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ICT Integration IP Maths Manual

Published by isabel, 2017-10-19 11:38:59

Description: ICT Integration IP Maths Manual


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Emerging Technologies for 421st Century Teaching and LearningA manual for Intermediate Phase Maths Teachers Isabel Tarling & Dick Ng’ambiETILAB International ::

5 Learning design and content developed by Isabel Tarling & Dick Ng’ambi from Licenced under Creative Commons Attribution- Non Commercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International The licensor permits others to distribute derivative works only under the same license or one compatible with the one that governs the licensor’s work. 2017 ETILAB International ::

Contents 6 Preface .......................................................................................................................................7 Course Sponsors ........................................................................................................................ 9 Module 1 Introduction ...............................................................................................................14 Module 2 21st century skills ........................................................................................................20 Module 3 Integration Principles ................................................................................................. 27 Module 4 Planning to integrate ETs ...........................................................................................34 Module 5 Integrating ET ............................................................................................................44 Module 6 eAssessment..............................................................................................................52 Module 7 Preparing to Integrate ................................................................................................ 57 ETILAB International ::

Preface The ICT integration - eTeaching & Learning course for Intermediate Phase Mathematics teachers wasIn February 2015 the Premier of the Western Cape, developed between March – July 2016. A referenceHelen Zille, launched the eLearning Game Changer. The group was formed that included Intermediate Phasegoal of this innovative project is to: Master teachers and Subject Advisors from the Western Cape Education Department, ICT integration experts “enhance the teaching and learning experience of from the University of Cape Town, and subject Western Cape Learners, predominantly in Maths and specialists different universities. Languages, through the use of technology” (Western Cape Government, eLearning Game Changer) The reference group developed a framework to guide the development of the course manual and collaboratedThe eLearning Game Changer addresses specific areas in developing the story-board for the three-day course.for development. The six integrated work streams that They also shared invaluable insight to focus the specificsupport the goals of the eLearning Game Changer are teaching and learning activities that were included in theillustrated below. course.The Cape Teaching and Leadership Institute (CTLI) was The Western Cape Government’s eLearning Gametasked with developing eTeachers. This meant Changer team provided further focus to the coursedeveloping teachers’ abilities to integrate educational development. They suggested the course address threetechnologies to enhance teaching and learning. key areas:ETILAB International ::

a) Integration principles eInfra- 8b) Planning to integrate ICTs into teaching and learning structurec) Assessing using ETs / eAssessment eTechnology Enhanced eCultureThe result was a hands-on, practically applicable and eAdmin Teaching &implementable course that guides role-players to Learning eTeachersmeaningfully integrate emerging technologies intoteaching and learning practices. The main goal is toimprove pedagogy and facilitate deep and meaningfullearning. Technology is seen as a vehicle to achieve this. Digital ContentETILAB International ::

9 Course Our sincere gratitude is extended to Fikile Machimana Sponsors and Selina Masia-Pos, representatives of the ETDP SETA in the Western Cape, as well as the many support staff The Education, Training Development Practices Sector and administrators working behind the scenes. Thank Education and Training Authority (ETDP SETA) you for your time and energy that you so generously sponsored this Emerging Technologies for 21st Century poured into this project. Thank you for impacting Teaching and Learning course. Funds from the EDTP hundreds of teachers and by implication, the life choices SETA were made available to sponsor 450 teachers from of thousands of learners. Foundation Phase to FET Phase, to participate in the course, to develop and present the course and develop and prepare the training materials. If every teacher on the course impacts a minimum of 30 learners, the ETDP SETA’s investment to grow existing pedagogies to support the meaningful integration of emerging technologies, translates into a potential impact of at least 13 500 learners.ETILAB International ::

Partners short course was developed in close collaboration with 10 the CTLI, subject advisors and experts with an intimate understanding of the daily challenges teachers across the grades face on a daily basis. The contribution of this reference group is gratefully acknowledged.The Cape Teaching and Leadership Behind the scenes, the CTLI’s ICT IntegrationInstitute Coordinator, Christo Davids sacrificed many hours and late nights, going beyond the call of duty to make thisIn 2016, Cape Teaching and Leadership Institute (CTLI), course a reality and ensure the different elements area directorate of the Western Cape Government, perfectly orchestrated. Our sincere thanks and deepestcommissioned the development of a specialised course gratitude goes to Mr Davids for his dedication, hardto equip teachers from Foundation Phase to FET to work and tremendous efforts.meaningfully integrate emerging technologies intoteaching and learning. The current course content was We also appreciate of the many administrativedeveloped for the CTLI and piloted with teachers in four assistants who provided support behind the scenes,sessions during January and October 2016. collecting documents and ensuring that everything from the venue to the computers and catering is in place.The different specialisations of the Emerging Thank you so much for making this course happen –Technologies for 21st Century Teaching and Learning your efforts are greatly appreciated. ETILAB International ::

The University of Cape Town ETILAB International11 ETILAB International is an Emerging Technologies The five Emerging Technologies for 21st Century Inquiry Lab. The different specialisations of the Teaching and Learning Short Course specialisations for Emerging Technologies for 21st Century Teaching and Foundation Phase, IP Maths and IP Language, FET Maths and FET Language are accredited by the Learning Short Courses were developed by ETILAB University of Cape Town. Teachers participating in the International team members, Prof Dick Ng’ambi and short course are registered with the University of Cape Isabel Tarling. The short courses follow the ETILAB Town for the duration of the course and graduate with a MakerSpace process where learning takes place in a short course certificate from the institution. fun-filled, playful context. ( International ::

Dick Ng’ambi Isabel Tarling 12Prof Ng’ambi is one of the few Isabel Tarling oversees all operations at ETILABexperts that effectively operate International. As a Learning Science scholar, sheat the intersection of social researches Teaching Change, Pedagogy and Integratingsciences, education, technology Educational Technologies into teaching and learningand innovation. Originally a using Design-Based Research (also the focus of hermathematician and as a PhD). She has been in education for twenty years as acomputer science / information teacher and co-authored a number of textbooks such asscientist, his many years’ English for Success (Oxford), Technology for Allexperience as an educator, developer of educational (MacMillan) and Science andtools and as an Instructional Designer, led in 2007 to him Natural Science (Siyavula). Inpioneering the postgraduate programme in Educational 2016 the CTLI, commissionedTechnology at UCT (to-date the fastest growing Isabel to design, develop andprogramme in the School of Education). He is a leading pilot Educational Technologiesresearcher in emerging technologies and mobile Integration courses andlearning, a passionate change agent and thought leader, manuals, resulting in this bookand an inspiration to those who work and learn with him. and [email protected] [email protected] International ::

The ETILAB Team for each participant, facilitators are supported by co- facilitators and assistants. This dedicated team provide13 in-time support to make the sessions as meaningful and enjoyable as possible. ETILAB MakerSpaces are facilitated by experienced educators and Emerging Technology specialists. In order to individualise and maximise the learning experienceETILAB International ::

Module 1 Module Overview 14Introduction This module introduces the course objectives. Key Questions Why this course? What can I expect? What am I expected to do?ETILAB International ::

15 Introduction technologies (ETs) into their classroom practices. It is an investment in our country’s future with unlimited ETILAB This course is all about teachers. returns. Teachers who have completed the differentPhilosophy All the activities and learning specialisations of the ICT Integration Short Course will included in the different aspects be able to create innovative uses for emerging technologies available in their contexts. They will design “When we invest in of the course are an investment learning that develops 21st century skills and apply the people and not in in teachers. The ETILAB team principles that meaningfully integrates emerging firmly believes that if an invest in technologies into their classrooms. things, we teachers, to grow their capacity exponentially to create and innovate, expand Most importantly, teachers who have completed theincrease the potential their professional ‘toolkit’ and different components, will be equipped to identify andfor transformation.” empower them to manage their make use of opportunities already available in their ownETILAB International own change journey and use of contexts to create and innovate pedagogically technologies, exponentially appropriate, relevant and practically learning solutions that integrate emerging technologies that they and their learners feel comfortable using.increases the potential for educational transformation.Course goalsThe goal of this course is to capacitate and equipteachers to meaningfully integrate emerging ETILAB International ::

Course content Logistics 16The content was carefully designed to address pressing Each course consists of five sessions:needs and requirements of teachers in each phase ofschooling. Session 1) Orientation and registration Session 2) Face-to-face @ the CTLIThe professional learning sections focus on 21st Century Session 3) Online activities and tasksskills and the principles of meaningful integration, and Session 4) Face-to-face @ the CTLIdesigning learning with these principles as guide. It also Session 5) Assignment dueincludes the fundamentals of eAssessment and usingemerging technology tools to mark tasks completed The f2f sessions run on Friday afternoons (15:00 – 20:00)online. and Saturdays from 08:00 – 16:00. Teachers are required to attend both days of each session. Catering is providedThe general professional learning space is designed to by the CTLI for lunch and tea breaks. Accommodation isaddress each of the five course specialisations and the available on request.specific needs of individual educators. Foundation Phaseeducators have very different curricular demands to IP The online session takes place in the 3-4 weeks betweenand FET Language or Maths teachers. Therefore the the f2f sessions. In this time teachers will completetools included in the ETILAB MakerSpace’s active online activities while collecting evidence of theirlearning sections address the different subject and phase growing ET integration skills in their classrooms. For arequirement of different groups of teachers. more detailed programme please see the last page of this manual. ETILAB International ::

17 Course overview individual activities are often completed online and shared to an online collaborative platform (Edmodo) Course The ETILAB MakerSpace where everyone can see it and share ideas. These Overview sessions are intended to provide activities focus on meaningful integration of ET tools teachers with a combination of into specific disciplines and phases, and develop The ETILAB professional learning and eTeaching, eLearning and eAssessment activities MakerSpace development, and hands-on relating to these. sessions are playful exploration, discoveryintended to provide and creativity. At the end of the course, teachers will be: teachers with a combination of Each day’s activities are ► Knowledgeable about the basic principles for meaningful professional designed to include both ET integration. learning and professional learning anddevelopment, and active, hands-on learning which ► Knowledgeable about the features of select ET tools, and hands-on playful is referred to as e-Play. able to competently apply these to eTeaching, eLearning exploration, Activities generally move from and eAssessment. discovery and group to individual learning, and from face-to-face to virtual ► Able to purposefully integrate the features of selected ETs creativity. or online activities. Group and to reach specific CAPS outcomes in lesson plans and eAssessment goals. ETILAB International ::

► Able to design a change plan and successfully and Each module focuses on principles that guide 18 reflectively implement this towards transforming their integration, how to plan for integration, and on possible own pedagogic practices. ways to use ICTs in e-Assessment.► Able to develop their own change plans and support each To make the most of this manual: other in achieving this. a) Read the manual as a guide and not a blueprint. Using this manual Integration and learning design is a creative process. It needs to include personal taste and preferences, skills This course offers a hands-on, practical guide to and knowledge, flair and intuition! meaningfully integrating ICTs into teaching and learning. The purpose is to increase deep and b) Focus on using what you have. The course and manual meaningful learning in Foundation Phase classrooms aims to give a broad overview of activities that could be and to support you as curriculum coordinator, in used regardless of the devices available to a teacher. supporting teachers. Therefore, the choice of e-tools For example, if a document viewer is not available, a was purposefully kept generic and not specific to one teacher can use their mobile phone to take photos. So single subject or topic area, allowing for greater use find ways to use what you have when completing the regardless of the specific content being taught. different activities. c) The manual contains different activities in each module. The more you participate in the course and get involved in playing with possibly new toys and tools, the more you’re likely to learn! So Have FUN!ETILAB International ::

d) Change is never easy. It takes hard work and dedication. This course is meant to ignite a process of professional development in ICT Integration, and they are19 It can be a lot of fun but you need to make the decision encouraged to further develop and grow themselves in this field. to change and then follow your change map. e) It really helps to use your reflections in the weeks to come as ways to evaluate your own learning. Try and set aside a dedicated time in your diary at the end of each 2-week period to reflect on what you achieved, how you changed, and what you want to do differently. f) CELEBRATE your successes! You’ll find many small successes to celebrate along the way – pat yourself on the back and celebrate these! Learn from the not-so-hot- moments but make a point of being your own cheerleader! This will help you to stay motivated and encourage your change journey.ETILAB International ::

Module 2 Module Overview 2021st centuryskills This module explores 21st century skills and how teachers can develop these. Key Questions How is 21st century teaching different to what teachers are already doing? What is collaboration and why is it necessary?ETILAB International ::

21 21st Century Skills possibilities, it is difficult to understand exactly what these skills should be and how best to teach them to The pressure on teachers is immense to prepare learners learners. While no one can accurately predict what the who can make a positive impact on society and take future will look like, a few key skills have been identified their rightful place in industry, business and government by different researchers: collaboration, communication sectors (to name a few). However, with so many new and critical thinking, creativity, citizenship and character opportunities and possible future employment development.ETILAB International ::

The first step towards becoming a 21st century communication, collaboration and critical thinking, 22networked teacher is to understand how this differs citizenship and character development.from teaching in the industrial age before it. What is more, while many pedagogic tools and someSchooling has come some way since slates and ink wells practices have changed since Victorian times, teachingin Victorian classrooms, yet when compared to today still tends to be very isolating. Teachers in theclassrooms today, some similarities are still very evident. same school and phase may plan together to share the workload, but rarely work together in one classroom. It is rare to see schools and teachers collaborate with neighbouring schools’ teachers or share resources with them, or for that matter, anyone else. Breaking isolation A classroom in the Victorian Era The internet arrived in the late 1990s. Social media followed soon after with Facebook and Twitter startingToday in many classrooms the emphasis falls onmemorization and replication, and on how tasks are in 2004 & 2006. This changed how teachers cancompleted rather than fostering creativity , access, share and talk about knowledge, access other teachers’ ideas and lesson plans, or share their own work with teachers around the corner and around the world.ETILAB International ::

Networking in this way can break the isolation and associated costs, they are not held very often. While they are great ‘idea-mines’ these types of events are not23 experienced by a single teacher in a classroom. It can‘invite’ many others into the learning space towards very helpful on a daily basis when teachers need freshrealizing deep and meaningful learning, new shared ideas for teaching difficult topics.understandings and collaborative thinking. Another option is to move the face-to-face (f2f) meetings online. A virtual meeting space is alwaysBecoming networkedThere are many different ways to become a networked available, and other than a f2f space, the same contentteacher. Schools and teachers could set up meetings can be accessed time and again. In a virtual space, teachers from different schools can meet andOnline between teachers from collaborate. They don’t have to travel vast distances ascollaboration & neighbouring schools. they would for f2f meetings, saving costs, time andcommunication Teachers can be encouraged to show and share their effort. The virtual meeting space can also be accessed after hours when it is convenient for the teacher.A virtual meeting space work with colleagues, at There are many online platforms and virtual meetingis always available, and workshops, conferences or spaces that teachers from around the world can access. shared planning sessions. Edmodo, Living Tree and Facebook are very popular atother than a f2f space, These and similar activities the moment to support online collaboration and take place at set times in communication.the same content can specific locations. Howeverbe accessed time and due to time pressures, travelagain. ETILAB International ::

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27 Module 3 Module Overview Integration Principles In this module we explore meaningful ET integration. Key Questions How is learning changing? What is eTeaching and eLearning? What is meaningful ET integration? How do I design learning to meaningfully integrate ETs?ETILAB International ::

Learning becomes deep and meaningful when interaction 28 between learners and content is increased.It is almost impossible to think about teaching and not One way to encourage deep and meaningful learning isthink about learning at the same time. Humans are to use educational technologies. Using digital tools on devices such as tablets or computers, potentiallynaturally inclined to learn. We learn from the moment motivates learners to engage with the learning tasks and if used effectively, may lead to deep and meaningfulDeep and meaningful we are born and even learning. HOW the teacher uses these devices islearning takes place before, experiencing, however critical.when learning material processing and interactingis interesting, when the with stimuli from our Teachingstudent finds the environment.learning personally Deep and meaningfuluseful or it addresses learning takes place when Traditionally many teachers see themselves as the deliverers or transmitters of knowledge to learners.their immediate needs. learning material is Learners have to remember or understand this knowledge and reproduce it when they are tested andLearning also becomes interesting, when the examined. Knowledge is something that is fixed and stable, and something you gain.deep and meaningful student finds the learningwhen interaction personally useful or itbetween learners and addresses their immediatecontent is increased. needs. Learning also ETILAB International ::

Thanks to the internet, learners today can access factual process and sees knowledge as something you DO, a verb. It fosters deep and meaningful learning that29 information at almost any time from any number of fascinates learners and motivates them to want to learn and engage more. devices. This challenges teachers’ identities and roles in the class, as they are no longer the only source of Teachers play a critical role in preparing learners with knowledge. Some teachers have even felt that they may vital critical thinking skills and abilities of creating, eventually become irrelevant and not be needed at all – evaluating and analysing knowledge. The role of the 21st seeing as information is so freely available. century teacher has expanded from Sage on the Stage to Guide on the Side but crucially for the future, needs to While it would be irresponsible to discard such vital skills be an Active Participant in the learning process. They as remembering and understanding, teachers are called need to be open to learning with learners, together to re-evaluate their role in the classroom. In an era finding and making meaning, rather than the one merely where factual knowledge is readily available, teachers’ telling them what to believe or do. role of the ‘sage on the stage’ needs to expand. In a 21st century class, remembering and understanding knowledge is no longer the main focus. Instead, students need to learn how to work with information, to create and generate knowledge that has meaning to their immediate needs or for real-life application. This type of knowledge creation engages learners in the learningETILAB International ::

eTeaching & 30eLearningThe e-Vision of the province is toimprove educational outcomes andbetter prepare learners for the 21stcentury through the effective useof ICTs.ICTs can be used in more or less the level of confidence the teacher and/or learners havetwo ways (or a combination of the regarding the use and integration of ETs.two): aimed at eTeaching or aimedat eLearning.eTeaching and eLearning can take place in any grade or Teachers sometimes find it easier to start withphase. The choice of one or combination of both largely eTeaching and moving to eLearning when they are moredepends on the learning goals and the pedagogic confident. Professional Development equips teachersapproach of the teacher, as well as the situational with the necessary pedagogical and technologicalconstraints of the school and learners. It also depends on knowledge for eTeaching and eLearning. ETILAB International ::

31 Examples of eTeaching List other examples of eTeaching ETILAB International ::

Examples of eLearning Learners create a 32 radio drama & record Learners find & share with their phones interesting websitesLearners create Learners record &and present own share sound recordings PowerPoint eLearningLearners create / Learners create an Learners find & share a e-picture collage navigate video educational apps to solve Learners create own problems blogs / websites ETILAB International ::

Integrating eTeaching & eLearning33 Study the examples of eLearning on the previous page. Note that devices are used BY LEARNERS. Also note that the devices are familiar to learners and teachers, and learners are therefore able to transfer existing skills (like recording music or making videos of themselves) into a learning space. Moving from eTeaching to integrate eLearning therefore requires: 1) Learning-centric pedagogic approaches. 2) Learning designs that target: ► Learning outcomes (not tech!) ► Collaboration and interaction ► Critical and higher order thinking skills ► The purposeful use of ETs that teachers and learners are comfortable with using This is illustrated in the Framework for Integrating ETs. ETILAB International ::

Module 4 Module Overview 34Planning tointegrate ETs This module provides a step- by-step guide to plan for integration. Key Questions How do I plan lessons that integrate ETs? How do I match learns’ needs, and CAPS subject and topic outcomes with the right ET tools? What must I prepare in the environment?ETILAB International ::

35 Learning Design emphasizes interaction There is a big within the class and different between Learning design is similar to lesson planning in that it has outside, between the same starting point: the goals and objectives of learners, teachers and learning with CAPS, and end goal: learning. Learning design however content. This supports technology and builds on a particular framework and makes use of transformative learning learning about specific tools. because it sees learning as technology. Meaningfully integrating emerging technologies into teaching and learning, as described at the end of the a result of interaction with people, resources and others. previous module, requires attention to the integration principles. This module focuses on these principles to When ETs are meaningfully integrated into this type of plan and achieve integration, starting at the learning. learning designs, these tools become ‘invisible’ in the learning tasks. In this way they can be used to support 1. Start at the learning knowledge creation and shared meaning making, rather than learning about the tool. It is therefore important to The main focus in any learning design should always be remember that there is a big difference between learning, and working with knowledge to solve learning with technology and learning about meaningful and authentic problems, and not tools that technology. Our emphasis is learning with ETs. support this learning. Learning designed in this way The starting point of any learning should be the educational goals or the learning outcomes that need toETILAB International ::

be achieved. The first step is Learning • Learning about ICTs or learning how to use 36therefore to think about ways that about ICTS focuses the attention on the device orknowledge can be created, critical ICTs tool and not the learning.thinking developed and HigherOrder Thinking Skills targeted. The Learning • Learning with ICTs uses the devices in thetechnology then becomes a means with class as a tool to improve deep andto make this learning happen in the ICTs meaningful possible way. • The focus is on learning and not on the ICT.2. Target HOTsThe next step is to scaffold the methods (Krathwohl 2002). Doing this helps learners tolearning, and specifically focus on tasks that develop develop knowledge of their own learning processes.skills of creativity and critical thinking. Moving from a content/teacher centric approach to aMany teachers see their role as the Sage on the Stage learner centric approach, starts with understanding whatwho has to deliver content to learners. They use these pedagogies are based on.particular pedagogies to share factual knowledge and Content-centric approaches focus on remembering andconcepts with learners. understanding factual knowledge. These engage LowerTeachers also need to teach learners about the methods Order Thinking Skills (LOTS).of inquiry, or the criteria for using skills, techniques or ETILAB International ::

When learners create and evaluate knowledge, they (see back of CAPS document in the assessment section). CAPS encourages teachers to focus on developing37 engage in Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) such as Analysing, Evaluating and Creating. Teachers are also guided toCAPS uses Bloom’s When learners create develop assessments that include the right number ofgenerally and Barret’s and evaluate HOTS and LOTS questions.taxonomy for Languages knowledge, they Digital versions of Bloom’s Taxonomy match digital engage in Higher Order tools with the different levels of the pyramid. These are Thinking Skills (HOTS). readily available on the internet and are even specific to different devices.Figure 1 Bloom Revised taxonomy ( ETILAB International ::

3. Collaboration and Communication 38The next step is to deliberately foster specific kinds of Figure 2 Anderson's model of Interaction for effective learning (Andersoninteraction, and how collaboration and communication 2011)in these interactions can take place. ► teachers ↔ contentDifferent forms of interaction are essential to theprocess of education. Learners are ready to interact with Increasing the interaction at these different pointseach other and their teacher once they have internalised increases knowledge construction. Increasingthe learning. They are then able to transform their initial interaction is essential to achieve deeper and morelearning and can construct meaningful and valued meaningful learning.knowledge (Anderson 2011). Therefore, if interactionincreases it also increases the effectiveness of learningand the construction of knowledge.Anderson’s model (2011) illustrates different forms ofinteraction as taking place between:► learners ↔ learners► teachers ↔ learners► teachers ↔ teachers► learners ↔ contentETILAB International ::

The content or type of knowledge learners need to gain right purpose. Thus, as has now become a repeated message, evaluate the learning outcomes, the HOTs and39 will largely influence which type of interaction should be the types of interaction that are required to achieve this. encouraged.One learning-outcome may benefit from learner ↔ The next step is to identify Enhancinglearner and learner ↔ teacher interaction, while another tools that address this very Learningmay benefit from learner ↔ content interaction specific focus. In this course One of the best ways(Anderson 2008). the different specialisations to enhance learning with technology is toDifferent ET tools can support different forms of for languages and Maths, design e-Learninginteractions, collaboration and communication. It is across Foundation to FET, that deliberately andimportant to deliberately and purposefully choose the will provide an introduction purposefully designsright tool to support the specific type of collaboration to many free, online tools.and communication, or interaction needed to achieve a These are only the smallest and fostersspecific learning outcome. tip of the iceberg and many interaction between thousands are created content, pedagogy4. Choosing the right ET tools for the job almost daily. The challenge and learners using ICTs to drive learningA hammer is a useful tool for knocking in nails, but a lies in evaluating the tool forterrible tool for spreading icing on a cake. Each tool has its purpose and how it can and teachinga specific purpose and using the right tool for the wrong effectively it can address the processes.purpose is as problematic as using the wrong tool for the learning outcomes. ETILAB International ::

When evaluating a potential tool that may be used to The ETILAB MakerSpace process to introduce new tools 40achieve a specific learning outcome, these questions are to a learning space process may be helpful. Firstlyuseful: introduce the tool in a playful, game-based or light- hearted activity that is very easy to complete. The What is the learning outcome? second step is to provide a task that uses the tool in a What HOTS do I want to achieve in the learning meaningful way, making the tool invisible and focusing task? on the learning. Once the task is completed, it may be What forms of interaction, communication and useful to reflect on the way that the tool supported the collaboration do I want to foster? learning. Thereafter the tool can be foregrounded briefly Which tools can I possibly use? when learners have to create a task that immediately Are my learners and I familiar with these tools or applies the tool to achieve a more complex learning task. will we have to first learn how to use it? How steep is the learning curve? … and is it worth It is important to provide ongoing support to all learners it? when they are exposed to a new tool. Learners can help each other (learner ↔ learner interaction), or a teacherWhen choosing ET tools to integrate into learning tasks, assistant can support learners to help the teacher.the emphasis should not be on the tool but on the Alternatively, the teacher can ask learners withlearning that it needs to support. Sometimes new tools advanced skills in a new tool, to make a how-to video orneed to be learnt before they can be used. voice-recording to guide their friends. There are many creative and engaging options available.ETILAB International ::

The last two integration principles are41 extensive and require more focused attention: integrating eAssessments and preparing the environment for integration. These are therefore addressed in the following two modules. ETILAB International ::

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Module 5 Module Overview 44Integrating ET This module invites language teachers to participate in a hands-on experience of ‘learning to’ describe a character. Key Questions How can ET tools support the writing process? Which tools support the development of 21st century skills in the writing process?ETILAB International ::

45 Integrating ETs in Maths Very often the teaching of Mathematics is seen as teaching sets of patterns, rhymes or recipes that learners need to remember and repeat when solving problems. Unfortunately, many learners either find it very difficult to understand how these rhymes relate to problems or fail to apply the right pattern or recipe to a problem. Too often this results in very low achievement and high levels of fear, anxiety and apprehension towards the subject. The Mathematics CAPS document suggest that teachers should rather see Mathematics as the teaching of a new language. This language is made up of symbols and notations that describe the relationships between numbers, geometric and graphic representations. ETILAB International ::

Human beings use Maths as a way of observing,representing and investigating patterns and qualitative General Intermediate Phase specific 46relationships in physical objects and social experiences,and between mathematical objects themselves. As content focus content focusmathematics teachers we need to develop skills ofobservation, representation and investigation, as well as Development of ► The range of numbers developedmental processes of logical and critical thinking,accuracy and problem solving. These skills are crucial to number sense by the end of Intermediate Phasemaking careful and effective decisions in Maths and lifein general. that includes: is extended to at least 9-digitOverview of activities ► the meaning of whole numbers, decimal fractionsIn this section we focus on the ways to integrate ET tools different kinds of to at least 2 decimal places,to teach Number, Operations and Relationshipsin theIntermediate Phase. The relevant CAPS content area ► numbers; ► common fractions and fractionsrelating to this is indicated below: relationship written in percentage form. between different In this phase, the learner is expected to move from counting kinds of numbers; reliably to calculating fluently ► the relative size of with all four operations. The different learner should be encouraged to numbers; memorise multiplication fluently, ► representation of and sharpen mental calculation numbers in skills. various ways; and ► Attention needs to be focused on ► the effect of understanding the concept of place value so that the learner operating with develops a sense of large numbers numbers. and decimal fractions. ► The learner should recognise and describe properties of numbers and operations, including identity properties, factors, multiples, and commutative, associative and distributive properties.ETILAB International ::

47 Maths using Slides 1. How can you use PowerPoint or Google Slides for eTeaching of Maths? ET tools like Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint are popular eTeaching tools. As more teachers get 2. How can you let your learners use PowerPoint or laptops and projectors, or interactive whiteboards, they Google Slides in the Maths classroom? use these tools in different ways. The bright colours and animation, images, sounds and videos that can be included make the presentations attractive and engaging to learners, and fun to make and use for teachers! Slide presentations can be used very effectively in the Maths classroom for eTeaching and eLearning. In eTeaching slides can help teachers to present content more interestingly and effectively using visuals, sound and video. In eLearning, learners can make their own slides to explain their thinking and working to the rest of the class, as a graphic and easily accesible means to show their growing understanding and learning.ETILAB International ::

Google Slides that you worked with previously, is a 48much simpler tool than PowerPoint, and is very usefulwhen first starting to use slides for presentation. It issaved in the cloud so you can access it from anywhereif you internet connectivity (if you can’t access theinternet from your class, you can however download itas a PowerPoint presentation). Google slides is alsovery useful as a collaboration tool where differentparticipants can work on the same set of slides at thesame time.Slides can however sometimes detract from themessage being conveyed or the learning that needs tohappen. Too many colours, images or fonts that aretoo small too read, or lists and lists of bullet points,may confuse the reader. Therefore, when preparingslides, it is useful to keep some basic guidelines inmind (as shows on the infographic ) . Mostimportant of these: always keep in mind: Less isMore! ETILAB International ::

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Integrating Tips for using video 50Video Prepare learners for the video ► They need to know what to do before, during and afterVideos as the one on Anansi, are popular eTeaching watching ittools. They are often used to ‘hook’ learners interest atthe start of a lesson. Sometimes teachers use videos to Decide beforehand how the video will be usedshow learners events, processes or actions that they ► A resource to explain content or conceptsmay not be able to replicate in the class. Teachers may ► As a means for learners to engage with prior learning /for example show learners a video of distant countries or knowledgecultural practices, that learners may not be familiar with. ► As a means to gain new knowledge by making own deductionsVideos can be used very effectively to foster much ► For assessmentdeeper and more meaningful learning. This requirescareful learning design, and particular attention to Allow learners to enjoy the videopreparing learners to do specific tasks while watching ► Learners enjoy video as an educational tool. Allow themthe video. Sometimes videos can be watched a number time to enjoy watching the video too.of times, and learners can do different activities, or evenmake their own videos. Save the video to your device ► It is easy and convenient to paste a URL / Hyperlink to a video file into a presentation. ► If the Internet fails for whatever reason, the video will not be playable. ► It is safer to save the video to your device in the applicable file. Video editing ► It can be very useful to learn a few simple video editing skills. ► There are many YouTube How-To videos teaching this.ETILAB International ::

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