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Proceedings of the RTIME-2K22 on 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering (6th -7th May, 2022) Convener Dr.G.Janardhana Raju, Dean SOE & HoD-MED. Editor & Organizing Secretary Mr. A. Venkata Vishnu I/C HoD – MED. Organized by DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING NALLA NARASIMHA REDDY EDUCATION SOCIETY’S GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS (UGC Autonomous Institution)

© RTIME-2K22 All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be produced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the prior written permission from the copyright owner. However, permission is not required to copy abstract of papers on condition that a full reference to the source is given. ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 Disclaimer The opinions expressed and figures provided in this Proceeding of RTIME-2K22 are the sole responsibility of the authors. The organizers and the editor bear no responsibility in this regard. Any and all such responsibilities are disclaimed. Published and printed by Nalla Narasimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Institutions, Chodariguda(v), Koremulla’X’road, Ghatkesar(M), Medchal(D), Telangana-500088. Email: [email protected] Tel: +91- 9985652237

Shri Nalla Narasimha Reddy Chairman Nalla Narasimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Institutions MESSAGE It gives me immense pleasure that the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Nalla Narasimha Reddy Group of Institutions is organizing 5th National Conference on “Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering (RTIME-2K22)” on 6th & 7th May, 2022 in our Institution. I am sure that the interactions among the participants will have productive outcome to acquaint with latest knowledge and also to share their innovative ideas in the field of Mechanical Engineering. I am confident that the deliberation of the conference would be intellectually stimulating and beneficial to all the participants. I am very much delighted to express my happiness that the Department of Mechanical Engineering is enlightening the academicians, scientists, researchers and industry people to improve their Research skills and bring out the hidden talent through this Conference. I convey my best wishes to all the members of Organizing Committee for their best efforts to make the Conference a grand success.

Dr. C.V. Krishna Reddy Director Nalla Narasimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Institutions MESSAGE I am happy that the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Nalla Narasimha Reddy Group of Institutions is organizing 5th National Conference on “Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering (RTIME-2K22)” on 6th & 7th May, 2022 in the Institution. I am very happy to know that papers have been received from various Institutions across the nation and I extend my heartiest congratulations to all the participants, who have shown their zeal to participate in the National Conference. It is very much inspirational to perceive the high dynamic interactions, which are going to develop from the exciting young men and women in the form of paper presentations. Undoubtedly, this National Conference will provide a unique opportunity to discuss and aware of the recent developments in Mechanical Engineering during the deliberations. My best wishes to everyone who are involved in conducting this event successfully. I also express my whole hearted congratulations to all Faculty, Staff and student on this wonderful occasion. I wish the Conference to be a grand success.

Dr. G. Janardhana Raju Convener- RTIME-2K22, Dean, School of Engineering & HoD-ME, Nalla Narasimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Institutions. Message I take this opportunity to welcome you all to the proceedings of the 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering-RTIME-2K22, being organized during 6th & 7th May, 2022. The intension of organizing this conference is to bring the researchers, faculty, students and industrial professionals across the nation under one roof to share their research findings and experiences for the mutual benefit. It will be an ideal platform to discuss and aware of the Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering. On behalf of the Organizing Committee, I thank to my esteemed authors for having shown confidence on us and considered RTIME-2K22 is a platform to showcase and share their research work. I would like to thank our Hon’ble Chairman – Sri Nalla Narasimha Reddy garu, who is a great visionary and always a constant source of inspiration for the young generation, and given me this noble opportunity to conduct a National conference RTIME-2K22 at Nalla Narasimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Institutions, Hyderabad. My sincere thanks to our Hon’ble Director, Dr. C.V. Krishna Reddy garu, for his continuous guidance and support to make this event grand success. Finally, I am thankful to one and all, who have contributed directly or indirectly in making this conference a great success. Last but not the least, I take opportunity to thank all the members involved in successfully bringing out conference Proceedings. In spite of our best efforts to produce a quality publication with a consistent format; small errors may remain, for that I convey my apologies to our readers and contributors. I request them to kingly communicate their criticism and suggestions, which will be vital for the improvement of the future conferences’ proceedings.

Chief Patron Shri. Nalla Narasimha Reddy Chairman Nalla Narasimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Institutions Patron Convener Dr. C.V Krishna Reddy Dr.G.Janardhana Raju, Dean SOE Director-Nalla Narasimha Reddy & HoD-ME, Nalla Narasimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Institutions Education Society’s Group of Institutions Co-Patron Organizing Secretary Mr. N. Prashanth Reddy, Mr. A. Venkata Vishnu Vice Chairman, Nalla Narasimha Reddy Assoc. Professor, MED, Nalla Narasimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Institutions Education Society’s Group of Institutions Faculty Coordinators • Mr. T. Pavan Kumar, Assoc. Professor • Mr.P.Srinivas, Assoc. Professor • Mr.K.Suresh Kumar, Assoc. Professor • Mr. L Sunil Kumar, Assoc.Professor • Ms. Swetha T, Asst.Professor • Mr. Telkar Mahesh, Asst.Professor • Mr.Y. Narsareddy, Asst.Professor • Mr. G Kiran Kumar, Asst.Professor • Mr. G. Gopi, Asst.Professor

Advisory Committee • Dr. M. Manzoor Hussian, Professor & Registrar, JNTU, Hyderabad, Telangana. • Dr. G. Ranga Janardhana, Vice-Chancellor, JNTU, Anantapur, A.P. • Dr. A V S S K S Gupta, Professor, ME, JNTU, Hyderabad, Telangana. • Dr. A. Kumar, Professor, NIT, Warangal, Telangana. • Dr. S. Sivarama Krishna, Professor, MED, OU, Hyderabad, Telangana • Dr. Chandra Shekar Reddy, Professor, MED, OU, Hyderabad, Telangana • Dr. N. Suresh Kumar Reddy, Assoc. Prof., BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus. • Dr. Narsimhulu Sanke, Professor, MED, OU, Hyderabad, Telangana • Dr. Y. Hari Prasad Reddy, Principal, College of Engg. Rayalaseema University • Dr. P. Venkata Ramaiah, Prof. of ME, SV University, Tirupati, AP. • Dr. P. Anil Kumar, Scientist-F, RCI, Hyderabad. • Dr. S. Sudhakar Babu, Assoc. Prof., DME, K L Deemed to University, Guntur, A.P. • Dr. J. Sarojini, Assoc. Prof., MED, GITAM University, Vizag, A.P. • Dr. A. Jawahar Babu, Prof. & HOD, MED, Gudlavalleru Engg. College, A.P. • Dr. G. Venkata Subbaiah, Professor, AED, MVSR Engg. College, Hyd., T.S. • Dr. K. Shyam Sundar, Prof. & COE, Gudlavalleru Engg. College, A.P. • Dr. K. Srinivasulu Reddy, Prof. of MED, SNIST, Hyderabad. • Dr. V. S. S. Murthy, Principal, KSRM College of Engineering, Kadapa, A.P.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 5TH NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT TRENDS & INNOVATIONS IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (RTIME-2K22) 6th and 7th MAY 2022 CHIEF GUEST AND KEY NOTE SPEAKER J.Ramkumar, Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kanpur. J.RamKumar did PhD from IIT Madras in the year of 2003 with thesis title of “Multimode techniques for defect constrained drilling of GFRP composites”, He completed M.Tech from IIT Madras in 2000 and B.E from NIT Trichy in 1996. J.RamKumar is the gold medallist in M. Tech and also received “Young Scientist Awards” from Indian Science Congress Association and Department of Atomic Energy. His Specializations are Micro Electric Discharge Milling, Micro Electro Chemical Milling, Excimer Laser micro machining, Abrasive flow finishing, Magnetic abrasive finishing, Fabrication of composites, Machining of composites and wheel chair development - stair case climbing. Key Note Topic: Challenges for Engineers in The Near Future

PROGRAM SCHEDULE Date: 6th May 2022 Time Program 10.45 AM-12.00 PM 12.00 PM-12:15 PM Inauguration, Followed by Keynote Lecture by Prof.J.Ram Kumar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kanpur on the topic of “Challenges For Engineers In The Near Future” Break 12.15 PM - 1.30 PM Session I 01.30 PM - 02.00 PM Lunch Break Session – II 2.00 PM-3.30PM Time Date: 7th May 2022 09.30 AM – 12.30PM Program 12.30 PM-01.00 PM Session – III RTIME-2K22 -Valedictory 5TH NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT TRENDS & INNOVATIONS IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (RTIME-2K22)


15 FABRICATION OF 3D PRINTER 73 Penta Srinivas, Ajmeera Ashok, Guduri Pranay Kumar, Gantaji Vignesh, Dudala Akhil Goud, Banda Prashanth 16 A REVIEW ON ABRASIVE WATER JET CUTTING 78 Lakshmigalla Sunil kumar, Telkar Mahesh 17 FABRICATION OF WOOD CUTTING POWERED HACK SAW USING RENEWABLE 83 (SOLAR) ENERGY, RECHARGEABLE BATTERY, D.C. MOTOR AND SLIDER CRANK MECHANISM Mr.G.Kiran Kumar 18 REVIEW ON RESTORATIVE MEASURES TO OVERCOME EFFECTS OF HIGH 88 ENGINE TEMPERATURES ON I.C ENGINE Mr. K. Suresh Kumar, Matta Venu Gopal, Duvva Sagar, Gotour Harshvardhan, Addula Tharun Reddy, Paka Prashanth Kumar 19 STUDY OF COMPUTER NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED PIPE BENDING MACHINE 95 K. Lakshmi kanth, P. Praveen Kumar Reddy 20 INVESTIGATION ON PERFORMANCE OF DIESEL ENGINE WITH TYRE PYROLYSIS 101 OIL K.Suresh Kumar, Dr.G.Venkata Subbaiah 21 FABRICATION, TESTING AND CALIBRATION OF TWO DIRECTIONAL FORCE 110 SENSOR G Kiran Kumar, Y. Narsa Reddy 22 Design and Fabrication of Multipurpose Agri Robot 116 Mr. Y. Narsa Reddy, Vudayana Srinivas Rao, Busiraju Praveen, Akka Karnakar Reddy, Anandula Rathan Reddy, Syed Arbaaz 23 STUDY ON EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONSOF ALLOY STEEL USING 125 SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES Telkar Mahesh, A. Sai Nitheesh, M. Akhilesh, S. Naveen Kumar 24 DESIGN VALIDATION AND ANALYSIS OF THEMAG WHEEL FOR DIFFERENT 131 SPOKES Mr. P. Srinivas, Mr. T. Mahesh2, Mr. Omnath 25 THERMAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT PIPES WITH THERMAL STORAGE DURING A 144 COOLING CYCLE Y. Narsa Reddy, N. Chandrakanth, Rentu Philiopose

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 Simulation of Thermal stress of SS316 using ANSYS Harinadh Vemanaboina Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering and Technology, Chittoor, A.P. India Abstract TIG weld process with developed constant heat source Welding is widely used in all the fabrication model applied to the stainless steel, SS316 material by using the temperature dependent properties and finite processes for the development of complex structural element approach. The temperature distribution is components. The weld distortion is one of the major estimated which can further give the estimation of the weld deformations and stresses. constraints which cannot be completely avoided irrespective of material type and thickness. 3D transient thermal finite element model is established 2. Formation & Simulation of Welding Process to measure the thermal stress and weldments. The The heat energy equations are referenced in many temperature stress modeling is one of the complex including Frewin [5]. For an isotropic, conductive processes which utilize the weld parameters and material with equal coefficient of conductivity kx, ky, material properties at higher temperatures. A kz (W/mK) in all three chosen orthogonal coordinates. Suitable heat flux is to be given as input for the Equation (1) gives the heat energy in the weld area developed model to analyze welding process. The with temperature, T (K) obtained both in spatial, x, y, temperature distribution and stress analysis have z (m) and temporal, t (sec), terms. Q (W/m3 or J/m3s) been carried out with developed model by using the is the net heat from the input and the losses in the form temperature dependent material properties of SS316 of convection & radiation. The boundary conditions using ANSYS. given are T0(x, y, z, 0) throughout the body at time zero or at the starting of the weld, this is an essential Keywords: Welding, Thermal Stresses, boundary condition. In addition, the natural boundary conditions have to apply consisting of normal 1. Introduction conduction heat flux q, convection h (T-T0), and Welding is a process used in the fabrication of various steel structures for applications from thin sections to the radiation term, (T 4 − T0 4 ) thicker sections in various applications like pressure vessels, chemical plants and nuclear reactors. The + + + = [ − ] main problem associated with welding is the presence of residual stresses and deformations developed within the sections which may cause the failure at the later stages by Masubuchi [7]. During the welding process, (1) the material exposed to heat flux causes a phase Together, the boundary conditions are summed up as: Kn − q + h(T − T 0) +  (T 4 −T 04 ) = 0 (2) change of the metal during melting. The temperature When symmetric boundary and insulation boundaries distribution is non-uniform like fusion zone with are considered as adiabatic, with no heat flowing molten metal, heat affected zone and the base metal through the surface, they are obtained by making zone. convection zero, and conduction zero from the surface. The present study is focused on the understanding of Where, Kn is the thermal conductivity normal to the the heat flux mechanism with heat source used for surface in W/mK, h is the convective heat transfer coefficient in W/m2K, ε is emissivity of surface radiating, σ is the Stefan Boltzmann’s constant, which 5.67*10-8, W/m2K4. When it is difficult to use ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 radiation boundary condition, it is combined with 3. Thermal Analysis convective heat flux by using a modified coefficient, In the present work Finite Element Analysis of single- hr, for hot rolled steel plates with an error of about 5% pass butt-welding has been carried out with constant is, heat flux, the load is applied for first 10 sec and allowed to cool to ambient temperature for 1000 sec. ℎ = 2.4 ∗ 10−3 ∈ 1.61 (3) For this, a simple Butt-joint welding whose welding parameters are consistent to those of Friedman’s Radiation inclusion will increase solution time by model with heat input Q = 1200 W is considered and about three times and hence combined with has been simulated using ANSYS. The element can convection. also compensate for mass transport heat flow from a constant velocity field. In this analysis, element 2.1 Finite element for simulation SOLID70 is replaced with by a three-dimensional (3- D) structural element SOLID45. The geometry and The heat equations (1) can be represented in tensor meshed model with tetrahedral shape with volume mesh of size 0.02 were shown in Fig 1(a) , Fig 1(b).and form so the elemental transient heat equation is Fig 1(c). obtained and later summed to get the system equation which is analysed with time. ⌊()⌋{} + [()]{} = {()} (4) Where K is a temperature dependent conductivity Figure:1(a) model dimesions for simulatio matrix. C is the temperature dependent capacitance Figure 1(b): Mesh model used for ansys matrix based on specific heat its product with the rate of temperature gives heat. The above equation can be solved numerically, with standard FEM models with Crank-Nicholson or Euler time integration models. An initial temperature Ti is assumed K, C and Q are calculated at that temperature and the next temperature T at i+1 is obtained. Again K, C & Q are calculated and temperature at next temperature interval is calculated. 2.2 Finite element model The finite element model of dimensions 40mm X 150 mm X 5 mm is used. The AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel material is considered for simulations to be carried out. The convection is applied on all the surface of the plate except on the heat applied area. In the present study AISI type 316 stainless steel is used as it is having many advantages such as low thermal conductivity, the high resistance to corrosion and high stability at elevated temperatures. Thus, SS316 material is widely used in numerous industries, like nuclear industry, chemical plants, aeronautical and specialized pipe industry. ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 Figure 1(c): Temperature distribution of plate. The temperature distributions of the weldments the weldment are shown in Figs (1a) to (3). Temperature measurement studies in various zones of the model and to understand the distribution. Fig 3. Shows the temperature versus time distribution graphs in the three regions of Fusion zones, Heat Affected zones & Base plate. The temperature is found to vary from 3030K in the base plate and up to 27000K in the fusion zone with the applied heat input parameters in the developed model. Fig (2) shows the temperature distribution in the transverse direction on the surface of the weldment. The temperature distribution was evaluated at various zones i.e. fusion zone, heat affected zone and base Table: 1 Thermal temperature dependent properties Temperature Density Specific heat Thermal (K) (kg/m3) (J/kg K) conductivity (W/m K) 273 8038.7 456.28 13.29 293 8030.47 464.73 13.63 373 7997.02 494.23 14.99 473 7954.03 522.74 16.62 573 7909.76 543.92 18.19 673 7864.18 559.87 19.72 773 7817.31 572.69 21.26 873 7769.13 584.49 22.81 973 7719.66 597.38 24.42 1073 7668.9 613.45 24.09 1173 7616.83 634.82 27.86 1273 7563.47 663.58 29.76 1373 7508.81 701.85 31.81 1473 7452.85 751.72 34.03 1573 7395.6 815.3 36.46 1643 7354.75 869.09 38.29 ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 Figure 2: Transverse Temperature distribution of the weldment Fusion zone Heat affected zone Base zone Figure 3: Temperature distribution of the weldment at fusion zone, Heat affected zone ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 4. Conclusion FEM simulation by adapting a constant heat flux analysis has been carried out on SS 316 steel material for the transient thermal temperature analysis. The temperature field at the weld zone was found higher at the given constant heat flux input when compared with the heat affected zone and base plate regions. This prediction of analysis with reference to the estimation of stress can be useful to predict the weld residual stress status with the heat input parameters which can be used for the experimental application. 5. References [1] Akbari Mousavi. S.A.A, R. Miresmaeili., 2008. Experimental and numerical analyses of residual stress distributions in TIG welding process for 304L stainless steel, Journal of materials processing technology, 208, 383–394. [2]Amudala Nata Sekhar Babu, 2012. Finite Element Simulation of HybridWelding Process for Welding 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel Plate, IJRET Vol 1, Issue 3, 101-410. [3]Dean Deng, Hidekazu Murakawa. 2008. “Prediction of welding distortion and residual stress in a thin plate butt-welded joint” Computational Material Science 3,353-365. [4] Dike.J.J, A.R Ortega and C.H. Cadden, .1999. Finite element modelling and validation of residual stresses in 304L girth welds, in Trends in Welding Research, 5th International Conference, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, pp.961-966. [5] Frewin m r, Scott d a, “finite element model of pulsed laser welding”, welding j, 1999, 15s – 22s [6] Goldak.J.A, B. Chakravarti and M. J. Bibby. 1984. A new finite element model for welding heat sources, Metallurgical Transactions B, 15, 229-305. [7] Masubuchi.K, .1980.Analysis of Welded Structures. Oxford, Pergamon Press. Mollicone.P, et al,.2006. Simple thermo-elastic-plastic models for welding distortion simulation. Journal of Material Processing Technology,176, 77 – 86. [8] Shan.X, C.M. Davies, T. Wangsdan , N.P. O’Dowd, K.M. Nikbin,.2009. Thermo-mechanical modelling of a single-bead-on-plate element Method, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86, 110–121 [9]Taljat.B, B. Radhakrishnan, T. Zacharia, 1998. Numerical analysis of GTA welding process with emphasis on post-solidification phase Transformation effects on residual stresses, Materials Science and Engineering A246 45–54. 5 ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering 6th & 7th May, 2022 CFD Simulation of Down Drought Biomass Gasifier R.Ravi kumar1 K.Suresh Kumar2 1Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, MVSR Engineering College, Nadergul Hyderabad. 2Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering Nalla Narsimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Institutions, Hyderabad, India. Abstract- Biomass is considered to be one of the Figure No. 1: Production of Gasification. most promising renewable energy sources in the present scenario. Due to stringent policy on emission 1.1 Types of Gasifiers reduction, biomass has become a centre of attention Since there is an interaction of air or oxygen and worldwide as a source of green energy. The biomass in the gasifier, they are classified according gasification technology is now considered to be in to the way air or oxygen is introduced in it. There are an advanced stage of development. Hence there is three types of gasifiers. huge expectation from the user industry for its application. The present work has been carried out • Downdraft gasifier, in order to perform CFD simulation in Biomass • Updraft gasifier Gasification process, for this purpose a down draft • Cross draft gasifier. biomass gasifier system is designed using empirical data and derived quantities in CATIA, changes made Downdraft gasifier in the Model of reduction chamber with 30° Downdraft gasifier has air passing through the inclination angle considering 4 number of nozzles. biomass from the tuyers in the downdraft direction. In this paper airflow analysis and temperature And the combustible gases come out from the distribution across the chamber of gasification bottom of the gasifier. products has been analyzed by CFD method using ANSYS CFX 11.0 software. I. INTRODUCTION The production of generator gas (producer gas) called gasification, is partial combustion of solid fuel (biomass) and takes place at temperatures of about 1000°C. The reactor is called a gasifier. The combustion products from complete combustion of biomass generally contain nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide and surplus of oxygen. However in gasification where there is a surplus of solid fuel (incomplete combustion) the products of combustion are (Figure No. 1) combustible gases like Carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrogen (H2) and traces of Methane and non useful products like tar and dust. The production of these gases is by reaction of water vapor and carbon dioxide through a glowing layer of charcoal. Thus the key to gasifier design is to create conditions such that ➢ Biomass is reduced to charcoal and, ➢ Charcoal is converted at suitable temperature to produce CO and H2. Figure No. 2: Down Draft Gasifier ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 6 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering 6th & 7th May, 2022 Figure No. 3: Various Zones in downdraft Gasifier II. LITERATURE SURVEY Various models that have been reported for different Process Zones gasifier configurations include: Four distinct processes take place in a gasifier as the 1. Unsteady one-dimensional model for stratified fuel makes its way to gasification. They are: ➢ Drying of fuel downdraft gasification [4], ➢ Pyrolysis – a process in which tar and other 2. Transient single particle and fuel bed model for volatiles are driven off crosscurrent moving bed furnace [5]. ➢ Combustion 3. Steady-State reduction zone model for ➢ Reduction Though there is a considerable overlap of the downdraft gasification [3] and processes, each can be assumed to occupy a separate 4. Steady state fluid flow and heat transfer model zone where fundamentally different chemical and thermal reactions take place. for open top throat-less downdraft gasification [7]. Figure No. 3 shows schematically a downdraft However, for throated close-top downdraft biomass gasifier with different zones and their respective gasifier, commonly known as an Imbert downdraft temperatures. In the downdraft gasifiers there are gasifier, a complete model including pyrolysis, two types: combustion and reduction zones has not been ➢ Single throat and, reported in the literature. In a survey of gasifier ➢ Double throat (Figure No. 4) manufacturers, it is reported that 75% of gasifiers Single throat gasifiers are mainly used for stationary offered commercially were downdraft, 20% were fluid beds (including circulation fluid beds), 2.5% applications whereas double throat are for varying were updraft, and 2.5% were of other types [11] [13]. Taking into account of the importance of downdraft loads as well as automotive purposes. biomass gasifier and its commercial applications, it is essential to have a complete model for such a configuration. In the present study, a transient one- dimensional model is developed for the throated close-top downdraft biomass gasifier. The model takes into account of the pyrolysis, secondary tar reactions, homogeneous gas reactions and heterogeneous combustion/gasification reactions. The developed model is divided into three parts according to three prevailing zones in the gasifier: (1) Pyrolysis, (2) Oxidation and (3) Reduction. The drying zone is indirectly incorporated in the developed model. The experimental data obtained in the earlier study [18] are used to validate the simulation results of the combined transport and kinetic model. Figure No. 4: Single and Double Throat Gasifier III. DESIGN OF FIXED BED DOWN DRAFT BIOMASS GASIFIER Advantages: Design of gasifier essentially means obtaining the ✓ Flexible adaptation of gas production to load dimensions of the various components of it. Design ✓ Low sensitivity to charcoal dust and tar of gasifier is largely empirical. Design of gasifier is carried out partly through computations and partly content of fuel using empirical relations and using some Disadvantages: experimental data. The principal design parameters ✓ Design tends to be tall are specific gasification rate (SGR), gas resistance ✓ Not feasible for very small particle size of fuel time (GRT) and area of air nozzles. The derived parameters are diameter of hearth and throat, total length of combustion and reduction zone, air velocity, diameter of nozzles and number of nozzles etc. ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 7 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering 6th & 7th May, 2022 hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, ethylene etc. In the reduction zone, the gaseous mixture passes through the hot porous charcoal bed resting above the grate. The reduction zone is often referred as gasification zone. Figure No. 5: Experimental setup scheme IV. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS USING CFD CFD Analysis on “Fixed Bed Downdraft Biomass Gasifier\" to analysis the temperature and air flow velocity of the producer gas. Tools used: CAD: CATIA Preprocessor: ANSYS CFX 11.0 Solver: ANSYS CFX Post Processor: ANSYS CFX Figure No.5 setup of down draft biomass gasifier. Steps followed during the execution of project: Figure No.6 shows the schematic design of the down Phase 1: (Initial Model) draught gasifier. Firing nozzle is used start the ➢ 3D Model generation combustion process. Ash and gases will pass ➢ Mesh generation through the grate region. Ash will be collected in the ➢ Solution ash pit and producer gas will leave the gasifier ➢ Post Processing through the gas outlet. A close up view of the combustion zone is shown in the Figure No.7. Phase 2 : (Modified Model) ➢ 3D Model generation based on CFD results of Initial Model ➢ Mesh generation ➢ Solution ➢ Post Processing Figure No. 6: Setup of down draft biomass gasifier 4.1 Model of the chamber with Zero Nozzle Inclination Angle Figure No. 7: Schematic design of downdraft The nozzle inclination angle is the angle between the gasifier radial line connecting the nozzle with the center and The main components of the gaseous mixture the center line of nozzle and angle being measured leaving the combustion zone are carbon dioxide, in clockwise sense. water vapor, inert nitrogen, carbon monoxide, In the first case, 4 nodded tetrahedral elements are hydrogen and some amount of low molecular weight used to mesh the model. Airflow analysis is same as that of the model without the wall, because the flow region is same and there is no property change as far as the flow analysis is concerned. The air flow has not reached the wall efficiently and the Gasification in this zone is poor. The temperature is maximum at the reduction zone and in the wall region it varies from 1220 K to 1349° K. The maximum temperature of 1478° K is very well coincides with the theoretical maximum of 1200° C (1573° K). The temperature at the outlet where the producer gas leaves the gasification chamber is about 700° C [18]. 4.2 Model of a reduction chamber with 30° inclination angle The model is analyzed considering the wall of the reduction chamber. The model is shown in Figure No. 8; the effect of wall is neglected in the place of ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 8 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering 6th & 7th May, 2022 nozzles. Also the wall shown above the nozzle is not Figure No. 11: Stream lines across the Reduction considered for the analysis. Thus the values in that chamber region that we will get from the analysis are not true values. This portion of the wall is not considered for the analysis, because the combustion starts only from the region where the air enters into chamber and the flow is downwards chamber. Figure No. 8 Shows model of a reduction chamber with 30° inclination angle by considering four nozzles. It is modeled in CATIA and imported in to ANSYS CFX 11.0. Figure No. 9, Shows model with volume mesh with nodes 15081 and elements 76724. Figure No. 10, Shows boundary conditions of a reduction chamber with initial velocity and temperature V=6 m/s and T=298°K and outlet mass flow rate and temperature m˚=0.1 kg/s and T=523°K. Air flow velocity across the Reduction chamber Figure No. 8: Model with wall of the Reduction chamber Figure No. 12a: Top View Figure No. 9: Model with mesh Figure No. 10: Boundary conditions Figure No. 12b: Bottom View Figure No. 12, Shows air flow velocity across the reduction chamber with inlet velocity 6 m/s and outlet velocity 30 m/s. ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 9 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering 6th & 7th May, 2022 17. 0.075 9 16. 5 Figure No. 13: Temperature around the wall Figure No. 14: Pressure around the wall Figure No. 15: Velocity (m/s) Vs Reference line Z (m) Table No.2: Readings of temperature (K) and Reference line Z (m) Figure No. 13, Shows temperature contours around the reduction chamber wall with an inlet temperature 2980 k and outlet temperature around 5230 k. Figure No. 14, Shows pressure contours around the reduction chamber with pressure 261 Pascal’s. The temperature is maximum at the reduction zone and in the wall region it varies from1220 K to 1349° K. This maximum temperature of 1478° K is very well coincides with the theoretical maximum of 1200° C (1573° K). The temperature at the outlet where the producer gas leaves the gasification chamber is about 523° K. V. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Table No.1: Readings of velocity in m/s and Reference line Z (m) S.No Velocity(m/s) Reference line Z(m) 1 12. -0.04 25 - 0.024 3 6.4 - 4 19. 0.008 55 6 21 0.01 Figure No. 16: Temperature (K) Vs Reference line 7 20 Z (m) 17. 0.025 8 9 • The airflow rate is drastically reduced in 0.042 the central region. When the inclination 0.059 angle forms 0° with wall and the air ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 10 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering 6th & 7th May, 2022 velocity ranges from 0.75 m/s to 1.5 m/s in Parameters in Pyrolysis of Biomass”, the central region and from 3 m/s to 6 m/s near the wall. Energy Conversion and Management 44 • Air reaches all regions in the reduction (2135–2158), 2003. zone efficiently when the nozzle inclination angle forms 30° with wall and [2] Babu, B.V., Sheth, P.N., “Modeling and the average air velocity ranges from 5 m/s Simulation of Reduction Zone of Downdraft to 7 m/s. • The comparison of all the cases reveals that Biomass Gasifier: Effect of Char Reactivity the choke plate design with 4 nozzles and 30° inclination angle is much better than Factor”, Energy Conversion and the other designs considered in the work. Management, 47 (2602-2611), 2006. • Gasification is almost complete and the gasification takes place throughout the [3] Giltrap, D.L., McKibbin, R. Barnes, reduction chamber when the nozzle inclination angle forms 30° with wall and G.R.G.,. “A Steady State Model of Gas- the maximum temperature produced is Char Reactions in a Down Draft Biomass 1483° K. • The gasification is effective only at the Gasifier” Solar Energy, 74, 85-91, 2003. narrow region near the wall and it is poor at [4] Di Blasi, C., “Dynamic Behaviour of the the central region when the inclination angle forms 30° with wall. Stratified Downdraft Gasifiers”. Chemical • The comparison of temperature distribution for all the models also indicates that the Engineering Science, 55, 2931-2944, 2000. choke plate design with 4 nozzles and 30° [5] Wurzenberger, J.C., Wallner, S., inclination angle is better than the other models. However, this 30° inclination Raupenstrauch, H., Khinst, J.G., “Thermal angle may not be the optimum and the Conversion of Biomass: Comprehensive optimum angle may lie between 10° to 25°. Reactor and Particle Modeling”, American This has been arrived from the fact that for Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal, 48, zero inclination angle the gasification and 2398-2411, 2002. air flow is more at the central region and [6] Sharma, A.K., “Modeling Fluid and Heat that for the 30° inclination angle it is near Transport in the Reactive, Porous Bed of the wall of reduction chamber. Downdraft (Biomass) Gasifier”, • In order to get the optimum inclination International Journal of Heat and Fluid angle, we have to carry out the analysis for Flow, 28, 1518–1530, 2007. the choke plate designs with nozzle [7] Bridgwater, A.V., Bio-Energy Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham VI. FUTURE SCOPE B47ET, UK, (2002). ➢ The future scope of the work, is the Approach [8] Iyer, P. V. R., Rao, T. R., Groover, P. D., of CFD analysis can be vary the inclination angle of the nozzle from 00 to 450 . i.e. 100, 150 Singh, N. P., “Biomass , etc. ➢ At the same time we change /increase the Thermo chemical number of nozzles. i.e. 2, 4 and 6. Characterization,” Chemical Engineering ➢ Experimental results can be extracted in order to further validate the presented numerical Department, Indian Institute of Technology, results. Delhi. 2002, VII.REFERENCES [9] Z. A. Zainal, A. Rifau, G. A. Quadir, and K. [1] Babu, B.V., Chaurasia A.S., “Modeling, N. Seetharamu, “Experimental investigation Simulation, and Estimation of Optimum of a downdraft biomass gasifier,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 23, pp. 283 – 289, 2002. [10] Reed, T., Markson, M., “A Predictive Model for Stratified DowndraftGasification of Biomass,” In Proc. Of the Fifteenth Biomass Thermo chemicalConversion Contactors Meeting, Atlanta, GA, pp. 217- 254. 1983. [11] Bridgwater, A. V., “The Technical and Economic Feasibility of Biomass Gasification for Power Generation,” Fuel, Vol. 74, pp. 631-653. 1995. [12] Reed TB, Das A Handbook of biomass downdraft gasifier engine system. Golden, CO: SERI, 1988 [13] Bridgwater, A. V., “The Technical and Economic Feasibility of Biomass Gasification for Power Generation,” Fuel, 1995; Vol. 74, pp. 631-653. [14] Bhattacharya, S. C., Hla, S. S., Pham, H. L., “A Study on a Multistage Hybrid Gasifiers- ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 11 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering 6th & 7th May, 2022 Engine System,” Biomass and Bioenergy, Performance of Small Gasifier-Dual- Fuel Vol. 21, pp. 445-460. 2001. Engine Systems, Biomass 19 75-97. 1989. [15] Vriesman, P., Heginuz, E., Sjostrom, K., [17] Dasappa, S., Paul, P. J., Mukunda, H. S., “Biomass Gasification in a Laboratory- “Gasification Theory and Design-A Scale AFBG: Influence of the location of Renewable Energy for Rural Areas,” Indian the Feeding Point on the Fuel-N Institute of Science, Bangalore. 2000. Conversion,” Fuel, Vol. 79, pp. 1371-1378. [18] S Sivakumar, K.Pitchandi, and E Natarajan, 2000. “Design and Analysis of down Draft [16] P.P.Parikh,A.G.Bhave,D.V.Kapse&Shashik Biomass Gasifier using Computational Fluid antha, Study of Thermal and Emission Dynamics”, Reasearch Gate.Net.2006. ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 12 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering 6th & 7th May, 2022 Properties of Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites G.GOPI1 K H V L SRINIVAS2 1Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRESGI, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India 2Project Engineer, Detroit Engineers Product, Chennai, Tamil Nadu State, India Abstract------- Arrakhiz et al investigated that the treated fiber composites The objective of the present work is to introduce give better tensile and flexural properties. Investigation on mechanical properties in different environments can helps to Phragmites Australis (PA) as reinforcement in natural fiber suggest the composite for a particular application [1]. reinforced composites. Fiber Reinforced polymer Mechanical and thermal properties can be analysed with composites are one of most attracting material in all the addition of filler materials, quantity of filler material addition fields of marine, automobiles and Aeronautical also play a vital role in improvement of composite properties applications. This work is an opportunity to enhance [2-3]. natural fiber reinforced polymer composite materials. In present study examination can be done on thermal The investigation on the thermal properties of natural fiber properties. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity decreases composites helps for producing better insulating materials. with addition of fiber in composites and specific heat follows Ramanaiah et al investigated that the mechanical and thermal in reverse order. characterization of bio mass waste materials waste grass Key Words: Phragmites Australis (PA) fiber; Polyester resin; broom, sansevieria, vakka, bamboo fiber composites and thermal conductivity, specific heat. concluded that the materials have low thermal conductivity and these can be used as insulators [4-5]. Thermal 1. INTRODUCTION conductivity decreases with addition of fiber volume fraction in composite and these experimental values are compared Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites application can with analytical values obtained by different analytical play a vital role to replace conventional materials now a days. methods [6-9]. Natural fiber reinforced composites applications can be tremendously increases in construction industry, electrical Phragmites Australis is a wetland grass. Phragmites meaning and electronic equipments, and transport areas like is fence comes from a Greek word phragma.PA plant symbol automobile, marine and aeronautical applications. In Present is PHAU7. It is a wet land grass of large rhizomic grass, days, many natural fibers such as hemp, pine apple, jute, grows up to 4m height of average stem diameter is 0.5 to1.5 banana, flax, rice husk, rice straw, barley, sugar cane, reeds, cm. these are distributed in wide variety of sands from coarse Kenaf, ramie, oil palm, sisal etc are implemented in several to fine soil type of having PH range from3.7 to 8.7. Australis industries. We expect in future natural fibers are replacing is highly adopted for saline areas like salty tidal marshes and synthetic fibers. The natural fiber reinforced composites have inland saline playas. In tribal areas these are used for arrow less mechanical strength compared to synthetic fibers but shafts, baskets, mats, flutes and rafts. These are used as filter these are having good thermal and acoustic properties. Many plant in waste water treatment lagoons. Reeds have dense root researchers work on FRP composites to improve the matrix and coarse stems, so these are used as shoreline and mechanical properties of natural fibers by adding fillers or earthen dam stabilization. These are used to trap slip and additives. Hybrid fibers are a special type of composite used improve water quality. Construction fuel bio gas to reach the required mechanical strength by adding two or combustion fodder and litter fertilizer/ compost in agriculture, more fibers. The fibers which are biodegradable, eco friendly Paper and pulp, walls, roofing. are green composites. Now a day’s every person in society has a Social responsibility and environmental awareness to In this study, we measure the thermal properties like thermal reduce polymer usage. All the natural fibers are used as conductivity, Specific heat and thermal diffusivity of reinforcement in biodegradable and environmental friendly phragmites australis of fiber reinforced polyester composites matrix are green composites. were measured at room temperature. PA reinforced polyester composite are prepared in 15%, 30%, 45% Volume fractions Many researchers are has been reported in the as per ASTM standards. literature about the moisture/chemical absorption, mechanical and thermo physical properties of various natural 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS fiber reinforced polymer composites. PA relatively new raw 2.1 Matrix Material material, so very less information is available about PA fiber. The unsaturated Polyester ECMALON 4431, Cobalt Plant from can be extracted from stems of plants by naphthanate accelerator and Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide mechanical retting process. Moisture/chemical absorption (MEKP), Catalyst is supplied from the Bindhu Agencies, study provides the how much absorption of chemical if we Poly Clinic road, Vijayawada, India- 520008. use FRP composites in chemical transportation. 2.2 Reinforcement ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 13 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering 6th & 7th May, 2022 Phragmites Australis is a wet land grass. The word PA Polyester Composite phragmites comes from Greek word means “fence”. It is Fiber resin invasive, erosion control, soil stabilizing grass. It’s distributed throughout world used in waste water treatment, bio mass production and silt trapping reed. It is distributed in all seven continents. It is highly distributed in kolleru lake, Krishna district, A.P, India. Figure No. 3: Composite 2.5 Thermal properties The investigation of thermal properties helps to identify the better insulating capability materials. Some of thermal properties are thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity. Figure No. 1: Phragmites Australis grass SPECIFIC HEAT (Cp) 2.3 Fiber Extraction The process of extraction of fibers from plants by mechanical It can be measured by Differential Scanning calorimeter extraction process is called retting. In this process first the PA (DSC) at a heating rate of 100C/min in temperature range of stalks are dried in the sunlight to evaporate the moisture from 30-3000C. sample is taken as powder of 5-15 grams stalks. These stalks are cut as internodes are immersed in the retting tank Containing Fungus water. Leave the stalks in Δ retting tank for 45 days, the fungus in the water takes the = ΔT cellulose in the fiber. Clean the stalks with distilled water, extract the fiber from Stalks in the laboratory. The extracted Where Cp is the specific heat (KJ/Kg-K), ΔQ is the change in fibers are dried in oven at 700C to evaporate the moisture heat supplied (W), ΔT temperature difference (K). content [4]. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (K) Figure No. 2: Phragmites Australis Fibers It can be measured by UnithermTM 2022 model by guarded 2.4 Fabrication of Composites heat flow meter followed by ASTM E1530-99 standards. Composites can be fabricated by Hand Layup technique as per ASTM standards. Unidirectional PA fiber as Specimens are fabricated in dimensions of ø50mm X 10mm. reinforcement in 15%, 30%, 45% Volume Fractions, unsaturated polyester as matrix mixed with 1.5% volume of Thermal conductivity is calculated by the relation resin cobalt naphthanate accelerator for hardening, 1.5% volume of resin MEKP catalyst to accelerate the chemical = (1 − 2) reaction. The samples are aging at room temperature for 22 hours [2]. Where q is heat flux (wm-2), k- thermal conductivity (Wm- 1K-1), l- thickness of specimen (m), (T1-T2) is temperature difference (K). THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY (α) It is calculated as a function of thermal conductivity (kc), specific heat (Cp), and density (ρ). Thermal diffusivity, = Density can be measured by picnometic procedure. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Thermal properties of composites such as thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity can be tested at different volume fractions and the summary of results can be shown in table-1 and the graphs are shown in figures. ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 14 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering 6th & 7th May, 2022 Table No. 1: Thermo physical properties at various volume fractions of fibers Volume Thermal Specific Thermal Fraction Conductivity Heat Diffusivity (%) K (W/mK) Cp (kJ/kg α (m2/s) K) 15 0.194 3.12 1.26 x 10-7 30 0.178 4.35 0.83 x 10-7 45 0.145 5.22 0.56 x 10-7 Thermal conductivity Figure No. 5: Specific heat v/s volume fractions Thermal conductivity decreases with increase in fiber content of composite. Thermal conductivity is depends only on the Figure No. 6: Thermal diffusivity v/s volume fractions constituents of composite. From the figure at maximum 5. CONCLUSIONS volume fraction composite shows minimum thermal From the experimentation the following conclusions are conductivity. Composite at 45% fiber volume, thermal drawn conductivity is 0.145 W/m-K, which is 25% less than 0.15 volume fraction of fiber composite. • Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of composite decreases with increase in fiber content, Specific heat while Specific will follows opposite in trend. Specific heat values increases with addition of fiber to composites. This behaviour of composite is due to higher • Thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal specific heat capacity of fibers. Increase in trend will occurs diffusivity of composite at maximum volume due to insulating ability of fibers or it may contain moisture. fraction are 0.145 W/m-K, 5.22 KJ/Kg-K, 0.56 X 10- Specific heat of composite with maximum volume fraction is 7m2/s respectively. 5.22 KJ/Kg-K, which is 1.67 times to 0.15 fiber volume fraction. Higher the specific heat of composite at 0.45 volume • PA fiber reinforced composite has good thermal fraction reflects that the composite has higher storage insulating capability, hence its thermal conducting capacity of heat. capability is very less. Thermal Diffusivity 6. REFERENCES Thermal diffusivity decreases with addition of fiber content, [1] F.Z. Arrakhiz a,b, M. El Achaby et al. Mechanical and this means the fibers are not allowed to penetrate the heat into thermal properties of natural fibers reinforced polymer the composite. These composites take longer period for flow composites: Doum/low density polyethylene. Materials and of the heat penetration. Thermal diffusivity at maximum Design 43 (2013) 200–205. volume fraction is 0.56 X 10-7m2/s, which is 55.6% less than [2] H. Assaedia, F.U.A. Shaikhb, I.M. Lowa. Effect of nano- composite consist of 15% volume of fiber. This shows that clay on mechanical and thermal propertiesof geopolymer. the composite has well resistant to flow of heat, PA fiber Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies 4 (2016) 19–28. composites take longer time to heating or cooling than cork. This phenomenon helps in production of good insulating materials. Figure No. 4: Thermal conductivity v/s volume fractions ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 15 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Mechanical Engineering 6th & 7th May, 2022 [3] A. Gowthami, K. Ramanaiah, A.V. Ratna Prasad, K. [7] K.Laoubi, Z. hamadi, A.Ahmed Benyahia, A.Serier, Z. Hema Chandra Reddy, K. Mohana Rao, G. Sridhar Babu. Effect of Silica on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Azari, Thermal behaviour of E-Glass fiber reinforced Sisal Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites. Journal of Material Environment Science 2013; 4 (2): 199-204. unsaturated polyester composites. Composites: Part B 2014; [4] M.Mounika, K. Ramanaiah, A.V. Ratna prasad, K. Mohan Rao, K. Hemachandra Reddy. Thermal conductivity 56: 520–526. characterization of bamboo fiber reinforced polyester composites. Journal of Materials and Environment Science [8] A. Phanindra, T. Vidyasagar, N. Prabhu Kumar, D. Sai 2012; 3 (6): 1109-1116. [5] K Ramanaiah, AV Ratna Prasad and K Hema Chandra Teja Dr. K. Sivaji Babu, M. Mounika. Thermal Reddy. Thermophysical and fire properties of vakka natural fiber reinforced polyester composites. Journal of Reinforced characterization of sugar cane fiber reinforced composites. Plastics and Composites 32(15) 1092–1098. [6] K. Oksmana, M. Skrifvarsb, J.-F. Selinc. Natural fibres International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) composites. Composites Science and Technology 63 (2003) 1317–1324. 2014; Vol. 3: Issue 4. [9] Ramesh Chandra Mohapatra, Antaryami Mishra, Bibhuti Bhushan Choudhury. Investigations on Thermal Conductivity of Palm Fibre Reinforced Polyester Composites. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering 2014; 11- 1: 48-52. ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 16 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 FABRICUATION OF SCARA ROBOT USING 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGY 1Mr. P. Srinivas, 2Singasani Sridhar, 3Sajjana Kalpana, 4Garlapati Karthik, 5Marrikindi Mahesh, 6Neerudu vamshi 1Associate professor, Department of Mechanical, Nalla Narsimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Institutions, Hyderabad. 2,3,4,5,6 Student, Department of Mechanical, Nalla Narsimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Institutions, Hyderabad. Abstract— This report deals with the Design and devices, etc. Today, we have both hard(physical) Fabrication of a Selective Compliance Articulated robots like manipulator arm, mobile robots, etc., and Robot Arm (SCARA). SCARA robots are among the also soft (simulated) robots like virtual characters, most widely used robots in the industry due to their virtual reality, etc., sometimes simply called bots. high accuracy and inherent rigidity. Robotics is Industrial robots are defined as “multi-functional becoming popular and has achieved great success in manipulators designed to move parts through various the last few decades but automation isn’t cheap so programmed motions”. As such, robots provide everyone cannot afford to transform his unit from consistent reliable performance, repetitive accuracy, manual to automatic. The main objective of this are able to handle heavy workloads, and perform in project was to develop a low-cost robotic arm that can harsh environments. Additionally, robots can be be used for Pick and Place operations. Here controlling quickly reprogrammed to reflect changes in of the robot has been done by using NEMA 17 Stepper production needs and cycles. Motors and Arduino UNO. This robot is having 4 DOF and can be controlled by a Graphic User Interface that Robots are a segment of the science of automation. features both Forward and Inverse Kinematics control. Automation uses machines and computers which can By changing the program of the end-effector this learn or compensate for varying conditions of robotic arm can be used in vast applications but mainly operation. In the late 1960s, the Stanford Research it can be used in the automatic assembly lines. Institute designed and built an experimental robot called \"SHAKEY.\" It used a television camera and a Keywords—SCARA, Degree of freedom (DOF), mini computer; this machine was capable of moving Fabrication, Automation, Arduino, Graphic User and arranging blocks into stacks. In the mid-1970s, Interface (GUI), Kinematics, Robotics. General Motors financed a program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to I. INTRODUCTION: develop an automated robot for assembly purposes. The field of robotics has its origins in science Researcher Victor Scheinman invented the Programmable Universal Manipulator for Assembly friction. The term ‘robot’ was derived from the (PUMA), and as such robots were introduced in English translation of a fantasy play written in American industries for assemblies. Czechoslovakia around 1920. It took another 40 years before the modern technology of industrial robotics An industrial robot is a robot system used for began. Early robots were confined to industrial manufacturing. Industrial robots are automated, application and doing repetitive tasks like loading - programmable and capable of movement on three or unloading machines, welding, spray painting, etc. In more axis. Typical applications of robots include the last two decades, robots have stepped out of welding, painting, assembly, disassembly, pick and industrial applications and ventured right into our place for printed circuit boards, packaging and homes as pets, service robots, helpers, rehabilitation ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 17 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 labelling, palletizing, product inspection, and testing; This report deals with the Design and Fabrication of a all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and Selective Compliance Articulated Robot Arm precision. They can assist in material handling. The (SCARA). SCARA robots are among the most widely setup or programming of motions and sequences for used robots in the industry due to their high accuracy an industrial robot is typically taught by linking the and inherent rigidity. Robotics is becoming popular robot controller to a laptop, desktop computer or to a and has achieved great success in the last few decades network. The use of a computer greatly simplifies the but automation isn’t cheap so everyone cannot afford programming process. Specialized robot software is to transform his unit from manual to automatic. The run either in the robot controller or in the computer or main objective of this project was to develop a low- both depending on the system design. There are two cost robotic arm that can be used for Pick and Place basic entities that need to be taught (or programmed): operations. Here controlling of the robot has been done positional data and procedure. The most essential by using NEMA 17 Stepper Motors and Arduino robot peripheral is the end effector, or end-of-arm- UNO. This robot is having 4 DOF and can be tooling (EOT). End effectors are frequently highly controlled by a Graphic User Interface that features complex, made to match the handled product and often both Forward and Inverse Kinematics control. By capable of picking up an array of products at one time. changing the program of the end-effector this robotic They may utilize various sensors to aid the robot arm can be used in vast applications but mainly it can system in locating, handling, and positioning products. be used in the automatic assembly lines. II. LITERATURE SURVEY [3] Design, Construction and Control of a SCARA manipulator with 6 degrees of freedom [1] Modeling and Simulation of Industrial SCARA The design and implementation of a robot manipulator Robot Arm. with 6 degrees of freedom (DOF), which constitutes a Many industrial applications needed inelegant robot, physical platform on which a variety of control especially with trajectory processing for movement techniques can be tested and studied, are presented. and pressing things with very accurate points. This The robot has mechanical, electronic and control paper presents study of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy systems, and the intuitive graphic interface designed Inference Scheme (ANFIS) for Selective Compliant and implemented for it allows the user to easily Assembly Robot. Detail description of a Four degrees command this robot and to generate trajectories for it. of freedom (DOFs) mathematical model of an Materializing this work required the integration of industrial application SCARA robot with three knowledge in electronics, microcontroller (shoulder, elbow, wrist) controlled by servo motors programming, MATLAB Simulink programming, and one pneumatics. DC servomotor driving each of control systems, communication between PCs and the robot-arm joint is modeled and analytical inverse microcontrollers, mechanics, assembly, etc. kinematic problem (IKP) and the forward kinematic solution by D-H parameters. Neural networks with [4] Design of an Economical SCARA Robot for fuzzy logic controller (FLC) select the proper rule base Industrial Applications through the RBFNN algorithm as inelegant controller This paper presents mechanical design process of an for driving the robot with specific trajectory and apply industrial and economical SCARA robot, called FUM specific handling processing suitable with certain job. SCARA, designed by a team of students at the The simulation of mathematical model is done by Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in Iran. SCARA using MATLAB Ver. 2014a, satisfactory results was robots are among the most widely used robots in obtained proved the implement of the system design industry due to their inherent rigidity and high as practical implement with accurate industrial accuracy. The design process included, joint design, application. link design, controller design as well as selection of mechanical and electrical components. The challenge [2] Design and Manufacturing of Low-Cost was to use readily available components in Iran with SCARA Robot an eye on keeping the costs down. The FUM SCARA ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 18 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 robot offers impressive performance such as ~±0.01 joint angles for a given end effector location. Here are mm repeatability, maximum linear velocity of 8.5 m/s the equations we derived for forward and inverse in xy plane, 0.5 seconds pick and place cycle time and kinematics. Position and orientation of the end effector a flexible control system. These specifications are in can be calculated by joint angles Ɵ1 and Ɵ2 mm and line with existing industrial robots. However, unlike the joint angles for a given position of the end-effector the existing commercial robots, the control can be calculated by x and y. architecture in FUM SCARA is designed to allow for simple implementation of new control algorithms. Finally, using a PID controller, a critical trajectory in robot’s workspace is traced. Results indicate low error during the fast trajectory. III. METHODOLOGY V. FABRICATION We are following different processes to reach All the parts were printed on Creality Ender-3 3D printer. As previously said, the pieces are also our project. Firstly, we are printing the parts by using designed to fit on a smaller 3D printer, such as the a 3D printer has we been having readymade .stl files, Ender3. We utilized PLA+, the blue material, for most we acquired those files and printed every part. After of the parts, as well as regular PLA for the pulleys and the printing every part we are going to bring the parts gripper. In the slicing software, we enabled Horizontal like leadscrew, smooth shafts, belts, stepper motors, expansion of –0.1mm for all of them. This allows the servomotor, limit switches, different kinds of bearings, parts to have more precise dimensions and fit better nuts and bolts. Then we are going to assemble all the with other mechanical components such as bearings, parts. After the assembly we are going to understand rods, and bolts. the forward and inverse kinematics.nThis forward and inverse kinematics are implemented in python graphical user interface.Then we are going for electronic connections. After completion of assembly and electronic connections the mathematical formulas of forward and inverse kinematics are converted into code and that code will be dumped into an Arduino uno. IV. WORKING The robot is controlled by four NEMA 17 stepper motors and has four degrees of freedom. It also features a small servo motor for operating the end effector, or in this example, the robot gripper. The Arduino UNO board is the brain of this SCARA robot, and it's combined with a CNC shield and four A4988 stepper drivers to control the motors. In terms of positioning and orientation, there are two approaches for controlling robots: forward and inverse kinematics. When we need to find the position and orientation of the end-effector from specified joint angles, we apply forward kinematics. Inverse kinematics, on the other hand, is used to determine VI. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM CNC shield and four A4988 stepper motors. Even We'll be using an Arduino UNO board with a though it's a robot and appears to be more difficult, ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 19 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 that's all the electronics we'll need for this project. It's Hussein. Modelling and stimulation of industrial worth noting that we could potentially use an Arduino SCARA robot arm. Volume-4. IJEAT-2015. MEGA in conjunction with a RAMPS 3D printer [2] Rizwan Ui Haq, Umashanker kumar, Naveen controller board instead of an Arduino UNO. kumar, yesh baranwal. Design and manufacturing of low-cost SCARA robot. vol. 10. Srinagar: IJET, June -2021. [3] Claudio Urea, Juan cotes, Jose Pascal. Design, Construction & Control of a SCARA Manipulator with 3DOF. Chile-2016 [4] Morteza Shariate, Alireza Akbar Zadeh, Ali Mousavi and Salman Alimardani. Design of an economical SCARA robot for industrial applications Iran: Research Gate-2017. VII. FUTURE SCOPE Till now we completed literature survey ,3d printing of parts and assembly of the robot. In project stage 2 – • We are going to understand and implement the forward and inverse kinematics. • Giving electronic connections. • Preparing the GUI interface, and programming the robot. VIII. Conclusion SCARA manipulator with three degrees of freedom was created, and it now serves as a platform for testing and studying a variety of control approaches. The part designed were made available to the online audience so that anyone can 3d print and apply SCARA in actual form for further testing of strength, efficiency, economic viability, and use in many industrial domains. The morphology chosen for the robot's design and execution allowed it to do a variety of demonstrations and activities, which were easily and quickly programmed using an intuitive graphic interface built specifically for that purpose.The built robotic arm may be used in a variety of ways, and any type of end-effector can be attached to the robot for various purposes. For example, we can attach a 3D printer hot end to the robot to turn it into a 3D printer or attach a laser head to turn it into a laser cutter. IX. REFERENCE [1] Yousif Ismail Mohammad, Safwan Mawlood ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 20 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON WELDING CHARACTERISICS USING SIMILAR MATERIALS-A REVIEW A. Venkata Vishnu1, Y. Sri Sai Teja2, M. Saketh Reddy3, M. Madhukar Reddy4, Y. Jaya Krishna5, B. Raj Kumar6 1Assosiate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nalla Narasimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Institutions, Hyderabad, Telangana India. 2,3,4,5, Student,Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nalla Narasimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Institutions, Hyderabad, Telangana India. Abstract— Welding is one of the ancient techniques. corrosion performance. As they have low carbon percentage, intergranular corrosion can be prevented. Stainless steel Welding is an efficient way of joining two metals in order to sheets are the preferred material of use in many areas like automotive exhaust systems, steel pipes, chemical industrial get a high strength and permanent joint. This paper equipment’s, etc. There is a widely held view that stainless steel was discovered in 1913 by Sheffield metallurgist Harry investigates the weldability and the metallurgical and Brearley. He was experimenting with different types of steel for weapons and noticed that 13% chromium steel had not mechanical properties of the similar joints of SS-316L by corroded after several months. using 3 different filler rods. Stainless Steel 316L are widely Stainless steel 316 (SS316) is an austenitic chromium- nickel stainless steel containing deliberate amount of used in the nuclear and petrochemical industries. It is cheaper molybdenum which increases general corrosion resistance and especially improves its pitting resistance to chloride ion material with good properties can be used in lower risk solutions. They are widely used in exhaust manifolds, heat exchangers, pharmaceutical equipment, cryogenic piping, conditions to reduce material costs. Stainless steel is a valve and pump trims, chemical & petrochemical process, pulp and paper industry, and food industry, etc. The prevalent material used in high temperature applications. molybdenum addition also provides increased strength at elevated temperatures. Thus, SS316 is also known as “Mo- These joints were obtained by gas tungsten arc welding Added” version of SS304. Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) is the extra-low carbon version of SS316 that minimizes process employing SS304L, SS308L, SS316L. The scope of harmful carbide precipitation during welding. Both SS316 and SS316L have exceptional resistance to corrosion against the current work also includes, investigating the effect of sulfuric, hydrochloric, acetic, formic, and tartaric acids; as well as against acid sulphates and alkaline chlorides. filler material on weld quality, strength and hardness of the Until the end of the 19th century, forge welding was the joint when stainless steel filler materials are used. only welding process the blacksmith had used years together, to join iron and steel by heating and hammering. Arc welding, Keywords— TIG Welding, Taguchi Method, Hardness oxy fuel welding and electric resistance welding processes followed soon after. Due to technology advance, several test, Tensile Strength. modern techniques were developed by welding engineers, such as semi-automatic and automatic processes, gas metal 1. INTRODUCTION arc welding, submerged arc welding, and electro slag welding. Among them one of the best welding techniques is gas Welding is the significant metal joining techniques used tungsten arc welding, commonly referred as TIG welding. in the industrial sector. Even after evaluation of several modern manufacturing techniques, welding still plays a vital Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is a process in role on the shop floor. There are variety of welding which an electric arc is produced and maintained between techniques are available for metal joining such as Oxy- non consumable tungsten electrode (DCEN) and the part to acetylene welding, Shielding metal arc welding, submerged be welded. The inert gas which passes from GTAW torch acts arc welding, Gas tungsten arc welding, gas metal arc welding, as a shield from atmospheric contamination for the heat Electro slag welding, Plasma arc welding, Electron beam affected zone, molten metal and tungsten electrode. welding, Laser beam welding. Stainless steel is an alloy of iron with a minimum of 10.5% chromium. Chromium produces a thin layer of oxide on the surface of the steel known as the passive layer. This prevents any further corrosion of the surface. Stainless steel or corrosion resisting steels are a family of iron base alloys having excellent resistance to corrosion. Because of high corrosion resistance, stainless steel sheets are progressively used for kitchen, transportation and for the building constructions, etc. Austenitic steels are one of the best choices, as they combine good mechanical properties and ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 21 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 Generally, Argon and Helium are the preferred inert gases in [1] EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION FOR WELDING TIG welding as they do not react with metals being joined. ASPECTS OF STAINLESS STEEL 310 FOR THE The shielding gas serves as a blanket to the weld and excludes PROCESS OF TIG WELDING V. Anand Ro, et al; [1] the active properties in the surrounding air. MIG welding of studied on the analysis and optimization of joining similar austenitic steels was attempted with proportion of H-Ar as the grades of stainless steel by TIG welding. The parameters like gas shielding. current, filler materials, welding speed are the variables in the study. The mechanical properties and microstructure of 310 The weld quality is dependent on the right choice of key austenitic stainless-steel welds are investigated, by using welding parameters like the welding current, filler material stainless steel filler material of different grades. 310SS is and gas flow rate. An attempt to increase the mechanical selected for fabrication works mainly because the material properties by initially annealing can be significant when the contains low carbon and good weldability factor and also welding parameters i.e., groove design, filler angle etc. are because it has high temperature service factor with good considered. Based on the literature survey, many researchers ductility. It resists oxidation in continuous service at have worked on welding of different grades of stainless steels, temperature up to 1150oc, provided the reducing sulphur aluminium sheets but were conservative in choosing the same gases are not present. It is also used for intermittent service 310SS, ER309L and many other as the filler material. Now at temperatures up to 1040°c. Further, 310SS grade is in this work, different filler materials viz., 304L, 308L and resistant to sulphidation and carburization. Higher tensile 316L will be get tested to investigate the better filler material strength was achieved with a current 120A and 309L filler for welding SS316L and to determine the best mechanical rod and also the weld has fewer defects. properties in severe conditions. Austenitic stainless steels are particularly prone to the hot cracking phenomenon. It has [2] EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF WELD been determined however, that hot cracking may be reduced CHARACTERISTICS FOR A SINGLE PASS TIG in austenitic stainless-steel weldments by using filler WELDING WITH SS304 S. P. GADEWAR, et al; [2] materials that contain a small percentage of retained ferrite. studied on the investigation of the effect of process parameters like weld current, gas flow and work piece TABLE-1 thickness on the Bead Geometry (Front width and Back width) of the welded joint. The working range of the Chemical Compositions of Base Metal and Filler Materials experimentation is decided by test experiments. For joining the work piece by TIG welding for 304 stainless steels Elements Base 304L 308L 316L (SS304), the process parameters play an important role. During experimentation it is found that, increase in the (% wt.) metal (filler) (filler) (filler) welding current result in increase in heat input. This increased heat is utilized to melt the base metal. Similarly, as (SS316L) thickness of the work piece increases rate of gas flow need to be increased to increase the heat diffusion rate. Increase in C 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 gas flow avoids the vaporization of the molten metal. It also increases the penetration. The increase in weld current and Mn 2.00 2.00 1.70 2.00 gas flow results in change in Bead Geometry of the welded joint which dominates the weld characteristics. The P 0.045 0.045 0.02 0.045 variations in the process parameters affect the mechanical properties with great extent. S 0.03 0.015 - 0.03 [3] EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF TUNGSTEN INERT GAS WELDING (TIG) USING Ar/Ar-CO2 Cr 16.00- 17.50- 5 16.00- SHIELDING GAS ON ALLOY STEELS P. Murali, et al; [3] studied on the investigation of the weld characteristics of 18.00 19.50 18.00 alloy steels with pure argon and argon (80%) mixed with carbon dioxide as shielding gas. During the study, the weld Mo 2.00-3.00 - 0.30 2.00- penetration and the number of root passes were monitored. Then the weld characteristics were analysed by mechanical 3.00 testing of the welded specimen were examined. Finally, a thorough technical comparison is made for the different Ni 12.00- 8.00- 10.5 10-14 shielding gases in detail. 15.00 10.50 N - 0.10 - 0.1 Si 1.00 1.00 0.40 - Al - - -- Cu - - 0.21 - Fe - balance balance - 2. LITERATURE SURVEY In the literature survey we have observed that researchers have made extensive study in evaluating the effect of process control parameters on features of bead geometry, which indirectly influence the mechanical strength of the weldment. Usually, desired welding parameters are determined based on experience or handbook. ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 22 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 [4] OPTIMIZATION OF TIG WELDING PARAMETERS the conventional varying one factor at a time technique lot of AND THEIR EFFECT ON ALUMINIUM 5052 PLATE experimental data can be obtained. This way of Lokesh Kumar Sharma, et al; [4] studied on the details of TIG experimentation not only consumes lot of time but also welding on the different samples 2mm, 3mm and 5 mm possess a challenge to the investigator for deriving thickness on 5052 aluminium alloy plate. AL 5052 alloy is appropriate conclusion from the huge experimental data. relatively nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite, due to Design of Experiments (DOE) is at our rescue for planning having the properties of recycle, light weight, soft weight, systematic experimentation and arriving at a meaningful and easily machined, durable, ductile and malleable metal. conclusion without being inundated in huge set of Welding speed, gas flow rate& welding current are the final experimental data. \"DOE\" is an experimental strategy in governing parameters in this thesis. Also, the output which, effects of multiple factors are studied simultaneously parameters after several readings on the taken set of by running tests at various levels of factors. specimens are studied and various optimized steps taken for the better quality of welded joints and their strength of weld. There are number of statistical techniques available for Tensile strength and hardness of weld joint will analyse over engineering and scientific studies. Taguchi prescribed a the specimen through the optical microscope and UTM. standard way to utilize DOE technique to enhance the quality of products and process. DOE using Taguchi approach is a [5] INFLUENCES OF TIG WELDING PARAMETERS ON handy statistical tool to improve consistency of performance, TENSILE BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINIUM AA 6061 to build insensitivity towards uncontrollable factors in ALLOY V-GROOVE JOINT MD Sameer, et al; [5] In this optimizing manufacturing process design, solving literature the authors worked on an attempt to improve tensile manufacturing and production problems and in determining behaviour of the AA 6061 alloy in which V- joint was made. the best assembly method etc. It is possible to reduce the time They used Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding which is a high- required for experimental investigation and improve process quality welding process used to weld the thin metals and their quality by applying Taguchi technique [19, 14, and 16]. alloy 6061 Aluminium alloys play an important role in engineering and aerospace, metallurgy field because of Taguchi outlined three step approach for assigning excellent corrosion properties, ease of fabrication and high nominal values and tolerances to product and process design specific strength coupled with best combination of toughness characteristics. and formability. By using TIG welding process they analysed (i) system design the data and evaluated the influence of input parameters on (ii) parameter design and tensile strength of 6061 Al-alloy specimens with dimensions (iii)tolerance design. of 100mm long x 30mm wide x 6mm thick. Welding current (I), gas flow rate (G) and welding speed (S) are the input System design is the basic prototype design to achieve parameters which effect tensile strength of 6061 Al-alloy desired function and parameter design is to specify levels of welded joints. As welding speed increased, tensile strength control factors that are relatively insensitive to noise factors. increases first till optimum value and after that both decreases If parameter design fails to produce adequately low by increasing welding speed further. Therefore, the purpose functional variation of product, then tolerance design is of the investigation is to optimize the TIG welding process helpful. In many manufacturing processes, one or more parameters for increasing the mechanical properties using control parameters can be used to change functional Taguchi method. Results of the study has shown that characteristics mean without affecting variability. Such maximum tensile strength of 149 Mpa of weld joint are control parameters are called signal factors. obtained at welding current of 250 Amps, gas flow rate of 7 Lt/min and welding speed of 98 mm/min. These values are the optimum values of input parameters which help to produce efficient weld joint that have good mechanical properties. 3. METHODOLOGY Signal factors are used to shift mean to target by adjusting level of signal factor. Parametric design aims at minimizing Taguchi Method: effect of noise without attempting to eliminate source of Modern industrial environment poses experiments of noise. Procedure of optimizing of process parameters is briefly mentioned below. Parameter design experiments numerous kinds, some have few factors, some have many, can be either physical experiments or computer-based while there are others that demand factors to have mixed simulation trails. Experimenter has to identify list of control levels. A vast majority of experiments, however, fall in the parameters and levels of interactions array is selected based category where all factors possess same number of levels. In ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 23 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 on degrees of freedom of all factors and interactions put Done literature survey September 27th – together. based on our experiment. December 4th Orthogonal array was first researched by Dr.C.R. Rao of Went to the industry where December 11th – 12th Indian Statistical Institute. Later Taguchi developed we can test and identify the readymade orthogonal arrays and linear graphs, so that their April 22nd use becomes highly simplified. Orthogonal arrays were also output parameters of our May 6th – 9th known as square game. Parameters are assigned to columns experiment. May 10th – 12th of selected array with entries of appropriate level values of May 13th – 18th factors represent experimental design matrix. Each row of Purchasing the materials. May 19th – 22nd array represents an experimental trial combination. This array May 23rd – 26th helps in arriving at number of replications of each Start of our experiment. May 26th – 29th experimental trial combination. Experimental trial May 30th – June 15th combination is replicated for three times for each process Performing hardness test parameter. June 16th Performing tensile test. June 26th Identifying the results. As per experimental plan specified in experimental design matrix, experiments will be conducted for required number Analyzing the results. of replications. The observations will be used to compute a criterion called signal to noise ratio. It is the ratio of power of Finalizing the results. signal to power of noise and is based as a yardstick for comparing different experimental settings. Start of our documentation. Submitting draft copy of to our guide. Submitting the final documentation. .4. Conclusions REFERENCES Experiments will carry out with accuracy in order to keep [1] V. Anand Rao, Dr. R. Deivanathan, “Experimental the error minimum and determine the results appropriately. investigation for welding aspects of stainless steel 310 for the By using input parameters such as welding current, voltage, process of TIG welding”, ScienceDirect, Procedia gas flow rate and filler rods we perform the experiment and Engineering 97 (2014), 902-908. will note down the output values during the procedure of the experiment. [2] S.P. Gadewar, Peravali Swaminadhan, M.G. Harkare, S.H. Gawande, “Experimental investigations of weld 5. FUTURE WORK characteristics for a single pass TIG welding with SS304”, International journal of engineering science and technology, Till now in the project stage-1 we have decided the project Vol. 2(8), 2010, 3676-3686. and researched many literatures based on our investigation and just planned our project. [3] P. Murali, R. Gopi, “Experimental investigation of tungsten inert gas welding (tig) using Ar/Ar-co2 shielding gas Now, in project stage-2 the work will be continues as per our on alloy steels”, Science direct, Materials today: proceedings, Volume 39, part-1, 2021, pages 812-817. frame work. [4] Lokesh Kumar Sharma, Amit Tiwari, Himanshu Vasnani, TABLE-2 “Optimization of TIG welding parameters and their effect on aluminum 5052 plate”, International journal of scientific & Frame Work technology research volume 9, Issue 03, March 2020, Pages 473-479. Work carried out duration [5] MD. Sameer, P. Karunakar and T. Prashanth Kumar, Planned to do which September 13th – 18th “Influences of TIG welding parameters on tensile behavior of aluminum AA 6061 alloy V- Groove joint”, Journal of project. material science and mechanical engineering (JMSME), Vol 2, No.4, April-June, 2015, pages 317-320. Decided the project and September 20th – 25th discussed the plan of project with our project guide. ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 24 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 STUDY OF WELDING CHARACTERISTICS ON DISSIMILAR METALS USING TIG WELDING G. Gopi Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering. NNRESGI, SOE. Abstract— used throughout industry building construction, For many years, the manufacturing industry has aircraft manufacturing, and for automobile shown interest in the advantages and production. Welding is used to joint metal of opportunities offered by welding of dissimilar different type of strength and for joining of metals and effective techniques. It has increased commercial metals and alloys. It has become one of in recent decades because of efforts to build light the most important manufacturing methods as well and strong vehicles with reduced fuel as the most necessary construction method. Nearly consumption. In addition, the thermal everything made of metal is welded. Due to its conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strength and versatility, welding is applied in the recyclability are other reasons to weld dissimilar manufacturing of almost all the products used in our non-ferrous metal. As a reason we have chosen the everyday life. If there is no welding process, many non-ferrous metals, those are Ti6Al4V and communities cannot afford the cost of the goods and INCONEL 625 considering its superior properties services they need to earn a living. Dissimilar which can yield good results in manufacturing welding of metal joints becomes widely accepted as field. Considering the challenges like intermetallic the superior design alternative for manufactured Properties in welding of materials to avoid them products between their quality, reliability, and TIG Welding is used. In the project, the welding serviceability. The advantages of this dissimilar parameters are kept constant and three welding are; no waste produced and it is cheap. The combinations of the materials are considered for welding industries are working on in areas where TIG Welding such as one combination of the there is concern on welded joints due to limitations dissimilar metals and other two combinations of of materials, process, and ability to ensure quality. similar metals of Ti6Al4V and INCONEL 625.The Recently, welding dissimilar metal joint promotes a project helps to study one of the mechanical test variety of service conditions such as resistance to that is Hardness Test. An attempt is made to corrosion, heat resistance and magnetic properties. compare the hardness values of welded specimens A lot of study has been done with the dissimilar of different combinations taking the average welding technology nowadays. values of respective trials to find which TIG welding is a welding process that electrode is combination gives the good and appreciable not consumable and electric arc is produced hardness value. The project information helps to between work piece and tungsten electrode. Filler lay a baseline for the process flexibility and metal is used during welding and it is supplied by adaptability to robotic mass production will allow hand or metal feeding system. During welding a wider range of applications of these metal process, electrode, arc and melted pool are combinations welded using TIG Welding. surrounded by inert gas. Inert gas is an inactivated gas that does not burn and adds nothing to or takes Keywords- Ti6Al4V, INCONEL 625 TIG Welding, anything from the metal. Mainly Argon or Helium or both of them are used as shielding gas. The aim Hardness, thermal conductivity, corrosion to apply gas shielding is to prevent weld from oxidation and it is useful to have qualified and clean resistance etc. weld. Tungsten has high melting temperature which is about 3422˚C;it is approximately twice times 1. INTRODUCTION higher than the melting temperature of welded Welding is the coalescence or joining together of metals. The extremely high melting point of the metals, with or without a filler metal, using heat, tungsten allows the formation of the arc without and/or pressure. Bonding of metals during welding causing the electrode to melt. occurs through localized melting or microstructure changes at the interface between metals. Welding is ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 25 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 Figure No. 1: TIG Welding Process 3. EXPERIMENTATION The project is done based on experimental method. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Experimental method enables project to study cause A.B. Short et. al attempted to explore the and effect because it involves the intentional manipulation of one variable, while trying to keep possibility for gas tungsten arc welding of α-β all other variables constant. The experiment is titanium alloy plates and analysis of microstructure. carried to analysis the data for the research. The first A. Karpagraj et. al performed studies on step before starting any research is to plan the mechanical properties and micro-structure research systematically. A specific procedure or characterization of automated TIG welding of thin methods in methodologies are usually used to solve commercially pure titanium sheets. Welding of the problem within the scope. Methodologies show titanium and its alloys poses several intricacies to the how is to conduct the study when carrying out a designer as they are prone to oxidation phenomenon. research. Mostly, the beginning of research is by Jos Mathew et. al performed investigations into the identifying the main problem and the sequence of effects of electron beam welding on thick Ti6Al4V systematic tools to solve the problem. In the project, titanium alloy. They performed all the test to it has been identified that there will be difficulty in examine the welding strength and weld quality. the dissimilar non ferrous metal welding because of Seretsky and Ryba (1976) tried to characterize the formation of brittle intermetallic layer in the weld metallurgy of dissimilar welds produced with laser joint. All the related information was collected from welding. In their work, they wanted to promote the journals, reference books and internet from reliable Ti-Ni phase in the weld, which is of particular sources. The collected information will be a interest because of its ductility, non-magnetic guideline for the project. Experiments for this nature,corrosion resistance, and good low- research will be performed using TIG welding. temperature toughness.In addition, the TiNi phase Data analysis of this project was to identify the exhibits a shape memory effect.The results of their mechanical properties and microstructure of the laser welding experiments were unsuccessful joint area. The inter metallic phases can be because of poor microstructures. The cracking could minimized by providing relatively less melt pool not be eliminated by changing the laser power. lifetime at high welding speeds. Based on the findings, it can be conjectured that advanced The combination of Ti6Al4V and Inconel GTAW could be used to attain lower inter metallic 625 is very difficult to join under conventional fusion thickness with suitable filler metal could be used to process due to extensive cracking and failure caused improve welded Ti/Ni properties. Accurate control by mismatch in structural and thermal properties as of the heat input allows more effective prediction of well as formation of the extremely brittle and hard the inter metallic properties and better control of intermetallic compounds. post-heat treatments. 3.1 Work piece Material: Two types of cracks were observed in the The atomic weight of titanium is 47.88.Titanium is weld joint, namely longitudinal cracks and transverse lightweight, strong, corrosion resistant and cracks with respect to the weld direction. . The abundant in nature.Titanium and its alloys possess thermal history, i.e. melt pool lifetime and cooling tensile strengths from 30,000 psi to 200,000 psi rate of the molten pool during TIG welding was (210-1380 MPa), which are equivalent to the monitored and a relation between thermo-cycle with strengths found in most of alloy steels.Titanium is occurrence of cracks was established. It is inferred a low-density element (approximately 60% of the that the longitudinal cracks are mainly due to the density of iron) that can be strengthened by alloying formation of various brittle intermetallic phases of Ti and deformation processing.One of titanium’s and Ni. The reason of the transverse cracks could be useful properties is a high melting point of 3135°F the generation of longitudinal stress in weld joint due (1725°C). This melting point is approximately to the large difference in the thermal expansion 400°F above the melting point of steel and coefficient of Nickel and titanium. approximately 2000°F above that of aluminum.Titanium is not a good conductor of electricity. Inconel 625 is a nickel-based super alloy that possesses excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion in a broad range of environments. Additionally this alloy has outstanding strength and toughness at temperatures ranging from cryogenic to 2000°F. This alloy possesses a high degree of formability and shows better weldability than many other highly alloyed nickel based materials. It has a ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 26 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 density of 0.303 lb/in3 (8.44 g/cm3), specific Required size of the nozzle is selected and it is fixed gravity of 8.44, melting range of 2350 - 2460°F to the torch. The inert gas flow rate to the required (1280 - 1350°C), specific heat of 410 Joules/Kg. rate was adjusted. The filler rod (same as base metals) was selected as per the requirement. The work is done in three combinations of the non ferrous metals which are given below. Figure No. 2: Ti6Al4V Specimens Combination-1: In the first combination the TI6AL4V and TI6AL4V are taken and they are placed in the lap joint position for welding. Here, the filler rod used for welding is Aluminum and it is held at an angle of 45 on the other side of welding torch. Now, the Electrode is touched to the work, so that current flow will be established and then it is separated by a small distance in order to generate the arc. First tack weld is done on the work pieces. Then the electrode is moved slowly along the length of the joint with the filler rod, so that the filler metal will be deposited in the joint.The operation is repeated for the second time on the other side of the lap joint of work piece in order to make double fillet joint. Thus, the lap joint of Ti6Al4V and TI6AL4V with double fillet Lap joint using TIG Welding was done. Figure No. 5: Specimen of TI6AL4V/TI6AL4V Figure No. 3: INCONEL 625 Specimens 3.2 Experimental Procedure Figure No. 4: Experimental Setup after welding Work pieces which are prepared are placed one Combination-2: over the other with half of its width dimensions that Here in the combination-2 the INCONEL625 and are to be joined to the required Lap joint position on INCONEL625 are taken for welding. The filler rod the work table. Required welding parameters are used in this combination is Stainless Steel (SS) of tuned to setup. Zirconiated tungsten electrode of diameter 3mm. The welding is done similarly as diameter 2.4 mm which is reduced to the tip diameter stated above. to 2/3 of the original diameter by grinding was taken and fixed to the electrode holder. Combination-3 : In the combination-3 the metals taken are TI6AL4V and INCONEL 625 and the filler rod used in this is Niobium (Nb) and the welding process is done ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 27 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 Dimensio 120×40×3 120×40×3 120×40×3 ns mm3 mm3 mm3 Figure No. 6: Specimen of INCONEL625/ 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS INCONEL625 after welding In the project, three trials of hardness tests were performed on the three different combinations at different locations of non-ferrous metals welded using TIG Welding. Out of them the average value of the hardness is considered for the respective welded specimen combinations. Thus, we can able to get the appropriate combination with good and appreciable hardness value. The hardness values of the different combinations are tabulated below: Table No 2: Hardness values of the different combination of metals Welded ( Trial- ( Trial-2) Brinell Metal 1) (Trial- Hardness Combina 3) Test tion (Avg) TI6AL4V/ 92 BH 94 BH 97 BH 94.3 BH TI6AL4V INCONEL6 95 BH 99 BH 105 BH 99.6 BH 25/INCONE L625 Figure No. 7: Specimen of TI6AL4V / 101B 104 BH 108 BH 104.3 BH TI6AL4V/INCONEL625 after welding INCONEL62 H 5 The bead height and bead Width are also measured in Table No 1: Welding Parameters the work which is as tabulated below TI6AL INCON TI6AL4V Table No 3: Bead height and Bead width EL625 / / measurements PARAM 4V/ INCON INCONE ETERS TI6AL EL625 L 625 S.NO SPECIMEN BEAD BEAD COMBINATION HEIGHT WIDTH 4V Welding 160 160 Amps/DC 160 Amps Current Amps/AC /AC 1 Ti6AL4V - 3.5 mm 4 mm Welding Voltage 2V 2V 2V Ti6AL4V Welding 3 mm/s 3 mm/s 3 mm/s 2 Inconel 625 - 4 mm 5 mm Speed Inconel 625 Filler Aluminium Stainless Steel Niobium (Nb) 3 Ti6AL4V - 3.5 mm 3.8. mm Rod (Al) (SS) Inconel 625 Electrode Diameter 2.4 mm 2.4 mm 2.4 mm ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 28 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 As a result of hardness value on the brinell hardness increasing the performance and machine we have taken 3 trials on each specimen productivity of weldingprocesses, about three different positions. For the specimen (International Institute of Welding Ti6AL4V/Ti6AL4V the average hardness value is Document No. XII-1448-1996),1996. 94.3 BH. And the hardness values for specimens 4. Lucas W, Welding and Metal Fabrication, Inconel625/Inconel625 and Ti6AL4V/Inconel625 2 (2000)7 are 99.6 BH and 104.3 BH. 5. Gurevich S M, Zamkov V N &Kushnirenko NA, Avtomat, 9 (1965) 1. For the specimen Ti6AL4V/ Ti6AL4V the 6. Lin H L , Wu T M & Cheng C M , J Mater bead height and bead width values are 3.5mm and 4 Eng Perform, 23 (2014)125. mm. For the specimen Inconel625/Inconel625 the 7. Shah B & Shah B, A-TIG Welding bead height and width values are 4 mm & 5 mm. For Process- A Review Paper, International Ti6AL4V/Inconel625, bead height and bead width Conference on Ideas, Impact and values are 3.5 mm &3.8 mm. Innovation in Mechanical Engineering,1-2 June 2017, Pune,India. 5. CONCLUSION 8. Singh R A, Dey V & Rai R, Techniques From the present work the following conclusions are to improveweld penetration in TIG welding (A review), Materials Today: drawn Proceedings, 4 (2017) 1252. 9. Surendhiran S, Kumar K &Jayendran M, • The Non-ferrous metals are welded successfully Int Res J Eng Technol, 4 (2017) 913. using TIG Welding. 10. Tanaka M, Weld Int, 19 (2005)870. 11. HowseDS&LucasW,SciTechnolWeldJoi,5( • The Nb was utilized as an interlayer to avoid the 2000)189. Ti6AL4V alloy and Inconel 625 mixing, which 12. Tseng K H, Powder Technol, 233 (2013) prevented the formations of Ti-Ni, Ti-Cr, and Ti- 72. Fe brittle intermetallics in the 13. Simonik A G, Weld Prod, 3 (1976)49. Ti6AL4V/Nb/Inconel 625 dissimilar joint. 14. Tsai MC &Kou S, Int J NumerMethods Fluids, 9 (1989)1503. • In the dissimilar joint, the reaction layer that is heat 15. Limmaneevichitr C & Kou S, Weld J, 79 affected zone (HAZ) demonstrated relatively (2000)126s. higher Brinell Hardness Value compared to other 16. Lowke J J, Tanaka M & Ushio M, J Phys regions and they are tabulated. D:Appl Phys,38 (2005)3438. 17. Zhang R H , Pan J I & Katayama S, • The bead length and bead Width are measured and Front Mater Sci, 5 (2011)109. the dissimilar metals gave the best results. 18. Berthier A, Paillard P, Carin M, Valensi F &Pellerin S, Sci TechnolWeldJoi,17 ( • As a final result, by using Nb material as a filler 2012)609. rod about Ti6AL4V and Inconel625 weld joint 19. Ruckert G, Etude de la contribution des gives us maximum hardness results as compared to flux activantsensoudage A-TIG, These other two combinations. de Doctorat, Ecole Centrale de Nantes et l'Universite de Nantes,2005. 6. REFERENCES 1. Ahmed N, New developments inadvanced welding, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington, 2005. 2. Lucas W &Howse D, Activating flux – increasing the performance and productivity of the TIG and plasma process, Welding and Metal Fabrication, 64 (1996)11. 3. Lucas W, Howse D, Savitsky M M& Kovalenko I V, A- TIG flux for ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 29 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 A REVIEW ON MACHINABILITY OF ALLOY STEELS A.VENKATA VISHNU1 Dr.S.SUDHAKAR BABU2 1Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering Nalla Narasimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Instititions, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India. 2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering KL Demmed to be University, Guntur, A.P. India. ABSTRACT- treating. Some of these find uses in exotic and This paper deals with literature review on highly-demanding applications, such as in the turbine blades of jet engines, in spacecraft, and in the machinability characteristics of alloy steels. nuclear reactors. Because of the ferromagnetic Mach inability of materials depends on surface properties of iron, some steel alloys find important roughness, MRR and work material hardness etc. applications where their responses to magnetism are Different optimizing techniques like Taguchi’s very important, including in electric motors and in design approach, Analysis of variance (ANOVA) transformers. High-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) are reviewed to investigate their effectiveness in is a type of alloy steel that provides better optimization and finding significant factors in the mechanical properties or greater resistance to machining of Alloy Steels. corrosion than carbon steel. HSLA steels vary from other steels in that they are not made to meet a KeyWords: Alloy Steels, MRR, Surface Roughness, specific chemical composition but rather to specific ANOVA, Work Material Hardness, mechanical properties. They have carbon content between 0.05–0.25% to retain formability and 1. INTRODUCTION weldability. Other alloying elements include up to Alloy steel is the steel, that is alloyed with 2.0% manganese and small quantities of copper, variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% nickel, niobium, nitrogen, vanadium, chromium, and 50% by weight to improve its properties. Alloy molybdenum, titanium, calcium, rare earth steels are broken down into two categories: low- elements, or zirconium. Copper, titanium, alloy steels and high-alloy steels. The difference vanadium, and niobium are added for strengthening between the two is somewhat arbitrary [1-2]: Most purposes. These elements are intended to alter the commonly, the phrase \"alloy steel\" refers to low- microstructure of carbon steels, which is usually alloy steels. Nickel is an important alloying addition aferrite-pearlite aggregate, to produce a very fine to low-alloy steels where it improves strength and dispersion of alloy carbides in an almost pure ferrite toughness whilst retaining good ductility in matrix. This eliminates the toughness-reducing engineering components such as gears and effect of a pearlitic volume fraction yet maintains transmission shafts. Nickel improves the low and increases the material's strength by refining the temperature toughness of ferritic steels, enabling grain size, which in the case of ferrite increases yield them to be used for cryogenic applications. For strength by 50% for every halving of the mean grain example, 9% nickel steel is used for LNG handling diameter. Precipitation strengthening plays a minor and storage. It also contributes to high strength role, too. Their yield strengths can be anywhere steels and the “maraging” steels can be produced between 250–590 megapascals (36,000–86,000 psi). with particularly high tensile strengths. Nickel is Because of their higher strength and toughness also important in some carburising, nitriding and HSLA steels usually require 25 to 30% more power tools steels. Every steel is an alloy, but not all steels to form, as compared to carbon steels [3-4]. Copper, are called \"alloy steels\". The simplest steels are iron silicon, nickel, chromium, and phosphorus are added (Fe) alloyed with carbon (C) (about 0.1% to 1%, to increase corrosion resistance. Zirconium, depending on type). However, the term \"alloy steel\" calcium, and rare earth elements are added for is the standard term referring to steels with other sulfide-inclusion shape control which increases alloying elements added deliberately in addition to formability. These are needed because most HSLA the carbon. Common alloyants include manganese steels have directionally sensitive properties. (the most common one), nickel, chromium, Formability and impact strength can vary molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, and boron. Less significantly when tested longitudinally and common alloyants include aluminum, cobalt, transversely to the grain. Bends that are parallel to copper, cerium, niobium, titanium, tungsten, tin, the longitudinal grain are more likely to crack zinc, lead, and zirconium. The following is a range around the outer edge because it experiences tensile of improved properties in alloy steels (as compared loads. This directional characteristic is substantially to carbon steels): strength, hardness, toughness, reduced in HSLA steels that have been treated for wear resistance, corrosion resistance, harden ability, sulfide shape control. They are used in cars, trucks, and hot hardness. To achieve some of these improved properties the metal may require heat ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 30 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 cranes, bridges, roller coasters and other structures Taguchi approach, the Turning of EN-36 that are designed to handle large amounts of stress steel alloy is carried out in order to optimize the or need a good strength-to-weight ratio. HSLA steel turning process parameters. The present paper deals cross-sections and structures are usually 20 to 30% with the optimization of selected process lighter than carbon steel with the same strength. parameters, i.e. Speed, Feed rate, Depth of cut and HSLA steels are also more resistant to rust than most type of tool. Taguchi orthogonal array is designed carbon steels because of their lack of pearlite – the with three levels of machining parameters and fine layers of ferrite (almost pure iron) and different experiments are done using L9 (34) cementite in pearlite. HSLA steels usually have orthogonal array. Taguchi method stresses the densities of around 7800 kg/m³ [3-4]. importance of studying the response variation using the signal to noise (S/N) ratio, resulting the 2. LITERATURE REVIEW minimization of quality characteristic variation due to uncontrollable parameter. The material removal A.Venkata Vishnu [7] outlines an rate is considered as the quality characteristic in the experimental study to optimize the effects of concept of “the larger the better”. The material selected cutting parameters i.e. Cutting Speed, Feed removal values measured from experiment and their rate, Depth of cut and type of tool, for Surface optimum value for material removal rate are Roughness of EN-36 steel alloy by employing calculated. The S/N ratio of predicted value and Taguchi robust design methodology. Taguchi verification test values are valid when compared orthogonal array is designed with three levels of with the optimum value. It is found that S/N ratio turning parameters and experiments are carried out value of verification test is within the limits of using L9 (34) orthogonal array. Taguchi method predicted value and the objective of the work is full stresses the importance of studying the response filled [9]. variation using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), resulting the minimization of quality characteristic used to investigate the variation due to uncontrollable parameter. The relationships and parametric interactions between surface roughness is considered as the quality the measurable and controllable variables on the characteristic parameter in the concept of “the material removal rate (MRR) in die sinking EDM of smaller the better”. The surface roughness values EN19 material. The material is extensively being measured from experiment and their optimum value used for the application in High speed components for surface roughness are calculated. Analysis of e.g. gears. For conducting the experiments, four Variance suggests that the selected cutting process variables viz. pulse on time, pulse off time, parameters are significant and Feed rate has the most discharge current and gap voltage were considered significant factor for the surface roughness. and electrolytic copper was used as the electrode material. Total 31 experiments were carried out for By using Taguchi Robust Design different combinations of process parameters. The methodology the End milling of EN-31 steel alloy is experimental results were analyzed using Response carried out in order to optimize the milling process Surface Model (RSM). The significant coefficients parameters and to minimize the surface roughness. were obtained by performing analysis of variance The selected milling process parameters are Cutting (ANOVA). From the analysis, it was found that Speed, Feed rate, Depth of cut and coolant flow. pulse off time, discharge current, gap voltage and Taguchi orthogonal array is designed with three the interaction terms were significant where as the levels, four factors and nine experiments using L9 pulse on time had almost negligible effect towards (34) orthogonal array. The nine experiments are MRR. This methodology was found to be very performed and surface roughness is calculated. effective and the model sufficiency was very Results obtained by Taguchi Method, shows that the satisfactory. Moreover, an attempt has been made to factors affecting the surface roughness are optimize the material removal rate in the studied Significant and Cutting Speed is the most influence region. The error between the predicted and significant parameter. Multiple Regression equation experimental MRR value was found to be 1.45% is formulated for estimating the predicted values for [10]. surface roughness [8]. Mahendra Korat outlines an experimental study to optimize the effects of cutting ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 31 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 parameters on surface finish and MRR of EN24 accuracy and efficiency. This study addresses the work material by employing Taguchi techniques. modelling of the machinability of EN353 and The orthogonal array, signal to noise ratio and 20mncr5 materials. In this study, multiple regression analysis of variance were employed to study the analysis (MRA) is used to investigate the influence performance characteristics in turning operation. of some parameters on the thrust force and torque in Five parameters were chosen as process variables: the drilling processes of alloy steel materials. The Speed, Feed, Depth of cut, Nose radius, Cutting model were identified by using cutting speed, feed environment (wet and dry). The experimentation rate, and depth as input data and the thrust force and plan is designed using Taguchi’s L18 Orthogonal torque as the output data. The statistical analysis Array (OA) and Minitab 16 statistical software is accompanied with results showed that cutting feed used. Optimal cutting parameters for, minimum (f) were the most significant parameters on the surface roughness (SR) and maximum material drilling process, while spindle speed seemed removal rate were obtained. Thus, it is possible to insignificant. Since the spindle speed was increase machine utilization and decrease insignificant, it directed us to set it either at the production cost in an automated manufacturing highest spindle speed to obtain high material environment [11]. removal rate or at the lowest spindle speed to prolong the tool life depending on the need for the Abhang, L. objective is to select a application. The mathematical model is based on a right lubricant from amongst a number of lubricants power regression modelling, dependent on the three during the machining of En-31 steel work piece with above mentioned parameters [13]. tungsten carbide inserts by using combined multiple attribute decision–making method. The procedure is Alloy Steel EN-24 (Medium Carbon Steel) based on a combined TOPSIS and AHP method. The used in manufacturing of Automotive & aircraft selection of an optimal material for an engineering components, Axles & Axles components, Shafts, design from a list of available alternative materials Heavy duty Gears, Spindles, Studs, Pins, collets, on the basis of two or more attributes in multiple bolts, couplings, sprockets, pinions & pinion arbors. attribute decision making problem. The analytic Turning is the most common process used in hierarchy process, being a simple, but powerful manufacturing sector to produce smooth finish on decision making tool, is being applied to solve cylindrical surfaces. Surface roughness is the different manufacturing problems. TOPSIS method important performance characteristics to be is based on the concept that the chosen alternative considered in the turning process is affected by should have the shortest Euclidean distance from the several factors such as cutting tool material, spindle ideal solution and the farthest from the negative speed, feed rate, depth of cut and material properties. ideal solution. TOPSIS thus gives a solution that is In this research Response surface methodology not only closest to the hypothetical best, which is (RSM) was applied to determine the optimum also the farthest from the hypothetically worst. machining parameters leading to minimum surface Lubricant selection factors are identified and these roughness in turning process. Puneet Saini has are chip-tool interface temperature, cutting force, studied the effect of carbide inserts on EN-24 Alloy tool wear and surface roughness. Combined multi- Steel surface by using three parameters (spindle attribute decision-making is aimed at integrating speed, feed rate and depth of cut). This research was different measures into a single global lubricant conducted by using 100 HS Stallion CNC Lathe index helps to select right lubricant and rank the machine. Seventeen sets of experiments were given lubricant for a steel turning operation. The performed. In this work empirical models were framework that is used in steel turning operation developed for surface roughness by considering could serve as one of the tools for making a strategic spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut as main decision. The effectiveness of our model is controlling factors using response surface demonstrated through an actual experimental work methodology. The optimum value of the surface [12]. roughness (Ra) comes out to be 0.48 μm. It is also concluded that feed rate is the most significant factor have been discussed affecting surface roughness followed by depth of widely used in aerospace and automotive industries. cut. As Cutting speed is the less significant factor Machining of these materials requires better affecting surface roughness. Optimum results are understanding of cutting processes regarding ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 32 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 finally verified with the help of confirmation A thorough study of literature suggests that experiments [14]. the machining of Alloy Steel is very difficult, compared to other alloy materials. Joseph Emmanuel et. al. objective is to develop a taguchi optimization method for low Very few works have been done in the surface roughness in terms of process parameters Optimization of process parameters in Machining of when turning the EN-353 steel on conventional lathe steel alloy with different controlled parameters. machine. Considering the process parameters as Review of various latest optimizing techniques such Depth of cut, Feed, Spindle Speed, Rake Angle & as Taguchi’s approach, shows significant effect of Pressurized Coolant Jet, a series of turning process parameters i.e. depth of cut, feed rate, experiments were performed to measure surface cutting speed etc. on performance characteristics roughness data. Taguchi orthogonal arrays, signal- like surface roughness, tool flank wear, MRR. We to-noise(S/N) ratio, and analysis of variance also found that for surface roughness the most (ANOVA) are used to find the optimal levels and the significant parameters are speed and feed for most effect of the process parameters on surface of the Alloy Steels and for MRR the most significant roughness. Confirmation experiment with the parameters are DOC, feed and speed. Form the optimal levels of process parameters was carried out Literature, the best Suited Lubricant for Most of the in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Alloy Steels for which optimum results drawn are taguchi method. It can be concluded that Taguchi SAE10, 20 and 40 along with Boric acid. Carbide method is very suitable in solving the surface quality cutting tools is the best suited tool for Alloy steels problem of turned work pieces [15]. compared to HSS. T.Rajaprabu Investigation focuses on 2. REFERENCES the influence of machining parameters on the surface finish obtained in turning of EN19 steel. The 1. Smith, William F.; Hashemi, Javad experiments are conducted based on Taguchi‘s experimental design technique in this work; the (2001), Foundations of Material Science effect of machining parameters on the surface roughness is evaluated and optimum machining and Engineering (4th edition), McGraw- conditions for maximizing the metal removal rate and minimizing the surface roughness are Hill, p. 394, ISBN 0-07-295358-6 determined using Taguchi technique. Signal to Noise ratio, Analysis of means and ANOVA are 2. Degarmo, E. Paul; Black, J T.; Kohser, employed for determining optimum level combination and percentage contribution. Finally an Ronald A. (2007), Materials and Processes attempt has been made to develop a model for the turning process. The developed model can be in Manufacturing (10th ed.), effectively used to predict the surface roughness on the machining [16]. Wiley, ISBN 978-0-470-05512-0. Turning is one of the common machining 3. Degarmo, E. Paul; Black, J T.; Kohser, methods in manufacturing industry. Hardness of the material is the most significant property in the field Ronald A. (2003), Materials and Processes of design to satisfy the safety and reliability. AL. Arumugam investigation is to analyse the in Manufacturing (9th ed.), changes in the hardness of material on the machined surface due to machining operation (turning) by Wiley, ISBN 0-471-65653-4. considering the spindle speed, feed and depth of cut. EN353 forged steel was selected for the analysis to 4. Oberg, E.; et al. (1996), Machinery's measure the hardness. The hardness was estimated using Rockwell hardness tester by varying the Handbook (25th ed.), Industrial Press Inc. cutting parameters using Taguchi method [17]. 5. Groover, M. P., 2007, p. 105- 1. CONCLUSIONS 106, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes and Systems, 3rd ed, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, ISBN 978-0-471-74485-6. 6. \"Stainless steel properties for structural automotive applications\" (PDF). Euro Inox. June 2000. Retrieved 2007-08-14 7. A .Venkata Vishnu, K B G Tilak, Manik Reddy, “Optimization of Process Parameters for Surface Roughness in CNC Turning of EN-36 Material Using Taguchi Robust Design Methodology”, ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 33 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 International Journal of Core Engineering 14. Puneet Saini , Shanti Parkash, Devender & Management (IJCEM), ICCEMT-2015, Choudhary, “Experimental Investigation of ISSN: 2348-9510, Special issue, Machining Parameters For Surface December-2015. pp: 89-104. Roughness In High Speed CNC Turning of EN-24 Alloy Steel Using Response Surface 8. A .Venkata Vishnu, G. Guruvaiah Naidu , Methodology”, Int. Journal of Engineering Ch.Pranav Srivatsav, “Optimization and Research and Applications Regression Analysis for Surface ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 5( Version Roughness in Milling of EN-31 Steel Alloy 7), May 2014, pp.153-160. Material”, International Journal of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM), 15. Joseph Emmanuela* and Rahul Davis, ICCEMT-2015, ISSN: 2348-9510, Special “An Experimental Study and Analysis of issue, December-2015. pp: 139-150. Surface Roughness in Wet Turning Operation of EN 353 Steel”, International 9. A .Venkata Vishnu, G. Guruvaiah Naidu, Journal of Current Engineering and K B G Tilak, J.Ramakrishna, “Application Technology ISSN 2277 – 4106, 2013 of Taguchi Method in the Optimization of INPRESSCO. Turning Parameters for Material Removal Rate of En-36 Material”, International 16. T.Rajaprabu, Dr.K.Chandrasekaran , Journal of Advance Engineering and P.Dheenathayalan, V.Thirumalairaj& Research Development E-ISSN (O): 2348- R.Sivakumar, “Optimium Condition For 4470 P-ISSN (P): 2348-6406, Volume 2, Turning En19 Steel Using Design Of Issue 8, August-2015. pp: 54-62. Experiments, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973- 10. Shashikant, Apurba Kumar Roy, Kaushik 4562 Volume 10, Number 15 (2015). Kumar “Optimization of machine process parameters on material removal rate in 17. A.L. Arumugam, R. Ragothsingh, EDM for EN19 material using RSM” IOSR “Optimization of Turning Process Journal of Mechanical and Civil Parameters for Hardness in Forged Steel”, Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-ISSN: 2278- International Journal of Engineering 1684, p-ISSN: 2320-334X PP 24-28. Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol. 2 Issue 12, December – 2013, ISSN: 2278- 11. Mahendra Korat, Neeraj Agarwal, 0181. “Optimization of Different Machining Parameters of En24 Alloy Steel In CNC Turning by Use of Taguchi Method” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.160-164. 12. Abhang, L. B., Hameedullah, M, “Selection Of Lubricant Using Combined Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Method”, Advances In Production Engineering & Management 7 (2012) 1, 39-50 Issn 1854-6250. 13. Keerthiprasad.K, Prof Narendra Babu, Dr Chandrashekara, “Regression Analysis and Analysis Of Variance for EN353 and20MnCr5 Alloyed Steels for Drilling Cutting Forces”, Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 6( Version 1), June 2014, pp.136- 146. ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 34 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 Torsional Stress of Composite Propeller Shaft Mr P.Srinivas1 Dr.G.Yedukondalu2 1Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nalla Narasimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of Instititions, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India. 2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering KL Demmed to be University, Guntur, A.P. India. ABSTRACT: Propeller shaft associates gearbox to However, this theory did not show an agreement with the last drives apparatuses of the vehicle through experimental results. Lundquist [4] performed general joint and fills in as drive shaft. A \"composite\" extensive experiments on the strength of aluminum is when at least two distinct materials are joined shafts under torsion reported in 1932. together to make a predominant and one of a kind There was still no analytical solution until 1933 for material. Substituting composite structures for simulation of the buckling behavior of drive shafts, so customary metallic structures have many points of experimental results were the only basis for the interest due to higher stiffness and strength of Research of Donell [5]. In 1934 he presented a composite materials. theoretical solution for the instability of drive shafts This work an endeavor has been done examination of under torsion. He used the theory of thin-wall shells basic steel drive shafts with a carbon fiber and glass for analysis and evaluated his theory with available fiber composite drive shaft and interaction of this work experimental results, which included about fifty tests. deal with Comparison of “shear stress” between These studies showed that the torsional failure load different composite materials and steel, “angle of measured by experiments is always less than that twist” with torque for Steel and carbon fiber obtained by theory. The main reason is the initial composite for an automotive application. eccentricity of the shafts in the experiments. All of the This project is analysis done on drive shaft with above mentioned researchers were limited their different composite materials with structural steel and research to isotropic materials. concludes that the use of composite materials for drive A general theory for isotropic shells was presented for shaft would induce less amount of stress which the first time by Ambartsumyan [6] and Dong et al. [7] additionally reduces the weight of the vehicle. CREO in 1964. Ho and Cheng [8] performed a general is the modelling package used to model the drive shaft analysis on the buckling of non-homogeneous arrangement and ANSYS is the Analysis package used anisotropic thin-wall cylinders under combined axial, to carry out analysis. radial and torsional loads by considering four Key words: Composite Drive Shaft, Finite Element boundary conditions. Chehil and Cheng [9] studied the Analysis, Shear stress, Angle of Twist elastic buckling of composite thin-wall shell cylinders under torsion based on the large deflection theory of 1. INTRODUCTION shells. The general stability of drive shafts under torsion has Tennyson [10] using a theoretical method studied the been studied by many researchers. Greenhill [1] for the classical linear elastic buckling of non-isotropic first time in 1883 presented a solution for torsional composite cylinders, ‘‘perfect’’ and ‘‘imperfect’’, stability of long solid shafts. This method of solution under different loading conditions. He compared his can be extended for calculating of the first torsional results with experiments. Bauchau and Krafchack [11] buckling mode of a hollow shaft. The first and oldest in 1988 measured the torsional buckling load of some buckling analysis of thin-walled cylinders under composite drive shafts made of carbon/epoxy. They torsion was presented by Schwerin [2] in 1924. predicated the torsional buckling load using shell However, his analysis did not show a good agreement theory and by considering the effects of elastic with experimental results. coupling and transverse shear deformation. Bert and In 1931 Kubo and Sezawa [3] presented a theory for Kim [12] in 1995 performed a theoretical analysis on calculating the torsional buckling of tubes and also torsional buckling of composite drive shafts. They reported on experimental results for rubber models. ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 35 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 predicated the torsional buckling load of composite Consider a shaft rigidly clamped at one end and drive shafts with various lay-ups with good accuracy twisted at the other end by a torque T = FXd applied by considering the effect of off-axis stiffness and in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the bar such a flexural moment. This theory can predict the torsional shaft is said to be in torsion. buckling of composite drive shafts under pure torsion and combined torsion and bending. Chen and Peng [13] in 1998, using a finite element method, studied the stability of composite shafts under rotation and axial comparison load. They predicated the critical axial load of a thin-wall composite shaft under rotation. 2. Problem statement Effects of Torsion: The effects of a torsional load When a hollow shaft is subjected to torsion, at a certain applied to a bar are To impart an angular displacement amount of torsional load instability occurs. of one end cross – section with respect to the other end This is called the torsional buckling load. Therefore, To setup shear stresses on any cross section of the bar the torsional buckling load is important in the design perpendicular to its axis. of drive shafts. This parameter is even more critical in GENERATION OF SHEAR STRESSES the design of composite shafts, because composite The physical understanding of the phenomena of drive shafts are often made longer. Although setting up of shear stresses in a shaft subjected to increasing the length of drive shaft does not change the torsion may be understood from the figure 1-3. static torsional stress, it can decrease the torsional buckling load capacity of the shafts. Therefore, the Fig 1: Here the cylindrical member or a shaft is in calculation of the torsional buckling load for static equilibrium where T is the resultant external composite drive shafts is very important. In the torque acting on the member. Let the member be following section it is shown that the design must be imagined to be cut by some imaginary plane ‘mn'. such that the torsional buckling strength of a shaft must be higher than the static torsional strength. Fig 2: When the plane ‘mn' cuts remove the portion on Second, the stacking sequence of the layers affects the R.H.S. and we get a fig 2. Now since the entire torsional buckling capacity of drive shafts. Therefore, member is in equilibrium, therefore, each portion must selection a suitable stacking sequence can increase the be in equilibrium. Thus, the member is in equilibrium torsional buckling load of the composite shafts. under the action of resultant external torque T and Thirdly, in general composite drive shafts have a lower developed resisting Torque Tr . torsional buckling capacity in comparison with metallic shafts for the same geometry. An important reason is the existence of interlaminar shear stresses and the coupling between the in-plane and out-of- plane stresses for composite shafts. In a metallic shaft under torsion, the shear stress is the only existing stress, however, for a composite shaft all stresses can exist. 3. Analytical relations to calculate the torsional shear of composite shafts ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 36 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

Proceedings of RTIME-2K22 5th National Conference on Recent Trends & Innovations in Me6cthha&nic7atlhEMngaiyn,ee2r0in2g2 G=τ r Rigidity and in represented by the symbol Angle of Twist: If a shaft of length L is subjected to a constant twisting moment T along its length, than the angle through which one end of the bar will twist relative to the other is known is the angle of twist. Fig 3: The Figure shows that how the resisting torque Despite the differences in the forms of loading, we see Tr is developed. The resisting torque Tr is produced that there are number of similarities between bending by virtue of an infinites mal shear forces acting on the and torsion, including for example, a linear variation plane perpendicular to the axis of the shaft. Obviously, of stresses and strain with position. such shear forces would be developed by virtue of In torsion the members are subjected to moments sheer stresses. (couples) in planes normal to their axes. Therefore, we can say that when a particular member For the purpose of designing a circular shaft to (say shaft in this case) is subjected to a torque, the withstand a given torque, we must develop an equation result would be that on any element there will be shear giving the relation between twisting moment, stresses acting. While on other faces the maximum shear stress produced, and a quantity complementary sheer forces come into picture. Thus, representing the size and shape of the cross-sectional we can say that when a member is subjected to torque, area of the shaft. an element of this member will be subjected to a state 4. Finite element analysis to calculate the torsional of pure shear. stress of composite shafts Shaft: The shafts are the machine elements which are SHELL181 Input Summary used to transmit power in machines. Twisting Moment: The twisting moment for any xo = Element x-axis if ESYS is not provided. section along the bar / shaft is defined to be the x = Element x-axis if ESYS is provided. algebraic sum of the moments of the applied couples that lie to one side of the section under consideration. The choice of the side in any case is of course arbitrary. Shearing Strain: If a generator a – b is marked on the surface of the unloaded bar, then after the twisting moment 'T' has been applied this line moves to ab'. The angle ‘ ' measured in radians, between the final and original positions of the generators is defined as the shearing strain at the surface of the bar or shaft. The same definition will hold at any interior point of the bar. Modulus of Elasticity in shear: The ratio of the shear Degrees of Freedom stress to the shear strain is called the modulus of elasticity in shear OR Modulus of UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ if KEYOPT(1) = 0 UX, UY, UZ if KEYOPT(1) = 1 ISBN: 978-93-5620-351-8 37 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NNRG.

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