vy_ &f mS ;rr_ sm;) . t&edS tf 0grsKd ; v_yf&Sm;tHkºuvm+yD;/ &efukefc±kdif jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; tiftm;jyyGJ}uD; vkyf&efwmplaepOf 1962 ckESpf/ rwfv 2 &[email protected] Akdvfae0if;. 'kwd, t}udrfppfwyftm%modrf;r_}uD; ay:aygufvmygawmhonf? 1962 ckESpf/ rwfv 1 &[email protected] u|[email protected] urm&[email protected],ftwGif; a[majymyGJvkyfaewJh ae&mukd urm&Gwf&Jpcef;u &[email protected] [email protected]&mufvm+yD; u|[email protected] a[majymyGJukd apmapmodrf;&ef ajymcJhygonf? u|[email protected]; a[majymyGJ+yD;v#if vkyfaeus aqG;aEG;yGJrvkyfawmhbJ w&m;yGJukd±kyfodrf;+yD; tdrfjyefvmcJh=uygonf? u|efawmf tdrfjyefa&mufcsdefwGif AkdvfrSL;atmiftdrfrSa&m/ Akdvfrif;acgif qDrSa&m v$wfvkdufonfhvlrsm; a&muf&Sdae+yD; u|efawmfhukd apmifhae=uygonf? +yD;aemuf ppfwyfu tm%modrf;+yD;jzpfa=umif;/ 0ef}uD;rsm; tm;vHk;ukd zrf;oGm;+yDjzpfa=umif;/ 0if'grD,mukdvnf; [email protected] 0kdif;xm;a=umif; ajymjy=uygonf? 1960 ckESpf/ a&G;aumufyGJt+yD; OD;Ek&[email protected] yxp tpkd;& wufvmonfhtcg OD;EktaeESifh 1958 ckESpf/ tdrfapmifhtpkd;&ukd tm%mv$J ay;&onfh jzpf&yftay: oifcef;pm,l+yD; EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;tcsif;csif;t=um; [email protected] tm;xkwfr_rsm; vkyfvmygonf? jynfwGif;ppf &Sdaeojzifh ppfwyftaeESifh tiftm;}uD;aewmukdvnf; oabmaygufyHk&ygonf? [email protected]=umifh awmwGif;tiftm;pkrsm;ESifh aphpyf&eftm;xkwfr_ rsm;vnf; vkyfaqmifvmygonf? [email protected] OD;EkESifh ol. yxp [email protected];rSm jynfolvlxk tusdK;xuf/ [email protected],fusdK;pD;yGm;ay:wGifom tm±pkH udk vf yk af qmirf a_ =umihf owl @dktcsi;f csi;f t=um; tutJG +yrJ sm;uvn;f rxed ;f Eidk rf ord ;f Eidk jf zpuf m tjyetf veS f tyyk cf srr_ sm;a=umivhf n;f xkdacwf zqyv/ yxp EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm; *k%foduQm t}uD;tus,f usqif;chJ&ygonf? uG&J +y&J onfh tajccHrsm;rSmvnf; pm;cGufvkr_rsm;u pygonf? ppfwyftaeESifhuvnf; jynfwGif;ppfjzpfr_a=umifha&m/ w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_ukd wkdufay;ae&r_a=umifhyg ArmjynfEkdifiHa&; avmuwGif EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkw&yf jzpfvm&ygonf? [email protected] ppfwyfukd 1950 ckESpfaemufykdif;wGif qkd&S,fvpfwyfrSL;rsm;u tkyfpD;oGm; ygonf? ppfwyfxJu ae&maumif;[lor#udk qkd&S,fvpfwyfrSL;rsm;u &,loGm;ygonf? ppfwyftaeESifh jynfwGif;ppfukdwkduf&if; ppfwyfukd oufomacsmifcsda&;qkdwmukd ta=umif;jyum D.S.I vkyfief; rsm;/ B.E.D.C vkyfief;rsm;ukd 0ifa&mufvkyfukdifvm=uygonf? TwGif ppfwyftm%mESifhaygif;+yD; ppfAkdvfrsm; pD;yGm;a&;vkyfvmum ppfAsL±kdua&pDpepf [email protected]‡mufrsm; ay:aygufvmygawmhonf? 1958 ckESpf/ tdrfapmifhtpkd;&vufxufwGif ppfwyfu txufv$mrsm; Tvkyf&yf. t&omukd +rKd;+rKd;jrufjruf cHpm;rdoGm;ygawmhonf? zqyv/ yxp acwfrsm;wGifvnf; ‚[email protected] pD;yGm;a&;ay:vpDt& vkdifpifolaÏ;rsm;ESifhaygif;I EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;u t&if;tESD; pkaqmif;}uD;xGm;vm&m ppfwyf. pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh yËdyuQrsm; jzpfvmygawmhonf? TwGif ppfwyfu rcHr&yfEkdifjzpfvm+yD; pD;yGm;a&; vnf; [email protected]&/ ppfwyftm%mvnf; vufv$wfp&mrvkdwJh ppftm%modrf;r_awG jzpfvm&jcif; jzpfygonf? EkdifiHwumh tajctaet&uvnf; tm&SwkdufwGif uGefjrLepf'Dv_dif;}uD; (xkdacwfu AD,uferfppfyJG +cdrfh+cdrfhooJ J jzpfaeonfhumv) ukd wm;qD;Ekdifonfh/ uGefjrLepfukd tjywftowfrkef;+yD; wkdufaeonfh jynfwGif;u azmufjyefa&;tif tm;pkrsm; tm%m&r_ukd azmufjyefonfh tiftm;}uD;EkdifiHrsm;u vkdvm;aeonfhtajctae jzpfygonf? [email protected] tiftm;pkrsm;ukd 0kdif;IyHkI tm;ay;aecsdefESifhvnf; wkdufqkdifae ygonf? Armjynf jynfolvlxkuvnf; tawmfEkd;=um;wufºuae+yD; jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;/ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;rsm;ukd awmif;qkdv_yf&Sm; vm=u&m pD;yGm;a&;uvnf; bufpHk c|wf+cHKusvmojzifh ykdrkdrwnfr+idrf jzpfaeygonf? 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ekonf e,[email protected] vuf,morm;}uD; wOD;yifjzpfaomfvnf; Twufºuvmaeaom jynfolvlxk}uD;ukd jywfjywfom;om; &uf&ufpufpuf ESdrfeif;[email protected] vkyfEkdifr,f rxifyg? [email protected] qkdwmawmh ykdIyif rjzpfEkdifyg? TumvwGif jynfwGif;ppfa=umifh EkdifiHa&;t&/ pD;yGm;a&;t& tusdK;tjrwf&&Sdaeonfh ppfwyfu tm%modrf;vkduf+yD; jynfol vlxkukd ppftm%m&SifpepfESifh tjywfESdrfeif; zdESdyfypfvkdufjcif; jzpfygonf? ukd,fa&;}uD;yGm;vkdpdwf jyif;xefvSonfh Akdvfae0if;onf ppftm%m&Sifpepfukd xlaxmifvkdufygawmhonf? 1956 ckESpf/ a&G;aumufyGJrsm;t+yD;/ twkduftcH yrnwtrwfrsm;/ tawmfrsm;rsm; 16


ta&G;cHvm&aom tcsdefu Akdvfae0if;ukd,fwkdif u|efawmfhukdajymonfrSm “'Dtwkdif; qufoGm;&ifawmh 'DaumifawG (yrnw rsm;ukd qkdvkdonf) aemufa&G;aumufyGJ ESpf}udrfavmufqkd&if tpkd;&[email protected];EkdifawmhrSm”[k jzpfygonf? Akdvfae0if;. tajccHpdwfaepdwfxm;rSm [email protected] jzpfygonf? ol. tusihfoDv pm&dwWrSm vnf; 'Drkdua&pDtvif;a&mifatmufwGif aeEkdifolwOD; r[kwfojzifh [email protected] 'Drkdua&pDpepfukdvnf; r}udKufEkdif jzpfyHk&ygonf? awmvf eS af &;aumipf tD p;dk &onf ‘pxuG uf wn;f u ,Oof u’dk qodk vydk if wuvf mvmjci;f yif tm%m& yxp acgi;f aqmirf sm;udk omru vlrsdK;pkacgif;aqmifrsm;/ ajray:EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;rS acgif;aqmiftrsm;tjym;ukdyg zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;vkdufygonf? [email protected] ppfwyf tm%modrf;wufvmjcif;ukd [email protected]=umif; a=unmcsufxkwfjyefcJhonfh ausmif;om;[email protected];rsm;ukdvnf; zdzdpD;pD;[email protected] }udK;yrf; vmygon?f ausmi;f om;acgi;f aqmirf sm; =oZm}u;D aerr_ sm;uvkd n;f xed ;f ord ;f wm;q;D v=dk uygon?f [email protected]=umiyhf if taqmipf n;f ur;f trsKd ;rsKd ; xkwfjyefvm+yD; &efpvmygawmhonf? [email protected]=umifh wzufowfxkwfjyefonfh taqmifpnf;urf;rsm; ±kyfodrf;ay;&ef qENjyyGJrsm;ukd ausmif;om;[email protected];rsm; (Auo/ wuo/ &uo) OD;pD;I 1962 ckESpf Zlvkdif 6 &[email protected] &efukefwuUokdvfwGif; ay:xGufvm&mrS ausmif;om;rsm;tay: &ef+idK;}uD;pGm xm;&Sd aeonfh Akdvfae0if; OD;aqmifaom ppftkyfpk0ifrsm;onf Armjynforkdif;wGif xkdtcsdeftxd ray:zl;ao;onfh =urf;wrf;&ufpufvSaom “Zlvkdif 7 &uf ypfowfr_}uD;” ukd usL;vGefvkduf=uygawmhonf? [email protected] [email protected] Zlvkdif 8 &[email protected] reufvif;tm;}uD;tcsdefwGif ausmif;om; trsm;tjym; ykef;atmif;ckdv_Haeonf[laom ta=umif;jycsufjzifh wuUodkvfor*~taqmufttHk}uD;ukdvnf; 'kdif;erkdufrsm;jzifh azmufcGJ zsufqD;vkdufygawmhonf? ppftpkd;&u [email protected];±kyfukd txift&Sm; azmfjyvkdufjcif;yif jzpfygonf? [email protected] Ttjzpftysuf}uD;rSm tvGeft±kyfqkd; tusnf;wefvSojzifh xkdtcsdefu awmfvSefa&;aumifpD0if acgif;aqmifrsm;taejzifh [email protected]/ ukd,fhwm0efyHkcs ajymqkdaer_rsm;ukd T ta&;tcif;}uD;+yD;aemuf ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm qufvufay:xGufaeonfukd [email protected]&SdEkdifayonf? (1988 ckESpf rwkdifcif AkdvfrSL;csKyfa[mif; atmif}uD;. tdwfzGifhay;pmrsm;ukd =unfhyg? OD;ae0if;. v$wfawmfwGif; ajymqkdcsufrsm;ukdvnf; =unfhyg?) TZlvkdif 7 &uf vlowfyGJ}uD;ESifh or*~taqmufttHk}uD;ukd AHk;cGJzsufqD;vkdufr_rsm;+yKvkyf+yD;aemuf awmfvSefa&;aumifpD tp;dk &onf rrd wd @dk. q;dk 0g;vaS omy&kH yd uf dk jyiqf iEf idk &f etf [email protected] 1963 cEk pS /f ZeG vf wiG f awmwiG ;f vuef uuf idk f titf m;prk sm;[email protected] “+ird ;f csr;f a&; urf;vSrf;csuf”ukd xkwfjyefvkdufygonf? [email protected] u|[email protected] +idrf;csrf;a&;[email protected]; [email protected] wufwufºuºu zdwfac:&ef wkdufwGef;onfh ajymqkdr_rsm;/ vkyf&yfrsm; vkyfaqmifvmygonf? [email protected] q&m}uD;tygt0if u|[email protected] jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; [email protected];onf Akdvfae0if; ppftkyfpk. aumufuspf vSnfhzsm;wwfaom trltusifhukd owd&Sd/ owdxm;rd=uojzifh &J&J}uD;a&[email protected] zdwfac: jcif;rjyKbJ/ cyfrSefrSefyif &yfwnfcJhygonf? u|[email protected] vufeufukdifawmwGif;[email protected];ukd Akdvfae0if;[email protected] 0uGufay;tyf vkdufovkdjzpfrSm/ orkdif;aºu;wifcH&rSmukd tvGefpkd;&drf=uygonf? TumvtwGif;rSmyif Zlvkdif 7 &uf wESpfjynfh tcrf;tem; a&muf&Sdvmygonf? ausmif;om;[email protected] +zdKcszsufqD;jcif;cHxm; vkduf&aom or*~taqmufttHkae&mwGif ausmufwkdifi,fav; wwkdifxlvkduf+yD; \"mwfyHkjyyGJrsm;/ txdrf;trSwf tcrf;tem;rsm; vkyfvm =uygonf? ausmif;om;rsm; v_yf&Sm;r_t&Sdef jrifhwufvm+yD; wnrSmawmh taqmifwHcg;rsm;udkydwf+yD; awmif;qdkcsufrsm;wifI qENjyyGJ pwifvkdufygawmhonf? tm%mykdifrsm;uvnf; taqmifwHcg;rsm;ukd zGifhckdif;ygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;uvnf; ‚[email protected] awmif;qkdcsufrsm;r&ygu wHcg;rzGifh[k wif;cHae&m 0kdif;xm;aom ppfwyfu twif;tusyf 0ifa&mufpD;eif;rnfh vuQ%m ay:aygufvm&m wif;rmr_rsm; jrifhrm;vmygonf? Towif;ukd u|[email protected] =um;od&aomtcg u|efawmfESifh OD;xGef;[email protected]; q&m}uD;r_dif;[email protected] oGm;a&mufum q&m}uD;udk tusdK;ta=umif; wifjycGifhawmif;+yD; ausmif;om;ta&; q&m}uD;. n¸ef=um;csufjzifh 0ifa&mufjzefajzay;&ef OD;xGef;wif.um;av;jzifh &[email protected] oGm;a&mufcJhygonf? ‘jrefrmhtoH’a&[email protected]&mufonfhtcsdefwGifrl rnfonfhum;ukdrS qufoGm;cGifhrjyKbJ ppfwyfu wm;qD;[email protected];wm [email protected]&ygonf? u|efawmfu uif;wm0efcHukd u|efawmfb,folb,f0gjzpfa=umif;/ q&m}uD;r_dif;. n¸ef=um;csufjzifh ausmif;om;rsm;xH oGm;a&muf+yD; wHcg;rsm;zGifhay;&ef arwWm&[email protected];rSmjzpfa=umif; ajymjyvkdufygonf? uif;wm0efcH ppfAkdvfav;vnf; uysmu,m jrefrmhtoH taqmufttHktwGif; ajy;0ifoGm;ygonf? xkdtxJwGif awmfvSefa&;[email protected] &Sdae+yD;/ ausmif;om;rsm;ta&;udk ukdifwG,fajz&Sif;[email protected] aqG;aEG;yGJxkdifaea=umif; aemufrS u|efawmfod&ygonf? r=umrDrSmyif ppfAkdvfav; jyefxGufvm+yD; u|[email protected] oGm;cGifhjyKvkdufygonf? u|[email protected] &efukefwuUokdvf ausmif;0if; wHcg;r}uD;a&[email protected] a&mufaomtcg wHcg;}uD;udk ydwfxm;+yD; ausmif;om; 14 - 5 a,muf uif;apmifhaewm [email protected]&ygonf? u|efawmfu OD;xGef;wif. arm&pfrkdif;em;um;uav;ay:wufum u|[email protected] um;a&mufvmoH=um;I taqmiftoD;oD;rS pka0;xGufvm=uaom ausmi;f om;rsm;udk u|eaf wmwf @dk vma&mu&f onhf ta=umi;f &i;f udk ajymjy+y;D owl @dk. acgi;f aqmirf sm;EiS hf aq;G aE;G vadk =umi;f ajymaomvf n;f emrn}f u;D ausmi;f om;acgi;f aqmitf awmrf sm;rsm;udk owl @dk yek ;f a&mS ixf m;cidk ;f +y;D jzpof n?f u|eaf wmwf @dkudk xuG rf [email protected]? ausmi;f om;rsm;u wHcg;zGifhqkdv#if zGifhay;rnfjzpfa=umif; [email protected] [email protected];zGifhay;+yD;v#if ausmif;0if;[email protected] ppfom;rsm; [email protected]=umif;/ ausmif;om; rsm;ukdvnf; rzrf;qD;&ef uwday;[email protected]=umif;ajymojzifh u|efawmfESifh OD;xGef;wif ‘jrefrmhtoH’ukd wacgufjyefum ausmif;om;rsm; ajymqkd csufukd u|efawmhftm;[email protected] ppfAkdvf (Akdvf}uD;wOD;) tm; ajymjyvkdufygonf? r=umrDyif xkdppfAkdvf jyefxGufvm +yD; ausmif;om;awG awmif;qkdonfh tcsufESpfcsufukd vufcHa=umif; ajymygonf? [email protected]=umifh u|[email protected] ausmif;[email protected];=u+yD; tusdK;ta=umif;ajymjyum wHcg;rsm;ukd zGifhckdif;vkdufygawmhonf? u|[email protected] 17


jyefvmaomtcg ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif ukdwifarmif0if;qkdolukd u|[email protected];xJ xnfhay;vkduf=uygonf? u|[email protected] [email protected] um;aemufcef;wGif 0SufI ac:vmcJh&ygonf? u|[email protected]; ajreDukef;[email protected] a&mufaomtcg vrf;ay:u vlwOD;u rsufESmukd vuf0g;ESifhtkyfI um;&yf&ef vufjyygonf? u|eaf wmwf @dkum;udk &yaf y;aomtcg xodk ol nf rsuEf mS ukd vu0f g;EiS thf yk vf suyf if um;em;uyvf m+y;D u|eaf wmwf @dk trd &f &dS m vr;f xyd rf sm;wiG f ppfwyfu um;rsm;ESifhydwfI apmifhaea=umif;/ qD;zrf;rSmjzpfa=umif; ajymqkdum tarSmifxJ 0ifa&mufaysmufuG,foGm;ygonf? tcsdefuvnf; vif;tm;}uD;tcsdefeD;ae+yDjzpfojzifh u|[email protected] tdrfrjyef=uawmhbJ/ q&m}uD;tdrf&Sd&m csrf;omvrf;[email protected] oGm;vkdufum eHeufrkd;pifpifvif;rS u|[email protected];[email protected] jyefvmEkdifygawmhonf? xkdppfum;rsm; rkd;rvif;cifyif jyefodrf;oGm;a=umif; owif;&+yD;rS u|[email protected] tdrfjyefEkdifjcif; jzpfygonf? aemifrS u|[email protected]&onfrSm u|[email protected];xJ ausmif;om;acgif;[email protected];a=umif; owif;tpte &oGm;ojzifh xkdolrsm;ukd zrf;qD;&ef apmifhqkdif;ae=ujcif;om jzpfygonf? u|efawmfESifhygvmaom ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrSm u|efawmhftdrfwGif ESpf&[email protected]+yD;rS tquftoG,f&&m [email protected] vma&muf ac:,loGm;ygonf? aemifwGif trsdK;om;'Drkdua&[email protected] c&rf;trwf OD;wifarmif0if;jzpfvmolrSm xkdolyif jzpf[ef&Sdygonf? u|efawmf odyfraocsmyg? [email protected] jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf awmfvSefa&;aumifpDu urf;vSrf;ojzifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;&ef awmwGif;[email protected] tpnf;rsm; wokwf+yD;wokwf a&muf&Sdvm&m/ a&muf&Sdonfh [email protected];vkdvkduvnf; q&m}uD;r_dif;tm; OD;pGmyxr vma&[email protected] E_wfquf=u&m/ u|[email protected] jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; [email protected];rSm rtm;rvyfEkdifatmif tvkyfrsm;oGm;ygawmhonf? yxrqHk; a&[email protected] tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwD y%mrukd,fpm;vS,[email protected]+yD; &eJ Dausmf0if; OD;aqmifvmygonf? aemufrS ocifpkd; vkdufvmjcif; jzpfygonf? xdktcsdefwGif +idrf;csrf;a&;awmif;qkdonfh vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;vnf; w+cdrfh+cdrfh wEkdifiHvHk; ay:xGufvmaeygonf? yrnw/ yxp/ zqyv ponfh EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pk tm;vHk;avmufeD;eD; yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf=uojzifh tawmfnDnGwfonfh v_yf&Sm;r_[k ajymqkdEkdifygonf? vlrsdK;pk [email protected]; toD;oD;u ukd,fpm;vS,[email protected];vnf; a&muf&Sdvmygonf? [email protected] 1963 ckESpf =o*kwfv 28 &[email protected] ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDrS y%mrukd,fpm;vS,[email protected] &[email protected] a&muf&Sd vmygonf? &JabmfaX; OD;aqmif+yD; AkdvfaZ,svnf; ygvmygonf? =o*kwfv 31 &[email protected] q&m}uD;tm; vma&muf*g&0jyKrnf[k axmufvSrf;a&;u ta=umif;=um;xm;ojzifh u|efawmfESifh OD;xGef;wiftygt0if [email protected] q&m}uD;tdrfwGif oGm;apmifhae=uygonf? [email protected] q&m}uD;tm; OD;oHk;}udrfcs uefawmh=u+yD;aemuf u|[email protected] a&S;jzpfaESmif;jzpfawG ajymqkdrd=uygonf? u|[email protected] ukd,fpm;vS,[email protected] [email protected] txl;ojzifh AkdvfaZ,[email protected]+yD; wOD;ESihfwOD;zuf+yD; ESpfa,mufpvHk; rsuf&nf usrdygonf? Tu|[email protected]; wOD;ESifhwOD;zufI rsuf&nfusaeonfhyHkukd owif;axmufwOD;u \"mwfyHk±kdufvkduf+yD; [email protected];pm xJ ygvm&m [email protected]±_&onfh vltawmfrsm;rsm;vnf; rsuf&nfus=uonf[k =um;&ygonf? aemufykdif; +idrf;csrf;a&;ysufoGm;+yD;aemuf +ird ;f csr;f a&;umvtwiG ;f u ±udk uf ;l cohJ nhf \"mwyf jkH yyEJG iS hf \"mwyf +kH yKd iyf wJG iG f x\"dk mwyf okH nf ww,d q&k a=umi;f o&d ygon?f yxrq&k onyhf rkH mS +ird ;f csr;f a&; ysuof mG ;+y;D aemuf xAdk rmjynuf eG jf rLepyf gwD u,dk pf m;v,S tf [email protected] ayguaf cgi;f acsmi;f ukd jzwuf ;l I awmwiG ;f [email protected] mG ;onyhf jkH zp+f y;D / xkdyHkukd ‘jynfoludk ausmckdif;=uav+yD’ [laom acgif;pOfjzifh ±_a'gifh*sme,fu rsufESmzHk;tjzpf azmfjycJhonfhyHk jzpfygonf? xkdukd,fpm;vS,[email protected] &efukefrSm&SdaepOf u|efawmfu u|efawmfhtdrfukdzdwfI xrif;weyfau|;ygonf? OuUÏocifoef;xGef; qrD vS n;f u|eaf wmxhf H y*k Kd~ vaf &;pmwapmif ygvm&m/ owl @dk. +ird ;f csr;f a&;EiS yhf wof uof nhf oabmxm;rsm;/ t\"ud aq;G aE;G rnhf ta=umi;f t&mrsm;ukd xnfhoGif;a&;om; ajymjyxm;ygonf? pm. aemufqHk;ykd'fwGifrl u|efawmfhZeD;tm; E_wfqufa=umif;/ [email protected]=umifh u|[email protected] rdom;pk 'kuQa&mufoGm;&onfhtwGuf u|efawmfhZeD;udkawmif;yefa=umif; a&;om;xm;ygonf? awmfvSefa&;aumifpDu +idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf [email protected];aEG;&ef urf;vSrf;zdwfac:onfh &nf&G,fcsufukdu [email protected] ppfbDvl;yHk&dyfukd av#mhcsoGm;&eftwGufom jzpfojzifhwa=umif;/ vufeufukdif [email protected];oD;ESifh [email protected];aEG;pOf jynfolvlxkukd wpHkw&m vGwfvyfcGifh ay;xm;&ojzifh EkdifiHa&;[email protected]; toD;oD;u (ppftm%m&Sifpepf tE W&m,fukd jrifvmojzifh) jynfolvlxkukd pnf;±Hk;[email protected] vmEkdif+yD;/ vlxkuvnf; wcJeuftHkºuvmum jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; awmif;qkdv_yf&Sm;r_}uD; us,[email protected]}uD;rm;vmr_a=umifhwa=umif;/ aphpyfaqG;aEG;yGJ umv [email protected] (4 - 5 vtwGif;) t=umrSmyif awmfvSefa&;aumifpDu aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;ukd wzufowf &yfqkdif;ypfvkdufygawmhonf? awmwiG ;f rS vma&muaf q;G aE;G onhf u,dk pf m;v,S rf sm; jyeof mG ;+y;D aemuf xudk mvtwiG ;f wuwf uºf uºu vy_ &f mS ;cohJ nhf Eidk if aH &; orm;rsm;tm;vHk;ukd ykdufpdyfwkduf &SmazGzrf;qD;cJhygonf? u|eaf wmwf @dk +ird ;f csr;f a&;[email protected];f vyk if e;f tm;v;kH &yqf idk ;f omG ;ygawmoh n?f q&m}u;D vn;f pwd tf awmxf cd udk f omG ;+y;D tyd &f mxJ vJoGm;ygawmhonf? xdktcsdefrSpI q&m}uD;onf xlxlaxmifaxmif jzpfrvmawmhbJ wa&Smifa&Smif jzpfae&mrS 1964 ckESpf/ Zlvkdifv 23 &[email protected] uG,fvGefoGm;ygawmhonf? Ttjzpftysuf tao;pdwfrsm;ukd u|ef awmfu “q&m}uD;r_dif;. aemufqHk;[email protected]&ufrsm;”[laom acgif;pOfESifh aqmif;yg;wapmif r=umrDuyif a&;om;xm;&m xkdaqmif;yg;ukdyif jyefvnfazmfjyvkduf&ygawmhonf? q&m}uD;r_dif;. aemufqHk;[email protected]&ufrsm; q&m}uD; oufawmf 130 jynfh pmapmif [email protected] jyifqifaeonfh &Jabmfrsm;u u|efawmfhukd q&m}uD;ESifhywfoufI aqmif;yg; wkdav; wapmif a&;om;ay;yg&ef awmif;qkdvmygonf? 1964 ckESpf/ Zlvkdifv 23 &[email protected] eHeuf 1 em&D (oef;acgifausmfcsdef) wGif uG,fvGefoGm;aom q&m}uD;onf u|efawmf.vufay: 18


u|efawmfhrsufpdatmufwGifyifjzpfojzifh xkdrarhEkdifzG,f ta=umif;ukdom u|efawmf a&;&ygawmhrnf? q&m}uD;onf woufwmywfvHk; oltifrwef cspfjrwfEkd;aom Armjynfolrsm;.ta&; pGrf;pGrf;wrHaqmif&GufcJh&mwGif ol. aemufqHk;aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;rSm jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;&&Sda&; jzpfygonf? jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf aqmif&Guf&mwGif q&m}uD;onf 1956 ckESpfrSpI yxr (8) OD; [email protected]+yD; aqmif &Gufygonf? [email protected] ysuf+yD;aomtcg 1961 ckESpfwGif 'kwd,jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;[email protected] [email protected];+yD; aqmif&GufcJhygonf? [email protected] q&m}uD;u OuUÏ jzpfygonf? u|efawmfonf xkdpOfu wyfrawmfrS yifpiftem;ay;cHxm;&+yD;jzpfojzifh [email protected] 'kOuUÏtjzpf yg0ifchJygonf? r=umrDu uG,fvGefoGm;ol v$wfawmfa&[email protected]}uD;OD;xGef;wifrSm [email protected] taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; jzpfygonf? OD;xGef;wifrSm yxr (8) OD;aumfrwD wGifvnf; twGif;a&;rSL;wm0ef,lcJhojzifh +idrf;csrf;a&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif [email protected]}uHKtawmf&Sdaeol jzpfygonf? wjcm;olrsm;vnf; trsm; tjym; yg0if&m pma&;q&m}uD; Aef;armfwifatmif/ awmfbk&m;av;/ rHk&Gm OD;wifa&$/ OD;pkd;rif; (Avp)/ OD;vSausmf/ OD;bausmf/ OD;vSwifponfh v$wfawmfa&[email protected]}uD;rsm; jzpf=uygonf? u&iftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfaom ref;ausmftHk;/ [email protected]; yg0ifygonf? xkd'kwd, jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;[email protected]}uD;ukd vltiftm;rsm;rsm;ESifh [email protected];+yD; wjynfvHk;wGif vSnfhvnfpnf;±Hk;[email protected] e,fc±kdifawmfawmfrsm;rsm;wGif jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; [email protected]; wnfaxmifEkdif+yD; &efukefc±kdifwGif; wkdufe,fwkdif;vkdvkdwGif [email protected]; [email protected]; wnfaxmifvmEkdifygonf? [email protected] t&Sdefaumif;aumif;ESifh v_yf&Sm;aepOfrSmyif 1962 ck/ rwfv 2 &uf Akdvfae0if; tm%modrf;r_ ay:ayguf um awmfvSefa&;aumifpDtpkd;& wufvmygawmhonf? jynfwGif; +idrf;csrf;a&;vkyfief;vnf; [email protected];oGm;&ygawmhonf? 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[email protected] tcGifhta&;rsm;ay;I 0,f,lygonf? u|efawmfhtdrf 0ifor#xGufor# vlrsm;ukdvnf; csOf;uyfodrf;oGif;=uygonf? vr;f xyd f wzuwf csuwf iG vf n;f qudk mU ;orm;rsm; ypkH EH iS hf waeuek f qudk mU ;rsm;ay:wiG f xidk af pmiahf eorl sm;vn;f &odS n?f trd af &@S wem&=D um;/ ESpfem&D=um; jzwfav#muf+yD; apmifh=unfhaeolrsm;vnf; &Sdonf? u|efawmf tdrfuxGufwmESifhw+ydKifeuf t&dyfvkdaemufu ygvm wwfygonf? aemufykdif;usavqkd;av jzpfvmygonf? rqv acwfwGif pD;yGm;a&;tuGuftuGif;[lor# rqv u ukdifxm;&m rnfolr# rqv ukd rvGefqefEkdif jzpfvm&ygonf? u|[email protected] tawmf&if;ESD;onfh &Jabmfrsm;/ rdwfaqGrsm;/ aqGrsdK;rsm; tawmfrsm;rsm; rqv owif;ay;rsm; jzpfoGm;=uygonf? u|[email protected] ukd,fhrdom;pk0ifrsm;rSvGJI b,[email protected] r,Hk&Jawmhyg? u|efawmf wyfuxGuf&+yD; xkdtdrfav;[email protected] ajymif;a&mufvmpu u|efawmfhZeD;u tdrfazmfav;wa,mufawmh&SdrS jzpfrnf[k ajymvmygonf? u|efawmfhtaeESifh tdrfvHk+cHKa&;twGuf vlykdxm;[email protected] rjzpfa=umif;ESifh tdrftvkyfawGukd u|efawmf ulvkyfyghrnf[kqkdum ESpfodrfh+yD; wm;jrpf&ygonf? olu TudpP wcgyJajymzl;+yD; aemufxyf b,fawmhrS xyfajymqkdjcif;vnf; r&SdawmhbJh tdrftvkyf[lor# wa,mufwnf; usHK;vkyfcJhygonf? [email protected] a':wif usef;rmpOfuawmh [email protected] tawmftwef ulnDEkdifcJhygonf? &efukefwGif ausmif;vm ae=uaom aqGrsdK;eD;pyfuav;rrsm;vnf; 0kdif;0ef;ulnDEkdifor# ulnD=uygonf? u|efawmf wyfuxGuf&onfh 1957 ckESpfwGif u|efawmfhorD;t}uD;qHk; vSvSu ig;wef;r#om &Sdao;+yD; ti,fqHk; om;av; wGwfwGwfrSm xkdESpfurS ausmif;paejcif; jzpfygonf? om;orD; ig;a,mufpvHk;ukd omoemjyKausmif;jzpfonfh jynfvrf;&Sd [email protected] xm;&m ausmif;p&dwf/ ausmif;um;cuyif u|efawmf&onfh yifpifvpm. [email protected] &Sdygonf? ausmif;zGifhp&ufrsm;qkdv#if ESpfpOfa=u;/ 23


t0wtf pm;z;dk / pmtyk zf ;dk / tm;upm;z;dk pojzihf eiahf eatmiaf y;&&m u|eaf wmZfh e;D u 'vD awmh qief @Jq&JG r;f ovydk [J k nn;f wmG ;wwyf gon?f u|efawmf wyfxJrSm &SdpOfuwnf;u wyfrSL;}uD;rsm;twGuf ajrrsm;cGJa0ay;xm;&m/ u|efawmfhwGif ajrESpfuGuf &Sdaeygonf? u|efawmfhemrnfESifh *&efxGufxm;+yD; jzpfygonf? wuGufrSm ewfarmufvrf;oG,frS jzpf+yD; wuGufrSm csif;acsmif;&dyfomwGif;rSm jzpfygonf? u|efawmfu ewfarmufvrf;oG,fu ajruGufukd a&mif;cs+yD; qDqHkvrf;tdrf0,fpOfu wifcJhonfh aºu;ukdqyfum/ usefaiGrsm;ukd b%fxJ oGif;xm;+yD; vpOfvkdtyfor#ukd zJhxkwf&ygonf? xkdaiGukefoGm;aomtcg csif;acsmif;+cHukd wjcrf;zJh a&mif;&ygawmhonf? 1970 ckwGif u|efawmfhorD;t}uD; aq;wuUokdvfrS [email protected]&+yD; orD;ti,fpef;u pD;yGm;a&;[email protected]&+yD; enf;jyq&mr tvkyfyg &&Sdum qufwkdufom;orD;rsm; ausmif;+yD;oGm;ojzifh usefajrwjcrf;ukd a&mif;csp&mrvkdbJ jzpfoGm;ygawmhonf? (e0w acwfwGif xkd usefajrukd EkdifiHykdiftjzpf odrf;oGm;ygonf?) TumvtwiG ;f u|efawmthf wuG f tyifyef;q;kH tvkyfrSm om;orD;rsm; pmjyay;&aom upd P jzpfygon?f u|eaf [email protected] Armjynf. ynma&;peprf sm tveG cf sKd @wahJ y&m ausmi;f om;rsm;udk usL&iS af y;Eidk &f iaf y;/ ray;Eidk &f if ynmjzpjf zpf ajrmuaf jrmuwf wzf @dk rv,G yf g? [email protected]=umihf u|efawmfhrSm tykdusL&Sifcvnf; rwwfEkdifojzifh ukd,fwkdifukd,fus oifay;&ygawmhonf? xkdacwfuawmif [email protected] tvGefyif rvG,ful&m ,ckumvwGifawmh qkdzG,f&m r&Sdawmhyg? aemuyf idk ;f usawmh owl @dkudk pmomru Eidk if aH &;pmayrsm; zwvf matmivf n;f en;f ay;vr;f jy vyk af y;&ygon?f wvw}urd vf n;f [email protected] tpnf;ta0;oabmrsdK;xkdifum [email protected]@,Gif;csuf/ tm;enf;csufrsm;ukd axmufjy+yD; jyKjyifay;cJh&ygonf? wuUokdvfa&mufukef onfESifh u|efawmfu om;orD;rsm;ukd [email protected]@wm [email protected]}uHKcJh&onfh tjzpftysufrsm;/ ta=umif;t&mrsm;ukd jyefajymjyckdif;ygonf? txl;ojzifh [email protected]@ rajz&Sif;Ekdifonfh udpPrsm;ukd bmrqkd jyefwkdifyif&ef tm;ay;&ygonf? u|[email protected] ZeD;armifESHESpfa,mufpvHk; om;orD;rsm; ynmwwfajrmufa&;/ vdrfrma&;jcm;&Sda&;twGuf tm;pkdufvHk;yef;=u &aoma=umifh u|[email protected] rdciftkd}uD;rsm;tay:rSmawmh wm0efvpf[if;ch=J uygonf? u|efawmfha,muQr a': wifrSm [email protected];q,ftdrf}uD;ay: vliSm;wifI xkdtdrfvcav;ESifhyif aexkdifoGm;&&Smygonf/ u|efawmfhrdcif a':wifhrSmrl qkdif;pk&Gm&Sd tdrfESifh+cHukda&mif;um &efukef &Spfrkdif&Sd ^m%pm*Dausmif;wkdufwGif Z&yfuav;waqmifaqmuf+yD; aexkdifoGm;&Smygonf? u|[email protected] uav;rsm; ausmif;ydwfcsdef/ tcg}uD;/ &uf}uD;rsm;wGif [email protected] (a':wifESifha':[email protected] ESpfa,muf/ xkd&SpfrkdifZ&yfwGif twlae=uwmrsm;onf?) qD oGm;a&mufuefawmhonfhtcg rsdK;awmh &Sdwwfygonf? [email protected] aexkdifraumif;v#ifawmh u|efawmfhorD;u oGm;ac:vm+yD; tdrfrSmxm; ukoay;&ygonf? useftcsdefrsm; wGifawmh u|[email protected] odyftm±HkrjyKEkdifyg? 1963 ckESpfwGif wyfrawmfyifpifESifh ywfoufI Oya'opfwck ay:vm&m/ u|efawmhf yifpifvpmwkd;aiG aemufjyefa=u; (Back pay) usyfaiG oHk;axmifausmf &vkdufygonf? u|efawmfu xkdta=umif;ukd bmrSrodyg? wyfrawmf rSwfwrf;±Hk;u pma&;rsm;u [email protected] [email protected] av#mufv$mwif/ aiGxkwfvm+yD;rS [email protected]? u|efawmfvnf; xkdaiGESifhyif om;oHk;a,mufukd prf;acsmif; jrodef;wef \"rRm±HkrSm &SifjyKay;cJhygonf? 1970 ckESpfrSmawmh u|efawmhfa,muQr a':wif vl}uD;a&m*gjzifh uG,fvGefoGm;+yD; 1972 ckESpf/ =o*kwfvxJrSmawmh u|efawmfhom; ti,fqHk; wGwfwGwf (xGef;at;ausmfaZm) tdyfaq;rsm; tvGeftu|HaomufI owfaooGm;ygonf? xEkd pS uf wwG wf wG of nf &euf ek 0f Zd m… EiS ohf yd wH` uoU vdk /f \"mwak A't\"ud 'wk ,d EpS pf mar;yaJG jzt+y;D otl awmf ajzEidk of jzihf *%k xf ;l xGufvdrfhrnfjzpfa=umif;/ trSwfaumif;v#if [email protected] ajymif;[email protected]&a=umif; u|efawmfhukd ajymjyxm;ygonf? atmifpm&if; xuG vf maomtcg [email protected]*%k xf ;l ygrvmyg? TwiG f [email protected] \"f mwf tawmxf cd udk of mG ;+y;D / [email protected] dk atmiaf usmaf Zm tyd &f matmuwf iG xf m;onhf tdyfaq;rsm;ukd ,laomuf+yD; aoa=umif;}uHpnfoGm;jcif; jzpfygonf? xkdpOfu [email protected] 20 yif rjynfhao;yg? u|[email protected]; b,fvkd ajz&rSef;yifrod jzpfoGm;ygawmhonf? u|efawmfhZeD;vnf; ±l;rwwf yHkusoGm;ygawmhonf? tawmf jyif;xefvSonfh avmu\"Hw&m;udk u|[email protected] tvl;tvdrfh cHvkduf&ygonf? u|efawmfhrdcif}uD;uawmh u|[email protected] awmwGif;a&mufaerS 1983 ckESpfwGif [email protected] 93 ESpf t&G,frSm uG,fvGef tedpPa&mufa=umif; owif;pmxJu ema&;a=umfjimukd [email protected]&ygonf? u|efawmfhrdcif}uD;rSm bma&m*grS }uD;}uD;rm;rm; r&SdcJhzl;yg? u|efawmfh orD;i,fpef; jyefajymI od&oavmufrSmvnf; acsmif;enf;enf;qkd;+yD; tpm;taomuf ysufoGm;&mrS wntdyf&mxJwGifyif tdyfaysmf&if; uG,fvGefoGm;onf[k qkdygonf? rD;ZmukefqDcef; jzpfoGm;yHk&ygonf? AkdvfcsKyfuawmf a':cif=unf u|[email protected] tapmykdif;u tpfr}uD; a':cif=unfESifh odyf&if;ESD;jcif; r&Sdyg? u|efawmf wyfxJaepOf u|efawmfhZeD;uvnf; rdcifESifhuav;apmifha&Smufa&;toif;/ wyfrawmf trsdK;orD;rsm;toif; pwmrsm;rSm 0ifa&mufvkyfudkif&&if; tpfr}uD;ESifh vkyfief;t&/ [email protected]_awmh &SdcJhygonf? xkdpOfuwnf;u u|efawmfhZeD;u ajymzl;onfrSm tpfr}uD;tm; vltawmfrsm;rsm;u 0kdif;=unfndK av;pm;jcif;a=umifh zqyv 0ef}uD;uawmfrsm;u tawmfr±_pdrfhjzpfa=umif; od&ygonf? aemufykdif; oHtrwf}uD;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif+yD; t+idrf;pm;,ljyefvmonfhtcgusrS u|[email protected] ykdrkd&if;ESD;u|rf;0ifoGm;jcif; jzpfygonf? tpfr}uD;u wuUokdvf &dyfomvrf;wGif rdef;uav;tazmf ESpfOD;oHk;OD;ESifh aexkdifum/ yef;pkduftvGef0goemygojzifh +cHxJwGif yef;trsdK;rsdK; pkdufum/ yef;rsm;ukdvnf; tvSw=unfh=unfhESifh aewwfygonf? u|[email protected] rdom;pkawGukdvnf; rvmwm=umv#if zkef;quf ac:wwfygonf? txl;ojzifh Zlvkdif 19 &ufteD;ywf0ef;usifwGif olt&if;ESD;qHk; rdom;pkrdwfaqGrsm;ukd w&ufpDcGJI rdom;pkvkdufzdwf xrif;au|;wwfygonf? wcgw&H =o*kwfvtxd rjywfqufwkduf xrif;au|;&onfhtcgrsm; &Sdwwfygonf? 24


tpfr}uD;tdrfwGif EkdifiHa&;orm;a[mif;}uD;rsm;/ oHwrefa[mif;rsm;/ wyfrawmfrS yifpif,loGm;olrsm;/ awmjyefrsm;/ vlpHk0ifxGuf oGm;vm&m/ owif;pHk &wwfygonf? txl;ojzifh rqv acwf tpkd;&. rawmfrwnfh jyKrlcsufrsm;tm;vHk;ukd [email protected]&[email protected] vlrsm;uvmI &ifzGifhajymqkdwwf&m u|[email protected] [email protected];vnfv#if owif;pHk=um;&wwfygonf? [email protected];[email protected] jzpfae+yD; tpkd;& [email protected];/ ajymqkdr_rsm;/ [email protected] vGwfvGwfvyfvyf [email protected] jzpfaeygonf? rqv tp;dk &uvn;f 'gudk oyd &kH ygon?f wcgawmh a':ci=f untf rd f ocl ;dk c;dk c&H on[f k owi;f xuG vf m&m/ u|eaf wmEf iS uhf |eaf wmhf Ze;D [email protected] ure;f uwe;f omG ;a&muof wi;f ar;&ygon?f [email protected] wf iG f tjyivf ql Idk O,smOaf pmihf (rmv)D wO;Dd om &odS n?f ocl ;dk u trd tf ay:xyf ukd 0&efwmrS ckdIwuf+yD; tdyfcef;bD±kdav;xJwGif xnfhxm;onfh trSwfw&ypPnf;av;rsm;ukdom ,loGm;ygonf? xkdypPnf;av;rsm;rSm tpfr}uD;oHtrwf}uD;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifpOfua&m/ aemufykdif;umvrsm;wGifa&m/ EkdifiHjcm;oHwrefrsm;u trSwfw&ay;onfh vufaqmifypPnf;rsm;om jzpfygonf? tzdk;wefypPnf; rygyg? u|efawmfhtjrifuawmh TudpPukd ppfwyfaxmufvSrf;a&;uyJ vkyf[ef&Sdonf? a':cif=unftm; tpkd;&[email protected]&;rsm; rjyKvkyf&ef/ rajymqkd&ef/ [[email protected];jcif;/ +cdrf;ajcmufjcif; jzpf[ef&Sdygonf? O,smOfapmifhu vufaxmufcsyHk &ygonf? a':cif=unfukd,fwkdif uvnf; [email protected] xifcJhygonf? u|efawmfonf a':cif=unfESifh aemufykdif; &if;&if;ESD;ESD;qufqHvm&if; olr. rsdK;cspfpdwf&Sdr_/ wnfwnf=unf=unfESifh ÁajENoduQm &pdS mG ae&i;f orl tm; vma&mu=f un±hf =_ uonhf Avdk cf sKy.f wynohf m;ajr;tm;v;kH tay: pwd af umi;f / ap wemaumi;f jyn0hf pmG EiS hf ay;weaf y;/ au|;wefau|;/ t}uHay;p&may;ESifh em,u*k%f jynfh0pGm aexkdifaer_/ vma&mufor# vltm;vHk;uvnf; olrtm; av;pm;=unfndKr_ pwmrsm;ukd [email protected]&ygonf? [email protected] jrif&[email protected]&onfh tcgrsm;wGif a=omf æ AkdvfcsKyfrsm;/ 'gawGukd [email protected]&&if b,favmufrsm; 0rf;om&SmavrvJ [k AkdvfcsKyftm; wrf;wrdygawmhonf? 1991 cEk pS /f a':atmiqf e;f p=k unf EAdk ,qf &k a=umi;f a&',D odk wi;f a=unmpOrf mS vn;f u|eaf wmof nf a=omæf tprf }u;D rsm;&&dS if b,favmufrsm; 0rf;om&SmavrvJ[k tpfr}uD; a':cif=unftm; wrf;wrdjyefygonf? xkdwuUokdvf&dyfom0if;xJwGif u|[email protected];wkdif; aemufwtdrf 0ifa&mufvnfywf&ygao;onf? xkd0if;xJwGif wxyftdrf uav;aqmufI rDSckdaeaeaom a':cif=unf.tpfr a':cif}uD; (ocifoef;xGef;.ZeD;) . tdrfjzpfygonf? a':cif}uD;rSm odyfusef;rma&; raumif;vSbJ om;orD;av;rsm;ESifh xkdtdrf0if;twGif;rSmyif aecJhygonf? a':cif=unf. usefnDrrsm;vnf; xkd0kdif;xJwGifyif oD;jcm;tdrf uav;rsm;aqmufI ae=uygonf? u|efawmf awmxJa&muf+yD;aemuf u|efawmfhZeD;vnf; yHkrSefrysuf oGm;a&mufvnfywfa=umif; u|efawmfhZeD;u jyefajymjy zl;ygonf? u|[email protected] awmwGif;rSzrf;rd axmifus+yD; vGwfvm=uonfh awmjyefrdom;pkrsm;ESifhvnf; &if;&if;ESD;EDS;cifcifrifrif aecJh=u&ygonf? xkdolrsm;xJwGif u|[email protected];pkESifh aqGrsdK;om;csif;[email protected] awmufav#mufcifrif&if;ESD;cJhonfh rdom;pkwck &Sdygonf? xkdolrsm;rSm AkdvfrSL;cspfaumif;.ZeD; a':cifrsdK;[email protected] om;orD;oHk;OD;[email protected] jzpf=uygonf? u|efawmfESifh AkdvfrSL;cspfaumif;rSm bD'Datuwnf;u od&SdcJh=uaomfvnf; odyf&if;ESD;jcif; r&Sdyg? olaxmifu vGwfvmpOfu u|[email protected] e,[email protected]@usifa&;/ w±[email protected]&; trsdK;om;[email protected];ojzifh vma&mufyg0ifcJhzl;aomfvnf; r=umrDrSmyif awmjyefckdoGm;+yD; awmwGif;wkdufyGJwae&mwGif usqHk;oGm;cJh&Smygonf? [email protected];onf a':cifrsdK;[email protected] om;orD;oHk;a,mufESifhtwl tawmfqif;&Jyifyef;pGm vkyfukdifpm;aomuf&ygonf? u|efawmf omru u|[email protected] wrdom;pkvHk;u [email protected]: tvGef=uifempGm apmifha&SmufcJh=uygonf? u|efawmfh om;ESpfa,mufzGifhonfh ajreDukef;u pmtkyfqkdifwGif [email protected];av;ukdac:I tvkyfay;xm;+yD; u|efawmfhorD;}uD; tvkyfvkyfonfh ta&[email protected];aq;±HkrS q&m0efrsm;twGufay;onfh tdrfcef;wGifrl a':cifrsdK;[email protected] orD;ESpfa,mufukd ac:xm;ygonf? u|efawmf awmckdvmpOf u|efawmfhZeD;wa,mufwnf; xm;cJh&pOfu olrusef;rrmjzpfaewkef; a':cifrsdK;[email protected] orD;}uD;cifrat;ESifhtwl u|efawmfh ZeD;tm; vma&mufapmifha&SmufaexkdifcJha=umif; u|efawmfhZeD;u u|efawmhfukd jyefajymjyygonf? a':cifrsdK;[email protected] tvGefpdwf\"mwfckdifrm aumif;rGefoljzpf+yD;/ EkdifiHa&;&yfwnfcsufvnf; jywfom;ygonf? [email protected];pk [email protected]; odojzifh xkdpOfu vkyfom;jynfolowif;pm t,f'DwmcsKyfudkvS+rdKifu [email protected];pmukd,fpm;vS,f ay;ygonf? olu vufrcHyg? Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDukd tykwfcwfqHk;a&;om;aeonfh owif;pmu au|;onfhxrif; rpm;csifyg[k qkdcJhygonf? [email protected];ESifhyif yifyifyef;yef; vkyfukdifpm;aomuf&Smygonf? avxD;Akdvftkef;armif avxD;Akdvftkef;armifrSm axmifouf&Snf±Hkru u|ef;vnf;ESpfu|ef;oHk;u|ef;jyefjzpfum aemufqHk;rS axmifuvGwfvmol jzpyf gon?f oal xmiuf vwG vf mawmh u|eaf wmwf @dkwawG bmEidk if aH &;vy_ &f mS ;rr_ S vyk If r&awmyh g? wcgwcg u|eaf wmthf rd wf iG f qwkH w=f u+y;D a&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpfrsm;om ajymjzpf=uygonf? [email protected];vnf; tawmfawmfonfh trsdK;orD; jzpfonf? ukdtkef;armifrSm axmifuvGwfvm+yD;vnf; bmrSrvkyfbJ ZeD;u aps;a&mif; au|;wmyJ &Sdonf? [email protected] orD;av;wa,mufvnf; &Sdygonf? ukdtkef;armifrSm tvGefoabmoum, aumif;+yD;/ pdwfESvHk;ESdrfhcsoljzpfum pum;vnf; rsm;rsm;rajymwwfyg? u|efawmfonf 1973 - 74 ckESpfavmufu [email protected]; u|efawmfhtwGuf uGefjrLepfygwDESifh qufay;&ef ajymqkd&m olu}udK; pm;ay;rnfqkd+yD; txufArmjynf 25


wufoGm;ygawmhonf? wvausmfausmf t=umwGifrS jyefa&mufvm+yD; b,fvkdrS tqufr&[k qkdvmojzifh u|efawmfvufav#mh vkduf&ygonf? u|efawmf ygwDxJa&mufrS od&onfrSm xkdumvu yJcl;±kd;r jyKwfoGm;+yDjzpfojzifh ygwD. ajratmufvkyfief;ukd ta&[email protected] a'ou pkpnf;vkduf+yD; [email protected];jyKjyifae&m vla[mif;rsm;ukd b,[email protected] rqufoG,fawmhbJ vlopfrsm;ESifhom pwifv_yf&Sm; aeojzifh ukdtkef;armiftaeESifh b,fvkdrS tquf&Smr&jzpf[ef &Sdygonf? u|efawmf [email protected]=umif;a&;aepOfrSmyif ola&;cJhonfh “tESpf 50 =um+yD;aomtcg” aqmif;yg;rsm;ukd pkpnf;I pmtkyfxkwfrnfh olrsm;u u|efawmfhtm; trSmpma&;ckdif;&m u|efawmfa&;ay;&ojzifh Tae&mwGif ukdtkef;armifukd *k%fjyKaomtm;jzifh xkdtrSmpmukd xnfhoGif; azmfjyvkdufygonf? AkdvfrSL;csKyfa[mif;ausmfaZm. trSmpm u|[email protected] ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&; }udK;yrf;r_wkdufyGJpOftwGif; EkdifiHjcm;[email protected] tultnD&SmazGonfh vli,ftkyfpk ESpfpk &SdcJhyg onf? wpkuawmh ta&[email protected] xGuf+yD;/ wpkuawmh taemufbuf xGufcJh=uygonf? trdArmjynf}uD; vGwfvyfa&;&&efqkdaom wckwnf;aom &nfrSef;csufatmufwGif v_yf&Sm;cJh=ujcif; jzpfygonf? ta&[email protected] xGuf=uolrsm;onf *[email protected] a&muf&Sd+yD; AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; OD;aqmifaom &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifrsm; jzpfvmum/ taemufbuf xGuf=uolrsm;uawmh tdENd,[email protected]&muf+yD; OD;odef;azjrifh OD;pD;onfh avxD;qif;&Jabmfrsm; jzpfvm=uygawmhonf? Tenf;jzifh u|efawmfonf &JabmfoHk;usdyf0if AkdvfausmfaZmjzpfvm+yD;/ oluawmh avxD; Akdvftkef;armif jzpfvmyg awmhonf? u|[email protected] acwf+ydKifEkdifiHa&;orm;/ awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;jzpfcJh=u+yD; 20 &mpk aemufqHk;ykdif;umvrsm;. rsdK;quf&Jabmf &Jbuf/ wkdufazmfwkdufzufrsm;tjzpf wm0eftoD;oD; xrf;aqmifcJh=u+yD; xkdrsdK;qufrsm;. orkdif;ay;wm0efjzpfaom ukdvkdeDArmEkdifiHukd vGwfvyfonfh ArmEkdifiHtjzpf ajymif;vJay;EkdifcJh=uayonf? u|efawmfonf u|efawmfh b0twGuf Torkdif;ay; wm0ef}uD;ukd xrf;aqmifcGifh &cjhJci;f tay: tauseyqf ;kH jzp&f ov/dk &aJ bm}f u;D Avdk tf ek ;f armitf wuG vf n;f tvm;wl auseypf &mEpS of rd phf &m jzpaf yvrd rhf n[f k xiyf gon?f [email protected]=umifhyif olu “u|efawmf jzwfoef;cJh&wJhb0twGuf u|efawmf*k%f,lygw,f” [laom pum;ukd ajymcJhjcif; jzpf[efwlygonf? u|[email protected] trdEkdifiH}uD;ukd EkdifiHa&;t& vGwfvyfonfhEkdifiHtjzpf ajymif;vJEkdifcJhaomfvnf; acwfrDwkd;wuf [email protected]+zdK;aom acwfopfArmjynf xlaxmifa&;vkyfief;rsm;ukdawmh atmifjrifatmif rvkyfEkdifcJhyg? u|[email protected] rsdK;qufa[mif;rsm;. Tr+yD;qHk;ao;aom orkdif;wm0efrsm;ukd 21 &mpkopfrS rsdK;qufopfvli,frsm;u +yD;pD;atmif qufvufxrf;aqmif vkyfukdifayvdrfhrnf? vlom;rsm;onf rdrda&[email protected];qufa[mif;. yckH;xufrSaeI vlom;wm0efrsm;ukd xrf;aqmif&ojzifh xkda&[email protected];qufa[mif;rsm;xuf omatmif vkyfukdifaqmif&GufEkdif&rnf? [email protected] aemifvmaemufom; rsdK;qufopfrsm; [email protected]; twwfEkdifqHk; ulnD axmufyHhay;cJh&ayrnf? [email protected] vlom;wa,muf. wm0efausyGefonf[k qkdEkdifayrnf? &Jabmf}uD; Akdvftkef;armif. “tESpf 50 =um+yD;aomtcg” onf/ aemifrsdK;qufopf vli,frsm;tm; pdwf\"mwfcGeftm; jznfhwif;ay;&m oifcef;pmrsm;,lp&m orkdif;[email protected]}uHK/ tjzpftysufrsm;ukd olyg0ifcJhonfh tcef;u jynfhpHkpGm a&;om;azmfjyxm;ojzifh olruG,fvGefrDajymcJhonfqkdonfh “cifAsm;[email protected] u|efawmf&SdaeOD;rSmyg” qkdonfhpum;. t\"dy`m,fukd tjynfht0qHk; tav;eufqHk; azmfxkwfjyoaeayonf[k u|efawmfxifjrifaerdygonf? xkdpum;pkonf ol.pdwf\"mwf }[email protected]_/ ZGJeyJ}uD;r_/ Armjynf}uD; acwfrD wkd;wufaomEkdifiH rjzpfEkdifao;jcif;tay: wm0efrausavjcif;[k tm;rvkdtm;r&[email protected]d azmfjyae+yD;/ aemifrsdK;qufopftwGufawmh tvGefxda&mufonfh tm;ay;0kdif;&H axmufcHoGm;onhf pum;pkvnf; jzpfayawmhonf? &Jabmf}uD;Akdvftkef;armifum; wrsdK;om;vHk;twGuf [email protected]@tcef;ukd b0wav#mufvHk; ausyGefpGm xrf;aqmifoGm;onfh Armjynf}uD;. *k%f,lzG,f om;aumif;wa,muf jzpfygonf? &Jabmf}uD; Akdvftkef;armif. “ukd,fusdK;rzuf/ ±kd;&kd;ukyfukyf aexkdif/ owWd&Sd&Sd vkyfukdifonfh pdwf\"mwf” xm0pOf t\"[email protected]&Snfygap? oGm;ESifh+yDjzpf=uaom &Jabmf}uD;[email protected];vHk;ukd owd& vGrf;qGwfvsuf- ausmfaZm (AkdvfausmfaZm) 16-3-07 u|efawmf xkdtdrfav;rSmaepOf u|efawmfhqD yHkrSefvma&mufvnfywfolwOD;uawmh u|[email protected] *syeftwlwloGm;cJhzl;onfh &JabmfoHk;usdyf0if Akdvfapmaemif jzpfygonf? u|[email protected] *syefrSm ppfynmoifpOfuwnf;u &if;ESD;cJhygonf? olonf ocifxGef;[email protected] [email protected] jzpfaomfvnf; u|[email protected] tawmfaumif;rGefpGm &if;ESD;pGm qufqHcJholjzpfygonf? [email protected] Akdvfae0if;u txl;t&m&Sdwae&m ay;xm;aomfvnf; t&ufpGJaeolwOD;jzpfojzifh b,fawmhrSavmufijcif; r&SdbJ/ t+rJ usywf n;f aewwyf gon?f u|eaf wmqhf vD n;f r=umc%vmvm+y;D aiaG wmi;f wwyf gon?f [email protected] ovl mvnaf omtcg ajcvrS ;f awmirf reS bf J rl;±l;aeygonf? u|efawmfu cifAsm; u|efawmhfqDrl;vm&ifawmh wHcg;zGifhray;bl; jyefayawmh[k ESifxkwfvkdufygonf? olu u|efawmfhtdrfa&[email protected] 26


avSum;xpfwGif xkdifcs+yD; “AkdvfausmfaZm usKyfukd ESifxkwfw,f[kwfvm;/ cifAsm; u|efawmfhukd ESifxkwfw,faemf”[k xyfcsnf;wvJvJ ajymumikd,kdygawmhonf? u|efawmfvnf; rwwfEkdifawmhbJ wHcg;zGifh+yD; tdrfay:ac:wif&ygawmhonf? +yD;awmh xHk;pHtwkdif; awmif;wJhaiG ay;vkduf&ygonf? [email protected];onfrSm tawmf awmf&Smoljzpfygonf? om;orD;rsm;ukd aps;a&mif;au|;+yD; ausmif;xm;ygonf? om;rsm; t&G,fa&muf vmaomtcg &SifjyKtvSLyGJjyKvkyf&m u|[email protected]; zdwfojzifh oGm;a&muf&ygonf? tvSLyGJukd urm&GwfrS bkef;}uD;ausmif; wausmif;wGif jyKvkyf&m naeykdif; armif&ifavmif;rsm;ukd qHcs+yD;aomtcg a&[email protected] [email protected];ukd ac:aomtcg [email protected];u olESifha&puftwl rcsvkd[k qkdvmonf? u|efr 'Db0awmh &Sdapawmh oabmxm;ygw,f? olESifhtwl a&pufcs&if aemifb0 olESifhu|efr xyfqHkrSmpkd;[email protected]? olESifh [email protected] ajymygonf? xkdtcg Akdvfapmaemifonf rsuf&nfpufvufESifh wOD;wnf; a&pufcs&ygawmhonf? u|efawmf [email protected]=umif; jyefpOf;pm;rd+yD; [email protected] w}udrfwcgu ESifxkwfrdr_tay: pdwfraumif; jzpfaerdygawmhonf? »»» » wcgrSmvnf; u|efawmfhqDukd xl;jcm;onfh {nfhonfwa,muf oHk;bD;um;ESifh aygufcsvmygonf? xkdtcsdefu Akdvfae0if;u jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwD [email protected];rnfhta=umif; a=unmxm;csdef jzpfygonf? xkd{nfhonfrSm Akdvfae0if;. ZeD;}uD; (uGm&Sif;xm;ol) a':wifwif jzpfygonf? u|efawmf [email protected] wkdif;rSL;wm0ef xrf;aepOfu a':wifwif [email protected]@iJhiJh ae&a=umif; =um;&ojzifh xkdpOfu zqyv ynma&;0ef}uD; OD;oef;atmifqD [email protected] [email protected] u|efawmfpma&;ay;+yD; p&dwfygay;um v$wfcJhygonf? OD;oef;atmifpDpOfay;ojzifh [email protected] a':wifwif q&mrtvkyf &&SdcJhygonf? a':wifwifrSm om;ESpfa,mufudkvnf; ausmif;xm;&ygao;onf? aemifawmh Akdvfae0if;u uav;rsm; ausmif;p&dwf axmufyHh[ef &Sdygonf? [email protected] a':wifwifu u|efawmfhukd 0rf;omtm;&ESifh ajymonfrSm [email protected] (Akdvfae0if;ukd [email protected]:) tck qkd&S,[email protected] ajymae+yD? tJawmh AkdvfausmfaZmukd ypfxm;rSmr[kwfbl;? u|efr 0rf;[email protected] vmajymwm[k qkdygonf? u|efawmfvnf; [email protected] {nfhcH+yD; tvmyov†myajymum c%wjzKwfae+yD; oljyefoGm;ygonf? oljyefoGm;rS u|[email protected] a&tkd;pifu aiGzvm;av;xJwGif aiGw&musyfESifh [email protected] u|efawmfxkwfay;vkdufaom c&D;p&dwfaºu;ukd vmqyfa=umif; pmav;wapmif a&;xnfhxm;wm [email protected]&ygonf? olu jyefumeD; tjyifxGufcsifonfqkdI u|efawmfhorD;wa,mufu tdrfomykd[email protected];+yD; [email protected];cJhonfh c%wGif olu aiGukdxm;jcif;jzpf[ef &Sdygonf? xkdpOfu vGwfvyfa&;armfuGef;0ifrsm;vnf; ay;aeojzifh u|efawmfhqD axmufcHpm vmawmif;olrsm;vnf; rsm;vSygonf? *syef acwfu vpmxkwfpm&if; twdtus&Sdonfhwkdif;rSm wkdif; 4 wwkdif;yJ &Sdojzifh u|efawmf. axmufcHcsufrSm tawmfyif ta&;ygaeygonf? u|efawmfuvnf; taotcsmppfaq;+yD; u|efawmfukd,fwkdif ,Hk=unfrS axmufcHcsufay;aoma=umifh u|efawmfhaxmufcHcsufygol tawmfrsm;rsm;rSm armfuGef;0if&=uwm rsm;ygonf? u|efawmhfukdvnf; vGwfvyfa&;armfuGef;0if vm,l&ef zdwfpmwcg&zl;ygonf? u|efawmf wufr,lcJhyg? wcgYvnf; Akdvfae0if;u u|[email protected] *syefjynf ppfynmoifpOfu q&mwmum[m&SDukd zdwfac:+yD; *syefjyeftm;vHk;[email protected] pka0; [email protected]&ef pDpOfygonf? u|efawmfhukd vmzdwfolrSm xkdpOfu axmufvSrf;a&;wm0efcH Akdvfcspfcif jzpfygonf? u|efawmfu zdwfpmukd vufcHxm;vkduf+yD; xrif;pm;[email protected] oGm;rwufcJhyg? u|efawmf rwufa&mufojzifh wmum[m&SdDu (xkdtcsdefu pD;yGm;a&;orm; jzpfaeyg+yD) u|efawmfhtwGuf [email protected] ay;xm;cJhojzifh xkdvufaqmifrsm;ukd vmay;&if; Akdvfcspfcifu ajymjyonfrSm [email protected] {nfhonfrsm; pHkvifaomtcg ol Akdvfae0if;ukd tdrfay:wufac:a=umif;/ Akdvfae0if;u AkdvfausmfaZma&m vmovm;[k [email protected];a=umif;/ olu rvma=umi;f ajymawmh Avdk af e0i;f u pwd qf ;dk +y;D oul b,of @ltm;u;dk [email protected] 'aD vmurf udk af e&wmwek ;f [qk adk =umi;f ajymjyygon?f wquwf n;f Akdvfcspfcifu qufajymonfrSm AkdvfcsKyftay: (u|efawmfhukd qkdvkd) AkdvfcsKyf}uD;u (Akdvfae0if;ukd qkdvkd) oHa,mZOf rjywf&Smygbl;? aemif ol zdwf&if AkdvfcsKyfvmjzpfatmifvmyg[kvnf; ajymoGm;cJhzl;ygonf? Akdvfae0if;uvnf; b,[email protected] ESpfbufrsufESm vkyfwwfol jzpfygonf? (OD;Ek. wmawpaeom;wGif 1962 ckESpf ppfwyfu tm%modrf;pOf oltzrf;cHae&pOfrSmawmif OD;Eku Akdvfae0if; yg[efr&Sd[kxifa=umif; a&;om;xm;wmukd =unfhyg? OD;Ekukd ol b,favmuf t,HkoGif;xm;vJ rodyg?) u|efawmf 1957 ckESpf/ ppfwyfu xGufcgeD;/ ppf±Hk;csKyfY u|efawmf Akdvfae0if;ukd oGm;E_wfqufpOf Akdvfae0if;u at;Asm tjyifa&muf+yD;&if u|efawmfhqD at;at;aq;aq;[email protected];[k rSmv$wfygonf? [email protected] twGif;0ef±Hk;Y tvkyfvkyfaeaom u|efawmfh OD;av;udkvnf; =um;yGpJ m;wOD;u csOf;uyf+yD; AkdvfausmfaZmemrnfESifh ycJ l;±kd;ru opfuefx±kdufav#mufyg? &&ygaphr,f[k vmajymzl;ygonf? [email protected] u|[email protected] wyfrSL;}uD;rsm;twGuf ay;xm;onfh ajruGufrsm;wGif tdrfaqmufrnfqkdu vkdtyfonfh tdrfaqmufypPnf;rsm; tpkd;& aps;E_ef;ESifh xkwfay;rnf[k u|efawmfESifh tvGef&if;ESD;onfh AkdvfrSL;}uD;jr0if;u u|efawmfhZeD;ukd vmajymygonf? xkdp&dwfukdvnf; rdrdu pkdufp&mrvkd/ iSm;&rf;rnfh oH±Hk;rsm;ukd oHk;ESpfpmav;ESpfpm iSm;&rf;p&dwf/ pmcsKyfcsKyf}udK,l+yD; aqmuf±Hkom jzpfonf? xkdaºu; oHk;av;ESpfESifh ausoGm;ygu rdrdtdrfykdifwvHk;&+yD; tdrfiSm;p&dwf qufpm;&efom jzpfygawmhonf? Tenf;jzifh wyfrSL;}uD;rsm; tdrfwvHk;uae ESpfvHk;/ oHk;vHk; aqmufEkdif=uonf? wyfrSL;}uD;rsm;tm; Akdvfae0if;u [email protected]¾maiGoHk;+yD; 0,f,lonfhenf;rsm; jzpfygonf? xkd enf;jzifh ppfwyfrS xGuf&onfh wyfrSL;rsm;ukd +idrfatmif olvkyfxm;EkdifcJhygonf? u|eaf wmf bmwcrk S vucf jH ci;f r&bdS J &onyhf ipf iaf v;EiS yhf if avmuif atmif aeygon?f &&xdS m;onhf ajruuG uf dk awmh u|eaf wmf wyfxJrSm aepOfuwnf;uyif u|efawmfhaiGay;+yD; *&efxGufatmif vkyfxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? xkdajruGufrsm;ukd zJhzJha&mif;+yD; tdrfpm;&dwf jznfh&ygonf? 27


jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; ysufoGm;pOfuvnf; zrf;qD;rnfh vlpm&if;ukd Akdvfae0if;qDwif&mwGif pm&if;xdyfwGifyg0ifonfh u|efawmfh emrnfukd Akdvfae0if;uyJ zsufypfay;vkdufonf[k =um;&ygonf? 1973-74 ckESpf/ rqv [email protected];tkyfcsKyfyHk a&;qGJ+yD; [email protected],lyGJ usif;[email protected] pkdif;jyif;aepOf u|[email protected] prf;acsmif; vtu OuUÏ AkdvfausmfaqGqkdol a&mufvm+yD; xkdqENcH,lyGJtwGuf }uD;=uyfonfhaumfr&SifwGif OuUÏvkyf&ef vmzdwfygonf? u|efawmfvnf; pdwfwkdwkdESifhyif “a[h-rif;[email protected] vlawG'Davmuf 'kuQa&mufaewm 'Dvkdtpkd;&rsdK;ukd igu yckH;[email protected];wifay;&OD;rSmvm;? [email protected] bmrrS wwEf idk vf @dk xidk =f unahf ewm? wwEf idk &f if ri;f [email protected];dk & jzKwcf [email protected] igrh mS 0w&W m;&wdS ,”f [k ajymcsvudk yf gon?f ovl n;f jyeof mG ;+y;D txutf qiqhf iuhf dk widk =f um;ygawmoh n?f vtl awmrf sm;rsm;vn;f 'wD csaD wmh u|eaf wmf tzr;f c&H awmrh n[f k xiaf e=uygon?f u|eaf wmf vnf; tawmfowdxm; aexkdif+yD; tajymtqkdvnf; qifjcifygonf? [email protected] pdwfaygufvm+yD; ajymcsvkdufjcif; jzpfygonf? xkdowif; Akdvfae0if;qD a&mufoGm;aomtcg Akdvfae0if;u “[kwfom;yJuG/ rif;[email protected] oGm;pwmukd;? AkdvfausmfaZmqkdwm a¹rayG;uG? [email protected] aygufwm? [email protected][mol at;at;aeyap” [kqkda=umif; =um;&ygonf? u|efawmfhqDvnf; b,folrS xyfvmjcif;vnf; r&Sdawmhyg? b,favmufawmif jzpfvmovJqkdv#if xkdqENcH,lyGJrJ±Hkukd u|efawmfhab;tdrfu um;±HkwGif vmzGifh+yD; u|[email protected] tdrfom;awG rJvmrxnfhrcsif;apmifhum naetcsdefukefrS rJ±Hkydwfygonf? aemufrJpm&if;xGufvmaomtcg rJrxnfhol ajcmufa,muf[k u|[email protected] tdrfom;rsm;ukd pm&if;jyxm;wm [email protected]&ygonf? u|[email protected] rJxnfh&ef vmrac:0Hhyg? wjcm;rJ±Hkrsm; vlukefvmxnfhojzifh tapm}uD; ydwfoGm;=uaomfvnf; u|[email protected] tdrfem;u rJ±HkrSmrl vlukefvmrxnfhao;ojzifh apmifh&onfqkd+yD; tcsdefukefonftxd apmifh+yD;rS rJ±Hkodrf;&ygawmhonf? u|[email protected] qDqHkvrf;rS tdrfav;rSmyif u|efawmfhorD;ti,f pef;pef;ukd tdrfaxmifcsay;ygonf? pef;pef;u [email protected] ol oGm;q&m0efav;wa,muf (xkdpOfu tvkyfoifq&m0efav;) ESifh arwWm&Sdaea=umif;/ [email protected]=umif; pHkprf;=unfh+yD; }uD;}uD;rm;rm; tjypfr&Sdv#if xkdolESifh olvufxyfvkda=umif; ajymvmygonf? xkdpOfu pef;pef;rSm pD;yGm;a&;wuUokdvfY enf;jyq&mr vkyfaeygonf? vSvSu [email protected],fcsif; oGm;aumvdyfY q&mr vkyfaeolrSwqifh xkdoli,fta=umif; pHkprf;&mwGif Aef;armfrSjzpf+yD; jynfe,fpwkdifyifESifh ausmif;wufae&ol jzpfa=umif;/ ±kd;om;}udK;pm; oljzpfa=umif; odvm&ojzifh u|[email protected]; xkdtdrfav;rSmyif tusOf;±Hk; vufxyfay; cJhygonf? orD;i,f vufxyf+yD; wESpft=umwGif om;ti,f ausmfaZmOD;u olESifharwWm&Sdaeonfh pDpDqkdonfh rdef;uav;ESifh vufxyf vkda=umif; ajymvmojzifh u|[email protected] aemufr*FvmudpPukd pDpOf&ygawmhonf? pDpDrSm zwqkd;av;jzpf+yD; tarwck/ orD;wckESifh }uD;jyif; vm&ol jzpfonf? rdcifjzpfolrSmvnf; tpfr}uD;jzpfolESifh wpD;yGm;wnf; twlaevmol jzpfonf? uefawmf}uD; xDvkyfief;ykdif&Sifrsm;jzpf+yD;/ yJcl;bufwGifvnf; aq;vdyfcHkrsm; &Sd=uonf? (aemifrS u|efawmfod&onfrSm pDpD.zcifrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD0ifwOD;jzpf+yD; awmckd&[email protected] ygoGm;um ysOf;rem;Y iSufzsm;ESifh usqHk;oGm;ol jzpfygonf?) u|eaf wmZfh e;D rmS xudk mvu ta=umuqf ;kH upd rP mS r*vF maqmizf wd pf m jzpyf gon?f u|eaf wmwf @dkonf r*vF m aqmif zwd pf m&ygu pdwftawmfnpfoGm;wwfygonf? wcgw&H wvwnf; zdwfpmESpfapmifoHk;apmif &wwfygonf? cifrifav;pm;aomtm;jzifh zdwf=um;=uwm jzpfojzifh roGm;Ivnf; raumif;yg? oGm;jyefuvnf; r*FvmyGJESifhtnD xkdufxkdufwefwef [email protected] aumif;ayonf? [email protected] r&Sdoifhawmhyg? [email protected]=umifh u|[email protected] ZeD;armifESHu ukd,fhom;orD;rsm; r*Fvmaqmifawmh r*FvmzdwfpmwGif “[email protected]; onf;cHyg”[laom pmwef; xnfh±kdufcJhygonf? orD;pef;pef;wkef;uawmh bmrSjy\\emray:yg? u|[email protected];pD;/ u|[email protected]}udKufyJ vkyf&ojzifh tqifacsmcJhygonf? tdrfrSm tusOf;±Hk;[email protected]; jzpfonf? [email protected] u|efawmfhom; r*FvmyGJusawmh rdef;uav;bufu ajymp&mawG jzpfvmygonf? pDpDh }uD;a': }uD;rSm [email protected];wOD;vnf; r*Fvmaqmif+yD;+yDjzpf&m a[mfw,f}uD;wckckwGif aqmif&rnf[k qkdvmygonf? }uD;a': }uD;bufu =unfhawmhvnf;orD;us wcrf;wem; vkyfay;cJh+yD; wlrusrS jzpfuwwfqef; vkyfay;onf[k tajymcH&rSmpkd;[ef &Sdygonf? pDpDrSm u|[email protected] vl}uD;rsm;t=um; tawmfAsmrsm;oGm;ygawmhonf? aemufawmh a':odef; (pDpDh }uD;a': }uD;) u a[mfw,frSm tcrf;tem;usif;ya&;ukd tav#mhay;+yD; u|[email protected][email protected]; onf;cHyg”ukd u|[email protected] a,mufsm;av;bufu zdwfonfhzdwfpm w0ufwGifyif ±kdufESdyf&ef tav#mhay;vkduf&ygonf? r*Fvmaqmifukd [email protected] ausmufajrmif;tdrfwGifyif usif;yjzpfcJhygonf? 1974 ckESpfwGif u|efawmfhom;orD;rsm; [email protected]&ukef+yD;/ tvkyftukdifrsm;ESifhjzpfum/ tdrfaxmifusolrsm;vnf; usoGm;ukef+yD jzpfygonf? u|efawmfh qDqHkvrf;tdrfrSmvnf; tdrfuav;u ao;i,f+yD; ab;ywfvnf axmufvSrf;a&;0kdif;aeojzifh tdrfrS u|efawmf w&ufaysmufr&yg? [email protected]=umifh u|efawmftdrf}uD;}uD;wvHk;0,f&ef pOf;pm;+yD; u|efawmftdrf&Sm&m prf;acsmif;/ ajrmif;jrvrf;xJwGifyif tdrft}uD;}uD;wvHk; &[email protected]? ay 50 ywfvnf ajruGufwGif [kdbuf'Dbuf 10 aypDcsefum tjynfhaqmufxm;onfh ESpfxyftdrf}uD; jzpof n?f a&;S u|e;f urk %` uD reaf e*smwO;D u aqmucf ohJ jzihf oprf sm;u taumi;f pm;rsm;jzpaf yon?f u|eaf wmqhf qD vkH r;f trd af v;uakd &mi;f / tdrfrSm&Sdor# ypPnf;tm;vHk;csa&mif;um u|efawmf xkdtdrf}uD;ukd aiGwodef;[email protected] 0,fvkdufygawmhonf? u|efawmf vufaqmif&xm;onfh ypPnf;rsm;/ wHqdyfrsm;/ [email protected];/ EdkifiHjcm;uygvmaom vufaqmifypPnf;rsm;pojzifh tdrfwGif&Sdor# tukefcsa&mif;&ygonf? 1974 cEk pS /f EpS vf nyf idk ;f avmuwf iG f u|eaf wmwf @dkrod m;pk xtdk rd }f u;D [email protected] ajymi;f a&@$c=hJ uygawmoh n?f xtdk rd .f um;*adk 'giwf iG &f adS om tdrfiSm;rsm;u awmfawmfESifhz,fray;ojzifh u|[email protected] tawmf'kuQ a&mufvkdufygao;onf? u|eaf wmwf @dk xtdk rd af jymi;f +y;D aemuf ArmjynEf idk if aH &;rek wf idk ;f yrdk jdk yi;f xevf mygawmoh n?f u|eaf wmof nf q &m}u;D rid_ ;f psmyeupd P/ *lAdrmefudpP +yD;uwnf;u bmEkdifiHa&;pum;rS rajymawmhbJ EkdifiHa&;udpPrsm;wGifvnf; ab;a&Smifaeygonf? u|efawmfhtwGuf vufeufukdif 28


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[email protected]=umifh u|efawmfygwDESifh tquf&atmif }udK;pm;aomfvnf; tqurf &yg? u|eaf wmthf aeEiS hf ygwED iS hf tqu&f [email protected] rP mS tveG vf #Kd @0uS If vyk uf ikd &f ojzihf rv,G uf vl yS g? t}urd tf csKd @ }uKd ;pm;cahJ omvf n;f ratmifjrifcJhyg? u|efawmfhyHk owif;pmxJ rygatmifvnf; tawmf}udK;pm;aeygonf? tdrfrSmvnf; r=umc% tjyifxGufxGuf=unfh+yD;/ w&uEf pS &f uaf ysmu+f y;D rS jyevf mwmrsKd ;vn;f vyk yf gon?f xpdk Ouf u|eaf wmohf r;D t}u;D vvS rS mS &euf ek tf a&@Syidk ;f aq;±}kHu;D wiG f vuaf xmuf q&m0ef vkyfae&m/ [email protected] aq;±Hku ay;xm;aom tdrfcef;wGif u|[email protected];armifESH vkdufaewwfygonf? u|efawmf tdrfrSm r&Sdwm yHkrSefjzpfaeatmif vkyfaqmifjcif; jzpfygonf? u|efawmfhtdrfu zkef;ukdvnf; apmifhem;axmifrSef;odojzifh bmudpPrS zkef;[email protected] owdxm;&ygonf? u|efawmf u b,fvkdyif EkdifiHa&;ESifh a0;atmifaeaomfvnf; xkdumvEkdifiHa&; rkefwkdif;jyif;xefvmaomtcg u|efawmftaeESifh wa=umif;r[kwfwa=umif; ywfouf vm&ygawmhonf? 1974 ESpfukefykdif; OD;[email protected]&;tcif; ay:vmawmh 'Dta&;tcif;ukd OD;aqmifaeonfh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;u [email protected];obif cef;rrSaeI u|efawmfhqD zkef;quf+yD; t}uH^m%frsm; awmif;ygonf? 1976 ckESpf/ r_dif;&mjynfhta&;tcif; t+yD;rSmawmh axmufvSrf;a&;wm0efcH (rsufrSef) AkdvfwifOD;u tac:ckdif;Iygqkd+yD; axmufvSrf;a&;u AkdvfrlS;&Jaq$ESifh txl;pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;Xme n¸ef=um;a&;rSL;OD;oef;[email protected] u|efawmfhukd vmac:ygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh u|efawmf tquftoG,f &Sdonf[k owif;&ojzifh ar;jref;vkdaoma=umifh[k qkdygonf? u|efawmf [email protected] AkdvfwifOD;ESifh [email protected]&ygonf? rif;[email protected] ig w,fvDzkef; ajymor#awGukd [email protected];xm;w,[email protected] =um;w,f? tJ'DrSm tukef&SdwmyJ[k u|efawmfuajymawmh AkdvfwifOD;u [m - u|[email protected] twwfynmu ajymoavmuf r[kwfygbl;[email protected] ajymygonf? [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] u|efawmfhukd [email protected] ygonf? [email protected] EkdifiHa&;rkefwkdif;rsm; jyif;xefaepOfumvrSmyif 1976 ckESpfZGefvqef;/ we*[email protected] wnaewGif u|efawmfh om;ti,f ausmfaZmOD;u “azaz u|efawmhfukd ygwDA[kdu qkwfckdif;[email protected] u|efawmf oGm;awmhr,f”[k E_wfqufvmygonf? xkdpOfu ausmfaZmOD;rSm vufxyf+yD; om;OD;ol&defausmfaZm (,ck vef'ef bDbDpDY tvkyfvkyfae) ukd arG;+yD; wESpfrjynfhwjynfh tcsdef jzpfonf? olonf vufxyf+yD;aemuf [email protected] vkdufaeaomfvnf; [email protected] ±Hk;qif;wmESifh [email protected];ESifhtwl u|[email protected] jyefa&mufvm+yD; wevFm[email protected] ±Hk;wuf&if; tdrfjyefoGm;wwf=uygonf? u|[email protected] ajrmif;jrvrf;tdrfwGif [email protected] twuG f tce;f wce;f xm;ay;ygon?f oEl iS ohf @ltpuf dk atmiaf usmaf [email protected] EpS af ,muf }uwd }f uwd }f uwd }f uwd Ef iS hf Eidk if aH &;vyk af ereS ;f u|eaf wmf &dyfrdaomfvnf; u|efawmfwcgr# ar;r=unfhyg? u|efawmfhorD;}uD; vSvSukdvnf; [email protected] EkdifiHa&;pum;rajym&ef u|efawmfESifhyJ ajymp&m&Sd ajym&ef rSm=um;xm;ygonf? [email protected],muf tpkd;&[email protected]&;vkyfief;awG vkyfaea=umif; owif;awGxGufaewm tawmf=um+yD jzpfonf? OD;[email protected]&;tcif; +yD;uwnf;u ausmif;om;ta&;tcif;rsm;ukd vuf0Jvuf,m ESpfbufpvHk;u [email protected]=umif; rqv ygwD0ifrsm; t=um; cscsaqG;aEG;ae=u+yD; vuf,mbufuawmh OD;ausmf+idrf;om;rsm;u OD;aqmif+yD;/ vuf0Jbufuawmh AkdvfausmfaZmom;rsm;u OD;pD;a=umif; ajymqkdae=uoH u|[email protected] jyef=um;xm;+yD; jzpfygonf? r_dif;&mjynfhyGJwGifvnf; [email protected],muf ygyHk&onf? [email protected],fwkdif yg±Hkru u|efawmfhtdrfwGif vmausmif;wufaeonfh u|efawmfh wlav; (u|efawmfhnDti,fqHk; ukdodef;a&$-om;) armifjrwfausmfukdvnf; [kdckdif;'Dckdif; ckdif;wwf&m/ u|efawmfhZeD;u [email protected] wm;qD; [email protected]? (u|efawmfhwl armifjrwfausmfrSm EkdifiHa&;pdwf0ifpm;yHk &onf? yxrykdif; [email protected]; ckdif;or#ukd vkyfukdif+yD;/ aemufykdif;olukd,fwkdif wufwufºuºu yg0ifvkyfaqmifvm&mrS r_dif;&mjynfh ta&;tcif;t+yD; ausmif;om;rsm; vkdufvHzrf;qD;&mwGif tzrf;tqD;cHoGm;&ygonf?) xkdtxJwGif vuf0Jpma&;q&m}uD; ocifjroef; uG,fvGef&mwGif [email protected],muf psmyeaumfrwDxJyg+yD; 0ifa&muf v_yf&Sm;=u&mu psmyeudpPrsm;+yD;aomtcg xkdpsmyeaumfrwD0ifrsm;tm; zrf;r,fqD;r,f jzpfvmojzifh [email protected],muf ArmjynfuGefjrLepf ygwD ajratmufuvmyfpnf;u awmckdckdif;jcif; jzpf[ef&Sdygonf? u|efawmfonf ausmfaZmOD;. E_wfqufpum;ukd =um;[email protected] &ifxwJ Gif 'dwfcejJ zpfoGm;um [email protected]; zrf;qxJG m;+yD; “rif;ukd ygwDA[kdu b,folrSef; taotcsm odovm;” [k u|efawmfuar;&m olu “odygw,fazaz? u|efawmfhukd azazhom;rSef; od=uygw,f”[k jyefajzygonf? xkdtcg u|efawmfu “'gqkdæighac:wm jzpfrSm? igqufaewm =um+yD? igvnf; vkdufr,f”[k qkdvkdufygonf? ausmfaZmOD;u [email protected] ta=umif;=um;pmrSm azazta=umif;rygyg? 'ga=umifh u|efawmft&ifoGm;+yD; ygwDA[kdukd azaz vmcsifa=umif; tpD&ifcHr,f? +yD;rS vlv$wf+yD; azazhvmac:r,f[kqkdum u|[email protected];tz tpDtpOfrsm; tao;pdwfa&;qGJ=uygonf? yxr [email protected] nDtpfukdESpfa,mufvHk; twlxGuf=u&ef jzpfaomfvnf; tckESpfa,mufpvHk; aysmufoGm;v#if axmuf vSrf;a&;u tdrfukd rsufjcnfrjywf apmifh=unhfrSmjzpfojzifh aemif u|efawmfxGuf&ef vG,fawmhrnf r[kwfyg? [email protected]=umifh zrf;umrS zrf;qkd+yD; atmifausmfaZmukd yHkrysufxm;ch+J yD; ausmfaZmOD;wa,mufwnf; xGufoGm;ygawmhonf? axmufvSrf;a&;rsm;uvnf; awmckdv#if nDtpfukd ESpfa,mufpvHk; oGm;vdrfhrnf[k wGufxm;ojzifh wa,mufu v_yf&Sm;aewmukd apmifh=unfhaeygonf? 'D=um;xJ ol&[email protected] wESpfjynfh arG;[email protected] usif;y&ef u|efawmfhZeD;ESifh pDpDtdrfom;rsm; wv_dif;v_dif; jyifae=uygawmhonf? u|eaf wmf ausmaf ZmO;D EiS hf aq;G aE;G onahf [email protected] yif u|eaf wmohf r;D }u;D vvS tS m; ajymjy&m or;D u azazomG ;&if ovl n;f vudk rf n[f k qkdvmygonf? xkdpOfu vSvSrSm &efukefaq;±Hk}uD;Y [email protected];wufaeygonf? u|efawmfu azazu tpuwnf;u azazoGm;&if orD;ukdyg ac:oGm;[email protected] pOf;pm;+yD;om;[email protected]+yD; vSvSaq;±HkrS cGifh&&Sda&;/ rSwfyHkwiftwkrsm; jyKvkyfa&;udpPrsm;ukd aqG;aEG;=uygonf? 29


u|[email protected] atmifausmfaZmtm; zrf;rsm;zrf;rvm;[k &ifwxdwfxdwfESifh ae=uygonf? xkdtcsdefu atmifausmfaZmrSm ajreDukef;Y pmtkyfqkdifav; zGifhxm;&m olvnf;t&Sdrysuf pmtkyfta&mif;t0,f vkyfaeygonf? ausmfaZmOD;xGufoGm;+yD; wvrjynfhwjynfh tcsdefrSmyif u|efawmfhom;}uD; atmifausmfaZmu wnaewGif “azaz qufom; a&mufvm+yD”[k owif;[email protected]? u|efawmfu xkdqufom;ukd u|efawmfhtdrfab;um;*kda'gifwGif zGifhxm;aom u|efawmhfom;ruf a'gufwm 0if;vGif. oGm;aq;cef;rSwqifh tdrfay:ac:wifoGm;&ef ajymvkdfufygonf? Tenf;jzifh u|[email protected]@ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDrS qufom;wOD; u|[email protected]:&ef a&muf&Sdvmygawmhonf? u|efawmf vGwfajrmufa'[email protected] xGufcGmjcif; Akdvfae0if;onf EkdifiHa&;t& tvGeftuif;yg;ol jzpfygonf? [email protected],fa& }uD;yGm;r_twGufqkdv#if b,[email protected] bmrqdk vkyfoljzpfonf? b,ftcsdefwGif b,[email protected] cGmI b,ftcsdefwGif b,[email protected] uyf&rnfukd aumif;aumif; wGufcsufwwfolvnf; jzpfonf? [email protected];[email protected] rSefor#ukda&m axmufcHolrsm;ukdyg bmawGpOf;pm;aeonf? bmawGvkyfaqmifaeonfukd t+raJ pmifh=unfh+yD; tpOfrjywf od&Sdae&rS auseyfol jzpfonf? axmufvSrf;a&;bufwGif tvGeftuGufaphol jzpfygonf? u|efawmf wyfuxGuf&uwnf;u u|efawmfhukd rsufjcnfrjywf apmifh=unfh+yD;aeonfukd u|efawmfukd,fwkdifvnf; odonf? u|efawmfhqD 0ifxGufoGm;vmae=uolrsm;vnf; od=uygonf? odatmifvnf; wrifvkyfonfhtcgrsm;vnf; &Sdonf? +cdrf;ajcmufonfh oabmvnf; jzpfygonf? TuohJ @kd vol xd i&f mS ; rsujf cnrf jywf apmi=hf uy=f un±hf a_ eon=hf um;u u|eaf wmf ueG jf rLepyf gwoD @dk vwG af jrmuf xuG af jy;Eikd of nhf tcg vltawmfrsm;rsm;u tawmfyif tHhtm;oifhoGm;=uygonf? [email protected]=umifhyif taemufEkdifiHom; pma&;q&[email protected] u|efawmfhukd Akdvfae0if;u wrifv$wfay;vkduf[ef &Sdonf[kyif a&;om;xm;wm [email protected]&ygonf? wu,fawmh u|efawmf [email protected] vGwfajrmufvmEkdifonfh tajccHta=umif;&if;rsm; &Sdygonf? xkdta=umif;rsm; rSmæ 1? u|efawmf tdrf}uD;wvHk; 0,fvkdufonfhudpP? ? 1974 ckESpfwGif u|efawmfu tdrf}uD;wvHk; 0,fvkdufjcif;onf u|efawmf vGwfajrmufvkduf&onfh tajccHta=umif;&if;}uD; w&yfjzpfayonf? 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'kwd,ta=umif;uawmh vwfwavm tvGeftusdK;&Sdapvkdufonfh udpPw&yf jzpfygonf? xkdudpPrSm Akdvftkef;[email protected] tr_ay:aygufvkdufjcif;yifjzpfygonf? xkdudpPESifh axmufvSrf;a&;[email protected];}uD;w&yfvHk; ±_yf,Sufcwf tvkyfrsm;oGm;ojzifh u|[email protected] apmifh=uyfaer_rsm;vnf; vpf[if;oGm;[ef &Sdygonf? xkdpOfwkef;uawmh bmudpPrSef; rodyg? u|[email protected] oGm;[email protected]@jyifqifaepOfrSmyif [email protected] vSvS naejyefvm+yD; ajymjyonfrSm olESifhtvkyfvkyfzuf q&m0efrwOD;&Sda=umif;/ xkdq&m0efrrSm avwyfrS ykdif;avmhAkdvf}uD;wOD;.ZeD;jzpf+yD; e0&wf&dyfomwGifaea=umif;/ 'aD [email protected];±kH a&muvf mcsed f aemuuf sojzihf bmjzpof v[J k ar;=un&hf m bmupd rP eS ;f ro/d owl @dkaeonhf e0&w&f yd of mudk reuvf i;f tm;}u;D wiG f ppfwyfESifh0kdif;I [email protected] tdrfatmufwGif aexkdifonfh AkdvfcsKyfausmfxif. ukd,fa&;twGif;a&;rSL; (P.A) ukd zrf;oGm;a=umif; ajymjyonf[k od&onf? 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(trSefrSm u|[email protected] [email protected] jyifqifpOf vSvSu armijf rwaf usmyf g wygwn;f ac:omG ;rn[f k qydk gon?f u|eaf wmuf val wrG sm;aev#if tE &W m,f &odS n?f [email protected]=umiahf emurf S vmac:wmayg?h tckawmh vGwfvGwfu|wfu|wf jzpfatmif [email protected] oHk;q,f jyefckdif;xm;&atmif[k ajymxm;+yD; ausmif;rsm;vnf; ydwfxm;ojzifh oHk;q,f [email protected];qD jyefckdif;xm;jcif; jzpfygonf? armifjrwfausmfonf r_dif;&mjynfh v_yf&Sm;r_wGif yg0ifr_jzifh axmifusoGm;+yD; vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhESifh vGwfvm+yD; aemuf 1980 ckESpfwGif u|[email protected]&Sd&m yefqef;[email protected] a&muf&Sdvm+yD; u|[email protected] awmufav#muf aexkdifcJhygawmhonf?) u|eaf wmuf uodk e;f xeG ;f udk ri;f vJ &euf ek rf mS [email protected]? tcyk J o;kH q,f jyeaf wm?h [email protected] =unahf &mS iyf grh ,qf udk m [email protected];vn;f jyefckdif;vkduf+yD; u|[email protected];tz oHk;bD;um;wpif;ESifh &efukefaq;±Hk}uD;[email protected] xGufvmcJhygonf? u|[email protected] apmifh=unhfonfh axmufvSrf;a&;rsm;onf aq;±Hk}uD;a&[email protected] u|[email protected] om;tz oHk;bD;um;ay:rSqif;+yD; aq;±Hkay:wufoGm;onftxd u|[email protected] aemufu ygvmcJhygonf? aq;±Hk}uD;. a&[email protected]:wDukdatmufwGif [email protected] &yfapmifhaeonfukd u|[email protected] aq;±Hkay:u jrif&ygonf? vSvSonf olwm0efusaeonfh [email protected];+yD; olzkef;qufxm;onfh q&m0efav;ukd tcsdefr&[email protected] '[email protected] aq;roGif; ao;bl;? 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a&;uyfxm;ojzifh jzwfoGm;jzwfvmrsm;u a=umfjimomru um;xJukdyg pdwf0ifwpm; =unfh=unfhae=uygonf? xkdum;q&mrSm tawmf-awmfonf? um;ukd nvHk;aygufarmif;&mwGif oltdyfcsifvmygu um;&yf+yD; um;vrf;ay:qif; 'kef;ajy; ygonf? oHk;av;acgufajy;+yD;rS um;ay:wuf qufarmif;ygonf? vrf;wGif yJcl;t0ifwGif rSwfyHkwifwcsufppf+yD; b,fae&mrSmrS xyfrppf awmhyg? um;ay:wGif um;py,f&mwOD;vnf; ygygonf? u|[email protected] reufvif;tm;}uD;wGif rE Wav;[email protected] 0ifygonf? ygwDrS aemufqufom;wa,mufu um;wpD;iSm;xm;+yD; rE Wav; awmifajcrS apmifhaernf[kqkdojzifh u|[email protected] &efukefu iSm;vmaomum;ukd rE Wav;awmifajc wae&mwGif &yfckdif;+yD; u|efawmf/ vSvS/ ukdatmifESifh ygwDrS yxrqufom;&aJ [email protected] um;ay:rSqif;um u|[email protected] udpP&SdI c%oGm;OD;rnf/ naejyefqHkrnf[k armif&0J if;ukd E_wfquf+yD; xGufcJhygonf? 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tpkd;&tr_xrf;vm;[k ar;ygonf? vSvSu [kwfuJh? u|efr erfhcrf;[email protected];±Hk}uD;ajymif;vmwJh (A.S) vufaxmufq&m0efyg? u|efrrSm (Transfer Order) a&[email protected];[email protected]; ygygw,f? 'DrSm =unfhOD;rvm;[k qkdaomtcg xkdpma&;u ysmysmovEJ Sifh [m-rvkdygbl;/ rvkdygbl;? oGm;yg tpfr}uD; &ygw,f[k qkdygonf? vSvSu u|efawmfhvufqG+J yD; 'guawmh u|[email protected] u|efrOD;av;/ u|[email protected] oGm;awmhr,faemf/ aus;Zl;wifygw,f[k E_wfquf&m xkdpma&;uav;u tpfr}uD; a&[email protected];awGrSmvnf; (Government service) tpkd;&tr_xrf;[email protected] ajymyg? bmrS ppfaq;rSm r[kwfygbl;[k rSmvkduf&Smygao;onf? (1980 ckESpfrsm;twGif; ygwDwGif;[email protected] vlopf&[email protected] a&mufvm&m [email protected] A.D *dwftjzwf [email protected]}uHKukd u|[email protected]; jyefajymjyzl;ygonf? [email protected]; xkd*dwfwGif ppfaq;olrsm;u-u|[email protected] 'D*dwfu odyfewf}uD;wm/ [email protected] wrdom;pkvHk; 'DuvGwfxGufoGm;wmav? *dwfw*dwfvHk;vnf; tvkyfjyKwfxGufoGm;wmyJ? 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[email protected],mufvnf; aemufum;ESifhyif ygvm&m u|[email protected]&[email protected] ppfaq;a&;wck+yD;IxGufv#if [email protected];u aemufu 0ifvmwwfygawmhonf? [email protected];ae&mu u|[email protected] [email protected];ukd ausmf+yD;aomtcg [email protected],muftm; wHwm;wzuf xdyf tay:bufwGif&Sdaom wJwef;vsm;[email protected] ppfAkdvfwa,mufu ac:oGm;wmukd [email protected]&ygawmhonf? xkdppfAkdvfu [email protected] &,f&,f armarm ajymajymqkdqdk pum;wajymajymESifh ac:oGm;aewm [email protected]&ojzifh pdwfxJtenf;i,fat;&aomfvnf; pdwfawmhwxihfxifh jzpfae ygon?f (aemirf S o&d onrf mS uadk tmihf oil ,cf si;f D.S.A qi;f wa,muf jzp+f y;D uadk tmiuhf adk [email protected] 0r;f omtm;&ac:omG ;+y;D pum;pjrnf ajymwmomjzpfa=umif;/ ukdatmifu tvkyfjyKwfoGm;ojzifh pdwfnpf+yD; xGufvnfaea=umif; ajymjy+yD; jyefqif;vmcJha=umif; od&ygonf? ukdatmifrSm [email protected]&+yD;cgpu urm&Gwf pD;u&ufpuf±Hkw±HkwGif tvkyfoift&m&Sdtjzpf tvkyfvkyfaech+J yD; 1974 - 75 tvkyform; ta&;tcif; t+yD;wGif tvkyfjyKwfcJhygonf?) TvEdk iS hf u|eaf wmwf @dk c&;D EiS vf m&m [email protected] ri;f udk uwG cf idk wf iG f 0,pf m;+y;D erchf r;f [email protected]&mucf ge;D 10 ridk cf [email protected] iG f u|eaf wmwf @dk qufom;uav;u um;&yfckdif;+yD; u|[email protected] 'DrSmyJ qif;awmhrnf[k ajymqkd+yD; um;ay:u qif;=uygawmhonf? u|[email protected] qif;aom tcg um;py,f,mu a=omf æ cifAsm;[email protected] 'Dvkdukd;[email protected] qkdvkdfufygonf? xkdae&mrSm u|[email protected] ajratmuf&Jabmfrsm; oHk;aeusvrf; jzpfojzifh um;py,f,mav;u Tonfukd &nf&G,fI ajym[ef&Sdonf? u|[email protected] oHk;+yD;aemuf xkdvrf;ukd rnfolr# roHk;awmh? u|[email protected]; &ifxJ'dwfueJ jzpfoGm;aomfvnf; [efrysuf um;ay:rSqif;um um;vrf;b,fbuf&Sd awmifukef;wukef;ay:&Sd bkef;}uD;ausmif;&Sd&m oGm;aomvrf;[email protected] qif;av#muf=uygonf? u|[email protected] pD;vmonfhum; rsufpdatmufrS aysmufoGm;rS vm&mvrf;jyefvSnfh+yD; um;vrf;jzwfum um;vrf; nmbufab;&Sd awmtyk wf iG ;f 0iuf m vol mG ;vr;f av;twidk ;f quaf v#muaf wmh e,pf yaf csmi;f udk a&muof mG ;+y;D ur;f wiG vf n;f u;l [email protected] v;wp;D uyxf m; wm [email protected]&ygonf? avSorm;vnf; tqifoifhyif [email protected]&ygonf? u|[email protected] xkdacsmif;ukd ul;[email protected];ESifhjzwf+yD; urf;ay:wufum [email protected]&onfh vrf;uav;twkdif; av#mufvm&m pyg;cif;}uD;wckab; v,fuefoif;ay:wufav#mufvkdufpOf “azaza&/ azaza&”[k atmf+yD; vuf}uD;ajr‡muf [email protected],rf;+yD; ajy;vmonfh u|efawmfhom;ti,f ausmfaZmOD;ukd [email protected]&ygawmhonf? olu u|[email protected] [email protected] [email protected] xGufcGmoGm;oljzpf&m [email protected] [email protected]&aomtcg u|[email protected] [email protected] acsmacsmarmarm vHk+cHKpGmqkdufa&muf+yDqkdwmukd odvkduf&ygawmhonf? u|[email protected] ausmfaZmOD;/ olESifhtwlygvm+yD; }udKapmifhaeaom ygwDajratmufXme au'gwOD;jzpfonfh &JabmfaZmf0if;[email protected] tusdK;ta=umif; ajymaepOfrSmyif u|efawmfhom;t}uD; ukdatmifESifh qufom;&[email protected] a&mufcsvmygonf? xkdae&monf Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD. a&[email protected];pcef;axmuf&Sd&m ref[kdif;&Gmav; jzpfygonf? [email protected] 1976 ckESpf/ Zlvkdifv 20 &[email protected] jzpfygawmhonf? u|efawmfonf tcuftcJtrsdK;rsdK;/ [email protected];rsdK;ukd jzwfausmf+yD; ESpf&Snfvrsm; cGJcGmcJh&onfh “tdrf” (ygwD) [email protected] jyefvnfa&muf&SdcJhygawmhonf? ? 33


ukd;um;onfhpmtkyfpmwrf;rsm; 1? pma&;olukd,fwkdif a&;om;cJhonfh pmtkyfrsm; 1-1? zufqpfawmfvSefa&; 2? trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;wkdufyGJrsm; [email protected];rsm;pmay 3? jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;oabmxm;ESifh vufa&G;[email protected];rsm; 4? urBmppfESifh +idrf;csrf;a&; 5? orkdif;rSefuluGufrsm; [email protected];rsm;pmay 6? w&m;cHtppfb,folvJ ‚ 7? rD'D,mavmuESifh tifwmAsL;rsm; ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD/ A[kd0g'[email protected]&;Xme 2? wjcm;pmtkyfrsm; 2-1? vGwfvyfa&;a&$&wk (jynfwGif;ppfESpfig;q,f) atmifapmOD; 2? wkdif;jynfuEkEk rkefwkdif;u xefxef AkdvfrSL;}uD;a[mif;wifarmif 3? rkefwkdif;vGefaomf ‚ 4? rkefwkdif;ukdvGefI tefwkavaomf rkd;rkd;wma&mpH 5? wyfrawmforkdif; (yxrwGJ rS pwkwÎwGJtxd) wyfrawmfarmfuGef;wkduf 6? jynfwGif;qlylaomif;usef;r_orkdif; (tykdif; 4 ykdif;) ‚ 7? q&m}uD;ocifukdawmfr_dif; vlxka':trm *? owif;pmrsm;ajymwJhppftwGif;Armjynf vlxkOD;vS 9? wmawpaeom; OD;Ek 10? orkdif;rSefuluGuf 2 [email protected];rsm;pmay 11? q&m}uD;ocifukd,fawmfr_dif; ESpf 130 jynfh (txl;xkwf) \"l0Hpmay 12? bHkb0rSmjzifh ocifwifjr 13? zufqpfawmfvSefa&;XmecsKyfESif wkdif;}uD; 10 wkdif; ocifwifjr 14? Burma in Revolt Bertil Litner 34


aemufqufwGJ (1) AkdvfrSL;csKyfa[mif;ausmfaZm. wkdif;[email protected] wifjycsuf (10-8-76) cspfvSpGmaom tzdESdyfcH vkyfom;jynfolrsm;jzpfwJh vlrsdK;aygif;pHkyg0ifwJh tvkyform;/ v,form;/ [email protected];ukdifpm; qif;&Jom;rsm;/ ynmwwfrsm;/ trsdK;rsdK;aom tvwfwef;v$mrsm;/ trsdK;rsdK;aom vkyfief;ukdifief;&Sifrsm;ESifh &[ef;oHCmrsm;cifAsm;- aemufrsdK;qufwckvHk; [email protected];atmif [email protected];cHae&wJh ausmif;om;rsm;/ vli,frsm;cifAsm;? aemuf ae0if;-pef;,k ppfwyftwGif;&Sd trsdK;rsdK;[email protected];rsm;rS t&m&Sdt&mcH/ t=uyfwyfom;rsm;cifAsm; u|efawmf[m ae0if; tkyfpkd;r_ukd [email protected] ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDacgif;aqmifwJh vGwfajrmufwJhe,fajrukd tcuftcJ trsdK;rsdK;ukd jynfolrsm;tultnDjzifh ausmfjzwf+yD; a&muf&Sdaeyg+yD? tb,fa=umifh u|efawmf[m vufeufukdifawmfvSefa&;[email protected] xGufvm&ovJqkdwm u|efawmfhtaeESifh wkdif;jynfukd &Sif;[email protected] wm0ef&Sdygw,f? wckwnf;aom t\"duta=umif;uawmh u|[email protected] jynfolawGukd ae0if;-pef;,kppftkyfpku u|[email protected] wkdif;jynforkdif;rSm r}uHKzl;avmufatmif tzufzufu ESdyfuGyfr_/ aoG;pkyfr_a=umifh jynfolawG cHpm;ae&wJh 'kuQt00ukd u|efawmfhtaejzifh b,fvkdrS vufykduf [email protected]? 'ga=umifh vGefcJhwJhESpftawmf=umuwnf;u ae0if;tkyfpkd;r_ukd wGef;[email protected] trsdK;rsdK;}uHqcJhygw,f? [email protected] wyfwGif; wpdwfwykdif;tajctaea=umifh ae0if;[m u|efawmfhukd axmifcsrxm;ayr,fh tapmifht=uyftrsdK;rsdK;/ olv#dKtrsdK;rsdK;ESifh rv_yfEkdifatmif csKyfukdifxm;ygw,f? ,ckrSyJ &wJhtcGifhta&;ukd jzpfovkd toHk;cs+yD;/ [email protected]&[email protected] &efol}uD; ae0if;ppftpkd;&ukd [email protected] [email protected] vufeufukdifawmfvSefa&;e,fxJ a&mufcJhygw,f? u|efawmftckvkd ae0if;tkyfpkd;r_ukd wGef;[email protected] vkyfwmukd/ jynfolw&yfvHk; 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om axmufcHr,fqkdwm oHo,r&Sdyg? [email protected] vkyf&w,fqkdwm oHo,r&Sdyg? ae0if;-pef;,[email protected] [email protected]: &ufpufpGm zdESdyfyHkukd =unfh=uprf;yg? olwufvm+yD; r=umrDvykdif;twGif; 1962 ck/ Zlvkdifv 7 &ufta&;tcif;}uD; jzpfcJhygw,f? 'Dta&;tcif;rSm tjypfrJh vufeufrJh ausmif;om;awGukd atmfwkdrufwpf*sDo&D;-*sDzdk;awGESifh [email protected];ppfwyfu &efoludk vkdufvHacsr_ef;ovkd twif;ypf/ twif;vkduf/ twif;owf=uw,f? [email protected] '%f&m&wJhausmif;om;awGukd vkdufzrf;rdor# vufpwHk;owfypfw,f? wGif;}uD;awGwl;+yD; ajrjr‡Kyf— tpazsmufvkdufw,f? tenf;qHk; 100 rS 200 =um; towfcH&w,f? aoG;acsmif;pD;cJhw,f? om;orD;csif; pmem=unfhyg? [email protected]&ifrSm b,fvkdaervJ? rdbawG[m tavmif;[email protected]&? ro+*õK[f&bl;? [email protected] ±l;wJhvl ±l;oGm;=uw,f? aemufxyf+yD; Armjynf&Sde,[email protected]@usifa&; AdrmefwckjzpfwJh/ orkdif;0if or*~taqmufttHk}uD;ukd Zuf&Jvuf&J +zdKcGJvkdufw,f? aemufae0if;uxyf+yD; t±l;trl; aoG;±l;aoG;wef; jynfolawGukd [email protected] aemifvnf; \"m;\"m;csif;/ vSHvSHcsif; acsr_ef;ypfr,[email protected] a&'D,kdu }udrf;0g;vkdufw,f? e,[email protected]+Adwdo#awmif tESpf 100 oltkyfpkd;r_rSm 'Davmuf&ufpuf&rf;um;r_}uD;rsdK; rvkyf&JcJhbl;? e,[email protected];ap ae0if;uawmh [email protected];r_ wESpfrjynfhcifrSm vkyfjy&JcJhw,f? 'g[m bmukdjyvkdufovJ- 'g[m jynfoltusdK;jyKr,fqkdwJh rqv vrf;pOfvm;? 'g[m acwfajymif;awmfvSefa&;qkdwmvm;? 'g[m jynfoludkcspfygw,fqkdwJh [email protected];? 'g[m ae0if;&[email protected] zufqpfbDvl;±kyf bGm;bGm;ay:wmyJ r[kwfvm;? 'g[m tm%mukd bmESifhrSrvJEkdifwJh irf;irf;wuf tm%m±l;}uD;qkdwm ay:wmyJ r[kwfvm;? 'g[m jynfolawGtay: ae0if;[email protected] b,fvkdoabmxm;w,fqkdwm jyvkdufwmyJr[kwfvm;? e,[email protected];awmif rvkyf&[email protected] aemufwvSrf;qkwf&wJh umvrSm ae0if;[m yg;uGufom; vlpGrf;aumif;}uD; vkyfjycJhw,f? e,cf [email protected]@fusiaf &;wudk yf tJG qiqhf ihf *%k af &miaf jymicf whJ hJ owadW jymicf whJ hJ u|eaf wmwf @dk&@J ausmi;f om;vil ,af wuG dk 'vD tdk =ur;f zuf &mESifhcsD+yD; [email protected] a=umufrwJhvm;? [email protected]&[email protected] &mZyv†ifa&m +rJrwJhvm;? ausmif;om;vli,fawGtygt0if u|[email protected]&[email protected] jynfolawG[m +Adwdo#e,[email protected];ukd tefwkcJhwJh jynfol/ zufqpf *syefukd xcscJhwJhjynfol/ ae0if;[email protected]&[email protected] e,[email protected] armif;xkwfcJhwJh jynfolawGqkdwm ae0if;[email protected]&w,f? orkdif;u 'D&mZ0wfaumifukd cGifhv$wfrwJhvm;? 'DaemufrSm ae0if;[email protected] [email protected];awGayusHaewJh zufqpfbDvl;±kyfukd zHk;uG,fa&;/ vSnfhpm;a&;twGuf rqv ygwDqkdwJh qkd&S,fvpftwk ygwDw&yfukd [email protected]=u;pm;wyfukd A[kdjyK+yD; 1963 rSm [email protected];cJhw,f? '[email protected] wzufu qdk&S,fvpftwkta,mifESifh rEkd;=um; 35


ao;wJh jynfolwpdwfwykdif;ukd [email protected]@/ Ekd;=um;wJh jynfoltrsm;pkukd *wfpwmykdpHkaxmufwyfvkd [email protected]&; [email protected]}uD;wwyftjzpf [email protected] ppfwyfygwD [email protected],f? 'DvkdygwDxJ r0ifvkdwJholawGukdvnf; r0ifbJrae&Jatmif tusyfukdifcJhw,f? aemuf ae0i;f [m q&dk ,S vf ptf wuk dk uidk ,f r;f +y;D jynof yl idk vf yk wf ,af [qh +dk y;D y*k v~ ud yidk f vyk if e;f uikd if e;f tm;v;kH udk urG ;f ,mqidk f omomavmufup+yD; [email protected]=u;ray;/ odrf;usHK;vk,uf,l=uw,f? tusdK;qufuawmh trsdK;om;pD;yGm;a&; emvefrxlEkdifatmif usqif;apcJhw,f? e,[email protected];pHkukd ykdrSDckd&+yD; ukefaps; E_ef;awG w[kefxkd;wufcJhw,f? jynfolawG ykdusyfwnf;vmcJhw,f? [email protected] um;awGwkdufawG wkd;wufvmw,f? qkd&S,fvpftwkjzpfa=umif;/ e,[email protected];apjzpfa=umif; xyfzGifhjywmu e,[email protected] bDtkdpDa&eHukr`%Dukdodrf;awmh r&Sufra=umuf e,[email protected] aphpyf+yD;avsmfa=u;ay;cJhw,f? emrnfqkd;vSwJh ‘Ek-tufwvD’pmcsKyfukd ,cktxd rzsuf0Hhao;bl;? ae0if;[email protected][m wjznf;jznf;us,[email protected] [email protected] vlrsdK;pktoD;oD;u [email protected];r_ukd vufeufpGuJ kdif awmfvSefae =uwJh vufeufawGukd [email protected]@ jynfolw&yfvHk;ukd vSnfhpm;[email protected] 1963 ckESpfrSm [efjy+idrf;csrf;a&;twkukd vkyfcJhw,f? aemufqHk; olomv#if +idrf;csrf;a&;ukd zsufqD;wJh w&m;cHtjzpf ay:cJhw,f? aemufae0if;[email protected][m [email protected];r,f/ tusdK;&Sdr,fxifwJh xkwfvkyfa&;ESifh ukefoG,fa&;vkyfief;ukdifief; tao;t}uD; wck+yD;wck xyfodrf;=u/ vk,[email protected] trsdK;om;pD;yGm;a&; ykdIykdIysufpD;vm/ aps;E_ef;awGykd}uD;vm/ xkwfvkyfr_awGusqif;vm/ wkdif;jynfpD;yGm;a&;z±kdz&J jzpfvm&w,f? aemufqHk; 1967 rSm Armjynforkdif;rSm wcgrS r}uHKzl;wJh qefravmuf xrif;iwf&r,fhudef; qkdufvmw,f? qefjy\\em jzpfvmawmh ,cife,[email protected];vkd vrf;[email protected] w±kwfArmta&;tcif; ae0if;[email protected];+yD;/ w±kwftrsdK;orD; - trsdK;om; rsm;pGmukd owfjzwfcJhw,f? aemuftiwfrcHEkdifwJh jynfolawG[m qefjy\\emwkdufyGJ quf0ifvmwJhtcg &ckdifrSm &ufpufpGm ypfowf+yD; ESdyfuGyfjyvkdufw,f? tawmfrsm;rsm; jynfolawG usqHk;&jyefw,f? 'Denf;ESifh ae0if;[email protected][m bmyJyg;pyfuajymaeae [email protected]vlwef;pm;tusdK;ukd xdckdufr,fqkd&if zufqpfbDvl;jzpfa=umif; [email protected] 0efrav;=ubl;? 'DvkdESifh aoewfw,rf;,rf;ESifh owfjzwf+cdrf;ajcmuf+yD; wav#mufvHk; tkyfpkd;vmcJhw,f? 'DtxJu yHko¿meftrsdK;rsdK;[email protected] ae0if;tkyfpkd;r_ukd awmfvSeftmcHwJhol [email protected];orD;aumif;rsm;[m tusOf;axmifxJrSm [email protected]&/ [email protected] n‡Of;yef;cH&/ [email protected] ukdukd;u|ef;[email protected]&w,f? 'Dn‡Of;yef;r_[m *syefzufqpfawGvkdyJ tvGef&ufpufw,f? ae0if;tusOf;pcef;awGrSm tmZmenftawmfrsm;rsm; usqHk;cJh&w,f? 'tD xrJ mS *syeaf wmvf eS af &;acgi;f aqmi}f u;D wO;D jzpwf hJ Avdk rf LS ;}u;D Ax;l &@Jom;wa,mu[f mvn;f rsuvf ;kH ue;f atmif EydS pf ucf &H +y;D aemuf taoowfypfjcif;cH&w,f? ae0if;zdESdyfr_/ aoG;pkyfr_[m [email protected];xefvmw,f? [email protected] usyfwnf;r_[mvnf; ykdjyif;xefvmw,f? qefravmufwJh tiwfjy\\em[mvnf; ykd}uD;xGm;vmw,f? 1974 arvrSm acsmufa&eHajr tvkyform;rsm;u qefjy\\em ajz&Sif;ay;[email protected] pwifaygufuGJvmw,f? aemuf &[email protected] txufatmuf Armjynfpuf±Hktvkyf±HkawG qefvHkavmufatmifay;a&;[email protected] [email protected] zdESdyfxm;wJh vkyfom;aumifpDawGzsufodrf;a&;oydwfrsm;[m ae0if;aoewfawG vSHpGyfawGa&[email protected] ra=umufr&[email protected] wck+yD;wck aygufuGJay:xGufvmw,f? tvkyform;awG[m iwf+yD;awmhtaorcHbl;/ wkdufyGJESifh&ifqkdifr,[email protected] oEdMÏmefcs+yD; &J&J}uD;wkdufyGJ0ifvm=uw,f? 'DwkdufyGJ[m tr_xrf; t&mxrf;awGtxd ul;puf+yD; jynfvHk;u|wfoydwf}uD; aygufuGJawmhrwwf jzpfvmw,f? ae0if; ppftkyfpk[m uref;uwef; [email protected];a[mif;twkdif; 'Dta&;+idrf;oGm;atmif tiftm;t}uD;qHk;jzpfwJh &efukef tvkyf orm;awGukd ypfowfjyvkdufw,f? tvkyform;ESifhjynfol 100 avmuf aoausysufpD;&jyefw,f? ae0if;[email protected]&[email protected] vufawG[m txyfxyfaoG;pGef;cJh=u+yD? aemuf 1974 'DZifbm ausmif;om;ta&;tcif;rSm ae0if;tkyfpkd;r_ukd &efukefwuUokdvfrsm;ESifh ausmif;aygif;pHk ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh &[ef;oHCmrsm; yl;aygif;+yD; wkdufyGJ0ifcJhw,f? rE Wav;u tvm;wlausmif;om;rsm;ESifh oHCmrsm;yg0ifvmw,f? 6 &ufvHk;vHk;tefwk+yD; oydwfarSmufqENjycJh=uw,f? 'Dausmif;om;ta&;ukd ae0if;[email protected] t=urf;[email protected] &[email protected]@[m a'goxGuf+yD; [email protected] qENjyw,f? [email protected] 0ef}uD;rsm;±Hk;ESifh *[email protected] 0kdif;0ef;[email protected] }udK;pm;w,f? [email protected] vrf;pOfygwDESifh aumifpD±Hk;rsm;ukd rD;±[email protected] zsufqD;ypf=uw,f? owWd&SdpGmESifh vSHpGyfawGukd tefwkvkdufw,f? tJ'DjynfolawGukd aoG;at;at;ESifh [email protected] vkdufvHypfowf+yD; ESdyfuGyfvkdufw,f? tenf;qHk; 'Dta&;tcif;rSm jynfolESifh ausmif;om; 150 ausmf aoaus'%f&m&ch=J uw,f? txufyg 1974 ckESpf tvkyform;ta&;tcif;ESifh 'DZifbmausmif;om;ta&;tcif;[m ae0if;[email protected]=oZmESifh oduQmukd xyfrH+yD; t}uD;tus,f usqif;apcJhjyefw,f? aemuf ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm;[m tcGifhtcg&wkdif; ae0if;zdESdyfr_ukd awmfvSefwkdufckdufcJh=uw,f? 1975 ck ZGefvrSm rEpS uf ao;G acsmi;f p;D cwhJ hJ tvyk of rm;ta&;tci;f EpS yf wvf nqf EjN yy}JGu;D udk ausmi;f om;awuG usi;f y+y;D / ae0i;f [email protected] tewf vk udk jf yewf ,?f ,ckaemufqHk; 1976 ck rwfv q&m}uD;ocifukd,fawmfr_dif; &mjynfhrSm axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom ausmif;om;awG ae0if;ukd 36


tefwk+yD; csDwuftav;jyKw,f? aemufwuUokdvf [email protected];obifcef;rukd odrf;ykduf+yD; oydwfarSmufvkduf=uw,f? ae0if;[email protected] rsm;jym;vSwJh ausmif;om;tHkºur_ukd [email protected]+yD;/ uref;uwef;wjynfvHk;&Sd/ wuUokdvfESifhaumvdyf ausmif;rsm;ukd ,cktxd [email protected]&Sd ydwfvkdufw,f? ausmif;om;awGukdvnf; axmifESifhcsD+yD; wpdrfhpdrfh ,cktxd vkdufzrf;aew,f? [email protected] w&m;pGJ+yD; ESpf&Snfaxmifcsaew,f? 'g[m bmujkd yov?J ae0i;f [email protected] Armjynvf wG af jrmuaf &;wudk yf oJG ridk ;f rmS r}uKH z;l atmif jynof al wuG dk ao;G acsmi;f p;D owjf yaewhJ txJu jynfolawG[m OD;rnGwfbJ wAkdvfuswAkdvfwuf vGwfajrmufa&;wkdufyGJ/ 'Drkdua&pDwkdufyGJukd tqufrjywf qifE$JcsDwufaew,f? 'gaw[G m ae0i;f tyk pf ;dk ru_ mvtwiG ;f jynof al wuG dk [email protected]&me,cf [email protected]/G zuqf paf wvG ydk J zEd ydS wf ,qf wdk mudk u|eaf wmtf en;f i,f wifjywm jzpfygw,f? 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aemufqufwGJ (2) xeG ;f awmuqf J ju,ef oD hdk ywhdk hJ uAsmo0%f &Spfq,f æ æ wJh wdkufyGJ0iftefwk&if; tESpfºu,fºu,f [email protected] 'kwd,urBmppftwGif; [kdifeefa&muf vSywJh orkdif;a=umif;[email protected] trdEkdifiH [email protected] ppfynmoif EkdifiHom;aumif; yDopGm orkdif;0if &JabmfoHk;usdyf pm&if;rSm vlxkacgif;aqmif yDopGm ‘ukda&$’[m *k%fajymifpGm jzwfoef; AkdvfausmfaZm jzpfvmw,fæ rkefwkdif;vrf;ay:u =u,feD trdjynftwGuf *k%f,lp&m 0ifvmwJh*syef[m u|[email protected] *k%f,lp&m EkdifiHtay:quf u|efjyK =unfndKpGm OD;ckduf vlxktay: &ufpuf E_wfcGef;qufovkdufygw,f OD;av;a& zufqpfyDyD &rf;um;awmh zufqpfrsm;ukd armif;xkwfa&; OD;av;&[email protected] [email protected]&; wyfaygif;pk}uD; [email protected]@ jzwfoef;cJh+yD;ESpf&Spfq,f AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhocifpkd;[email protected] v#[email protected]@ ESpf ESpfq,fpDpdwfykdif; yxrqHk;[email protected] aqG;aEG;wJhae&mtrSef[m orkdif;aemufcHum;[email protected] ,SOfpyf yJcl;pHjywyf&if;u av;av;jrwfjrwf =unfhrdwJhtcg AkdvfausmfaZm&[email protected]:rSmæ zufqpfawmfvSefa&; (1) [pfaºu;+yD; azmf=uawmh AkdvfausmfaZm[m wkdif; (4) &[email protected] 1919 rS 1939 ppfa&;acgif;aqmifwOD; jzpfcJhw,f zufqpfawmfvSefa&;rSm ygcJhw,f e,[email protected]; vufatmuf zGm;ajrmuf+yD;arG;vm bkd;ab;awG[m a&$bkdEG,f om,m0wDoHk;q,f[m arG;Zmwd *VKef\"dywd q&mpH&[email protected] awmfvSefoH \"m;a&mif=um;rSm }uD;jyif;um vlvm;ajrmuf 'l;raxmufwwfolawG&[email protected] yJhwifoH ESvHk;om;tcHay: yl;uyf awmfvSefpdwf\"[email protected] rsdK;cspf0dnmOf pdrfh0if+yD; tarG&cJhava&mhovm; e,[email protected];ukd [email protected] u|efjyKolawGukd [email protected]@ &ifukdaumh+yD; vuf±Hk;ajrmuf ra=umufw&m;pkdufxlum axmifhoHk;&mjynfhrSm ygcJhw,f e,[email protected]@usifa&;orm;aumif; jzpfcJhw,f (2) 1939 rS 1959 e,[email protected];ukd [email protected] 42


[email protected]&; wm0efauscJhw,fæ awmfvSefa&;orm; yDcJhw,fæ t*Fvdyfjyeft0if toifhjyifvmwJh puULjzLpmwrf; (4) [email protected];[email protected]=u orkdif;0ifaeol&deftpnf;ta0;yGJ 1979 rS 1999 &J&J&ifh&ifhqifE$J=u ArmhvGwfvyfa&;twGuf toifhjyif ukd,fusdK;rSefor# [email protected]$wf&if; tqdkjyKcsufawGwif=uwJhtcg tvif;opfqD ar#mf&nf AkdvfausmfaZm&[email protected][m =u,feDa&mifwvufvuf trsdK;om;aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;tqkdyg tcef;quforkdif;pOf vGwfvyfa&;a=unmt+yD; wlwHpOfukd qufo,faqmif ta&;}uD;wm0efrsm;ukd xrf;aqmif *k%fa&mifajymifajymif aecJhw,fæ orkdif;wGifatmif todtrSwfjyK=u& ppfaoe*FAsL[mrSm wacwfxl 'kuQawGukd xDrxif w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfolrsm;ukdarmif;xkwfa&; xm0pOf &J&[email protected] bk&ifhaemifppfqifa&;&[email protected] Adokum vlxktusdK;qufvHk;yef; &ef}uD;atmif ppfqifa&;&[email protected] Adokum EkdifiHw0Sef;&[email protected] ta&;awmf wdkif;jcm;&efukdumuG,f&mrSm trdEkdifiHawmf&[email protected] tem*wfta&; tc&mtcef;uygcJhw,f bHkta&;rSefor# yg0ifum EkdifiHom;aumif; yDcJhw,fæ &moufyefawmfvSefa&;orm;qkdwm - 'Dvkdyg (3) &moufyefEkdifiHa&;orm;qkdwm - 'Dvkdyg EkdifiHukdcspf jynfolcspfwJh 1959 rS 1979 rsdK;cspftppfqkdwm - 'Dvkdyg æ æ [email protected] pHerlemaumif; rsm;pGmjycJhw,f jynfwGif;ppfrD;ckd;awGonf;xef qufvuf+yD;vnf; jyaew,fæ [email protected]; &[ef;&[email protected]&[email protected] tck q&m}uD; ocifukd,fawmfr_dif;u OD;aqmif+yD; pdef&wkawG [email protected] +idrf;csrf;a&;&ap&m &apa=umif; tESpf (80) ajrmufawmif wkdifcJh+yD oGef;avmif;+yD; }udK;ukwf &mjynfhqD csDwuf&if; tm;xkwf+yD; aqmif&Guf=uwJhtcg tvif;opfawG [email protected] trdArmjynf}uD; omapa&; trdajrtwGuf quf*k%faqmif jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&; *k%fa&mifajymifajymif qufjzwfoef; jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; orkdif;tcef;cef;&[email protected] pmrsufESmawGay:rSm raES;rzifh wufºu AkdvfausmfaZmqkdwm orkdif;0if 'kwd, OuUÏtjzpfygcJhw,f xm0pOf pHerlemjyK ta&;}uD;wJhtcef;u ygcJhw,fæ av;pm;[email protected] OD;ckdufum E_wfcGef;qufovkdufygw,f æ OD;av;a& æ ppftm%m&[email protected] wufvm Armjynf}uD; wkd;+yD;arSmif AkdvfausmfaZm&[email protected] tESpf (80) jynfharG;[email protected]@ æ +idrf;csrf;a&;t&dyfta&miftm;vHk; uG,faysmuf wkdufyGJ0ifae=uqJ wkdufyGJ0ifae=uaom ppfzdeyfatmufu jynfolawG &Jabmf&Jbuf [email protected];rsm;. ukd,fpm; 'kuQawGyifv,fa0=uawmh trdajrukd vGwfajrmufcsif 0if;wifhxGef; jynfolukd u,fwifcsifvGef;[email protected] wlwHpOfukd qkyfukdif 1999 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (3) &[email protected] usa&mufr,fh azmufjyefolawGukd &[email protected] AkdvfausmfaZm&[email protected] tESpf (80) jynfh arG;[email protected]@æ vufeufukdifawmfvSefa&;qD a&mufvmw,f =u,feDwvufvuf vif;cJhw,f 43


aemufqufwGJ (3) vrG ;f armp&m uAsmwy'k vf ydk gyvJ m; a':a': (1) ausmif;om;vli,for*~acgif;aqmifawGtxd t=umqHk;cGJzl;wm trsdK;orD;awG[m a':a':odcJh&ovkd 1976 uae 1980 æ ? urBm}uD;w0uf }udKqkdum{nfhcH xrf;&Gufxm;&wJholawGqkdwm xrif;csdefwefxrif; 1976 rSm r,Hkp&mr&Sd vufzuf&nfcsdefwef vufzuf&nf r_dif;&mjynfht+yD; a':a':hukdjyef=unfh =unf=unfjzLjzL*±kpkduf orD;}uD;ukdygac:oGm; yg&rDjznfhzufqkdwmxuf v_dufv_dufvSJvSJ apwemºu,fcJholyg? om;ESpfa,mufvnf;rusef &Jabmf&Jbufvkdwjzm a':a':hukdyJcsefxm;awmh ESrav;yrmwenf; a':a':[m tH}udwf+yD;aecJh& rdcif}uD;vkdwoG,f uGefjrLepfr[kwfygbl; 80 ckESpfusrStcGifhay: 0wfig;oG,fukd ausmfvGef 'gayrJh a':a':tajy;vkdufvmcJhw,f? [email protected] uGefjrLepf&[email protected]; t&dyfvkdtwlvkduf ypPnf;rJhtawG;tac:awG=um; a':a':b0rSm pHxm;xkfdufwJholawGxJrSm usifhom;&atmif}udK;pm;&if; AkdvfrSL;[email protected] ta':[m æ? ukd,fhbk&m;ukd ukd,f&Sdckd; tac:cHcJhzl; wdkif;rSL;[email protected]; (2) tac:cHcJhzl; OD;av;&[email protected] [email protected]; aumufaumufygatmif vkdufvmp tac:cHcJhzl; OD;av;uqkdifu,fay:wif bmrSrxl;ygbl; c&D;ESif=uawmh OD;av;&SdwJhae&m aemufua':a':cjrm a':a':hurBmaygh vrf;w0ufrSmvdrfhus b,frSmjzpfjzpfae&Jw,f? OD;av;urod awG;rdawG;&mtm±Hkpkduf (4) wkduf}uD;a&mufrSodowJh OD;av;[email protected] aeraumif;&if jyefvSnfh+yD;jyefac:& rdcif}uD;vkd *±kpkduf awmfvSefa&;orm;wa,muf&[email protected];b0 aq;wkdufaq;au|; usifhom;&atmifaecJhw,f? ukd,fwkdifay;&rSauseyf jrwfEkd;wwfvGef;wJhta':[m a':a':[m &mZ0ift&G,[email protected] ukd,fwkdifaq;±Hka&muf&csdeftxd awmfvSefa&;orm;r[kwfygbl; rdrda&m*gxuf OD;av;twGufyJpdwfyl 'gayrJh ±kd;±kd;om;om;aecJhw,f? [email protected]#mfvifhcJh&Smw,f 'gayrJh æ ? awmfvSefa&;orm;&[email protected]; [email protected];ykvif;rsKd;pkH=um; awmfvSefa&;orm;}uD;&[email protected] ajcvSrf;wkdif;twGuf (3) a&m*gtm;ukdckcH&if; wr#Of;r#Of;vkdufarm aemufwef;uaetiftm;jznfh [email protected] arsmaevkdufowd&vmvkduf vaygif;rsm;pGm [email protected]? b,folawGb,fvkdajymajym b,fvkdac:ac: a':a':[m EkdifiHa&;orm;r[kwfygbl; a':a':hESvHk;om;xJ 'gayrJh pGJaewmu “tukda&$” EkdifiHa&;orm;&[email protected]; a':a':b0rSm q&m}uD;ocifukd,fawmfr_dif;utp a':a':[email protected]&$ Aef;[email protected],f twlaevm=u&mu 44


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