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Published by Swati Save Ph.D., 2022-05-26 07:24:13

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Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Page 2 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Article 1. WASHINGTON, D.C. IS OPEN FOR BUSINESS I Harold Pettigrew Jr. An interview with Harold Pettigrew, former director of the Washington, D.C. Department of Small and Local Business Development MOSAICQUE magazine privileged to feature an interview of the powerful mover & shaker, a go-getter, a result producer, dynamic Young Leader Harold Pettigrew, in its January 2014 edition. Harold Pettigrew is the Managing Principal for Business Global Solutions (BGS), a Washington, D.C. based, global strategic consultancy, offering governments, private sector and multi-national organizations with strategic intelligence and actionable guidance on a broad spectrum of focus areas specific to economic development, corporate strategy, public sector management, business & SME development, operations management, and business regulatory reform to improve investment climates worldwide. Harold Pettigrew reflects in this interview on his time in government and initiatives he led to make Washington, D.C. a more business friendly environment and talks in-depth about his new business the Business Global Solutions. For more information about BGS, please or on twitter at @BizGlobalSol. Harold, thank you for taking the time out to do this interview. MOSAICQUE and Future Young Leaders initiative congratulates you on your recent 40 under 40 award. Tell us more about the award. The timing seems to be perfect with you leaving the public sector and returning to the private sector. Thank you. I was recognized by Development Counselors International during the 2013 International Economic Development Council Leadership Summit as one of the “40 under 40” rising stars in the economic development industry in January 2013. It truly was an honor to be apart of such a great group of professionals from throughout the world. Public service can be thankless, and I was pleased to pause for a moment to celebrate the successes I’ve achieved here in DC. You left government and established Business Global Solutions. Tell us about the BGS firm, and the services you provide. Business Global Solutions (BGS) provides strategic advisory services to government and private sector organizations, specializing in economic development, corporate strategy, public sector management, business & SME development, and business regulatory reform to improve investment climates for World Bank client governments, with specific focus on Sub-Saharan African countries. We’ve worked closely with the World Bank to advise governments such as Page 3 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Gabon and Mauritius on strategies and opportunities to improve their investment climate, in addition to other economic development projects here in the states. Now that you have completed your time as director for Washington, D.C.’s small business development agency, give us a broad sweep of your experience, the challenges you faced, and some of the accomplishments you achieved during your tenure. Throughout my career, I have found personal satisfaction serving in public service positions that allow me to build and innovate. Early on, I was instilled with a sense of urgency, and my career in public service has followed a path, taking on one challenge after the next. In August 2011, the Mayor of the District of Columbia appointed me to serve on his cabinet as the Director for the D.C. Department of Small and Local Business Development (DSLBD). Unlike most other District Government agencies, DSLBD had experienced significant turnover and change to its executive leadership due to a number of factors. My appointment set the stage for my return to the agency, where I previously served as its Chief of Staff. My service would also mark the fourth appointment of a Director during fiscal year 2011, and the sixth in five (5) years. DSLBD’s mission at the time was to foster the economic growth, development, and retention of Washington, D.C.-based small businesses. Its mission was simple, and if the agency had effectively accomplished its objectives, it would have a notable impact on the District’s tax base and stimulate the local economy. The agency had fallen short, however, of its goals. In a two year span, DSLBD had lost nearly 55% of its staff. I had returned to a failing agency that had 14 people, and had lost over $500,000 in federal grants. As its Chief of Staff from 2007 through 2009, I had grown the agency to 31 employees, more than doubling the Department’s size from 13 FTEs, and rolling out new programs and services designed to assist small businesses. My return to DSLBD was timely, as the business community was in need of experienced business leadership and stability at the Department to ensure the continuity and effective management of the Page 4 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 agency’s programs. Time away from the agency had allowed me to conduct an external review of its positioning in the city, namely the development of a new vision for its pathway forward. As its new Director, my first task was to assess imminent threats to the agency. Second, was to develop a new corporate strategy that communicated a vision for the agency that aligned with the needs of the small business community. Nearly all of the remaining team of 14 at the agency was all of my past employees. I met with each of them to gather their insights into the challenges faced by the agency and to understand its immediate risks. Since my departure as Chief of Staff, a replacement with budget execution, human resources, and government operations experience had not been hired. Because my appointment was in August, it gave me only one month to maximize the use of resources in the fiscal year. Therefore, I quickly analyzed the agency’s budget, which determined my ability to hire, develop programs, and stabilize its operations. Within my first week, I had completed my assessment of the agency’s budget, and interviews with the staff. During my first full staff meeting, I articulated a new vision for the agency, which incorporated the insights of each staff member. DSLBD had a new vision; to connect small businesses in real-time with local, federal, and global business opportunities; to assist businesses with navigating government quickly, confidently, and effectively; and, that every small business with a great idea and a great plan would have access to the capital needed for its execution. The agency’s mission would remain the same, but its direction had deepened, and the staff was aware of the direction that I wanted to move the agency. My new vision for the agency also provided the guidance for the development of a strategic hiring plan. Each new hire would align with my vision, and each new program would add depth to the vision. Under my leadership, DSLBD had monthly mayoral announcements of new small business initiatives and accomplishments throughout calendar year 2012. In addition to new programs and services, I had developed and capitalized nearly $5 million in new small business access to capital programs. I had aggressively targeted federal grant programs as part of my strategy for growing the agency, and successfully competed for the SBA’s Federal and State Technology (FAST) and State Trade and Export Page 5 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Promotion (STEP) programs, in addition to the U.S. Department of Defense’s Procurement Technical Assistance Program (PTAP), which the agency had lost during the two year period of my absence. Due to the successful campaign for federal resources, I launched the city’s first small business export promotion service, ExportDC, where I led three successful trade missions to identify and develop market opportunities in Asia and Africa, with specific focus on the Singapore, South Africa and China markets. The trade missions resulted in over 120 business-to-business meetings and partnership develop opportunities with foreign chambers, trade associations and government officials to generate opportunities for district- based small businesses. Further, I launched the city’s first small business technology transfer program, ConnecTech, which assists small District-based technology firms with commercializing innovations, and pursuing business opportunities in technology, specifically Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) in the federal government. In addition, I was able to re-launch the District’s small business Procurement Technical Assistance Center as a result of the PTAP grant. In total, I had positioned the agency to win over $1 million in new federal funds. Within 18 months, I was able to lead the agency through its most aggressive and dynamic expansion of small business services since its inception, which has strengthened the District’s entrepreneurial ecosystem. The agency, which had only 14 people when I had arrived, was now achieving success as a 45 person, full-service economic development organization with programs and services that had increased the competitiveness of DC small businesses across multiple industries. DSLBD was able to connect small businesses to new opportunities in the local, regional, federal, and global marketplace. What are the biggest challenges to small businesses in D.C. today? My focus was in three areas. First, my goal was to connect small businesses to opportunities locally, federally, and internationally. The second being navigation: How quickly and effectively a small business can navigate government, so they can get through to running their business. I want small business owners to focus on running their business, not being a pro or a specialist in how to interact with the government or to be an expert on the city’s laws. The third being capital. For a small business with a great idea, that we could ensure the small business is connected with the capital they need to grow. Page 6 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 You touched on a number of topics here. Tell me more about the partnership with the Kauffman foundation? During the spring of 2012, I had initiated conversations with the Kauffman Foundation and its industry- leading FastTrac program to develop an innovative partnership to support small business development in the District of Columbia. As Director, my goal was to develop innovative partnerships and opportunities to support small business development. The Kauffman Foundation is among the largest private foundations in the United States focused on the promotion and innovation in education and entrepreneurship. The Foundation established the FastTrac program, which serves a global audience of entrepreneurs and provides the framework, resources and networks necessary for an entrepreneur to take an idea and turn it into a successful, sustainable business. I entered into negotiations with Kauffman FastTrac, and finalized details of the partnership to launch FastTrac DC. I established a goal of graduating over 250 District-based entrepreneurs from FastTrac offerings, and entered into agreements with other business-serving organizations to recruit, train and graduate DC entrepreneurs. My goal was for the program to service all parts of the city, so I developed a strategic partnership network with the Anacostia Economic Development Corporation; the DC Chamber of Commerce Foundation; the DC Women's Business Center; the DC Small Business Development Center network; the Washington, DC Economic Partnership; and the Washington Area Community Investment Fund. In July 2012, I announced the initiative through a press event, where the initiative was applauded as a signature effort to build a new economy in the District with strong, resilient small businesses. Also, the Kauffman FastTrac president, Alana Muller, declared the initiative as one of Kauffman FastTrac's first large municipal partnerships, and added to the District of Columbia being “one of the best cities in America for business.” There are some people out there that challenge the notion that the District is a terrible place to do business. What do you say to people and small businesses that express that sentiment? Part of it is the perception gap between improvements that have been made, some of the buzz that we do see and conditions that may have been the case many years ago. You see it with transactional parts of government — Page 7 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 oftentimes, at forums, we may have people who said, it took me this long to get a license or to get certified, and my first question is, when was the last time you were certified? And very often it’s been years, if not a decade or so, since their last engagement with the agency. The city is processing business transactions faster than ever, and the experience is a lot more streamlined with the introduction of innovative technology usage and policy changes that have been made. It’s a totally different experience from what small businesses may have experienced years ago. There is certain still room for improvement, and significant opportunities to further streamline transactions and eliminate draconian policies that create a burden for businesses in the city. There are many public servants who put a lot of work into improving the city’s business environment, and the progress made should be acknowledged. I am glad to have led those efforts. Prior to your appointment as Director for the Department of Small and Local Business Development, you served as the Administrator for the city’s Business and Professional Licensing Administration. In late 2009, I was recruited by the Director of the D.C. Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (DCRA) to lead efforts to reform the city’s business regulatory environment. Washington, D.C. had earned a reputation of being one of worst jurisdictions to do business in the metropolitan region, and I had developed a track record of success in government reform, managing and streamlining operations, and had an in-depth knowledge of the landscape of the Washington, DC business environment. I worked with the Director before, and she had recruited me to serve as the agency’s Deputy Director and Administrator for the city’s Business and Professional Licensing Administration (BPLA). BPLA was at the center of the city’s regulatory framework, and responsible for the issuance of over 70,000 business, professional, special events, and vending licenses; registering and maintaining over 75,000 corporate entities; investigating unfair trade practices and unlicensed business activities; and inspecting over 10,000 weighing and measuring devices used by businesses in the District. The division included over 60 staffers, and generated over $25 million in revenue for the city each year. BPLA serviced approximately 45,000 customers a year through its walk-in center services, and over 85,000 phone calls a year through its call center operations. In addition, the operation processed over 100,000 transactions in a given year. When I arrived, BPLA had a reputation for receiving constant complaints from customers resulting from burdensome transactions, poor customer service, and the inefficient use of technology. I launched an aggressive strategy to re-engineer the agency’s processes and adopt innovative technology to streamline our operations. I successfully led the team through the development and launch of new online systems which automated the city’s business licensing and corporate registration processes, and handled in upwards of 150,000 transactions a year. Page 8 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 I found that the more we reduced barriers for regulatory transactions, and utilized technology to streamline interactions, more businesses came into compliance. The process and technology reforms also resulted in revenue increases, which boosted to approximately $30 million (an increase in 20% over the previous five years average), cost reductions, and increases in productivity. The launch of the new systems has been widely recognized by the business community as great initiatives to make not only the agency more business friendly, but the District of Columbia. Some small businesses continue to be challenged with the use of new technology, even social media. What services are available to help small businesses successfully maneuver through D.C.’s complex regulatory environment? While I was able to successfully reform the city’s regulatory processes, the navigation of the complex regulatory environment continually burdened small businesses. To remedy the issue, I developed and launched the Small Business Regulatory Resource Center (SBRC), which would assist small businesses with navigating the District of Columbia’s regulatory environment through direct technical assistance and training services. I developed the SBRC to serve multiple purposes. First, the SBRC would play a critical role with demystifying the regulatory process, and provide small businesses with the understanding needed to reduce repeat visits and calls to DCRA. Second, it would establish a direct channel for customers to communicate feedback so DCRA could identify greater operational changes and opportunities to improve customer transactions. The SBRC provides one-on-one technical assistance, pro bono legal services, and workshops designed to assist small businesses with navigating regulatory issues such as corporate registrations, licensure, tax compliance, and other business compliance related topics. Small business owners are able to come to DCRA and get the right guidance so that they can operate their business legally and in compliance with the laws and regulations set forth in the District. To execute services, I pursued the establishment of a partnership network with non-profit, federal and other District government agencies. By inviting partners to provide one-on-one assistance and workshops at the SBRC, the partnership model would allow for a “win-win” situation. DCRA interacts with all businesses that are based, and do business in, the District of Columbia. The partnership would expand the partner’s ability to access small businesses, who serve as their clients. This is critical for non-profit service providers; specifically with achieving one-on-one counseling and workshop goals as determined by their grantors. Page 9 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Throughout the country, I found that small business service providers offered very little technical assistance on topics focused on navigating a jurisdictions regulatory environment. I developed a “train the trainer” model of seminars on DCRA operations, which included topics related to business, professional, special events, and vending licensing, registering and maintaining a corporate entity, how to remain compliant and the identification of unfair trade practices and/or unlicensed business activities, federal and state tax compliance, and the inspection process for weighing and measuring devices. I led seminars with partners to ensure that they are up-to-date with policies and processes, and partners would take the lead in providing services at the SBRC. For federal and District government partners, it would provide an avenue for the agencies to achieve outreach goals, and alleviate operational pressures similar to DCRA. To launch the SBRC, I developed strategic partnerships with key organizations in the District, which included the U.S. Small Business Administration, U.S. Internal Revenue Service, D.C. Building Industry Association, D.C. Women’s Business Center, D.C. Chamber of Commerce, World Bank-International Monetary Fund, Washington Area Community Invest Fund, and the D.C. Small Business Development Center Network. The location of the SBRC is strategic to the success of the initiative. In March 2010, DCRA relocated to the Southwest section of Washington DC, which is metro accessible, making it easy for customers to travel to and from DCRA for its services. I led the design and build out of the space and located the SBRC on the same floor as the Business Licensing Center (BLC). Its location has allowed customers to receive assistance in the SBRC, and then venture over to the BLC to get licensed. The design of the SBRC’s services would allow customers the opportunity to become “transaction ready” so that when they enter the BLC and/or apply for a license online, they would be better informed and equipped to execute the transaction of acquiring a license or corporate registration. The early success of the SBRC has been due to the development of partnerships with non-profits and other government agencies, the engagement of technology, and the rethinking of the role that customer service and business assistance can play with a regulatory agency. In April 2011, I formally launched the SBRC was formally launched as a signature small business initiative as part of my vision for making the District of Columbia an easier place to do business. Looking at your experience, you also had a very unique experience in 2007 with Eastern Market. Walk us through your experience? Page 10 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 During my career I’ve learned that on any given day, public service can bring an unexpected set of challenges. On the morning of April 30, 2007, the Washington, D.C. region had awaken to news and alarming footage of a 3-alarm fire ravaging Eastern Market. That morning, I prepared for work as normal, and while watching the news coverage of the fire, I received a call from my boss, the City Administrator, who is the highest serving non-elected public official for the District Government. That morning was to mark the beginning of my last week serving in the Office of the City Administrator (OCA) as a program manager for the economic development cluster of District Government agencies. The OCA was a central division of the Executive Office of the Mayor (EOM), and my appointment had been approved the week prior to serve as DSLBD’s Chief of Staff. Because of my experience in small business development, and government operations, the appointment would allow me to fill a leadership void at the agency. As I arrived to City Hall that morning, I met with the Mayor and the City Administrator. The Mayor planned on holding a press event that morning, and he requested that I manage the city’s response and activities to assist merchants displaced by the fire. At the press conference, the Mayor announced that I was charged with ensuring the successful continuation of the market. The City Administrator informed me that the Mayor had appointed me as the lead because I was uniquely positioned between EOM and DSLBD. I understood the challenges faced by small business, and knew how to navigate the complexities of the District government. I would dually serve as Eastern Market lead and Chief of Staff for a government agency. Built in 1873, Eastern Market is Washington, D.C.’s oldest continually operated public market, and the last of eight historic public markets remaining in the nation’s capital. Eastern Market is blocks away from the U.S. Capital, and has served as an anchor for the Capital Hill neighborhood for over 100 years. After the press event, I jumped into action. That afternoon, I developed my strategy, which involved assessing and organizing stakeholders, gauging available government resources, and evaluating the impact of the fire on each merchant’s ability to operate at a reduced level. To work successfully between each function, I developed a plan to split hours between DSLBD, which also had critical needs, and Eastern Market, which was a mayoral priority. I organized a meeting of members of the community the next day, and it was immediately clear there were numerous factions representing different interests related to the Market. Because I was new to the Markets politics, I quickly assessed each representative’s point of view, and worked behind the scene to bring the community together. Conflict in the community had been cultivated over the years, but I was able to successfully rally the leadership around the cause of saving and supporting the Market. I was able to bring together leaders who weeks earlier had openly argued at public meetings, and spoke disparagingly about each other. I was able to effectively Page 11 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 communicate a vision that the community could support, and outlined specific tasks from fundraising, to research on employee displacement opportunities with other local small businesses. It was important for me to immediately diffuse long standing community conflict, and capture the small window of opportunity to rally the community for our common cause. The efforts were successful, and that was all in the first week! The Mayor was clear that he wanted the market to resume operations by that Saturday, so I had less than five days to assist merchants with continuity of operations plans. Because the District Government had no organized effort to handle emergency response of this kind, I had assembled a cross section of District Government employees to assist with evaluating the 14 merchants displaced by the fire. I developed a protocol for the team to conduct its assessment, and by that Saturday, each of the 14 merchants were able to operate outside the market. For four months, I served in both capacities, leading two different teams. As a result of the success of the plan I developed to ensure the continuity of operations at Eastern Market, no jobs were lost, and though at a reduced level, each merchant was able to continue operating. Good will continued within the community, and new initiatives to support Eastern Market grew from the original plans I developed to organize the community and diffuse some long-standing tensions. The Eastern market fire was a significant event for the Capital Hill community. How does that experience translate into the city’s initiation of streetscape projects on popular corridors like H Street NE, and in the Adams Morgan neighborhood? Every time a streetscape construction project starts, I hear yelling and screaming about how the District's not doing enough to help the impacted businesses. When I rejoined DSLBD as Director at the end of August 2011, I began immediately engaging in issues related to publicly financed streetscape projects managed by the D.C. Department of Transportation (DDOT). The D.C. City Council established the Streetscape Loan Relief Fund (Streetscape Fund) with a goal to provide interest-free loans to retail businesses inside or adjoining a streetscape construction or rehabilitation project in the District. Though it was established by law, the funding for the Streetscape Fund was woefully inadequate. DDOT had initiated nearly ten multi-year capital projects, which totaled nearly $50 million, along major commercial corridors throughout the city. Each corridor had significant numbers of small businesses, and the streetscape projects had documented impacts on small businesses. Washington, D.C.’s “H Street NE” had provided an excellent example of a project that could have disastrous effects on small businesses. In total, over $76 million was invested in infrastructure upgrades, but the capital projects lasted over four years, and many small businesses were not able Page 12 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 to survive the interruption H Street. Customer inconvenience, parking space reductions, signage impediments, and traffic detours are some of the major factors that translated into losses of business income. Because the fiscal year ended in a month, I worked feverishly to assess the status of the funding for the program, and the steps needed for its launch. The original capitalization was woefully inadequate to operate the Streetscape Fund. As a result of my expertise in managing government budgets, I found opportunities to increase the capitalization of the fund from $723,000 to over $2.7 million. In addition, I successfully negotiated with a fund manager to administer the loan program, and met with DDOT leadership to understand the timing of projects coming online in the near future. I recognized early that developing the program would need to involve working with leadership from stakeholder groups from the Main Streets program, Business Improvement Districts, and other small business stakeholder groups. The community leadership had valuable insights which shaped the development of the fund. Also, by working with the community, I wanted to ensure that DSLBD had buy-in from a broad base of leadership within government, small business, and the community. I directed my staff to develop a communication strategy inclusive of print materials and community meetings where we could promote the fund to corridors most immediately impacted by streetscape projects. The success of the fund was immediate. To date, nearly $2 million in loans has been awarded to nearly 25 small businesses for working capital, renovation and acquisition expenses, tax liabilities, and other allowable options. As a result of its success, nearly 150 jobs were retained and over 32 new jobs were created. In 2010, President Obama announced the launch of the National Export Initiative to promote U.S. exports. You mentioned earlier that you launched the city’s first small business export promotion program. Was this apart of your strategy for growing the agency? Ninety-five percent of the world's consumers are outside of the United States, so exporting represents a frontier of business opportunities that can generate economic growth and stimulate job creation here in the District. To align the District with the efforts of the federal government, I launched the city’s first small business export promotion service, ExportDC, in January 2012. The District of Columbia is an international city, and ExportDC provides an opportunity to expose our small and local businesses to international markets for their products and services. ExportDC is designed to assist District-based small businesses with increasing exports, grow the dollar value of exports from District businesses, and coordinate Page 13 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 trade missions for qualified District-based businesses. Through training, targeted service provision, trade mission support, and business opportunity identification, ExportDC has assisted D.C. firms with building the capacity needed to successfully export their products and services. From 2000 to 2010, the District’s professional and technical services industry grew nearly 8% annually. In comparison to the states, the District of Columbia had the highest percentage of professional and technical services GDP. Washington, D.C.’s economic output from professional and technical services was $21 billion in 2008, which was 21.6% of Washington, DC’s economy. The local economy is diversifying and growing, with significant strengths in professional, managerial, scientific and technical services. Over the last several decades, the industrial economy based on manufacturing has shifted to a services economy driven by information, knowledge and innovation. Washington, DC, has demonstrated its resilience and relevance as a home to successful professional service providers at the beginning of the 21st century. Export DC was part of my vision to transform the business environment in the District. In 2012, I led three successful small business trade missions to identify and develop market opportunities in Asia and Africa, with specific focus on the Singapore, South Africa and China markets, which resulted in over 120 business-to-business meetings, and partnership develop opportunities with foreign chambers, trade associations and government officials to generate opportunities for District-based small businesses. The trade mission also served as an invaluable opportunity for us meet with our government counterparts, trade associations, and other small business support organizations to plant the seeds for valuable long- term relationships, and we thank the SBA for their support of the District in promoting global partnerships. In addition, I executed a partnership agreement with the U.S. Export-Import (Ex-Im) Bank to promote and provide seminars on the bank’s financing programs which assist small businesses with loans, guarantees and insurance. Page 14 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Profile: Harold Pettigrew, was the former director of the Washington, D.C. Department of Small and local Business Development. Pettigrew has been featured in the Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, Global Trade magazine, Washington Business Journal, and was recipient of the 2013 “40 Under 40” Award in the Economic Development Industry, presented at the 2013 International Economic Development Council Leadership Summit by Development Councillors International. Pettigrew has provided expert testimony to District Government officials, served on expert panels, and has been a featured speaker for local and federal government agencies, community groups, non- profits, universities, and trade associations. Pettigrew has also hosted and advised foreign delegations of business owners, government officials and legislators on issues involving trade, small business development, entrepreneurship and supplier development. To know more about opportunities visit or contact [email protected] Page 15 of 82

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Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Article 2 . New York City Resident’s Perception, Attitudes and Behaviors Related to Climate Change l Debika Shome The Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) is an interdisciplinary center that studies individual and group decision making under climate uncertainty and decision making in the face of environmental risk. CRED's objectives address the human responses to climate change and climate variability as well as improved communication and increased use of scientific information on climate variability and change. Located at Columbia University, CRED is affiliated with The Earth Institute and the Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy (ISERP). CRED was already conducting research in other parts of the US to gauge residents’ perceptions, attitudes and behaviors related to climate change when we conceived of a similar study in New York City. While New York City may not be experiencing climate change in the same dramatic way as our other field sites in Alaska and Florida, we believed there was valuable insight to be gained from surveying this influential and global population. Methodology Telephone interviews were conducted in English and Spanish from November 28 to December 16, 2007 with a representative sample of 1,000 adults living in New York City households. Study Results Overall, a large majority of New York City residents say that they are personally convinced that global warming is happening (78%). Of those personally convinced, 82 percent believe that global warming is caused mainly by human activities (70%), or caused equally by humans and natural changes (12%), while only 15 percent believe it is caused mostly by natural changes in the environment.2 This study was designed and funded by the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) at Columbia University, the Yale Project on Climate Change at Yale University, and the Center for Energy, Marine Transportation, and Public Policy at Columbia University. All parties contributed towards funding the study. CRED's major funding is provided under the cooperative agreement NSF SES-0345840. You can view the full report at A majority of New Yorkers (60%) say they personally worry either a great deal (26%) or a fair amount (34%) about global warming, whereas 39 percent say they worry only a little (24%) or not at all (15%). Yet most New York City residents believe that global warming is a greater threat to species, people, and places relatively far away, than to themselves or other people in the city. That is not to say, however, that New Yorkers believe the city will escape unscathed. In fact, 22 percent believe global warming is already having dangerous impacts on people in the city now, while another 56 percent believe these dangerous impacts will occur within either the next 10 years (30%), or the next 25 years (26%). More specifically, large majorities of New Yorkers believe that during the next 50 years, global warming will cause more heat waves (85%), energy blackouts (79%), worse storms, hurricanes, and tornadoes (79%), increased rates of disease (72%), and flooding of subways, tunnels, and airports (70%). Finally, a majority (69%) believe it is somewhat (34%) or very likely (35%) that parts of New York City will need to be abandoned due to rising sea levels over the next 50 years. Page 17 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Support for PlaNYC Initiatives In April 2007, PlaNYC 2030 was unveiled, a long -term plan to reduce New York City’s greenhouse gas emissions by 30% and manage future population growth. This survey measured public support for several initiatives proposed by PlaNYC. PlaNYC 2030, has proposed to establish a New York City-specific surcharge to help finance energy efficiency and education projects. This survey found that New Yorkers are broadly supportive of such a proposal. For example, 66 percent strongly (35%) or moderately support (31%) a $2.50 surcharge on the average household’s monthly electric bill for a special fund to help make buildings more energy efficient and teach New Yorkers how to reduce their energy use. Further, 76 percent of residents strongly (49%) or moderately support (27%) a city subsidy to encourage building owners to replace old furnaces, water heaters, air conditioners, light bulbs, and insulation, even if the subsidy increased the average household’s taxes by $5 a month. Finally, New Yorkers say they are willing to make individual lifestyle changes to reduce their own greenhouse gas emissions. Large majorities say they are likely to buy compact fluorescent light bulbs (71%), spend $5 more a month for electricity produced from renewable energy sources like wind or solar (68%), make their views on global warming clear to politicians (67%), use less air conditioning in the summer (66%), and turn down their thermostat in the winter (60%). Study Conclusions Overall, a large majority of New Yorkers believe that global warming is happening and caused by human activities. Many are worried about climate change and think it will have a variety of dangerous impacts on New York City. New Yorkers think city officials, state officials and Con-Edison should be doing more to address global warming and are broadly supportive of city initiatives to reduce local energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, they say they are willing to take individual action to reduce their own greenhouse gas emissions. Links to India Many Americans view climate change as distant in space and time. It is a serious problem, but not one that engages affect (dread). In fact, many residents think the United States will be able to implement adaptation measures in time to deal with the impacts the US is likely to feel from climate change. How would residents of major Indian cities answer the questions posed to New York City residents? What are their perceptions, attitudes and behaviors related to climate change? For residents of major cities like Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, climate change is likely to seem closer in space and time. For many Indians, extreme climate events like flooding, droughts and heat waves are all too common occurrences. Additionally, India does not have the same adaptation options as the US due in part to the country’s economic situation, its population size and distribution along coastline, and the intensity of climate change impacts India is likely to face in the future. Page 18 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Below are some climate change impacts India is likely to face according to the February 2007 IPCC report and reported by The Hindu Newspaper3: •Sea levels will rise by at least 15.75 inches (40 cm) by 2100, inundating vast areas on the coastline, including some of the most densely populated cities. In the South Asian region as a whole, millions of people will find their lands and homes inundated. •The Ganga, Brahmaputra, and Indus will become seasonal rivers, dry between monsoon rains as Himalayan glaciers will continue their retreat, vanishing entirely by 2035, if not sooner. •Water tables will continue to fall and the gross per capita water availability in India will decline by over 1/3 by 2050 as rivers dry up, water tables fall or grow more saline. Water scarcity will in turn affect the health of vast populations, with a rise in water-borne diseases such as cholera. Other diseases such as dengue fever and malaria are also expected to rise. •Crop productivity will fall, especially in non-irrigated land, as temperatures rise for all of South Asia by as much as 2.2 degrees F (1.2 degrees C) on average by 2040, and even3 Page 19 of 82

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Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Article 3. KEY INSIGHTS | ORIGINAL RESEARCH From THE RISE AND FALL OF NATIONS | RUCHIR SHARMA The Four D’s The world economy is fighting the friction generated by 4D’s. Deglobalization: international trade is now growing slower than the global economy for the first time in a generation, and cross border money flows have retreated to levels last seen a quarter century ago. Depopulation: since 2005, the working age population of the world has been growing at just 1 percent a year, half the rate of the previous 50 years. Deleveraging: the world has racked up $50 trillion in debt since 2008, more than it did in the years before the crisis and mainly driven by China, and only parts of the developed world have begun paying down the debt or “deleveraging”. De-democratization: many governments are trying to force feed the economy into growing faster, and 110 countries—more than half—have suffered some loss of freedom in the last 10 years. The Age of Pessimism The forces weighing on the global economy are real, but this is not an excuse to embrace fashionable pessimism. As economist Joseph Schumpeter warned, “pessimistic visions about anything usually strike the public as more erudite than optimistic ones.” It’s time to rethink success and every nation needs to downscale its ambitions. The fastest- growing economies are almost always the poorest ones, but even they need to be more realistic. In India’sincome class, the definition of strong growth should come down from better than 7 percent to better than 5 percent, a standard that will reveal surprising success stories. For rich nations, the benchmark should come down from about 3 percent to 1.5 percent, which would help ease the gloom in the United States and Europe. The Good, the Average and the Ugly I use a system of 10 rules to rank theprospects of the world’s leading nations as “good, average or ugly,” an approach with a simple beauty. Even in pessimistic times, the rules will always reveal which nations are bestin class. Right now, the rules shows that China has among the ugliest prospects in the emerging world, in part because no other country is getting hit harder by the forces of depopulation, debt, and the deglobalization of trade and money flows. Yet the rules also reveal pockets of strength in economies that are far off the media radar, from the Philippines to Kenya, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The Depopulation Bomb It’s half the global slowdown story. Economic growth is broadly driven by populationplus productivity: more workers producing more output per hour. So if population growth slows, so does the economy, and global population growth has fallen by nearly half in the last decade, compared to its postwar average. My research shows that if a nation’s working age population is growing at less than 2 percent a year, then its economy will grow rapidly—faster than 6 percent a year—in just one out of four cases. In the 1980s, 17 of the largest 20 developing countries had a population growth rate that fast and now there are only two: Saudi Arabia and Nigeria. That means the world should expect fewer economic miracles in the years ahead. India falls into the next tier, with a working age population Page 21 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 growth rate that is expected to average 1.5 percent over the next five years. That’s reasonably fast, but not in the miracle class. Good Versus Bad Billionaires Wealth inequality is exploding, provoking political revolts from South Korea to the United States. To track which countries are most vulnerable to these revolts, I use the yearly Forbes list to track the wealth of billionaires, the high- profile lightning rods for social unrest. First I calculate billionaire wealth as a share of GDP, to get a picture of their hold over the economy. Then I figure out how much of their wealth comes from inherited fortunes and corruption- prone industries like real estate or oil, which reveals the power of the “bad billionaires.” It is the rise of shady characters in these rent-seeking industries that is most likely to stir popular anger. I first started tracking billionaires in India around 2010, when the rise of crony capitalists was stirring a backlash against capitalism itself. Today billionaire wealth represents 14 percent of GDP, still well above the global average, but the bad billionaires are in retreat. Between 2010 and 2015 India saw one of the world’ssharpest gains in the clout of good billionaires, in industries like technology and pharmaceuticals: they saw their totalfortunes rise by 22 percentage points to 53 percent of total billionairewealth. These trends may have taken the edge off the anticorporate, antigrowthsentiment that gripped Delhi over the priordecade. The Curse of the Cover Story American journalists have a joke about the backward-looking nature of their profession,which is that by the time a story reaches the cover of Time, it’s already dead. To test for truth in this jest, I looked at every Time cover with an economic spin on a country or region, going back to 1980. If the cover was downbeat, the economy subsequently picked up speed 55 percent of the time. If the cover was upbeat, the economy slowed down 66 percent of the time. The curse of the cover is real. The point is not to disparage journalists, but to highlight the fact that they tend to follow mainstream forecasters, who typically predict that economies will keep moving in a straight line, and miss the big turning points. That explains why Time would ask whether this is “China’s Century, or India’s” in November 2011, the year when all the big emerging economies started to slow sharply. (Interestingly, the same test for The Economist magazine showed that, perhaps thanks to its contrarian worldview, its covers proved prescient more than half the time.) To avoid the curse, countries basking in the glow of media hype should start worrying and looking for ways to reform. The Fall of The Rest In 2010 many emerging nations were growing so fast, their average incomes were rapidly catching up to those of the United States. Hype for “the rise of the rest” hit a peak, which signaled a turn in the story. By last year, the average growth rate in emerging nations had fallen from a high of around 8 percent in 2010 to its long term average of 4 percent, and 2 percent excluding China. The United States was expanding faster than many of the big emerging countries, from Russia and Brazil to South Africa, where average incomes were in decline. This is perfectly normal. My research shows that in every decade before 2000, going back to 1960, the average income of most emerging nations fell relative to the United States. In Brazil, incomes rise and fall with prices for its major commodity exports, and the average income is the same, relative to US incomes, as it was a hundred years ago. Page 22 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Why Democracies Outrun Authoritarian Regimes In The Long Haul The rise of China convinced many people that autocracies have an advantage in generating strong economic growth. To test that faith, I looked at all the postwar booms and found 60 in authoritarian countriesand 64 in democratic countries. Moreover, authoritarian regimes are much more likely to grow in extremely fast or slow spurts, with wild swings between the two extremes. Since 1950, there have been 138 cases in which a country grew very slowly for a decade, and 100 of those slumps struck under an authoritarian government. The worst boom-bust swings came under notorious dictators like the Assad’s of Syria, but a similar authoritarian roller coaster effect has disrupted nations like Brazil in the late 1960s. In the post crisis era, pockets of people in many troubled nations, from Russia to India,have looked to a strong hand to restore prosperity, but they should beware what they wish for. China’s steady economic success under authoritarian rule story was the exception, not the rule. The Point of No Return Though many economistshave looked for it, and some claim to have found it, there is no holy grail, no one key that foretells a nation’s future. The single most reliable indicator I have found is a negative one, which signals a warning when the debts of private households and companies has grown more than 40 percentage points faster than GDP over a five-year period. Over the past 50 years, every nation that passed that point of no returnwent on to suffer a serious economic slowdown. In recent years, many emerging nations have been rapidly running up debts, while the private sector in the United States and other wealthy countries were cutting back. This is a complete reversal of the state of the world before 2008. But only one emerging country has passed the point of no return: China. India, by contrast, is suffering from the opposite problem: one of the biggest obstacles to faster growth is anemic credit growth, due to a sclerotic system in which state banks control 75 percent of all loans, more than double the emerging world average. The Second City Rule For large countries, I track the geographic balance of economic growth by monitoring the rise of second cities, with populations of more than a million. In the small class of mega-nations, China is beating India hands down. China has nineteen cities that have quadrupled in size over the last three decades to more than a million people, compared to just two in India. China’s include the southern industrial boomtowns of Dongguan and Shenzhen, with more than 7 million. India’s areMallapuram andKollam in Kerala state, with barely over a million, and they passed that mark due largely to a redrawingof the local administrative map in 2011. Of course, one reason for China’s lead is that its economy has grownmuch faster than India’s, and industrialization encourages urbanization.But even with that caveat in mind, India has also done less todevelop and much to discourage the rise of second cities, reserving prime urban real estate for civil servant enclaves like Lutyens Delhi, and cramping development with outdated building and zoning codes. Smaller cities struggle to grow, andwhen rural Indians do move to urban areas, they tend to choose themegacities with more than ten million people: Mumbai, Delhi,Kolkata, and Bangalore. In fact 17 percent of India’s population lives in such megacities, compared to 12 percent of China’s. If China is developing as a nation of boom cities, India is aland of creaking megacities, surrounded by small towns and not enoughvibrant second cities. Page 23 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 The Curse of The Second Term Economic reform is most likely under bold new leaders, but even the best reformers grow stale and start to run out of ideas, the popularity to implement them, or both. The markets sense this process of decay, and tend to turn on leaders over time. Over the past 25 years in the major emerging democracies sixteen presidents and prime ministers have lasted two or more terms in office, including Vladimir Putin of Russia and Manmohan Singh. The stock markets in these countries beat the emerging world average by 16 percent in the leaders’ first terms, but delivered just average returns in the second terms. This is strong confirmation of what is known in the United States as “the curse” of the second term, since many of these leaders started out as economic reformers but lost momentum in their second term.Some of the weakest second term results came under RecepTayyip Erdogan in Turkey,where the stock market lagged behind the emerging-world averageby 18 percent during his second term, from 2007 to 2011; and Singh in India, which lagged by 6 percent during hissecond term from 2009 to 2014. Good Vs. Bad Binges A nation is most likely to rise when it is investing heavily in new businesses and creating jobs, but not all investment spending binges are created equal. India is like the Soviet Union in this respect, a nation that invested heavily—more than 30 percent of GDP—for many years, but got little out of all that spending, because so much of it was misdirected by the state. It may sound odd to speak of good binges, but even if these binges end in a crash, the country doesn’t wake up with a hangover. It finds itself stronger, with new canals or rail lines or fiber optic cables or factories, which will help the economy grow when it recovers. The best binges unfold when companies funnel money into technology, infrastructure, and especially manufacturing, a particular weakness in India, where even incense sticks are now manufactured mostly in Vietnam. The worst hit when the money goes into real estate or oil and other commodity industries, which tend to push up prices but leave nothing of productive value behind. Cheap is Good One of the most striking signs of collapsing growth in emerging nations is how cheap their currencies feel now. While the rupee has fallen against the dollar, other emerging currencies outside of China feel even cheaper. Rio hotel rooms that went for $1,000 a night just a few years ago can now be had for $200. At world-class restaurants in Johannesburg, a three course meal is $30. In Moscow, businesses chauffeur guests around in Toyotas, because they can no longer afford Mercedes. These are symptoms of the downturn, but also signals of potential recovery, because cheap currencies attract investment and promote exports. The trick is knowing how to read the signals, and I show readers how to spot the turning points in the data on money flows. Follow the Local Money Even though global capital flows dried up after the crisis of 2008, many politicians are still quick to blame any local financial crisis on the flight of “evil” foreigners. My finding is the opposite: in ten out of the twelve major emerging- market currency crises over the past two decades, local investors headed for the exits well before foreigners. Locals are the first to know when a nation is in crisis or recovery, and they can choose many backdoor channels to dump the local currency—the Turks tend to convert bank accounts from lira to dollars, Indians often sell rupees for gold. Lately, locals have shipped money by the billions out of many emerging nations, particularly Russia and China. Page 24 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 What Doesn’t Matter Countless forces can shape a nation’s fortunes, and one basic aim of this book is to narrow them down to the ten that matter most. Though many Indian experts argue that focusing on economic growth can undermine development in education and health, countries with the best growth records tend to have the highest “human development” scores. I largely ignore education, one of the most popular targets for reform, because investing in schools pays off too slowly to signal turns in an economy. I also avoid popular rankings like the World Economic Forum’s Competitiveness Report and World Bank surveys on the “ease of doing business,” because they rely heavily on slow moving factors (such as education) or are subject to marketing manipulation. Though foreign businesses now avoid Putin’s Russia, it has risen fast on the World Bank survey, after the Kremlin hired consultants to help improve its scores. I try to focus on the data that is most timely, and reliable. Page 25 of 82

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Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Article 4. WHICH FUTURE WE WANT... | OSWALDO LUCON, RODRIGO MESSIAS, ANA BACCARIN There was a long expectation to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development – the so-called Rio+20. Preparatory negotiations had a sense of a real dialogue and willingness to find common ground. Few key deliverables would make a difference: defining sustainable development goals (SDGs) as a central feature of a post- 2015 development framework, exploring green economy policy options to advance sustainable development and eradicate poverty, and to make decisions on key elements of the international institutions needed to support such governance. There was a vast array of topics to be addressed under such umbrella: food security and sustainable agriculture, energy, oceans, gender equality and women's empowerment, and education. The necessary means of implementing action were on the table, including initiatives to strengthen financing, technology transfer and capacity building. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urged as a priority for a new model that offers growth and social inclusion, also more respectful of the planet's finite resources. Stakeholders were encouraged to make and implement voluntary commitments at Rio+20 in order to get to what the main document stated in its title: The future we want. However, as the conference started, the pace of the talks did not accelerate accordingly. Official negotiations could not match the demands from the civil society, as shown by the Rio Dialogues. An initiative of the hosting Brazilian Government, supported by the United Nations, the Dialogues attempted to create a bridge between major groups (social networks, the business community and other stakeholders) and the official proceedings of Rio+20. The United Nations Conference for the Sustainable Development or Rio+20, celebrates the 20th anniversary of the Earth Summit and the 40th of the Stockholm UN Conference on Human Environment. In 1972, developing nations trumpeted their right to pollute, in order to catch up with levels of development of the OECD countries. In 1992, the major concern was to define the worldwide environmental status. Important agreement aroused from this Conference, adopted by over 178 governments: the Agenda 21 (an action plan to address human impacts on environment), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). In 2002, governments agreed at the World Summit for Sustainable Development in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation to reaffirm their commitments on Agenda 21 efforts. Page 27 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Since 1992, the world population has grown up 27% or 1.5 billion, from 5.5 billion to 7 billion of people, while the CO2 emissions raised up 36%, from 22 billion to 30 billion tonnes per year. Along the population growth, the food and energy demand also intensified other social issues, such as equity, extreme poverty and lack of access to basic resources, which enhanced the current Conference discussion on a sustainable development perspective. The Rio+20 Conference aimed to renew the political commitment to sustainable development, analyse its progress, identify implementation gaps, and address new challenges. In order, theses efforts envisage finding an alternative to overcome the damages imposed by the consumption, the unrestrained development and the urbanizations, at least some of it, as most of the harm is probably irreversible. Contributing to announce the urgency of this matter, the United Nations Environnmntal Programme – UNEP - launched the GEO-5 (Global Environmental Outlook), a report which assessed 90 of the most important environmental objectives around, pointing out the failure of the countries to reach goals and target established until that moment, since only 4 out of that total have made significant progress. The document was launched two weeks before the Conference, the opportunity was also used to consequently urge the government to create more ambitious targets or even toughen the ones already in progress, which have been mostly not completed. The UNCSD was focused on two themes: (a) a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication; and (b) the institutional framework for sustainable development. These two when unraveled could result in basically any topics related to development, environment, economy or social aspects. Indeed one common concern among experts in the preconference moment was that the “poverty eradication” would be applied as an excuse to avoid discussing the interrelated consequences of the unsustainable development. However, the controversy around the potential of the so called “green economy” was actually one point that created great polemic. Synthesized as way to present a new perspective to analyze the close relation between economy and sustainability green economy is seen differently when considered by the various segments. Several governments and international organizations, as UN, present green economy as a tool to pursuit the intra and intergenerational equity, since it implies in attributing relevance to all economic, social and environmental objectives when deciding policies, in the both public and private sectors. Following this pattern, each time more companies become adherents of this view. They noticed that it might not only be a model of production that would take into account the environmental limitations, it could be a way to increase the production and to produce more efficiently with global support. In other words, it has finally been Page 28 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 realized that green economy can bring a refreshing boost in the development, which is great valued in such times of crisis. A more participative model would create new investments, improved technologies and a renewed economic euphoria, all important factors in the attempt to restore the economic growth and control. Nevertheless, a great part of the civil society, reunited at the People’s Summit, and some States tended to decline the transition to the green economy as a miraculous alternative to the world’s situation. Many question the efficacy of strategies based on the market, emphasizing that the human aspect should also be considered as an integrated aspect to define the directions to be followed. They accused this solution of being only an alternative to save the capitalism, representing the maintenance of the current patterns of consumption and the monetization of the natural resources, therefore, claiming the persistence of accumulated wealth in the hands of the corporations. Furthermore, internationally, they affirmed that it could affect negatively the low-development countries by the exposure to greater vulnerabilities. The main product of the Rio+20, through its institutional aspect was the document The Future We Want, signed by the States. It was a result of a series of negotiation between the UN members, also with contributions sent by the civil society and other organizations. Basically the declaration was celebrated for not bringing major regressions. The important decisions to respond the situation that is confirmed at every moment by new scientific data were left for the future, since the main resolution summarizes the process that will still define the Sustainable Development Goals to replace the Millennium Development Goals after 2015. The document was considered a victory to the multilateralism by the organizers; it included the position of the several parts that participated in the negotiation process and accordingly would have demonstrated the inclination of States to consider the relevance of the theme. In the words of the Brazilian negotiator André Corrêa do Lago, it represented “the consensus that the world needs to change”, aside this obvious assertive, President Dilma Roussef called it a “starting point” from which we may demand progress from the nations. We have fully agreement that mandatory targets based on specific and measurable objectives have a rather higher rate of success, as indicated in GEO-5. However, the document signed in the Conference did not establish mandatory goals or specific commitments for the States that is why many considered it insufficient in the ambit of People’s Summit. Several major groups engaged into side-events at Rio+20. An important major group was present in the event were the subnational governments. Not only taking part in the national delegation for the Conference, states, regions and cities participated in the whole process that composed the Rio+20. It was incredible to notice how relevant these Page 29 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 actors have become lately. During that short week, subnational governments articulated themselves in meetings and activities to discuss and exchange local practices, also discussing the very own themes of the Conference. Under these circumstances, is increasing the theory of how these governmental unities outside the national level may contribute positively to the determination of effective instruments in the composition of a new paradigm of development. There are at least two fundamental roles that subnational governmental must play in this context. First they are the direct responsible for delivering concrete policies to be applied in their level, and in this sense they have been particularly important in institutionalizing the common expectations for cleaner and low-carbon actions. Besides, subnational governments must induce and ensure that the urban and regional development features are included in the national agenda. This spirit for mobilization was attested in the encounters of international networks, such as the Climate Group, nrg4SD and ICLEI, where the regions participated by promoting commitments among its members through the signature of declarations. A major piece in the Rio20 puzzle was the future of multilateralism and international governance, especially in the environmental area. There was no consensus on the borderline between international law and national sovereignty. The tip of this iceberg was the discussion of how to strengthen the role of UNEP. The recognizably low-funded and underpowered UN Program got a push at Rio+20, what might be considered a key accomplishment by some but yet a move falling short of upgrading to a specialized agency. The text drafted in Rio calls for UNEP’s financial situation to be strengthened, although not specifying how. As a U.N. program, UNEP relies on “voluntary” funding, while specialized agencies such as the World Health Organization, like the U.N. itself, are financed through “assessed contributions” from member states. The promotion of Nairobi, Kenya- based UNEP up the U.N. hierarchy was long proposed by European countries but opposed by the United States. The official document of Rio+20, conversely to previous conferences, was political but not mandatory. Many heads of state did not attend the Conference, more concerned with the economic crisis, electoral campaigns and other topics that reinforce strong domestic hostility to action on climate and other environmental issues. Brazilian negotiators were accused of using strong-arm tactics at Rio+20 to secure a deal before heads of state start arrived. The ghost of the Copenhagen Climate Change talks — which ended with disappointment and recriminations — was still present, driving the attempt to force through an agreement, despite risks it could backfire. Other delegates were more sympathetic to Brazil's efforts to reach a compromise. Europe, South Korea and Japan would like to see more concrete goals, timelines and measures to achieve a green economy, countering the risks posed by degrading Page 30 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 ecosystems and diminishing resources that could be approaching a tipping point. New Zealand, pushed for more ambition on issue like the removal of fossil fuel subsidies. In the end, consensus brought about some proposals to strengthen UNEP, manage the world's oceans and establish sustainable development goals, what appeared to mark progress after weeks of procedural wrangling and divisions between rich and developing nations. Civil society has criticized the watered-down final document, weak to lift people out of poverty and stop environmental degradation. Expected to advance in relation to previous commitments – especially those from Rio 92 - the recognition of these in the final text was considered a victory. Twenty years after Rio and fourty after Stockholm, it is still unclear what future we want. Page 31 of 82

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Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Article 5. ENDEAVOR TO REINVENT: A BIG FISH FEEDING THE LITTLE FISH | LINDA ROTTENBERG “This idea of supporting one another, the idea of sharing ideas—that’s what creates an entrepreneurial ecosystem.” - Linda Rottenberg Introduction: In the late 1990s, Linda Rottenberg and Peter Kellner, Ivy League graduates in their late 20s, were preaching a different brand of indigenous American gospel: the power of entrepreneurship and networking, and the ability of businesses to transform perennially moribund economies. Endeavor is one of the world’s first self-sustaining non-profits; an organization “of, for and by entrepreneurs,” inspired by Bill Drayton’s Ashoka, a global organization that identifies and invests in social entrepreneurs in developing countries. Endeavor is a leader in entrepreneurship and innovation around the world, a high impact influence in places where it is especially needed, where aspiring entrepreneurs are taking first steps toward successful business-building and economic freedom. It’s a a not-for-profit that connects entrepreneurs in more than 30 countries to a global network of investors, mentors, and peers. Endeavor model is the model for true economic development, micro-financing helps alleviate poverty, but the real game changer is growth in the medium sector, with companies that grow themselves and then give back to the economy. Linda Rottenberg, the Co-Founder and CEO, of Endeavor, and is exporting the uniquely American concepts of entrepreneurship and networking to countries in Latin America and beyond to boost employment and GDP. To date, Endeavor Entrepreneurs have created 3 million jobs and have generated $20 billion in revenues. (WSJ) is no stranger to acclaim. Rottenberg has been named one of “America’s Best Leaders” by U.S. News and one of 100 “Innovators for the 21st Century by Time. She is also the bestselling author of Crazy is a Compliment: The Power of Zigging When Everyone Else Zags. First entrepreneur of Endeavor : “Armed with a little funding (from prominent local businessmen and foundations), they set up an event to screen budding entrepreneurs. Among the first they chose in 1998 was Andy Freire, who had quit Procter & Gamble to start a 20-person office-supply company. “I had gone to the best business school in Argentina and hadn’t heard the word entrepreneurship,” Freire says. Endeavor introduced Freire and his partner, Santiago Bilinkis, to local businesspeople in Buenos Aires and brought in an American MBA intern to help craft a Page 33 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 strategic plan for his company, Officenet. Freire was also introduced to his hero, Staples founder Thomas Stemberg. In 2004, Staples bought Officenet for $23 million” In 20+ years of operation, it has worked on 35 Growth Markets along with, 1,930 Endeavor Entrepreneurs leading 1,206 companies, have created 3 million jobs and have generated $20 billion in revenues, while raising $1.4 billion capital. (WSJ) Endeavor now employs 500+ people across 40 offices and affiliates and has an annual budget of $28 million. Much of that is covered by seven-figure donations from the likes of Bronfman and Hoffman, as well as Ebay founder Pierre Omidyar’s Omidyar Network and Dubai-based private equity fund The Abraaj Group. Endeavor’s model is designed to for, entrepreneurs with the greatest potential for large-scale success, then their stories and resources to lasting economic and social transformation in their home markets and beyond. Bain has helped with issues such as the structure of Endeavor’s affiliates and crafting criteria for the entrepreneur search-and- selection process, whose final rounds often take place under the watchful gaze of top executives such as John Donahoe of Ebay, Jack Dorsey of Twitter and Square, and new Endeavor board member Reid Hoffman of LinkedIn. Bronfman’s appreciation for Endeavor’s business philosophy aside, he adds that Rottenberg’s “tireless, charismatic” personality had much to do with his involvement. “She’s passionately creating an opportunity for all, particularly outside of the U.S.” Endeavor’s 500+ team members and worldwide network painstakingly probe all our markets to identify qualified entrepreneurs for Endeavor’s selection process. Endeavor candidates operate in many industries — enterprise software and services, fintech, food & beverage, education, healthcare, agriculture, retail and consumer tech, and smart cities. We look for entrepreneurs leading innovative companies that are solving real problems at significant scale. Endeavor provides a merit-based platform open to all entrepreneurs who dream big and create high-growth companies. We meet some founders early and follow them through local scale-up programs to build our search & selection pipeline. Silicon Valley is so much more than an archipelago of thriving tech companies. It’s a deeply interconnected ecosystem, and that’s what you need. You need entrepreneurs with ideas, yes. But you also need people who are skilled in every discipline needed at every company, at every stage. Not just engineers and product managers—but also lawyers, accountants, marketers, recruiters, operational geniuses. You need places for them to gather, and media outlets to share their ideas. You need world-class universities with their constant supply of young talent, and venture capitalists to invest in them. And, importantly, you also need successful entrepreneurs who pay it forward. These are the things that make Silicon Valley unstoppable—for now. Page 34 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Concept of implementation: Believing this sort of activity, replicated thousands of times, can propel emerging economies to a higher level of prosperity, Endeavor has set out to systematize the process in Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, South Africa and Turkey. The goal is for the entrepreneurs it nurtures to contribute 1 percent of GDP per year. Endeavor is run and managed like a business, with business objectives, qualified members and supportive partners. In the past 20 years, her non-profit brainchild — Endeavor Global — has gone from being mistaken for a cult to helping 500 companies run by 801 entrepreneurs ramp up from promising-but limited businesses to, in many cases, global players Endeavor’s formula is simple. 1. Encourage all comers to apply. To date, some 30,000 entrepreneurs from dozens of countries have made their pitches to Endeavor boards. 2. Vet them carefully. Each applicant goes through a year-long review, culminating in a pitch-session that requires unanimous approval. 3. Only pick companies with revolutionary potential. Those are the folks regional and global investors allied with Endeavor’s vision will invest money in. Ultimately, this creates a group of mentors who will nurture the next generation of high-impact entrepreneurs. In one instance, Wences Casares, a son of Patagonian sheep farmers, created Patagon, a pan-Latin American version of eTrade, and thanks to Endeavor’s guidance, sold it for $750 million. He is now a leading Endeavor mentor to, and investor in, nascent regional companies. In another example, two Argentines came up with online auction site MercadoLibre. An Ebay partner, its market cap now exceeds $4.8 billion, and founders Marcos Galperin and Hernan Kazah have set aside millions to infuse into other local start-ups. Rottenberg’s favorite tale, however, involves a woman from the slums of Rio de Janeiro. Leila Velez had been a cashier at a McDonald’s when she followed her passion and started a small salon dedicated to the particular needs of women with kinky hair. Once she connected with Endeavor and was paired with advisers and capital, the company, Belleza Natural, quickly expanded to dozens of salons with $70 million in annual sales. “Big fish feeding, the little fish” ethos: Edeavor’s mission is to select, support and mentor entrepreneurs. They demonstrate in practice what we already know: high-impact entrepreneurs are the engines of long-term economic growth and shared prosperity. The motto of Endeavor is ”Big fish feeding the little fish”— is funny. But it’s also profoundly important. If you’re a big fish—like those magnates sitting around that table with Linda in Mexico City—you need the little fish. Paradoxically, your long-term survival depends on feeding them instead of eating them—because a flourishing business ecosystem needs entrepreneurial life at all scales. This is the value instilled in Endeavor entrepreneur, that offers something more valuable than cash: connections. Page 35 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 So far, Endeavor has screened over 60,000 entrepreneurs. At the end of 2018, it supported 476 in 11 countries. Success stories include firms like MercadoLibre, South America’s eBay, which staged a $100 million IPO on Nasdaq. “We made about 30 young kids from humble origins into millionaires,” says Casares, now a Venture Capitalist living in Palo Alto. Endeavor is exporting the ethos of optimistic, non-zero-sum entrepreneurship at a time in which it seems to be in short supply in the U.S. As a result, Endeavor “is not in the start-up game; they’re about scale-up” adding that companies looking for their support typically post between $1 million and $20 million in annual revenue. We encounter others who have raised capital, and still others who are already “unicorns” (tech companies valued at US$1BN) yet still have room to grow. In evaluating candidates for Endeavor, we are guided by the following questions:<i>1) Can these entrepreneurs scale their companies at least 10x beyond where they are today (or even more than 10x if the business is currently under US$5M in annual revenue)?;2) Do they possess the growth mindset and values of the global Endeavor community?;3) Will the entrepreneur(s) multiply their impact by learning how to be thought leaders and role models, and by using our platform to pay their success forward? Endeavor views its selection process as a service, where transformational conversations with preeminent business leaders push candidates to reflect and answer tough questions about their business models, team strength, and future growth plans. Our selection process begins in each local market and culminates in our world-renowned International Selection Panels (ISPs) — dynamic, invitation-only events held throughout the year in different cities around the world. To qualify for an ISP, entrepreneurs must demonstrate that their company has reached a clear inflection point and shows real potential for regional, or global, scale and influence. Historically, fewer than 5% of candidates who enter the initial selection process move onto an ISP. At each ISP, only those final candidates gaining <i>unanimous approval from expert panelists become Endeavor Entrepreneurs. The Endeavor seal of approval carries significant weight with investors, partners, and other industry leaders. SCALE-UP: Endeavor delivers demand-driven services locally, regionally, and globally; we further customize these to turbocharge our entrepreneurs’ individual scaleup journeys. These services are as follows: 1. Endeavor Advisory Boards provide expert mentorship to founders on strategy and execution. Endeavor Executive Education offers Endeavor Entrepreneurs and their senior managers uniquely designed programs focused on leadership, innovation, and techniques for scaling companies at the world’s top business schools, including Harvard, Stanford, and INSEAD. Page 36 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 2. Endeavor Investor Network, facilitates access to capital for our entrepreneurs through road show preparation, “speed dating” sessions, and curated introductions to best-in-class investors. 3. Endeavor Market Access, opens doors to new commercial opportunities and global expansion through network connections, deep-dive country visits, and specialized industry tours. 4. Endeavor OPEN, is the tech platform that brings the entire Endeavor network -- the people, the resources, the events -- to members’ fingertips. 5. Endeavor Outliers, is an intimate, peer-to-peer program organized for an annually selected class of Endeavor Entrepreneurs leading the fastest growing companies in our active portfolio, along with alumni of the most successfully exited Endeavor companies. <b>Endeavor Verticals</b> unite the global portfolio of Endeavor Entrepreneurs under sector-specific communities, and connect them with a curated network of peers, investors, and mentors. 6. Endeavor Catalyst, our rules-based fund, co-invests in Endeavor Entrepreneurs raising rounds of minimum US$5M in equity capital led by qualified institutional investors. Our fund invests up to 10% of each qualifying round, currently capped at $2M per company. As of June 2019, Endeavor Catalyst has co-invested in over 115 companies across 25 markets with six full exits and four “unicorns” in its active portfolio. 7. SPREAD, We achieve broader ecosystem impact by sharing the aspirational stories, innovation strategies, and disruptive techniques of Endeavor Entrepreneurs. 8. Endeavor Experiences bring the successes and challenges of Endeavor Entrepreneurs to a larger stage, where country leaders and policy makers learn what it takes to retain the best home-grown talent and how to prepare their economies for technological advancement. 9. Endeavor Insight: is the research arm of Endeavor that provides data-driven and visual research into what makes entrepreneurial ecosystems thrive. 10. Endeavor Scale-up Events disseminate lessons, best practices, and Day One stories of top entrepreneurs to a broader community of founders aiming to accelerate their own business and workers hoping to retool their skills for the jobs of the future. 11. SUSTAIN: Endeavor Entrepreneurs use our platform to give back and ensure that future generations have access to opportunities for self-fulfillment and community advancement. Page 37 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 12. Endeavor Founder-to-Funder programs educate Endeavor Entrepreneurs on how to become angel investors and venture capitalists themselves, further propelling entrepreneur-led growth. 13. Endeavor Pay-it-forward platforms allow our entrepreneurs to become Endeavor board members, panelists, investors in Endeavor Catalyst, and philanthropists in their home markets. Endeavor Catalyst: pioneered the 50/50 profit-sharing fund model that is now being replicated by other mission-driven institutions. This is a new investment arm to support itself, by making modest investments in some of its entrepreneurs. Through this fund, investors gain access to a world-class, diversified pipeline of companies while also participating in meaningful profit-sharing with Endeavor. Returns from Endeavor Catalyst, combined with other market-driven revenue, will enable Endeavor to become a financially self- sustaining organization by 2030. Endeavor market shares: 14. Latin America has never been an entrepreneurial hot spot. Endeavor is working to change that. Starting in Chile and Argentina in 1998, the network has nurtured “high–impact” entrepreneurs by connecting them with international mentors and prominent local businesspeople. Theglobal board includes luminaries like Warner Music Chairman Edgar Bronfman Jr.; Emilio Azcárraga Jean, the CEO of Televisa; and LinkedIn co-founder Reid Hoffman. Once they join the network members pay $10,000 annually and fork over 2% of any liquidity event. Over the past 20 years Endeavor has expanded beyond Latin America; its entrepreneurs claim to have created 100,000 jobs and injected “billions of dollars” into local economies. 15. Endeavor has hubs in San Francisco, and 15 affiliates in countries that include Mexico, Jordan and South Africa. Each affiliate is an independently operated franchise overseen by board members with financial and start-up success stories in their countries. 16. But in the late 1990s, Linda Rottenberg and Peter Kellner, Ivy League graduates in their late 20s, were preaching a different brand of indigenous American gospel: the power of entrepreneurship and networking, and the ability of businesses to transform perennially moribund economies. 17. In 1997, Enlisting local and U.S. mentors, Endeavor helped Casares put together a business strategy. In three years, he raised two rounds of capital, acquired seats in major exchanges, and sold the company to Banco Santander at a valuation of $705 million. 18. Last year, Endeavor entrepreneurs accounted for 135,000 jobs and $3.5 billion in sales. In Argentina, the 70 entrepreneurs selected over the years have combined revenues of $1 billion and directly and indirectly Page 38 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 employ 40,000 people. So far, Endeavor has screened over 22,000 entrepreneurs. At the end of 2009, it supported 476 in 11 countries. Success stories include firms like MercadoLibre, South America’s eBay, which staged a $100 million IPO on Nasdaq in 2007 19. Endeavor Catalyst is a force multiplier for Endeavor. It provides a new source of capital for entrepreneurs, strengthens ties with investors, and accelerates Endeavor's growth plans ~ Nick Beim, General Partner, Venrock; Endeavor Global Board Member 20. Launched in 1997, Endeavor has established a presence in nearly 40 markets across Latin America, Asia, Africa, Middle East, and underserved areas of Europe and the United States. Back in the late 1990s and early 2000s, when barriers to entrepreneurship were nearly insurmountable outside a few limited areas — most notably Silicon Valley — Endeavor focused on stimulating global entrepreneurial activity by providing mentorship to innovative founders based in emerging markets. Endeavor has evolved over two decades to reflect new realities and new opportunities. 21. First, as our local markets mature, Endeavor is able to home in on high-impact entrepreneurs who are further along on the path to success: the ones leading scaleups, not startups. Second, Endeavor now also operates in underserved areas of Europe and the United States. While these more “developed” markets may be more hospitable to startups, their entrepreneurs still lack access to global capital, networks, and markets necessary to scale. Third, in 2012 we introduced Endeavor Catalyst, a rules-based co-investment fund that provides equity capital at the venture and growth stages to qualifying Endeavor Entrepreneurs. 22. Endeavor Catalyst allows us to financially support our entrepreneurs while simultaneously providing competitive returns for investors and paving the path for Endeavor’s core non-profit operating model to become financially self-sustaining in the most mission-aligned way. Profile: Rottenberg is a living embodiment of the Endeavor ethos—a high-energy, sunny, relentless networker Page 39 of 82

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Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Article 6. THE BLUE PEACE: RETHINKING MIDDLE EAST WATER | ILMAS FUTEHALLY The water crisis in the Middle East can be transformed into an opportunity for a new form of peace – the blue peace where any two countries with access to adequate, clean and sustainable water resources do not feel motivated to engage in a military conflict. This is possible with new policy instruments, some of which would be acceptable to the governments in the region in the near future, while others could be adapted in the long run. In the process, the River Jordan and Barada, Mountain Aquifer, and the Dead Sea, which are currently depleting at a fast rate, would be rejuvenated. The Euphrates, Tigris, Litani, Orontes, El Kabir Rivers and Lake Kinneret (Tiberias), which face threats from climate change and drought, would be made sustainable. These are the conclusions of an international report on long term assessment and policy options for water security in seven countries in the Middle East: Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Territories. Martin Dahinden, Director General of Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation; Micheline Calmy-Rey, President of Switzerland; Sundeep Waslekar SFG; during the launch of the report in February 2011, Switzerland The Strategic Foresight Group report, The Blue Peace: Rethinking Middle East Water, was prepared with input from almost 100 leaders, serving and former ministers, senior officials, and experts in the seven countries. The input was obtained through political consultations, research papers, an Internet forum, and three workshops held at Montreux, Switzerland (February 2010), Amman, Jordan (May 2010) and Sanliurfa, Turkey (September 2010). The project was supported by the Swedish International Development Page 41 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Cooperation Agency of the Government of Sweden and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation and Political Affairs Division IV of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of the Government of Switzerland. Some of the workshops were supported by A K Party and the State Hydraulic Works (DSI) of Turkey and El Majlis El Hassan of Jordan. Following are the highlights from the report: The river flows in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon and Jordan have depleted by 50 to 90 per cent from 1960 to 2010. For instance, the Yarmouk River declined from 600 MCM to about 250-300 MCM per year while the Jordan River from 1300 MCM to 100 MCM. The water level in Barada River Basin in Syria has dropped from 50 meters below ground in 1990 to 200 meters at present. Depleting River Flows Seasonal Variations – Lean Months and Wet Months With regards to Yarmouk, Euphrates and Tigris, upper and lower riparian countries continue to disagree about the actual amount of flow of the rivers across boundaries. The report proposes a Cooperation Council for Water Resources for Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon and Jordan as a political mechanism to establish common standards for measuring water flow and quality, set goals for Page 42 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 sustainable management of water resources, and adapt regional strategies to combat climate change and drought. The establishment of a Cooperation Council can also facilitate basin level cooperation in each river basin. Cooperation Council for Water Resources for Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon and Jordan The report suggests that desertification is expected to affect Syria, Turkey, Iraq and Jordan - approximately 60 per cent of the land in Syria faces the threat of desertification. In the Koyna basin in Turkey, about 80 per cent of the depletion has occurred over the last decade, and the basin faces complete desertification by 2030. Iraq faces the threat of desertification at an average rate of 0.5 per cent per year. Dust storms have worsened over the last few years due to the drought and decrease in vegetation. The renewable freshwater resources in the Mountain Aquifer, shared by Israel and the Palestinian Territories, report mentions have been reduced by seven per cent from 1993 to 2010 and in the Western Galilee Aquifer by 15-20 per cent. This is assuming full recharge in a normal rainy year. The availability of water is substantially reduced in drought years. As a result, the calculations made at the time of Oslo Accords and hitherto used by most international organisations need to be revised downwards to provide a realistic formula for water sharing between Israel and the Palestinian Territories (or a future Palestinian State). Page 43 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Comparison with Oslo II (MCM per median year) The report calls for a confidence-building initiative between the heads of water authorities of Israel and PA, with support of political leaders and under observation of representatives of Quartet or major donor countries, to assess the real situation with regards to the state of freshwater resources in the aquifers along with coordinated water management. Such a process should be carried out at high political level, authorised by the respective Prime Ministers, and should complement technical level interaction through the Joint Water Committee, as well as the trilateral Israel-PA-US forum. The report also calls for strengthening of the waste water management capacity of the Palestinian Territories, possibly using small sized decentralised plants, which can benefit the poor population, provided a monitoring system is put in place to control the sewage discharge from such facilities. The report has identified that the water level in the Dead Sea has dropped from 390 metres below sea level in the 1960s down to 420 metres below sea level at the present and will be 450 metres below sea level by 2040. The water surface area has shrunk by a third, from 950 square kilometres to 637 square kilometres. If the surface water level in the Dead Sea continues to erode, it will be reduced to a lake in 50 years, and will eventually disappear altogether. Changing Dead Sea: The marshlands in Iraq have shrunk by 90 per cent. Lake Kinneret (Tiberias) reaches the lower red line of 212 metres below sea level in drought years. The deterioration of these water resources not only results in economic crisis but also undermines people’s culture. The report recommends that critical water bodies should be declared as regional commons and all riparian countries should work together to set common goals for their rejuvenation and sustenance. Page 44 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 In Iraq, report underscores that due to consecutive years of drought, war and the lack of adequate governance has hindered overall development in the water sector, and the country is simply unable to provide the required water to its population. Amman-Al Zarqa, located in north central Jordan with the highest population density, is at the edge of the Badia Desert. Important Syrian cities – particularly Damascus, Homs, Hama – are in the western part of the country, while the Euphrates flows in the eastern part. In Turkey, the most fertile region is around the Euphrates-Tigris Basin in the east and the Seyhan-Ceyhan rivers in the south. The central parts of the country have few rivers and receive less than 250 mm of rainfall annually. Turkey’s capital city, Ankara is located there and has no natural water body or groundwater source located close to it. Izmir and Adana also face water shortages as the potential of nearby basins is not fully harnessed. The report recommends that it is most essential to address internal disequilibrium on an urgent basis. Any plans for cooperation between countries would not be politically attractive unless and until internal needs of all countries, including relatively water surplus countries, are satisfied. Internal Disparities: In the past 20 years, the report studied that Turkey has examined the possibilities of exporting water from its national rivers. In future, Turkey will only consider exporting water from its national rivers such as Manavgat, Ceyhan, Seyhan, and others. It will not export water from trans- boundary rivers such the Tigris Page 45 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 and Euphrates. Turkey will have an exportable surplus of 2-4 BCM from national rivers during 2010- 2030, though it would be uneven throughout the year. In the lean season of 8-9 months, it can be as low as 100 MCM per month. During such a period, Turkey will require water for its domestic use. It will still be able to export at least 1-1.5 BCM water in the wet and average months to Jordan Valley countries if the latter work out a mutually acceptable formula for water to be utilised by all of them and if Turkey finds it politically feasible to undertake this endeavour. Turkish National Water Exports The report recommends an expert study to examine the long term prospects of the supply capacity of the Turkish national rivers, taking into account the potential impact of climate change, snow melt, domestic demand, economic needs and seasonal variations. The Blue Peace, essentially requires a comprehensive approach. It is necessary to act on several fronts at the same time, and yet it is possible to choose different entry points of intervention as per social and political dynamics. The report presents a roadmap for action beginning with efficient internal management, storage and distribution; the establishment of Cooperation Council for Water Resources for Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey; and separately launching of a high level Confidence Building Initiative between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. For more information regarding the report please contact: Strategic Foresight Group Email: [email protected] Tel/fax: +91 22 26318260 Page 46 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Profile: Ms Ilmas Futehally is Co-founder, Executive Director and Vice President of Strategic Foresight Group (SFG), with responsibility for overall management of the organisation. She has been a member of SFG delegations for consultations with Heads of Governments and Foreign Ministers of several countries on various global issues. In 2010-2011, she led projects on water security in the Himalayan River Basins and the Middle East. She is the Co-author of Big Questions of Our Time (2011), Co- author of Cost of Conflict in the Middle East (2009), Principal Author of Global Security and Economy: Emerging Trends (2008), Principal Author of Cost of Conflict between India- Pakistan (2004) and co-author of about ten other internationally acclaimed research reports. She has contributed chapters to three books on regional cooperation in South Asia. Ilmas has been a non-residential fellow (2001-2002) at the Carnegie Council for Ethics and International Affairs, New York, and a Visiting Fellow (1998) in regional security at the Henry L. Stimson Center in Washington, DC. She has travelled to more than 40 countries for consultations with government leaders and experts on global issues. She is the recipient of Young Achievers Award of Indo-American Society for 2001 for her work on issues of relevance to the relationship between the two countries. She was profiled by among India's ten upcoming young leaders on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of India's independence. She obtained her Master of Science degree from Bombay University. She has also undertaken advanced professional courses in Security, Technology and Arms Control conducted by King's College, London. She worked as a research scientist in Excel Industries and as Assistant Director at the International Centre for Peace Initiatives prior to her current responsibilities. Page 47 of 82

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Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 Article 7. WASHINGTON LEADERSHIP PROGRAM | VEENA MERCHANT Indian American Center for Political Awareness (IACPA), a national non-profit organization, was founded in 1993 by entrepreneur and publisher Gopal Raju. It was started mainly to empower the Indian American community to participate in the political process and public policy. In 1995, IACPA started the Washington Leadership Program (WLP) to introduce Indian American college students to the political process through Congressional internships. The idea was to enable them to get a first-hand look at how the process works on the Hill. Each year, in a highly competitive process, WLP selects college students to participate in an 8-week summer program. The students receive 6-week internship with a member of Congress or in a political office in Washington D.C. Before those 6 weeks they go through an orientation week designed to introduce them to issues of concern to India and Indian Americans and generally what to expect from the internship. The last week is reserved for evaluation of what they learned during the 6 weeks and to identify and start work on a project of their choice, which reflects the philosophy of IACPA of spreading political awareness among Indian Americans. Since 1995 WLP has placed over 155 students in approximately 62 Representatives and 14 Senators’ offices. Following are the excerpts of the college students who participated in the Washington Leadership Program for the year 2006. Biliyar: After being accepted to The George Washington University in the May 2004, I was ecstatic about all the wonderful opportunities I would encounter while being in Washington, DC. However, being that there is so much going on daily in the District, it is impossible to be a full-time student, working part-time, while also being very active on campus and also still enjoy all the DC has to offer. By being accepted into this program, I will be able to work in the political realm, which will help me to finally decide whether I want to continue a path in either law or politics for my future. In addition, I will be able to enjoy DC for what it is truly worth and go to the museums and art galleries and see a show or two at the Kennedy Center. This is such a wonderful opportunity that many people do not receive the chance to have and I am honored to have the chance to be in DC for school while also being given the opportunity to stay here over the summer and continue my experiences. Biliyar is a senior at University of California, Berkeley, majoring in political science. His first job in Berkeley was working for the local candidate for mayor and supervising the volunteers who made calls to voters. He also helped with more minor duties such as passing out fliers, both for the candidate and his allies on the City Council. His efforts Page 49 of 82

Dr. Swati K portfolio 2022 bore fruit with an appointment to the Budget Review Commission. Biliyar got to see first hand how public budgeting works, and how the political circus that it depends on and how it actually operates in real life. Gupta is a sophomore at the University of Pennsylvania where he is majoring in Bioengineering. At Penn, he volunteers for Asha for Education, a nonprofit, which sponsors schools for underprivileged children in India by organizing fundraising events and awareness workshops. Serving on the executive team of the Philadelphia chapter, he is also the recruitment chair for the Penn chapter of Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity and is a member of the business staff of the Daily Pennsylvanian, Penn’s daily student newspaper. He graduated from Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology in Alexandria, VA. About Gupta Lincoln S. Patel is a student at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. He is a junior in the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, majoring in political science with a minor in economics and mathematics. He also works as a legal assistant and accountant to the two senior attorneys at Friendlander Misler, PLLC, and is involved in several student organizations or campus including Pi Kappa Phi fraternity and South Asian Society. Apart from these activities, he has joined the LSP Foundation, LLC, in which members are committed to donating time and money to charitable organizations World-wide. About Patel Patel: ‘WLP offers Indian American students opportunity to experience legislative process from the inside’ ‘This is such a wonderful opportunity that many people do not receive’ I chose the Washington Leadership Program because this gives me the chance to further my political career while learning more about the culture I was born in. There are many internship programs at my school, UC Berkeley, but it would be interesting to get to know other Indian- Americans of my generation who share a passion for politics. I grew up in a working class neighborhood in San Diego that had a very small Indian population. For a variety of reasons, we were not able to socialize that much with the small population living there. This is a great opportunity for me to get acquainted with my culture. We are the ethnicity with the highest median family income, we are involved in vital sectors of the economy such as technology and medicine, yet we have nearly no voice. In comparison to other generally wealthy minorities, such as Jewish-Americans, Indians donate nearly nothing to political organizations. Page 50 of 82

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