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Home Explore ဗိုလ်မှုးချုပ်ဟောင်းကျော်ဇော အတ္ထုပ္ပတ္တိ ၄

ဗိုလ်မှုးချုပ်ဟောင်းကျော်ဇော အတ္ထုပ္ပတ္တိ ၄

Published by accmelibrary, 2022-11-18 09:04:35

Description: ဗိုလ်မှုးချုပ်ဟောင်းကျော်ဇော အတ္ထုပ္ပတ္တိ ၄

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TudpPrSm usaemyhf *k K~vd af &;omru/ widk ;f jyntf wuG yf g ta&;}u;D aomupd }Pu;D +zpaf eI q;kH jzwcf suf rrmS ;&ef vydk gon?f [email protected] a=umihf wikd yf iof iohf rl sm;EiS hf widk yf if=un&hf eEf Sihf pwd fcsvk+H cKH pGm usaemfuh kd t}uH^m%fay;Ekdirf nfoh ul kd pO;f pm;&m usaem.f *syeaf cwf wkud af zmwf duk zf uf&aJ bm}f u;D jzpfcohJ l uGefjrLepfygwDrS ukd}uD;jrifhukd owd&rdygonf? u}dku;D jriohf nf 1948 uwn;f u ueG jfrLepyf gwED iS thf wl awmcodk mG ;c+hJy;D / awmwiG ;f wudk yf wJG ywJG iG f Armwh yrf awmrf S awmcodk mG ;cohJ l Akdfvfat;azESifhtwl tpkd;&wyf. zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&ygonf? Akdvfat;azrSmrl(tvGefpdwfraumif;zG,f) ao'%ftjypfay;cHvkduf&+yD;/ ukd}uD;jrifhukdawmh axmifxxJ nfhxm;onfh tcsdefjzpfaeygonf? ukd}uD;jrifhrSm usaemfESifhtwl ArmhawmfvSefa&; udpPwm0efrsm;ukd *syefacwfwav#mufvHk; vkyfukdifchJ=uaom rsdK;cspfawmfvSefa&; &Jabmf? usaemfESifhvnf; tvGef&if;ESD;aom rdwfaqG&Jabmf}uD; jzpfonf? 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[email protected]=umihf usaemf Avdk cf sKyaf e0i;f xoH mG ;+y;D u}dk u;D jriuhf dk vw$ af y;yg&ef ye=f um;ygon?f u}dk u;D jrirhf mS B.I.A (btD idk af t) wyrf ;ª }u;D jzpcf &hJ mrS 1943cEk pS /f btD idk af twyrf sm;udk B.D.A (b'D aD t) [email protected] ajymi;f &mwiG f Avdk cf sKyaf tmiqf e;f u btD idk af trS [email protected] ;ª rsm;udk b'D aD [email protected] rajymi;f apbJ tjyitf &yof m;tjzpf ae&paf p+y;D *syeaf wmvf eS af &;twuG f jyiqf ivf yk af qmiaf p&mwiG f ool nf Avdk cf sKy.f ne¸ =fum;csutf widk ;f b'D aD twyrf ;ª tjzpf rajymi;f awmbh J tjyitf &yof m;tjzpf qi;f qi;f &&J J aexidk f um *syeaf wmvf eS af &; vyk cf ohJ jlzpaf =umi;f ? &euf ek wf uoU vdk f tif*sifeD,m ausmif;om;vnf;jzpfa=umif; [email protected] usaemfu AkdvfcsKyfae0if;ukd ajymjy+yD; v$wfay;yg&ef yef=um;ygonf? usaemrf mS widk ;f jyn.f aoa&;&iS af &;wm0e}fu;D rsm;ukd atmijfripf mG xr;f aqmiEf idk cf ahJ omvf n;f rrd ud ,dk af &;u,dk wf mtusKd;twuG f bmraS jymqcdk zhJ ;l jci;f r&odS jzi/hf xudk ohJ @kd rajympz;l vmIajymaom usaemuhf dk Avkd cf sKyaf e0i;f u rsm;pmG tm;emaey&kH ygon?f oul ,dk wf idk vf n;f ukd}uD;jrifhta=umif; enf;enf;odxm;yHk &ygonf? 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T ta=umif;rsm;ukd usaemf tao;pdwfa&;+yD; jzpfygonf? aemufwOD;rSmrl ukd}uD;jrifhjzpfygonf? olusaemf. r*Fvm'HktdrfwGif 1951 ckESpfu a&muf&Sdvm+yD; twlaexkdifpOftwGif; nwkdif; vkdvkd [email protected]=umatmif uGefjrLepf0g'ta=umif; aqG;aEG;ajymqkd=u&ojzifh usaemfonf uGefjrLepf0g'ta=umif; tawmf}uD; em;vnf vmygonf? usaemfukd}uD;jrifhukd bDtkdifattwGif;u pwifod&SdchyJ gonf? 1942ckESpfu &efukefr*Fvm'HkwGif usaemfonf AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;. wm0eaf y;csutf & btD idk af t ppAf vdk of iwf e;f ausmi;f wczk iG Ihf ppyf nmrsm;oi=f um;ay;ae&ygon?f xodk if we;f wiG f u}dk u;D jriyhf g0ivf m+y;D olonfoifwef;wGifvnf; xif&Sm;vm&m usaemfESifh &if;ESD;odu|rf;vmygonf? olonfppf}uD; rjzpfrDu &efukefwuUokdvf tif*sifeD,m ausmif;om;wOD;vnf; jzpfygonf? xkdoifwef;+yD;aemuf oifwef;qif;rsm;tm;vHk; bDtkdifat ppfAdkvfrsm;tjzpf wm0efrsm; ay;tyfchJ&m ukd}uD;jrifhonf ykodrfc±kdifwGif bDtkdifat wm0efcH wyfrª;jzpfchoJ nf[k xifygonf? bDtkdifatwyfrsm;u t*Fvdyfwyfrsm;ukd wkdufckduf&mwGif olyg0ifcJhygonf? 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usaemrf mS u}dku;D jriuhf dk rsupf ud saeojzihf [email protected] Avdk cf sKy.f trmS pum;udk ajymjy&m 'vD qdk &dk if obl 'D aD txJ r0if awmbh J tjyiwf iG f t&yfom;tjzpfaeum *syefawmfvSefa&; qufvkyfrnf[kqkdum ppfwyfu xGufvkdufygonf? [email protected] wjcm;[email protected] ([email protected]/ ukdxGef;pdefpolrsm;) ukdvnf; usaemfu xkdudpP ajymjy+yD; wyfjyifrSm ae&pfapchJygonf? [email protected] wyfjyifrSm t&yfom;tjzpf qif;qif;&&J J ae=u+yD; AkdvfcsKyf. wm0efay;csufrsm;ukd v#[email protected] vkyfukdifaechJ=uygonf? wyfwGif; qufae=uv#if wyfrª;}uD;rsm; jzpfvmEkdifonfh olrsm; jzpf=uygonf? [email protected] ae+yD; *syefawmfvSefa&;twGuf v#[email protected]=u&if; uGefjrLepf0g' pmayrsm;ukd rsm;pGmzwf csdef&+yD; aemufykdif;ukd}uD;jrifhrSm uGefjrLepf0g'tay: ykdrkdeuf±_dif;pGm odjrifvm+yD; uGefjrLepfygwDESifhvnf; qufoG,frdoGm;ygonf? usaemfESifh ukd}uD;jrifhrSmvnf; &if;ESD;aom rdwfaqG&Jabmf}uD;rsm; jzpfvmygonf? 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TumvtwiG ;f jzpyf sucf ohJ nhf ta=umi;f t&mwcuk vdk n;f rwS rf ad eygon?f widk ;f jynwf iG f xi&f mS ;cohJ nhf upd wP ck jzpcf IhJ vn;f usaemfwwfEkdifor# jyefvnfpOf;pm; a&;om;&ygOD;rnf? 1952 ckESpfavufuyJ[k xifygonf? om,m0wD/ rif;[email protected] xif&Sm;aom twkduftcH (aemifwGif yrnwjzpfvm) acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfaom OD;b+idrf; }uD;rª;usif;yaom vlxkw&m;yuJG kd ArmhwyfrawmftwGif;&Sd qkd&S,fvpfbufom; ppfAkdvfwOD;[email protected] wyf=uyf-wyfom;wpku 0ifa&muf±kdufESuf+yD; w&m;yGuJ kd zsufchJr_jzpfygonf? OD;b+idrf;ukd,fwkdifyif OD;acgif;wGif '%f&m&oGm;ygonf? xdkudpP owif;pmrsm;wGifvnf; ygvm&m/ Armjynfvlxk}uD;u rausreyfjzpfvm+yD; [email protected]_yf&Sm;vmygonf? [email protected] a=umifh tpkd;&u a=unmcsufwapmif xkwfjyef&ygonf? — rif;[email protected] vlxkw&m;yJG 0ifa&muf±kdufESufonfh udpPukd tpkd;&u pHkprf;ppfaq;a&; aumfr&[email protected]+yD; ppfaq;ta&;,lrnf? pHkprf;ppfaq;a&; aumfr&Sif OuUÏtjzpf Armhwyfrawmf/ awmifykdif;wkdif;-wkdif;rª;Akdvfrª;csKyfausmfaZmukd wm0efay;rnf[laom a=unmcsufjzpfonf? xkdtcg jynfolvlxkrSmvnf; usaemfonf rSefonfhtwkdif;vkyfrnfukd ,Hk=unfojzifh +idrfusoGm;ygonf? usaem.f ppkH r;f a&;aumrf &iS wf iG f Avkd rf ;ª }u;D oe;f ped uf vdk n;f xnohf iG ;f xm;ygon?f Avdk of e;f ped rf mS Armwh yrf awm&f dS q&kd ,S vf pyf gwD acgif;aqmif Akdvfatmif}uD;. aemufvkdufvl&if; qdk&S,fvpfygwD bufawmfom;}uD; jzpfonf? [email protected] oGif;jcif;. &nf&G,fcsufrSm pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;aumfr&Sif. vkyfief;ukd zsufqD;aESmuf,Suf&ef jzpfyHk&ygonf? [email protected] pHkprf;ppfaq;a&; aumfr&[email protected]; rif;[email protected] oGm;+yD; pHkprf;ppfaq;r_ukd pwifygonf? [email protected] rif;vSwGif xkdw&m;yGJukd wufa&mufcJhonfhol 2 OD;-3 OD;ukd ac:,lppfaq;&m/ ‚[email protected];vHk;u ppfom;rsm; w&m;yGJukd 0if±kdufESuf+zdKcGJa=umif; tm;vHk;woHwnf; xGufqkd=uygonf? TwiG f Avfdk rf ;ª }u;D oe;f ped uf vxl ak xmicf s&D wdS hJ w&m;yuJG dk wyof m;wO;D EpS Of ;D u 0i+f y;D ±udk &f yJ grh vm;? rjzpEf idk [f k ajymqvdk mygon?f usaemof @ludk bmr#jyerf ajymb/J w&m;yJG wucf ohJ rl sm;udk ppaf q;+y;D aomtcg w&m;ytJG e;D &dS trd rf sm;rS vl rsm;udk qu+fy;D ppaf q; ar;jre;f ygon?f TwGif w&m;yGJ t0if0&Sd tdrfwtdrfrS trsdK;orD;wOD;ukd ppfaq;&mwGif ta&;}uD;aom xl;jcm;csufrsm;ukd [email protected]&yg awmhonf? 7


xkdtrsdK;orD;ajymjyonfrSm usr w&m;yGuJ qlqlnHnHoHawG =um;&[email protected] usrtdrfjywif;aygufu xGuf=unfhawmh w&m;yGtJ 0if0 vrf;ay:rSm tvHeDuav; wvufvuf v_yf&Sm;aewm [email protected]&ygw,f? tvHeDuav;[m wxGmavmufyJ &Sdr,f? 'gukd aoaocsmcsm od&[email protected] tdrfjyifxGuf=unfhawmh tvHeDuav;&[email protected] atmufrSm um;rJrJ}uD;wpD; [email protected]&wm? 'g[moHcsyfum-um;}uD;qkdwm usrodygw,[email protected] xGufqkdoGm;ygonf? usaemfu xkdtrsdK;orD; xGufqkdcsuf rnfr#[email protected] rSefuefEkdifa=umif; od&[email protected] wyfrSoHcsyfum um;wpD; armif;,l vmap+yD; xtkd rsdK;or;D tvHeDuav; jrif&aomae&mwGif &yxf m;apygon?f xodk cH syuf m um;}u;D &yfxm;&m vol mG ;vr;f uav;rmS vn;f tkwfeDcrJ sm; cif;xm;&m tkwfeDcwJ [email protected] usdK;yhJaewmukd jrif&ojzifh ,cifoHcsyfumum;}uD; &yfpOfu wkdufrdckdfufrdchJyHk&ygonf? aemuf xkdtrsdK;orD;ajymaom [email protected] xkdae&mukd =unfh±_&mwGif/ olajymovkdyif tvHeDuav;ukd [email protected]&ygonf? Armh wyfrawmfrS oHcsyfumum;rsm;wGif um;xdyfnmbufapmif;wGif (6) vufreD;yg;&Sd =uufv#mtvHeD t0wfpav;wckukd oHacsmif;rSm csnf+yD;pkdufxm;+rjJ zpf&m xkdtrsdK;orD;. xGufqkdcsufrsm; rSefuefa=umif; odEkdifygonf? Akdvfoef;pdefvnf; 0if =unfhygonf? ‚.oabmrSm 0if±[email protected] tenf;pkom jzpfojzifh [email protected]; r±kduf&JbJ/ vlxkw&m;yGJ}uD;ukd oHcsyfumum;}uD;jzifh csdef&G,f+cdrf;ajcmufxm;+yD;rS 0if±kduf=ujcif; jzpfa=umif; xif&Sm;aeygonf? oHcsyfumum;}uD;rsm;wGif usaemfodoavmuf (3.7) vufr puftajrmuf wvufESifh pufaoewf}uD;wvuf wyf qifxm;wwfygonf? aumif;pGm +cdrf;ajcmufEkdifygonf? TtrsdK;orD;ukd ppfaq;+yD;aemuf [email protected] pHkprf;ppfaq;r_rSm jynfhpHkvHkavmufoGm;ygonf? wyfrawmfom; &Jabmfrsm;u w&m;yGJ 0if±kdufonfrSm rSefuefa=umif; xif&Sm;vmojzifh [email protected] pHkprf;ppfaq;r_ukd tqHk;owfvkdufygonf? usaemfu rif;vSw&m;yGuJ kd [email protected] wyfrawmfom;rsm;u 0if±kdufESuf+yD; w&m;yuJG kd +zdKcGaJ =umif; [email protected] ppf aq;csuft& rSefuefonf[k ,lqa=umif;ukd oufaocH xGufcsufrsm;ESifh yl;w+JG yD; ppf±Hk;csKyfukd pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;[email protected] tpD&ifcH pm wifawmhrnf? tu,fI Avdk rf ;ª }u;D oe;f ped uf oabmrwvl #if o;D jcm;tp&D icf pH m wiEf idk af =umi;f ajym+y;D / ppkH r;f ppaf q;r_ udk &yvf udk yf gon?f Avdk rf ;ª }u;D oe;f ped uf vn;f oD;jcm;wifp&m r&Sdawmh[k oabmwlvmygonf? [email protected]=umifhtxufyg tpD&ifcHpmukd wifvkdufygonf? [email protected] bma=umifhrSef;rod? oufqkdif&[email protected] xkdtpD&ifcHpmt& bmrSqufrvkyfyg? vlxkuvnf; +idrfoufoGm;ygonf? TonfrSm xkdacwfxkdumvu wyfwGif;qkd&S,fvpfrsm;. [email protected] 'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;rsm;ukd pwif [email protected]_rsm;. wuGufwuGif;tajctae jzpfygonf? r&wJ &J aoG;wkd;prf;vmr_vnf; jzpfygonf? usaemftaemufEkdifiH avhvma&;c&D;rS jyefvm+yD;aemufwGif wkdif;jynfwGif w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_tEW&m,f }uD;rm;vmojzifh xkdusL;ausmfr_ukd ESdrfeif;&ef wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&+yD; 1953ckESpf/ ZlvkdifvwGif ajrmufykdif;wkdif;rª;tjzpf [email protected]? w±kwfjzL [email protected][kwf ulrifwefrsm;. usL;ausmfr_ orkdif;tusOf;csKyf w±wk jfyn}fu;D wiG f cseaf u&wdS f O;D aqmiof nhf url iwf etf p;dk &EiS hf armpf wD ek ;f O;D aqmiof nhf ueG jfrLepyf gwwD @dk 2 buf EpS &f nS =fumrsm; jynfwGif;ppf qifE&J$ mrS 1949ckESpf atmufwkdbmvwGif uGefjrLepfrsm;u wjynfvHk;wGif atmifycJG HoGm;ygawmh onf? csefau&Sdwftygt0if xdyfoD;ulrifwefrsm; [email protected];oGm;Ekdifaomfvnf; [email protected] e,fcsif;qufaeonfh ,leefjynfe,frS ppf±H_;ulrifwef wyyf sutf csKd @rmS usaemwf @dk. ta&@Sbuf e,ef rd wd rf sm;udk jzwaf usm+fy;D &rS ;f jynef ,/f usKd i;f wcHk ±idk xf oJ @dk pwiuf sL;ausm0f iaf &muvf mygon?f 0ifvmpu tiftm;rSm (800) avmufom[k ,lq&ygonf? aemifrS wjznf;jznf; rsm;vmjcif; jzpfygonf? 1950 Zefe0g&DvwGif w±kwfjzLrsm;u usdKif;wHkajrmufbuf&Sd rkdif;,ef;[email protected] odrf;ykdufwyfpGJvkdufygonf? rwfvxJwGif usdKif;wkHta&[email protected] ykdif;[email protected] 0ifa&mufvm+yD; aemufykdif;tdrfaxmifonfrsm;yg vkdufvmygonf? usdKif;wkHta&[email protected] ‘armif;vif;’rSm tajccs+yD; ta&[email protected] raJ cgifjrpf(vmtkd-jrefrm e,fpyf)taemufbuf usdKif;wkH - wmcsDvdwfvrf; awmifbuf/ ,kd;',m; - jrefrme,fpyf/ }wd*He,fajrwGif [email protected]+yD; wyfpGaJ exkdifchJ=uygonf? ‚[email protected] ,leefjynfe,f/ autrfwD (KMT) trSwf(8)wyfrawmfESifh trSwf(26)[email protected] wyfºuif;wyf usefrsm;jzpf+yD; trSwf(8)wyfrawmfukd AkdvfcsKyfvDrDOD;aqmif+yD;/ trSwf(26)ukdrl 'k-AkdvfcsKyfvlukdcsef;u OD;aqmifygonf? [email protected] wyfom;rsm;rSm usdKif;[email protected];[email protected] wjznf;jznf; ±kyfzsuf+yD; pdrfh0ifvmaeygonf? Armhwyfrawmfu 1950 ckESpf ZGefvqef;wGif vufeufcs&[email protected][kwf wkdif;jynfe,fajrrS xGufoGm;&ef w±kwfjzLrsm;ukd &mZoH ay;vudk yf gon?f w±wk jfzLrsm;u owl @kduwdk udk vf #if owl @dkujyewf udk zf @dk toi&hf adS =umi;f wi;f wi;f rmrm jye=fum;onhf tjyif wcsed wf n;f rmS yif ,kd;',m; - jrefrme,fpyfESifh [email protected];yg wmcsDvdwfvrf; - rkdifwkdif (81) rSpI ‚[email protected] wkd;[email protected];ykdufvkdufygonf? Armhwyfrawmf (xkdpOfu jynfaxmifpkwyfrsm;[k ac:ygonf?) u usdKif;[email protected] ±kyfzsuf0ifa&mufaeonfh w±kwfjzL (200) avmufukd zrf;qD;+yD; rdwˆDvm/ rEWav;[email protected]@ csKyfaESmifxm;vkdufygonf? wmcsDvdwfukdvnf; jyefvnfwkdufckduf odrf;ykdufvkdufEkdifygonf? [email protected] 1951 ckESpfwGif w±kwfjzLrsm;onf xkdif0rfESifhtquftoG,f &oGm;um [email protected] usL;ausmfa&;pDrHudef;ukd pepfwus jyifqifv_yf&Sm;vmygawmhonf? tar&duefrsm;uvnf; 0ifa&mufukdifwG,f ae=uonf? 1951 ckESpfESpfOD;wGif AkdvfcsKyfvDrD OD;aqmifonfh w±kwfjzLtiftm; (1000-1500)r#onf usdKif;wHkc±kdif taemuf awmifykdif; 8


‘ridk ;f qw’f [email protected];rmS ridk ;f qwvf iG jfyiuf dk tajcjyK+y;D tajccpH ce;f opf [email protected];f wnaf xmi=fuygon?f aemiwf iG f xdk pce;f rmS Armjynwf ±wk jfzL usL;ausmrf _ XmecsKy}f u;D jzpvf mygawmoh n?f usKd i;f wakH jrmubf uf ridk (f 50)umG &dS ‘rikd ;f ,e;f ’ +rKd @uav;EiS hf usKd i;f wtkH a&@Sawmif (65) ridk uf mG &dS ‘ridk ;f a,mi;f ’ [email protected];rsm;wiG vf n;f w±wk jfzLppof m; pak qmi;f a&;EiS hf ppaf vuh siahf &;p ce;f rsm; [email protected];f wnaf xmicf yhJ gon?f ae&[email protected];rS ppfom;rsm;vnf; pkaqmif;=uygonf? xkdif0rf (azmfrkd qm) rS avhusifha&;rª;rsm;vnf; a&muf&Sdvm+yD; ppfoifwef;rsm;ay;um wyfopfrsm; [email protected];f =uygon?f xidk ;f u xadk vuh siahf &;r;ª rsm;EiS hf ppyf pnP ;f vuef ucf ,J r;f rsm;udk Armjynef ,pf yf ‘yeG yf gusi’f [email protected] um;EiS yhf @kday;on?f wcsKd @udk avxD;ESifh csay;onf? [email protected] w±kwfjzL. usL;ausmfr_rSm oHvGifjrpfta&[email protected];vHk; [email protected]@oGm;+yD; [email protected]@J&m ‘0-e,f’‘ukd;[email protected],f’ ‘oEd eDM ,’f rsm;txd w;dk [email protected] ;+y;D / titf m;rmS vn;f (4000) [email protected] &vdS mygon?f tcsutf csmusonhf +rKd @uav;rsm;wiG vf n;f tajccH pce;f rsm; aqmu+fy;D tcidk tf rm aexidk vf m=uygon?f [email protected] Armjyntf wiG ;f yidk ;f 0i&f ef &n&f ,G cf suf jzihf ovH iG jfrptf aemubf uuf r;f [email protected] u;l vmum Armjynfawmifykdif; u,m;jynfe,fpyf/ u'l;}uD; {&d,mtwGif;xdyif 0ifvm +yD; wyfpGvJ kdufygonf? 1951 ckESpf ZlvkdifvxwJ Gif jzpfygonf? 1951 ckESpf arvxwJ Gif vDrDonf 0 - e,frSae+yD; w±kwfjynfr}uD;udk aumfvH (2) ck c+JG yD; 0ifwkdfufygonf? tar&duefrsm;u av,mOfrsm;ESifh &duQmrsm; vkdufcsay;ygonf? [email protected] w±kwfvGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmfu wkdufxkwfI jynfrtwGif; rkdif tenf;i,fom 0ifEkdif+yD; (2) ywftwGif; tustqHk;rsm;pGmESifh qkwfcGmvm&ygonf? Trjzpfpavmuf tiftm;uav;ESifh jynfr}uD;ukd 0ifwkdufonfrSm xl;qef;ojzifh usaemfu [email protected]&nf&G,fcsufukd pOf;pm;=unfh &mwGif ppfa&;xuf EkdifiHa&; &nf&G,fcsufjzpfrnf[k ,lq&ygonf? w±kwfjynfwGif; r+idrfrouf jzpfaeonfhoabm/ w±kwftpkd;& w&m;0if tpdk;& rjzpfEkdifonfhoabm ay:vGifapcsif[ef &Sdonf? xkdtcsdefu ukd;&D;,m;ppfyGvJ nf; jzpfaeojzifh jynfr}uD;twGif; usefchoJ nfh ulrifwef vla[mif;rsm; tm;wuf+yD; ykefuefxºuapvkd[efvnf; &Sdonf? [email protected] 0ifwkdufwmukdvnf; t}uD;tus,f wkdufaeovkd 0g'vnf; [email protected]? [email protected]=umifh aemufxyf,lqp&m tcsufw&yfrSm tar&duefjynfolrsm;u csefau&Sdwfukd quf+yD;a':vmawG/ tultnDawG [email protected] tusdK;cHpm;&rnfh tar&[email protected] csdefau&[email protected] yl;aygif;}uH&G,fcsufvnf; jzpf[ef&Sdonf? [email protected] w±wk tf p;dk &wyrf sm;u wudk xf wk vf udk vf @dk/ [email protected] idk ;f wiG af wmh Armjyntf wiG ;f yidk ;f uodk m &n&f ,G vf mygawmoh n?f 1951 ckESpf tukefwGif w±kwfjzLtiftm; (6000) ajcmufaxmif ausmfvmygonf? vDrDvnf; avhusifha&;vl (700) ac:um xkdif;rSwqifh [email protected] acwWjyefoGm;ygonf? 1952 ckESpfrSmawmh w±kwfjzLtiftm; tjrifhrm;qHk;txd wkd;[email protected]+yD; tvHk;t&if;ESifh oHvGifjrpfukd jzwfausmfum ajrmufbuf ucsifjynfe,f/ Aef;armf/ jrpf}uD;em;rSpI awmifbuf rGefjynfe,f/ armfv+rdKiftxd xkd;azmufusL;ausmfonfhESpf jzpfygonf? wyfom;opf pkaqmif;a&;wGifvnf; &Srf;jynfe,f/ ucsifjynfe,fwGif;&Sd w±kwfvlrsdK;rsm;omru/ ,kd;',m;jynf wGif;u w±kwfrsm;udkyg pkaqmif;ygonf? aemuftiftm;waomif;&Sdvmaomtcg 'D0DZHwyfr (3) wyf [email protected]+yD; Twyfrsm;onf oHvGifjrpful;I ArmjynftwGif;ydkif;ukd 0ifa&mufonfh t\"duwyfrsm; jzpfvmonf? ajymufusm; wyfcGuJ av;rsm;ukdvnf; oD;[email protected]@Jpnf;chJ=uao;onf? xkdwyfrsm;uawmh oHvGifjrpfta&Sykdif;Yom xm;chJonf? w±wk jf zLwytf m;v;kH . ppaf oemywud dk Avdk cf sKyvf rD uD dk xm;+y;D / wyzf @JGrsm;uakd wmh “,el eef ,/f ueG jf rLepqf [email protected] &; -jynof @lu,wf iaf &; wyfrawmf” [laom trnfESifh [email protected];chJonf? 1952 ckESpfazazmf0g&DvwGif rkdif;qwfav,mOfuGif;ukd w±kwfjzLrsm;u jyifqifzGifhvSpfvkdufEkdifonfhtwGuf ta&;}uD;onfh ppvf uef u/f vl (t&m&rdS sm;)/ ypnP ;f tutl nrD sm; azmrf qdk m (xidk 0f r)f rS wudk ±f udk vf n;f aumi;f / xidk ;f rwS qivhf n;f aumi;f o,,f yl @dkaqmif vmEkdif=uonf? [email protected] acwWjyefoGm;onfh AkdvfcsKyfvDrDvnf; enf;jyq&mrsm; tygt0if oifwef;qif; vltiftm; (700) ESifhtwl av,mOfrsm;ESifh xkdrkdif;[email protected] jyefa&mufvmonf? [email protected] wyftiftm;rsm; pepfwus wkd;[email protected]+yD; oifwef;rsm; zGifhvSpfchJonf? [email protected] tiftm;wkd;[email protected]+yD;aemuf 1952ckESpf wESpfvHk; ArmjynftwGif;ykdif;[email protected] 0ifa&mufa&;udk vsifjrefpGm wkd;[email protected] vm=uonf? ArmjynfwGif;rS ykefuefxºuaeonfh tpdwftykdif;rsm;ukdvnf; aoG;aqmifpnf;±Hk;Ekdif=uonf? xkdolrsm;rSwqifh twGif;ydkif;[email protected] pdrfh0ifvm&m u&ifolykefrsm;&Sd&m armfcsDrkdif;a'o/ u,m;jynfe,f/ &Srf;jynfe,fpyf&Sd u'l;}uD;a'orsm;txd/ 0ifa&muf tajccsvmEkdfifygawmhonf? TonfrSm tcsuftcsmusvSaom rEWav;vrf;r}uD;ukd ppfawmif;ta&[email protected] awmifwef;rsm;ay:rSaeI pwif+cdrf;ajcmuf&ef ajcukwf,laejcif; jzpfygonf? [email protected] w±wk jfzL'0D ZD wH ywf wyof nf =o*wk vf wiG f armcf srD S ‘zmyeG ’f ujdkzwuf m‘armvf +rKdi’f /‘usKdurQ ’D c±idk f twiG ;f 0iaf &muuf m reG af 'o yivf ,uf r;f pyrf sm; (u±yk /d` yi/ aum'h uG )f txd cswD uwf ypf JG c=hJuygon?f Tonrf mS awmibf upf paf =umi;f jzpof n?f a&a=umi;f jzihf tultnDrsm; wkd;[email protected];[email protected]&ef jzpfonf? tv,fykdif;ppfa=umif;rSm 0-e,f/ ‘yef,ef;’wGif tajcjyK+yD; oHvGifjrpftaemufbufurf;ul;um vm±_d;ta&[email protected]&Sd rkdif;±SL;a'owGif;[email protected] usL;ausmf0ifa&muf wyfpGJvmonf? awmif}uD;[email protected] ta&[email protected] ‘rkd;[email protected]’teD;a'orsm;ukdvnf; 0iaf &mufvm=uonf? usKd if;wkcH ±idk tf wiG f;&Sd ‘ridk ;f ylatmivf Gifjyif’udk cswD ufwypf G=J uonf? usKd i;f wHk - awmif}uD;vr;f r }uD;udk }u;D us,pf Gm +cdrf;ajcmufvkdufjcif;yif jzpfonf? [email protected] 1952 ckESpf wESpfvHk; ArmjynftwGif;ykdif;a&mufatmif wkd;[email protected]&muf+yD;aemuf 1953 ckESpf wGifrl [email protected] wyfrsm;ukd 9


ae&[email protected];rS pwifwkdufckdufygawmhonf? wzufrSm TuhoJ [email protected] pwifwkdufckduf+yD; wzufrSvnf; [email protected] tiftm;ukd weoFm&Dyifv,f bufu azmfrkdqm (xkdif0rf) ESifh wkduf±kduf oabFmvrf;zGifh+yD; wkd;[email protected]@ }uD;us,fonfh pDrHudef;ESifh }udK;pm;chaJ o;onf? 1953 ckESpf qef;v#ifqef;csif; &Srf;jynftv,fykdif;a'owGif tcsuftcsmjzpfaom rkdif;±SL;ESifh ‘rHk;atmh’ukd pwifwkdufckduf ord ;f yudk vf udk =fuon?f 'wk ,d ‘vKdGiaf um’f [email protected] wudk af omvf n;f tustq;kH rsm;pmG EiS hf qwk of mG ;&on?f ‘ridk ;f ye’f [email protected] awmh azazm0f g&vD wiG f odrf;ykduf&&SdoGm;onf? w±kwfjzLrsm; (3) &uf=um odrf;xm;cJh=uonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmvkdyif Armjynf ajrmufykdif;[email protected] 0ifa&mufaeonfh w±kwfjzLwyfrsm;onf w±kwf - jrefrme,[email protected];jzpfonfh ‘rlq,f’‘=uLukwf’‘rkdif;,k’[email protected];ukd w+ydKifeufwnf; 0kdif;wkduf=uon?f rdkif (280) ausmf&Sdaom awmif}uD; - usdKif;wkHvrf;r}uD;ay:wGifvnf; w±kwfjzLwyfrsm; tawmfv_yf&Sm;um/ wyfpcef;rsm;ukd 0ifa&mufwdkufckduf=uonf? [email protected] w±kwfjzLrsm; ArmjynfwGif; usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmr_tay: Armjynfolrsm;u tHkº[email protected]? 1952 -53 ckESpf ygvDref'Drkdua&pDacwf jzpfojzifh owif;pme,fZif; vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;vnf; toifhtwifh &Sdao;ojzifh wkd;wufonfh t,ltq&Sdonfh pmapmifrsm;/ vuf0pJ mapmifrsm;vnf; xkwfa0vsuf &Sdaeygonf? [email protected]=umifhjynfolrsm; Ekd;=um;ae+yD; xkdtEW&m,fukd ajz&Sif;&ef tpkd;&tm; wkd;wufawmif;qkdae=uygonf? [email protected]=umifh zqyv tpkd;&taeESifh w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_ukd wkdufxkwf&ef pDpOfpkdif;jyif;&ygawmhonf? 1953 ckESpfwGif wyfrawmfrS ae&[email protected];ukd tjyif;txef jyefvnfwkdufckduf odrf;,l&ygonf? w±kwfjzLwyfrsm;ukd oHvGifjrpfta&[email protected] urf;txd jyefvnf armif;xkwfEkdifcJhygonf? awmifykdif;ppfqifa&;wGifvnf; oHawmif -armfcsDvrf;ukd Armhwyfrawmfu jyefodrf;ykdufvkdufygonf? awmifile,f&Sd u&if olykefrsm;u w±kwfjzLrsm;ukd vufrcHojzifh tawmfoufomoGm;jcif;jzpfygonf? awmifilom &[email protected];ygu Armjynf xufykdif; usdK;ovkd jzpfEkdifayonf? aemuf awmifykdif;wGif 'kwd,ta&;}uD;onfh ppfqifa&;rSm ‘u±ky`d-yi’yifv,fpyfwGif wyfpGJxm;aom w±kwfjzLwyfrsm;ukd yivf ,af =umi;f raS &m/ uek ;f a=umi;f ryS g wudk cf udk af rmi;f xwk &f jci;f jzpyf gon?f Tae&mwiG f w±wk jfzLrsm; wypf &JG onhf ta=umi;f . aemuuf ,G f wiG f tveG }fu;D rm;onhf prD uH ed ;f &adS ea=umi;f aemuyf ifdk ;f usrS ovd m&ygon?f ‚[email protected] &n&f ,G cf surf mS Armjynwf iG ;f w±wk jfzLwyrf sm;twuG f wyfopfrsm; [email protected] vufeufypPnf; wefaygif;rsm;pGm vkdtyf±Hkru wyfrª;wyfom;tygt0if vltiftm;vnf; trsm;tjym; vkdtyfvsuf&Sd&m xkdvkdor# ypPnf;rsm;ukd [email protected]&ef yifv,furf;pyf vkdtyfygonf? xkdrGefjynfe,f urf;pyfa'orsm;onf a& (6) ay rS (9) ayausmftxd eufojzifh oabFmrsm; tvG,fwul uyfEkdifygonf? [email protected]=umifh xkda'orS w±kwfjzLrsm;ukd armif;xkwfvkdfufEkdifojzifh w±kwfjzL. wyfaemufxyfwkd;[email protected]&; tpDtpOfukd tawmfyif tm;enf;oGm;apchJygonf? xkda'oukd [email protected]; wkdufaepOfrSmyif azmrf qdk m (xidk 0f r)f rS yxrtowk f oabmF rsm;onf wyrf ;ª rsm;/ vuef uyf pnP ;f rsm; o,af qmiuf m +rwd uf |e;f pok @dk qudk af &muvf ma=umi;f aemuyf idk ;f o&d yg on?f w±wk jf zLrsm;taeEiS hf ‚[email protected] xJG m;aom yivf ,uf r;f pyrf sm;rS qwk cf mG xuG af jy;ae&onthf wuG f xodk abmF pEk iS hf 0kdif,mvuf tquftoG,fjywfum qufvuf0ifrvmEkdfifawmhbJ qkwfcGmoGm;=u&ygawmhonf? 1953 ckESpf rwfvwGif w±kwfjzLrsm; tckdiftrmpGJxm;onfh rkdif;wkHESifh rkdif;qwfvGifjyifukd odrf;ykduf&ef&nf&G,fcsuf txl; ppfqifa&;}uD;w&yf jyKvkyf&ef ajrmufykdif;wGif jyifqifygonf? xkdppfqifa&;rSm “e*g;Ekdifppfqifa&;”yif jzpfonf? [email protected] xkdppfqifa&;. yxrtqifhrSmyif jrefrmwyfrsm; vufeufypPnf;a&m/ vltiftm;trsm;tjym;yg usqHk;-qHk;±_H;&+yD; jyefqkwfcJh&ygawmhonf? w±kwfjzLwyfrsm;u [email protected]; oHvGifjrpfausmfonfukd apmifh=unfhae+yD; oHvGifjrpf ta&[email protected]; wav#muf ay (5,000) ausmjfriohf nhf awmixf wG rf sm;ay:u ,cif *sye0f ipf Ouf aqmuvf yk xf m;onhf cwH yif ,rf sm;rS c+Hy;D / usaemwf @dkwyrf sm; tukefeD;yg; jrpful;vm+yD;rS oHvGifjrpfESifhydwf+yD; t}uD;tus,fwkdufckduf&m [email protected]; vufeuf}uD;tajrmufrsm; xm;chJ&+yD; jrpful; jyefajy;cJh=u&ygonf? Tr#ta&;ygonfh ppfqifa&;}uD; [email protected] ta&;edrfhoGm;&onfhtwGuf w±kwfjzLrsm; ykdrkdtm;wufum acgif;rmpGm qufvufv_yf&Sm; vmygonf? xtdk wiG ;f rmS yif jynof vl xl uk vn;f vy_ &f mS ;tºkH uvm+y;D w±wk jf zLtE&W m,f wm;q;D a&;twuG f awmi;f qvdk mra_ =umihf zqyv tpkd;&taeESifh ppfa&;t& ta&;,lr_rsm;tjyif oHcif;wrefcif;tjzpf 1953 ckESpf {+yDvwGif ukvor*~taxGaxG nDvmcH}uD;[email protected] ukd,fpm;vS,fv$wf wkdifwrf;&ygawmhonf? oufaocH tvHktavmufESifh wkdif=um;onfhtwGuf EkdifiHtrsm;. axmufcHr_ukd &&SdchyJ gonf? [email protected]=umifhyif usL;ausmfolwyfrsm; xGufcGmay;&rnfqkdaom qHk;jzwfcsufukd ukvor*~0if EkdifiHaygif; (60) teuf (59) rJ axmufcHcsufjzifh qHk;jzwfEkdifchyJ gonf? =um;aerJ ay;chaJ om wOD;wnf;aom EdkifiHrSm w±kwfjzLrsm;yif jzpfygonf?(xkdpOfu ukvor*~wGif w±kwfjynf. w&m;0if ukd,fpm;vS,frSm w±kwfjzLrsm;yif jzpfaeygao;onf?) xkdpOfu usL;ausmfol[k qkd&mwGif w±kwfjzL[k emrnfwyfcGifh r&yg?“usL;ausmfol EkdifiHjcm;wyfrsm;”[kom trnfwyf&ygonf? usL;ausmfol w±kwfjzL[k qkdvkdufv#if w±kwfjzLrsm;ukd ±[email protected]/ ukvor*~rS [email protected];txd ta&;,lckdif;vmr_rsm; jzpfvmEkdifonfukd umuG,f&eftwGufESifh w±kwfjzLrsm; aemufuG,f&Sd q&m&if; tar&duefrsm; txdyg vkduf±_wfcsvmEkdifr_rsm;ukd umuG,f&[email protected] twGufyg jzpfygonf? ArmjynfbuftaeESifhvnf; xGufoGm;+yD;a&m oabmxm; vkdufavsm chJ=u&ygonf? 10


xqdk ;kH jzwcf suuf s+y;D aemuf taumitf xnaf zm&f etf wuG f jrerf m/ xidk ;f / tar&ud e/f w±wk jf zL(4)eidk if H ppzf uaf umf r&iS wf czk @GJ+y;D aqmi&f uG &f ef ppD O=fu&ygon?f xadk q;G aE;G yrJG sm;udk 1953 cEk pS /f arv (22) &uaf [email protected] pwiIf jyKvyk af omvf n;f tcsed qf &JG eof m &n&f ,G af =umi;f xif&Sm;vmygonf? aemufqHk; w±kwfjzLukd,fpm;vS,frsm;u qkwfcGma&;ukd vHk;0jiif;y,f vkdufygawmhonf? jynfolvlxku ukvor*~. qkwfcGmay;&rnf [laomqHk;jzwfcsufa=umifh tHkºur_t&Sdef usoGm;ygonf? rkd;uvnf; usvmyg+yD? ppfa&;t&vnf; e*g;Ekdfifppfqifa&; ta&;±_H;edrfhr_a=umifh bmrS qufrvkyfEkdif jzpfaeygonf? zqyv tpkd;&taeESifhuvnf; ol.yifukd,f azmufjyefa&; taetxm;a=umifh jynfolvlxk vHk;0tHkºuvmatmif rvkyf&yJ g? e*g;Ekdifppfqifa&; ±H_;edrfhr_rsm;udk zHk;zdxm;jcif;/ (4) EkdifiH aumfr&Siftpnf;ta0;rsm;ukd wrifoufouf tcsdefqJG jyKvkyfaejcif; ponfhtcsufrsm;ukd jynfolvlxkukd todray;bJ zHk;zdxm;ygonf? xtdk csed rf mS usaemwf @dkEidk if H rsuEf mS ti,qf ;kH tcsed f jzpyf gon?f wcsKd @Eidk if }Hu;D rsm;u (tx;l ojzihf e,cf [email protected] if rH sm;u) “bmuvk or*~ wkdif&rSmv?J ukd,frcHcsif&if ukd,fh[mukd,fwkdufaygh”- [k aigh=uygonf? “w±kwfukd rEkdif&if [email protected]&; ,lao;v?J u|ef;uav; wu|ef;ay: wufae=uygvm;”- [kyif ajymifavSmifajymqkdjcif; cHvm=u&ygonf? tvGefem=unf; zG,f&m jzpfchJonf? ajrmufykdif;wkdif;rª;tjzpf ajymif;&jcif; 1953 ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvtwGif; usaemfhukd w±kwfjzLtEW&m,fukd ckcHwGef;vSef&efwm0efay;+yD; ajrmufykdif;wkdif;rª;tjzpf ajymif;a&[email protected] [email protected];vkdufygonf? usaemfvnf; r*Fvm'HkwGif awmifykdif;wkdif;rª;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifae&mrS ajrmufykdif;wkdif; ±Hk;pkduf&m [email protected]@ ajymif;a&[email protected]&ygonf? xtdk csed uf vrmS Armwh yrf awmtf wiG ;f q&dk ,S vf pwf yrf ;ª rsm; tveG af jc±y_ vf maom tcsed vf n;f jzpyf gon?f w±wk jfzLtE&W m,uf dk uvk or*w~ idk =fum;&mwiG vf n;f Eidk if jHcm;wyrf sm; ±yk of rd ;f ay;&rn[f al om q;kH jzwcf suf csrwS vf udk Ef idk f ojzihf w±wk jfzLwyrf sm;udk tv,G wf ul armi;f xwk Ef idk vf rd rhf n[f k xiaf ,mirf mS ;c=hJuygon?f [email protected]=umiyhf if wyrf awmtf wiG ;f &dS q&dk ,S vf pwf yrf ;ª rsm;u q&dk ,S vf ptf rmcH wO;D jzpof nhf Akdvfausmfpkd; (aemif rqvacwf - jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;) ukd yGJxkwfum ppfqifa&;rª;[email protected]+yD; e*g;Ekdifppfqifa&;wkdufyGJ qifE$JcJh=uygonf? xudk mvu uvk or*u~ [email protected];f ay;cohJ nhf (4) Eidk if H ppaf umrf &iS wf iG vf n;f Avdk af tmi}f u;D u jrerf mEidk if uH ,dk pf m;v,S tf [email protected] acgi;f aqmitf jzpf yg0ifaqmif&Gufaeygonf? e*g;Ekdifppfqifa&; ta&;edrfhoGm;+yD; (4) EkdifiH ppfaumfr&Sif tpnf;ta0;uvnf; wkd;wufr_ bmrSr&Sdvmonfh tcgusrS usaemfhukd wm0efay;jcif; jzpfygonf? usaemf [email protected]@ rdom;pktm;vHk;ygac:I rkd;wGif;}uD;rSm ajymif;a&[email protected];&ygonf? usaemfhti,fqHk;om; wGwfwGwfrSm (6) v om;av;om &Sdygao;onf? [email protected] 1952 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbmvxwJ Gif r*Fvm'HkY zGm;jrifjcif;jzpfygonf? usaemf [email protected]&muf+yD; r=umrDrSmyif [email protected] usif;yaeonfh (4) EdkifiH ppfaumfr&Sifu oabmxm;wck &&Sdvmygonf? tar&duefESifh w±kwfjzLukd,fpm;vS,[email protected] ArmjynfwGif;&Sd ta&;}uD;aom w±kwfjzLtajccHpcef;vkyfxm;onfh rkdif;qwf/ rkdif;wHk/ rkdif;,ef;/ rkdif;a,mif;[email protected] [email protected] v$Jajymif;ay;ygrnf[k qkdvmonf? [email protected] acgif;rmaom w±[email protected]; &SdEkdifojzifh wkdufyGJ tenf;tusOf;vnf; jzpfEkdifonf[k qkdygao;onf? xkdtcg tpkd;&u txufygae&mrsm;udk 0ifrnf/ r0ifrnf oabmxm;ay;&ef usaemfhukd ar;jref;vmygonf? rkd;wGif; tv,f}uD;jzpfI tvGefjrifhaom awmifwef;rsm;tay: a&pD;oefaomjrpf - acsmif;rsm; jzwfcsDwuf&rnfh ta&;rSm rv,G uf vl yS g? wudk yf rJG sm;vn;f jzpEf idk af o;on[f k qxdk m;ao;on?f [email protected] usaemof nf wyrf ;ª rsm;EiS xhf idk f tao;pwd f aq;G aE;G =unyhf gon?f xkdtcsdefu wyfrSmvnf; e*g;Ekdifppfqifa&; ±_H;edrfhr_a=umifh pdwf\"mwfwpHkw&m xdckdufusqif;aeygonf? usaemwf @dk tao;pwd f wuG cf suwf idk yf i+fy;D aemuf aEOG wwk iG f }u;D us,pf mG wudk &f onxf uf pmv#if ,c'k uk EQ iS hf wudk yf uJG av;rsm;udk &iqf idk rf n?f ow/d 0&d ,d EiS hf pepwf us tqiqhf ihf jyiqf i+fy;D wxp+fy;D wxpf cswD uvf #if tustq;kH en;f pmG EiS hf jzpEf idk of n[f k xijfri,f ql +y;D [email protected] csDwufodrf;ykdufrnf[k ta=umif;jyef=um;vkdufygonf? [email protected] &ufcsdef;trD odrf;[email protected]; wyfawGukd cJ&mcJqpf jyifqif&ygonf? wyfom;rsm; &duQmypPnf;rsm;/ vuef uuf &d ,d mrsm;/ 0ewf ivf m;jri;f pojzihf vtdk yof r# ppk n;f jyiqf i&f ygon?f ovH iG jfrpuf dk a&p;D toeqf ;kH tcsed jfzpf onhf 0gqdk - 0gacgiwf iG f jzwfausmf+yD; rkdif;ykatmifwGif tm;vHk;pk-&yfap&ygonf? aemufqHk; &ufcsdef;eD;uyf vmpOfrSmyif [email protected] tapmuwnf;u oHo,&Sdrdonfhtwkdif; trSefjzpfvmygonf? w±kwfjzL usL;ausmfolrsm;u Armhwyfrsm;ukd [email protected];rsm;twGif;[email protected] 0ifcGifhray;Ekdif[k ajymifajymifyif jiif;qkdvkdufygawmhonf? tawmfyif em=unf;cHcufp&m jzpf&ygonf? ‚[email protected] tajccHuyif ±kd;om;r_r&Sdyg? rkd;wGif;usvmatmif tcsdefqxJG m;+yD; [email protected]@owfay;onfh &ufcsdef;trD ae&m av; - ig;ae&mukd z,fay;rnf? 0ifa&mufEkdifv#if 0if,lyg[k qkdvmjcif;jzpfonf? [email protected] ±kd;om;v#if xGufcGmoGm;ay;±Hkom &Sdonf? rdk;wGif;}uD; Armwyfrsm; 0ifvm&JrSmr[kwf? 0ifrvmv#if [email protected]+yD[k 0g’[email protected]&eftwGufom &nf&G,f&if; jzpf onf? [email protected] b,fvkdyjJ zpfjzpf 0ifrnf[k qHk;jzwfvkdufawmh [email protected] tusyf±kdufoGm;+yD; ajymifajymifyif jiif;y,f&jcif; jzpfayonf? [email protected]=umifh (4) EkdifiHtpnf;ta0;rS jrefrmukd,fpm;vS,[email protected] EkwfxGufvkdufojzifh xkdaumfr&Sifvnf; ysufoGm;ygawmh onf? 11


Taemufykdif;wGifvnf; w±kwfjzLrsm; qkwfay;rnf? typftcwf &yfpxJ m;yg[k qdkvm+yD; uav;vl}uD; tdrfaxmifonfrsm;ukd qkwfcGmjcif;/ vufeuftnHhpm;rsm;om ,loGm;jcif;ponfh vkyfief;rsm; vkyf=uygao;onf? [email protected] [email protected] pdwfr0ifpm;awmhyg? w±kwfjzLjy\\em ajz&Sif;a&;onf rdrdwkdif;jynftiftm;ay:wGifom &yfwnf&awmhrnf qkdonfh oifcef;pmukd aumif;pGm&&SdchJ+yD; jzpfygonf? [email protected]=umifhyif 1953ckESpf/ rkd;Owkukefaomtcg oHvGifjrpftaemufbufurf;&Sd w±kwfjzLwyfrsm;ukd &Sif;vif;wkdfufckdufypf&ygonf? 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[email protected]=umifh yifv,fvrf;ukdazmuf&ef }udK;pm;jcif; jzpfyHk&onf? w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfvmonfh &nf&G,fcsufrsm;rSm- 1? e,fpyfrS w±kwfjynfr}uD; tpyf0if+yD; aESmuf,Sufaejcif;jzifh/ w±kwfjynfwGif r+idrf;csrf;ao;[laom ta=umif;jycsufjzifh ukvor*~u w±kwfjynftodtrSwfjyKa&;ukd tcsdefqGxJ m;+yD; w±kwfuGefjrLepfwkdif;jynftm; [email protected]&; qufvkyfoGm;&ef? 2? Armtpkd;&ukd vHk;0 tar&duefaemufvdkuf jzpfap&ef? 3? tvm;wl ta&[email protected]&S EkdifiHrsm;/ xkdif;tygt0if tjcm;wkdif;i,fjynfi,fawGtay:vnf; +cdfrf;ajcmufv$rf;rkd;+yD;/ tar&duef=oZmcHrsm; jzpfap&ef? 4? [email protected]&if;u &vmwhJ bdef;ta&mif;t0,f tusdK;tjrwfrsm;uvnf; rufvHk;wvHk;jzpfvm[ef &Sdonf? 5? w±wk jf ynwf iG ;f &dS ueG jf rLepqf [email protected] &;orm;rsm;/ cseaf u&wdS af emuvf udk rf sm;twuG vf n;f tar&ud euf owl @dk buuf ae+y;D ueG jfrLepwf ±wk jfynuf dk 0iwf udk af y;rnhf ar#mvf ichf suuf dk jzpaf p+y;D / w±wk jfynwf iG ;f qyl vl y_ &f mS ;rr_ sm;udk quvf ujfzpaf pcsiof nhf oabmvn;f &Sdonf? 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[email protected]=umifh tpOftvmt&a&m/ tqifhae&mt&a&mausmfum/ [email protected]&S,fvpfygwDrS wyrf ;ª tcsKd @EiS hf 0iwf udk zf @kd ppD O=f uygon?f wywf iG ;f &adS eaom ueG jf rLep,f rd ;f orl sm;/ rsKd ;csprf sm;uadk usmIf ae&may;Eidk af tmif ppD Ojf ci;f jzpof n?f xkd“e*g;Ekdifppfqifa&;”onf oHvGifjrpfausmf0ifvmaom Armhwyfr[mukd w±kwfjzLwyfrsm;u oHvGifta&[email protected];twGif;ykdif;txd qkwfay;+yD;rS oHvGifESifhn‡yf+yD; [email protected] xkdwyfr[m ysufoGm;+yD; oHvGiftaemufbufurf;[email protected] z±kdz&J jyefqkwfajy;vmcJh&&m vufeuf}uD;rsm; qHk;±_H;ch&J onf? xkdwkdufyGtJ +yD; w±kwfjzLrsm;uvnf; [email protected][k ajymifjiif;qefvkdufojzifh (4) EkdifiHtpnf;ta0;rS 12


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[email protected] &efol. tm;omcsufjzpf+yD; rdrd.tm;enf;csufjzpfaom awmawmifwGif ajruwkwfcHppfjzpfcJhaomf qkdonfh tcsuftay: wGef;vSefypf&ef pDrHcsufrsm;jzpfayonf? 5? Tppfqifa&;wGif atmifjrifr_&jcif;. tajccHtcsuf}uD; (2) csufrSmæ (1) txufwGifazmfjycJhonfhtwkdif; [email protected] tm;enf;csufjzpfaom vrf;r&SdonfhawmawmiftwGif; &efolu ae&mpGJ ajruwkwfppfyqGJ ifaomf [email protected]vkdtyfonfh tajccHvufeuf}uD;rsm; cufcaJ er_rsm;ukd z,f&Sm;ajz&Sif;vkdufEkdifjcif; (2) &efolu rdrdxuftm;}uD;+yD; t&Hwyfjzifh wefjyefxkd;ppfqifum wGef;vSefypfrnfhtEW&m,fukdvnf; ppfupm;I (c&D;wkd xkd;azmuf+cdrf;ajcmufjcif;) &[email protected];tjym; aomifwifatmifvkyfEkdifchjJ cif; ([email protected]=umifh &[email protected]&Hwyf a&[email protected];[email protected]/ tqifhqifhcHppf/ uwkwfppfrqifEkdifjzpfoGm;apjcif;)/ tjcm;ppfrsufESm toD;oD;rS &efolrsm;ukdvnf; xdef;csKyfxm;Ekdifjcif;[email protected] jzpfygonf? 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1959 cEk pS /f puwf ibf m (1) &uaf [email protected] tEpS f (20) ajrmuf 'wk ,d urmB pp}f u;D pwijf zpyf mG ;&[email protected] ta=umi;f jyKI &euf ek +f rKd @wiG f “urmB ppf [email protected]&;[email protected]” usif;y&mwGif a[majymcJhaom usaemf. a[majymcsufrsm;xJrS “ppfESifhywfoufI ukd,[email protected];&csufrsm;”tykdif;rS jzpfygonf? ‚tykdif;ukd usaemfjyefvnful;,l azmfjyygrnf? w±kwfjzLppfrsufESm — aemufqHk; pdwfxdckdufr_uawmh w±kwfjzLwkdufyrJG Sm jzpfygw,f? 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'wD udk yf }JGu;D +y;D awmh wyuf dk ‘cwH y’f awmiuf ek ;f ay: qwk cf mG v+kHcKHap+y;D aemuwf [email protected] &e}fu;D atmif 'wk ,d pprf suEf mS ziG +hfy;D ‘v,G vf e;f ’ jyeof rd ;f [email protected] tptD pOaf wG vyk zf @dk ridk ;f qwuf dk omG ;&w,?f ridk ;f qwrf mS pp±f ;kH csKyuf O;D p;D t&m&rdS sm; aq;G aE;G [email protected] apmiahf ew,?f vr;f c&;D jri;f ay:rmS cHwyfawmifukef;u qif;vmawmh vGefcJhwJh (3-4) &ufu wkdufyGJ}uD;ukd ,ckrS at;at;aq;aq; awG;Ekdifawmhw,f? a=umufrufzG,f aumif;whJwkdufyGuJ kd ,ckrSyJ pOf;pm;Ekdifw,f? (3-4) &ufr# awG;csdef/ pOf;pm;csdefyif r&chJygbl;? [email protected] 'Dwkef;u pdwfodyfxdckdufwmyJ? b,fvkdpdwfxdckdufr_ jzpfay:cJhw,fqkdwmukdawmh razmfjywwfyg? usaemf[m [email protected]@u wkdufch&J whJ ppfajrjyifbufvSnfh+yD; wcgrS rjzpfbl;whJ pdwfrsdK;jzpfvmw,f? a=umuf&[email protected]@qkdwmawmh r[kwfyg? 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[email protected] xkdpOfu [email protected]@ 0ifchjJ cif;vnf;r&Sd? [email protected] Tta=umif;ukd aemufykdif;vnf; ajymrjy jzpfyg? wcg ar+rKd @wiG vf n;f quof m;uvdk +S rKd if a&muaf epOf jy\\emwck jzpyf gao;on?f usaemwf @dk ar+rKd @trd }f u;D rmS tay:xywf iG of m a&csdK;cef;/ tdrfomrsm;/ tdyfcef;rsm;ESifh wGvJ suf&Sdygonf? atmufxyfrSm tul&aJ bmfrsm;/ atmf'vDrsm;om aewwf=uojzifh tdrfomukd tdrfjyifwGif xm;ygonf? [email protected]=umifh tdrfatmufxyfaeolrsm; tdrfjyifxGuftdrfom wuf&yg onf? [email protected] tdrfaemufbufwGifvnf; vrf;omjcm;I ppfwyfrS t&m&Sdtdrfrsm; &Sdygonf? usaemfhtdrfaemufwGif aeolwOD;rSm Akdvfrª;}uD;ba&$(qkd&S,fvpfwOD;jzpf+yD;/ Akdvfrª;}uD;cifndKESifh orD;a,mufzawmfum awmfvSefa&;aumifpDacwfwGif oHtrwf}uD;jzpfoGm;) jzpfygonf? uvdk +SrKdiuf dk usaemuf atmuxf ywf iG f xm;r&d m tjyixf uG f trd of mtwuwf iG f Avkd rf ;ª }u;D ba&u$ [email protected] rf S [email protected]&dS omG ;y&kH ygon?f 29


nyidk ;f usaemuf vdk +S rKd iEf iS hf {nchf e;f wiG f xidk pf um;ajymaewek ;f / Avdk rf ;ª }u;D ba&$ ta=umi;f r&/dS ta=umi;f &mS +y;D usaemthf rd f a&muvf mygon?f usaemuf vn;f ow&d pdS mG jzihf trd tf ay:xyf tyd cf e;f ponahf e&mrsm;wiG f pum;rajymb/J at;at;vvl l xidk pf um;ajymonyhf pkH H atmuxf yf {nchf e;f }u;D xrJ mS yif ajAmixf idk pf um;ajymaewm jzpof jzihf ovl n;f c%0ixf idk +fy;D jyeof mG ;ygon?f jyecf ge;D usaemthf m; b,of bl ,0f gjzpaf =umi;f oG,f0kdufar;vmaoma=umifh usaemfu awmjyef&aJ bmfwa,mufjzpfa=umif; [email protected]&mufvm+yD; aiGa&;a=u;a&;usyfwnf;[email protected] vmtultnD awmif;wmjzpfa=umif; ajymvkdufygonf? [email protected] oljyefoGm;onfESifh usaemfonf ukdvS+rdKifukd csufcsif;um;*[email protected] [email protected];[email protected] qif;ckdif;vkdfufygonf? Tvkyf&yfrSmvnf; rSefuefoGm;ygonf? [email protected] Akdvfba&$tpDtpOfjzifh um;*dwftm;vHk;u xGufor#um;rsm;ukd ykdufpdyfwkduf &SmazG=ua=umif; usaemf=um;&ygonf? usaemfArmh wyfrawmfrS tem;,l yifpifay;cH&+yD;xGufcJh&aomudpP w±kwfjzL wkdufyG}J uD;rsm; atmifjrifpGm wkdufckduf+yD;aemuf 1955ckESpfrSpI usaemf. *k%foduQmESifh emrnfrSm wyfwGif; omru wyjf yijf ynof rl sm;t=um;EiS hf Eidk if jH cm;txyd g ausm=f um;vmcyhJ gon?f [email protected]=umiwhf ywf iG ;f wiG f usaemuhf dk 'Ok ;D p;D csKy&f mx;l ay;&ef ajymqodk rH sm; &Sdvmygonf? xkd &mxl;rSm 1949 ckESpf AkdvfcsKyfae0if; (xdkpOfu 'kOD;pD;csKyf) u OD;pD;csKyfAkdvfcsKyfprpf'Gef;ukd z,f&Sm;+yD; wufvmuwnf;u rnfolr#ray;bJ uGufvyfxm;aomae&m jzpfayonf? 1956 pufwifbmvwGif jyKvkyfrnfh wyfrª;rsm;nDvmcHwGif usaemfhtm; 'kOD;pD;csKyf wifa&; 0kdif;I tqkdwif&ef pnf;±Hk;v_yf&Sm;vm&m wyfwGif;[email protected] qkd&S,fvpfwyfrª;rsm;yg axmufcHvm=uygonf? wyfwGif;rS qkd&S,[email protected] ray;csifaea=umif; od=uojzifh “[email protected];csif&if [email protected] AkdvfcsKyfausmfaZmvkd ppfwkdufjyygvm;”[lIyif qkd&S,fvpf wyfrª;[email protected] ajymvm=ua=umif; =um;&ygonf? [email protected]=umifh usaemfhukd ykvdyfrif;}uD;[email protected]&;/ +AdwdeftjrifhqHk;ppf ausmif;jzpfaom umuG,fa&;wuUokdvof [email protected] wufa&muf&ef v$wfa&; ponfhudpPrsm; ajymqkdae=u+yD; usaemfhtm;wyfrS uif;uGma&;twGuf pwifv_yf&Sm;vm=uygonf? xkdpOfrSmyif “atmifrmCppfqifa&;”rS zrf;qD;&rdaom usaemfESifh ywfoufaom zkdifwuJG dpPay:aygufvmjcif; jzpfygonf? “atmifrmCppfqifa&;”qkdonfrSm 1956 ckESpf - ESpfqef;wGif ArmhwyfrawmfrS txufArmjynf/ yckuUL c±kdifwGif; jynfwGif; olykefrsm;/ txl;ojzifh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDXmecsKyfukd xkd;ppfqifaom ppfqifa&;}uD;jzpfonf? ajrmufykdif;wkdif;rS wyfr[m (10) u OD;pD;cJh+yD; wyfr[mrª;rSm Akdvfrª;}uD;=unf0if; jzpfonf? Akdvfrª;}uD;=unf0if;rSm wyfwGif;qkd&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifwOD;jzpf+yD; xkdtcsdefu acwW0ef}uD;csKyfvkyfaeonfh OD;baqGESifh tawmf&if;onfh aqGrsdK;jzpfonf? ([email protected] tdrfaxmifzufrsm;bufrS awmfpyf=u[ef &Sdonf?) xpdk pqf iaf &;twiG ;f Armjynuf eG jfrLepyf gwD XmecsKyrf S pm&uG pf mwr;f tawmrf sm;rsm; zr;f q;D r&d m xtdk xwJ iG f OuÏU ociof e;f xeG ;f . xyd wf e;f v#Kd @0uS zf idk wf wJG wJG yg&ydS gon?f xzdk idk wf wJG iG f yg&adS om pmtcsKd @rtS csutf vurf sm;t& ociof e;f xeG ;f xH usaemuf a&;ay;on[f k xi&f aom ta=umif;t&mrsm; yg&Sdae&m xkdudpPukd ta=umif;jyKI usaemfhukd t}uD;tus,f ta&;,l&ef wyfwGif;wyfjyif&Sd qkd&S,fvpfrsm; pDpOf=u ygawmhonf? Tae&mwGif usaemfESifh xkdacwfxkdtcsdefu EkdifiHa&;ZmwfcHkrsm;wGif ta&;ygpGm a&muf&Sdaeolrsm;t=um; qufqHa&;udk a&;jyygOD;rnf? xkdtcsdefumv (1956) ckESpfonf qkd&S,fvpfrsm;u wyfwGif;wyfjyif =oZmv$rf;rkdf;a&; t}uD;tus,f}udK;pm;aer_ t&Sdef &aecsdefESifhvnf; wkdufqkfdifaeygonf? [email protected] jyifytEW&m,fjzpfonfh w±kwfjzLwkdufa&;xuf jynfwGif;ppfukdom tav;ay; tjyKwfwkdufcsifolrsm;jzpf=uonf? jynfolvlxk Ekd;=um;+yD; awmif;qkdvGef;Iom (wzufuvnf; ArmjynfuGefjrLepf ygwDu azmfxkwf zGifhcsaeIom) w±kwfjzLwkdufa&;ukd vkyf=ujcif;jzpfonf? xkdwkdufyrJG sm;t&SdefESifh usaemf=oZm}uD;rm;vmr_ukd vnf; [email protected];&drfae=uonf? wyfwGif;rSm qkd&S,fvpfygwD [email protected] wyfrª;rsm;vnf;&Sd&m usaemfESifh yl;aygif;pnf;±Hk;rd+yD; [email protected]&S,fvpfrsm;ukd tmcHacgif;rm vm=urmS vn;f p;dk &rd =f uon?f t\"ud rmS q&dk ,S vf prf sm;taeEiS hf widk ;f jynuf dk ‚[email protected] f }uKd uf jc,vf ,S vf =dku&mwiG f wyrf awmuf kd yxrq;kH [email protected]}udKuf tkyfpD;[email protected]&mrSm ql;an‡mifhcvkwfjzpfaeaom usaemfhukd z,f&Sm;[email protected] vkdayonf? usaemf [email protected] wyfrSxkwfypfa&;ukd yk*~dKvft& t\"du}udK;pm; }udK;ukdifol (3) OD; &Sdygonf? 1? OD;ausmf+idrf;-qkd&S,fvpfygwDrS OD;ausmf+idrf;onf wav#mufvHk; usaemfhukd owdjzifh apmifh=unfhcJhygonf? OD;ausmf+idrf;onf usaemfhukd ol.qkd&S,fvpfygwDwGif; a&mufatmifrsm;pGm tm;xkwfvHk;yef;}udK;pm;cJhygonf? qkd&S,fvpf ygwDrSm [email protected] tusdK;ukd aqmif&[email protected] uGefjrLepfygwD [email protected]&;/ tjyKwfwkdufa&;ukdom t\"duvkyfaeaom ygwDjzpf&m (t\"du ‚[email protected],fusdK;pD;yGm;udkom vyk af e&m) usaemtf aeEiS hf widk ;f jynEf iS jhfynof @lrsuEf mS raxmubf J rrd wd 0r;f wcg;twuG f q&dk ,S vf pyf gw0D if rvyk Ef idk af y? O;D ausm+fird ;f taeEiS hf uvnf; usaemf. jyif;jyaom jynfcspfpdwf/ tusifhpm&dwW/ oDv/ &mxl;pnf;pdrf rrufarmr_ pwmawGudk=unfh+yD; olodrf;oGif;Ekdifrnfhol r[wk ±f rkH u [email protected]&@Sa&;&nrf eS ;f csuuf ydk g aEmS uf ,uS Ef idk of [l k jriaf eojzihf xzdk idk wf uJG pd P ay:vmaomtcg wywf iG ;f q&dk ,S vf prf sm;EiS hf y;l aygi;f +y;D wufºupGm usaemfh ukd ta&;,lvkyfaqmifvmjcif; jzpfygonf? 2? Akdvfatmif}uD;-‚rSm EkdifiHa&;xuf yk*~dKvfa&; &mxl;twGufyg usaemfhukd [email protected] tvGefjyif;xef+yD;/ usaemfhtay: yk*~dKvfa&;t&vnf; tvGefrkef;wD;ygonf? usaemfwyfwGif;&Sdaeoa&[email protected] [email protected] usaemfhukd ausmfum xdyfa&[email protected] rjzpfEkdifyg? 3? Akdvfae0if;rSm usaemfhukd *syefacwfuwnf;u rvkdvm;/ [email protected]; [email protected]@oGif;pOf;pm;&rnfh tcsufrsm; &ydS gon?f (Avkd af e0i;f onf wywf iG ;f q&dk ,S vf prf sm;teuf ‚u,dk uf sKd;p;D ymG ;EiS yhf wof uvf mv#if tveG vf uaf [email protected] pO;f pm;Eidk of l jzpof n?f ) 30


wkdif;jynfwGif ppfwyfu xrf;aqmif&rnfh wm0ef}uD;rsm; ay:vmygu [email protected];ukd;r&Sdfay? olukd,fwkdifu bmrS pGrf;&nf&Sdol r[kwf? [email protected]&S,fvpfwyfrª;rsm;uvnf; tm;rukd;&? ta&;ta=umif;qkdu usaemfhukdac:+yD; wm0efay;&? usaemfuvnf; wcgr# rjiif;qkd? ac: wm0efay;or# wm0efaus¹yefatmif xrf;aqmifcJh? wcgrSvnf; &mxl;udpP ukd,fa&;udpPrawmif;qkdzl;? xkdtcsufrsm;a=umifh usaemfhukd wyrf awmrf S xwk yf paf &;txad wmh oul tpyidk ;f wiG f rvvdk m;chJ yg? [email protected] aemuyf idk ;f usaem=foZm t&edS f wuvf maomtcg ool nvf n;f Akdvfatmif}uDd;ESifhtwl yl;aygif;+yD; usaemfhxkwfypfa&;udk wufºupGm vkyfvmygawmhonf? Torl sm;tjyif O;D EEk iS hf O;D AaqG (xtdk csed uf 0e}fu;D csKyvf yk af eo)l [email protected];f usaemuhf dk rvvdk m;=ubJ jzpaf eygon?f O;D AaquG awmh qkd&S,fvpfygwD*kd%f;jzpfojzifh w*kd%f;wnf;om;rsm;. qENjzpfaeojzifh odyfawmhrxl;qef;vSyg? OD;EktaeESifhuvnf; wyfwGif; qkd&S,fvpf*kd%f;rsm;udk axmufxm;qufqHae&ol jzpfonf? olu tapmykdif;u usaemfhtaeESifh qkd&S,fvpf*kd%f;ESifh roifhjrwfvSojzifh [email protected] csOf;uyfvdrfhrnf[k ar#mfvifhyHk &ygonf? usaemfuvnf; [email protected];uyfay? OD;EkrSm vufu ykwD;ukdifxm;aomfvnf; jynfwGif;ppfukd zdwkdufaeojzifhwa=umif;/ e*g;eDacwfu wkd;wufaom rsdK;cspfyk*~dKvf}uD;jzpfaomfvnf; aemufykdif;wGifrl t*Fvdyfaemufvkduf vuf,m orm;}uD;[ef aygufaeIjzpfonf? [email protected]=umifh usaemfu cyfrSefrSef cyfwef;wef; aech&J m oluvnf; xkd ‘zkdif’ udpPay:vmaomtcg usaemfhukd z,f&Sm;ypf&ef vkdvm;yHk&ygonf? [email protected]=umihf usaemthf ay: xadk cwaf zmujf yeaf ewhJ q&dk ,S vf pxf yd yf idk ;f tm;v;kH (wywf iG ;f wyjf yi)f omru/ O;D Euk yg rvvdk m;[email protected] chJ=u+yD;/ xkdzkdifudpPay:vmaomtcg tm;vHk;wnDwnGwfwnf; pkaygif;oGm;+yD; usaemfhukd wyfuxkwfa&; vHk;yef;=uygawmhonf? [email protected] [email protected];vHk; 0kdif;I usaemfukdrJ=u&aom t\"duta=umif;rSm usaemf. uGefjrLepf0g'tay:ESifh ArmjynfuGefjrLepf ygwtD ay:xm;&adS om oabmxm;rsm;a=umihf yijf zpyf gon?f usaemof nf ueG jf rLep0f g'udk [email protected]±f rkH u T0g' tay:aomvf n;f aumi;f / Armjynuf eG jfrLepyf gwtD ay:aomvf n;f aumi;f [email protected];f / ±w_ cf sjci;f rsm; b,af wmrh S ajymqjdkci;f rjyKrt_ ay:/ ‚[email protected] tawmf r}uKduEf idk jfci;f jzpfygawmhonf? [email protected] 1956 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif usif;yaom wyfrª;rsm;nDvmcHwGif TudpPay:aygufvm+yD; xkdnDvmcH wufa&muf&ef r*Fvm'[email protected] a&muf&Sdaeaom usaemfhtm; tdrftus,fcsKyfcsxm;vkdufygawmhonf? [email protected] Adkvfae0if; (xkdpOfu um uG,fa&; OD;pD;csKyf) u OD;pD;I xkdtr_ukd qufvufpHkprf;ppfaq;r_rsm; jyKvkyfygawmhonf? [email protected] yxrtpDtpOfrSm ppfcHk±Hk;[email protected]/ ±Hk;wifppfaq;/ t}uD;tus,fta&;,l tjypfay;+yD;rS (usaemfhukd axmufxm; onfqkdaom emrnfaumif;ESifh) wyfu yifpifay;vkduf&ef jzpfygonf? [email protected] wu,jf zpvf monrf mS awmh xzdk idk wf uJG dk Avdk af e0i;f u [email protected] af qtG &yof m; a&@Sae}u;D O;D bped uf dk ay;zwf um usaemuhf dk b,vf wdk &m;pJG ta&;,El idk rf ,qf wdk mwidk yf iyf gon?f O;D bped qf odk nrf mS *syeaf cwf (B.D.A) umvu ppwf ytf jyirf S a&@SaeawuG dk wywf iG ;f qoJG iG ;f pOuf ygvm+y;D / wyrf awmpf pOf ya'Xme}u;D wm0ecf /H a&@SaecsKycf [email protected] xH m;&o/l rsKd ;cspjf yncf sppf wd &f odS wl O;D jzpaf eygon?f (B.D.A) umv wyxf rJ mS aepOf usaemvf yk yf ukH idk yf akH wuG dk oabmus+y;D wy.f tem*wwf iG f usaemrf &rdS jzp/f ta&;ygojl zpof n[f k ,ql xm;ovl n;f jzpfaeygonf? a&@Sae}u;D O;D bped uf zidk wf uJG dk ,zl w=f un+hf y;D 'pD mwr;f rsm;t&awmh Avkd af usmaf Zmudk ta&;,tl jypaf y;[email protected] rjzpEf idk ?f Avdk af usmaf Zm emrnfvnf; ryg/ vufa&;vnf; ryg/ 'DzkdifwbJG ,fu &ovqJ kdwmyif cufaeonf[k Akdvfae0if;udk jyefajym+yD; zkdifwJG jyefay;tyfchJonf? (xkd “atmifrmCppfqifa&;”udk OD;pD;cJhol Akdvf=unf0if;rSm wyfwGif;qkd&S,fvpfwyfrª;/ trmcHwOD;jzpfa=umif; vltrsm;od&Sdxm;ojzifh xkdzkdifwuGJ dpPukd vltrsm;u r,Hkr=unf jzpfae=ujcif;vnf; &Sdygonf?) [email protected] Akdvfae0if;[email protected] usaemfonf vl±kd;vltjzpfI w&m;pGvJ [email protected] &Ekdifonf[k ,lq+yD; usaemfhukdppfaq; tjypfay;&ef cHk±Hk;w±Hk; [email protected]? xkdtwGif;rSmyif usaemfaexkdifaeonfh r*Fvm'Hkppfwyfe,fajr/ {nfh&dyfom (Guest House) [email protected] Armjynfayguf tdENd,vlrsdK; a&[email protected]}uD; rpPwm*ef*lvDqkdol a&mufvm+yD; olonfOD;bpdef.wynfhjzpfa=umif;/ OD;bpdefu usaemfhukd tultnDay;&ef apv$wfvkdufjcif; jzpfa=umif; rdwfqufvm+yD; zkdifwGJta=umif;olodor# ajymjyvmygonf? usaemfukd bmrS rpkd;&[email protected]/ w&m;±Hk;rSm Oya'a=umif;t& aumif;aumif;umuG,fEkdifonf[kvnf; tm;ay;ajymjyygonf? [email protected] usaemfhukdvnf; 0ef}uD;[email protected]@pum;[email protected] wkdfufwGef;ygonf? olu cifAsm;rsufESmukdjrif&if [email protected] cifAsm;tay: r&ufpufEkdifygbl;[kvnf; qkdygonf? usaemf. wkdif;jynftay: aqmif&GufchJr_rsm;tay: [email protected] axmufxm;=uvdrfhrnf [k oul xiyf &kH ygon?f usaemuf awmh rxiyf g? [email protected] [email protected] t&i;f cEH iS hf wudk wf eG ;f ru_ dk vudk af vsmonthf aeEiS hf [email protected]}uaH y;csuuf dk usaemvf udk ef mc+hJy;D zqyv0e}f u;D tcsKd @EiS hf owl @dktrd rf sm;wiG af omvf n;f aumi;f / wi;f epuf pm;&i;f aomvf n;f aumi;f usaemaf [email protected] yhJ gon?f xodk @[email protected]&kH i;f owl @dkuvn;f owl =dk um;xm;onohf wi;f rsm;/ tcsutf vurf sm;udk usaemuhf adk r;jre;f &m usaemuf jyevf nf &iS ;f vi;f ajymjy &ygonf? [email protected] usaemfhukd ppfcHk±Hk;u ac:,lppfaq;ygonf? usaemfuvnf; rpPwm*ef*lvD oif=um;ay;onhftwkdif; b,fvkdar;v#if b,fvkdajzqkdonfhtwkdif; xGufqkd+yD;/ olrSmvkdufonfhtwkdif; [email protected];cGef;rsm;ukd w&m;±Hk;udk jyefar;ygonf? TwGifw&m;±Hk;u usaemfhukd Oya'a=umif;t& ta&;,ltjypfay;Ekdif&ef rvG,fulqkdonfukd odoGm;=uygonf? usaemfESifh0ef }uD;[email protected];aEG;&mwGifvnf; 31


[email protected]@tr_qifrnfhudpPrsm;ukd usaemftvG,fwulacszsufEkdifa=umif; [email protected]=u+yD; jzpfonf? Tae&mwiG f ta=umi;f wudk qf ikd vf mojzihf usaemaf jymjyvokd nhf upd wP c&k ydS gon?f usaembhf 0 tcutf caJ [email protected] aepO/f usaemuhf dk w&m;Oya'a&;&mbufwGif ulnDcJh=uaom a&[email protected]}uD;OD;bpdefESifh rpPwm*ef*lvDukd usaemft+rJowd& aus;Zl;wifvsuf &Sdygonf? rpPwm*ef*lvDrSm usaemfwyfuxGuf&v#if uav;w+yHK}uD;ESifh cufcqJ if;&aJ wmhrnfhtjzpfudk tvGef=uifempkd;&drfyHk &ygonf? xkdusaemfhtr_ jzpfaepOftwGif; [email protected] usaemfhtdrfom;rsm;/ r*Fvm'Hka&mufvm+yD; uav;rsm;ukd ausmif;xm;a&;udpPrsm; pDpOfaepOfu usaemfhuav;rsm;. vG,ftdwfrsm;{nfhcef;twGif; wkdifrsm;wGif csdwfxm;onfukd =unfh+yD;-a=omfæuav;awGvnf; ausmif;wuf&OD; r,faemf[k tawmfrsufESmraumif;pGm ajymzl;wmukd usaemfrSwfrdaeygonf? usaemfhorD;ti,f pef;pef;ukdvnf; olutawmfcspfonf? pef;pef;u i,fpOfuwnf;u oyfoyf&yf&yfaewwfonf? olu pef;pef;[email protected]#if Princess Margret av;[k ac:+yD; pwwf aemufwwfonf? (xkdpOfu t*Fvefu rif;orD;av; rm*&ufrSm tvGefvSonf[k emrnfausmf=um;aeygonf?) tr_+yD;pD;I usaemfu a&[email protected] aiGwaxmifusyfay;onfukd b,fvkdrS ay;Ir&? r,lay? [email protected] w&m;±Hk;taeESifh qufppfaq;&ef rvG,fulawmhaomtcg/ ppfcHk±Hk;taeESifh usaemfhukdw&ufyJ ac:,lppfaq;+yD; tr_ukd qufrppfaq;awmhbJ &yfvkdufygawmhonf? usaemfhukd w&m;pGqJ kdjcif;vnf; rjyKawmhbJ ppfOD;pD;csKyfAkdvfcsKyfae0if;. tkyfcsKyfcGifhtm%mESifh rdrdr}udKufolukd tvkyfu xkwfypfz,f&Sm;Ekdifonfh Oya'ESifh usaemf[m [email protected] qufoG,fowif;ay;aeonf[k ,lqp&m &SdaeI r,Hk=unf&ojzifh wyfrawmfu z,f&Sm;vkduf&onf[k a=unmvkdufygawmhonf? [email protected] usaemfonf wyfrawmfrS 1957 ckESpf/ {+yDvwGif t+idrf;pm;ay;jcif;cHvkduf &ygonf? xkdpOfu usaemfhtoufrS (38) ESpfom &Sdygao;onf? ppfr_xrf;oufrSm (1941) [email protected] (16) ESpft&wGif wyfrawmfrS xGufvkduf&jcif;vnf; jzpfygonf? 32


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