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GED103_Group 2-GW3

Published by Ranah Yssabel VILLANUEVA, 2022-04-18 15:05:16

Description: GED103 Local History and Culture Promotion


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THE ARCHIVES intramurosINSIDE THE WALLED CITY Do you ever want to experience Explore the Walled City and look for going back in time and seeing the renowned historic cathedrals, historical locations rich in history Manila Cathedral and San Agustin. and culture? Intramuros is the way The other place to visit in Intramuros to go! Known as the “Walled City” is Fort Santiago, which includes the which literally describes the place historic fort and the Rizal Shrine, a because of the thick wall tiny museum devoted to the life and encompassing the old district, works of Jose Rizal, our national Intramuros’ name means “within hero. There are other minor walls” derived from a Spanish word. attractions along the path, such as Located at the mouth of the Pasig museums, plazas, and historic River founded in 1571, the place was buildings. In fact, going through the historically the focal point of streets of Intramuros will transport Spanish affairs like trade, livelihood, you back in time, as you will find universities, and residence of the yourself in the middle of old Spanish government. historical monuments that are still standing. THE EDITORS OF ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA. (1998, JULY 20). INTRAMUROS | URBAN DISTRICT, MANILA, PHILIPPINES. ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA. HTTPS://WWW.BRITANNICA.COM/PLACE/INTRAMUROS

ctaobnlteenotfs FROM THE AUTHORS At its most basic, a i magazine gives information that may be INTRAMUROS: THE WALLED CITY more in-depth but less A historical experience towards Philippine history current than, say, a and culture enlightenment newspaper. A magazine can often focus on trends 02 04 or topics, as well as providing context for FORT SANTIAGO MANILA CATHEDRAL news events. This Main tourist attractions in the One of the most remarkable magazine includes a Intramuros and historical churches here in historical overview as well the country is the Premier as cultural legacy from Basilica of the Philippines the history of the Philippines. 06 08 TALK TO US SAN AGUSTIN CHURCH SAN AGUSTIN MUSEUM An incredible sight and one of A unique institution; works of art Mapua University the historical wonders in the architecture, carvings, walled city paintings, furniture, choir books the oldest in the Philippines 13 15 JOSE RIZAL MUSEUM Museo ni Jose Rizal Fort NCCA GALLERY Santiago Morocco is the place to be if you want to see every color in inside the rainbow. It's way too instagram worthy!

THE ARCHIVES EXPLORING THE fort santiago Fort Santiago is one of the well-known places here, not only in the Manila, but in the Philippines. It is one of the main tourist attractions in the Intramuros. Visiting fort Santiago was one of the best experiences that I had. It feels like a time travel since you will see some structures untouched since it was built during the Spanish era. It is also a nice get-away from the hustle and bustle of the large city. HISTORIA DEL FUERTE SANTIAGO The fort in Manila is one of the city's most prominent cultural landmarks. So what is Fort Santiago? Fort Santiago, or Fuerte de Santiago in Spanish, was established to be one of the main defense lines of the Spaniards. It was built in 1571 by Spanish governor and Navigator Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. After the city of Manila was established under Spanish sovereignty, the Spaniards began constructing Fort Santiago, which became the capital of the newly acquired islands. The name of the fort came from Saint James, Spain's patron saint, who is also known as Santiago Matamoros. Fort Santiago had two versions. The first version of the fort is made of palm logs and earth. However, most of it was destroyed when in 1574, Chinese pirates that were ley by Lin Feng (Limahong) invaded the city, which was a nearly successful siege that happened in Manila. The second version of the fort, which we can see in the present, was built in stone. It was rebuilt between 1589 and 1592 by the Spanish using adobe, a volcanic tuff, after realizing it was too frail using palm logs and earth. Afterward, the Spaniards turned it into a jail cell for the rebels and political prisoners of the resistance. Jose Rizal was one of the most famous inmates held at Fort Santiago. Before he was executed on December 30, 1896, he was imprisoned here. A recreation of his cell and the courtroom from his trial may be found inside the fort. As a military fort in the Philippines, it has served as a command center for the forces of numerous foreign countries, notably Spain (1571–1898), Britain (1762–1764 during the Seven Years' War), the United States (1898– 1946) and the Japanese (1942 through 1945). It has been designated as a National Shrine and National Monument since 1951, as well as a National Cultural Treasure in 2014. FERNANDO, C. (2020, DECEMBER 9). WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT FORT SANTIAGO BEFORE VISITING. ZENROOMS BLOGS. RETRIEVED APRIL 18, 2022, FROM HTTPS://WWW.ZENROOMS.COM/BLOG/POST/FORT-SANTIAGO/

THE DUNGEON The Fort Santiago Dungeon is one of the places I recommend to be visited. Fort Santiago's Dungeon made accessible to the public in January 2020 for a full experience. Visitors will be able to experience the exact locations of some of history's most important and tragic moments by taking a tour of the dungeon. Even though it was small, it was a nice experience going inside of it. The entrance of it was small too. I almost sit down to the ground and crawl in order to fit. Before you enter the dungeon, you will see a large marble cross. It serves as a marker to honor the 600 people that were buried under it. After that, you will be greeted by two guards guarding the dungeon, and you will wait for them to give you a signal to enter the dungeon. Coming inside, you will see statues of Japanese Guards standing and Filipinos that are sitting on the ground with chains and shackles in their hands. You also see a lot of pictures, specifically old pictures showing what the dungeon was before. The Fort Santiago's Dungeon is open from 2:00 pm to 10:00 pm daily did you know? RIDING A KALESA The old Manila was once a magnificent Spanish fortification and city located in Manila's oldest neighborhood, Intramuros. It is here that you will locate Kalesa for a nostalgic tour of the walled city. In Intramuros, a Kalesa trip for 30 minutes costs between PHP 350 and PHP 500. The tour will take you to several historical sites in the old capital of the colonial Philippines, including Baluarte de San Diego, Plaza Mexico, and Puerto Real. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES INTRAMUROS ADMINISTRATION. INTRAMUROS ADMINISTRATION. (N.D.). RETRIEVED APRIL 18, 2022, FROM HTTPS://INTRAMUROS.GOV.PH/2020/07/12/VIRTUAL-TOUR-FORT- SANTIAGO/#:~:TEXT=THE%20FORT%20IS%20NOTABLE%20FOR,JAPANESE%20(1942%20THROUGH%201945)

THE ARCHIVES THE PREMIER BASILICA OF THE PHILIPPINES manila cathedral One of the most remarkable and historical churches here in the country is the Premier Basilica of the Philippines, which is Manila Cathedral. If you want to encounter these exceptional architectural designs and structures, learn how this church has risen from numerous tragic events, and witness the living story of its history, come and visit Manila Cathedral, located at Beaterio St, Cabildo St, Intramuros, Manila. HISTORY. (N.D.). MANILA CATHEDRAL. RETRIEVED APRIL 12, 2022, FROM HTTP://MANILACATHEDRAL.COM.PH/HISTORY


THE ARCHIVES PARTICIPATED IN COUNTLESS HISTORICAL AFFAIRS San Agustin Church has The building withstood even the Structures in the walled city witnessed countless historical most powerful earthquake that were reduced to rubble affairs being a part of struck Manila between the 16th following the shelling of Intramuros, considered one of and 17th centuries however Intramuros, but the San Agustin the most documentary places in experienced severe damage to Church remained one of the the Philippines. The church itself the church's bell towers, which standing churches after the war. experience several reforms from were after that permanently The San Agustin Church became the past due to notable removed. British soldiers the home of the Immaculate historical events. Limahong, a plundered the chapel during the Conception Parish in 1945. The Chinese pirate, stormed Manila Seven Years' War in 1762. In Archbishop of Manila requested in 1574, destroying the city, 1898, the chapel served as a that the parish seat be moved including the church. This meeting place for Americans from the Cathedral to the San resulted in the initial rebuilding a and Spaniards to negotiate and Agustin Church. Following the year later, constructed of wood. sign the surrender of Manila to war, the church also hosted the It remained vulnerable to fire the Americans. Japanese first Philippine Plenary Council. mishaps due to the choice of soldiers converted the chapel The church was designated a structural material. The church into a prisoner detention camp National Historical Landmark by was destroyed by another fire in during World War II. As the Battle the government in 1976 to 1583. The Augustinian friars of Manila concluded in 1945, the contribute to the country's avoided making the same Japanese held hostages and nationhood. The Republic Act mistakes by building the new numerous people inside the No. 10066, also known as the church from adobe stones. They structure. Several persons were National Cultural Heritage Act of hired Juan Macias to manage killed as a result of the shelling. 2009, charged the National the design and construction of Center for Culture and the Arts the church in 1586, which they with overseeing the National finished in 1607. Center for Culture and the Arts. RREELLEEVVAANNCCEE Undeniable in Philippine History is the dominance of Spaniards against the native of the country, which was manifested in numerous historical sources and events that highlights their motive; to search for wealth and spread Catholicism. For this motive to quickly turn to reality and gather the congregation in one place, they needed a locus and venue to hold those activities. Hence, the San Agustin Church was erected for Christianity to prevail. San Agustin Church is only one of the many churches the colonizers built during their time. During the Spanish time, the San Agustin church was one of the most important. It was the source of Spanish colonial rule's political power in the Philippines. Today, its contribution to nationhood is indelibly etched in our country's history. PHAN, P. C. (2011). CHRISTIANITIES IN ASIA. MALDEN, MA: WILEY-BLACKWELL. VERDEJO, J. R. J., CABEZA-LAINEZ, J. M., PULIDO-ARCAS, J. A., & RUBIO-BELLIDO, C. (2014). SPANISH FORTIFICATIONS IN ASIA: A CASE STUDY OF INTRAMUROS DISTRICT IN MANILA – CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS. WIT TRANSACTIONS ON THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT. HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.2495/DSHF140331

san agustin church San Agustin Church which can be found in Intramuros, Manila is an incredible sight and one of the historical wonders in the walled city. The church is known to be under the Augustinian Order, which explains the origin of its name. Designed by Architect Juan de Macas, San Agustin Church was completed between 1587 and 1607 and is considered the most significant canonical complex in the country. Initially, San Agustin Church was built using only nipa and bamboo as building materials which started in 1571. It was the only building left after the devastating effect of the 2nd World War and is recognized by UNESCO and the government as a historical landmark. The architecture of the building The church is still a feature of manifests that of Baroque from its Intramuros' Walled City today. It also massive exterior facade houses the tombs of the first encompassing the interior of the governor-general, Miguel Lopez de church. The Baroque style of Legazpi, as well as other Spanish architecture emphasized various conquistadors such as Juan de influences; how it adapted physical Salcedo and Martin de Goiti. Its conditions of the country, which façade is vast, similar to those seen became the sole influence of later in Ilocos churches, yet San Agustin's churches, the inclusion of European exterior seems lighter due to its influences on the design and style of decoration and intricate curves. Philippine churches specifically seen These collections are preserved at in the retablos (altar) that features the Intramuros Administration in-wall buttresses, wall ceilings that Ecclesiastical Museum, which is have vaulted tromp l’oeil and bell located on the second level of the towers. The monastery complex is San Agustin Monastery. The linked to the church by a succession Augustinian Order's enormous of cloisters, arcades, courtyards, collections are also stored in the and gardens, and the original tower, and the museum has arrangement may be seen in the extended into and filled most of the 1928 site plan. monastery. As a result, people of the community are obliged to seek alternate housing. SANTOS, J. P. (2012). THE HISTORY OF THE SAN AGUSTIN CHURCH : PHILIPPINE ART, CULTURE AND ANTIQUITIES. ARTES DE LAS FILIPINAS. HTTP://WWW.ARTESDELASFILIPINAS.COM/ARCHIVES/119/THE-HISTORY-OF-THE-SAN-AGUSTIN-CHURCH

THE ARCHIVES san agustin museum San Agustin Museum is not one more convent among the several hundred existing in the Philippines, but is a unique institution. Unique are her works of art architecture, carvings, paintings, furniture, choir books the oldest in the Philippines. But, above all, unique is the history of the Augustinian Friars that live here, pray here, study here, and spread the Message of Love to the people of the Far East from here. The Museum wants to share with you 450 years of Love, 450 years of faith and fraternity, 450 years of history and heritage, 450 years of culture and art. The San Agustin Museum, also FFRROOMM AA MMOONNAASSTTEERRYY TTOO AA MMUUSSEEUUMM known as the Museo de San Agustin, is located in the heart of Intramuros The San Agustin Museum began in The San Agustin Museum has and has served as the country's 1965 as a simple collection of undergone multiple renovations over premier ecclesiastical museum for photographs of a hundred of the the years, including extensive over four decades. It displays Philippines' churches built over the restoration following World War II, as thousands of antiques and religious previous three centuries. When the well as a more recent renovation. items that reflect the lives of over San Agustin church and monastery Thanks to a complete renovation, 3000 Augustinians who lived, were being restored from 1968 to San Agustin's exhibits are now prayed, and studied in this church 1969, plans for a permanent museum protected and displayed using and convent. The museum is housed were made. On the ground floor of cutting-edge technology. Inside, in the Augustinians' former the old monastery, the old vestry visitors can marvel at the splendor monastery, adjacent to the famed and community dining room were of religious works from the Spanish San Agustin Church. The monastery converted into art galleries. From colonial era. From massive and was built for the first time in 1571. there, the entire two floors of the intricately carved cabinets used to The building was entirely destroyed ancient monastery eventually store the clergy's silken vestments to by fire twice in the following years, became the magnificent San priceless chalices and reliquaries along with San Agustin Church. Agustin Museum that exists today. A made of precious metals and Finally, in 1587, the current structure lovely interior courtyard with a encrusted with gemstones, the was completed, which included flowing fountain and tall palm trees museum's ancient corridors are lined archways, pathways, galleries, and is also available. with galleries containing artifacts sleeping quarters for the friars. From dating back four centuries. San the province's founding in 1575 until Agustin visitors will find something 1932, the monastery has served as beautiful, interesting, or even the provincial house and surprising around every corner. headquarters of the Augustinian Province of the Most Holy Name of Jesus of the Philippines of Spain. LUGOD, R. G. (2017, JULY 9). SAN AGUSTIN MUSEUM: FOUR CENTURIES OF FAITH, ART AND HISTORY. INQUIRER LIFESTYLE. HTTPS://LIFESTYLE.INQUIRER.NET/267685/SAN-AGUSTIN-MUSEUM-FOUR-CENTURIES-FAITH-ART-HISTORY/

SSIITTEE OOFF NNUUMMEERROOUUSS HHIISSTTOORRIICCAALL EEVVEENNTTSS The monastery expanded to include three distinct buildings as the Augustinians' motherhouse in the Philippines and their springboard to other parts of Asia. The first cloister of the San Agustin monastery was constructed in conjunction with the San Agustin church and is located on the church's southwest side. It is quadrangular in shape and surrounds a cloister and an inner garden. This cloister has echoed some of Manila's and the Philippines' most dramatic historical moments. It was here that civil authorities hung a murderer named Francisco de Nava in 1635 and where Governor Francisco de Bustillo Bustamante was assassinated in 1719. Invading and looting British soldiers camped here in 1762, as did Spanish troops in 1898. The hanging of Fr Juan de Oscariz O.S.A. and his accomplice was arguably the most remarkable event here. They strangled the Prior Provincial of the Augustinians in the Philippines, Fr Vicente Sepulveda O.S.A., in 1617. The San Agustin monastery's second cloister was constructed from 1623 to 1688 to accommodate the growing religious community. A passageway connected it to the first monastery. In 1861, Manila's Municipal Architect, Don Luciano Oliver, added a third storey to the second cloister. The third cloister, built intermittently between 1713 and 1828, was actually an extension of the first. The last two were destroyed by American bombs during the Battle of Manila in 1945, leaving only the three-story second cloister wall standing. The famous garden of Fr Manuel Blanco O.S.A., whose botanical research resulted in creating a garden of Philippine flora, was located in the second cloister. The garden's specimens, as well as those collected by Blanco, are documented in his historic folio volume, Flora de Filipinas, which is illustrated by prominent Filipino artists. After defeating the Spanish fleet in 1898, US military forces launched an attack on Manila. The sick, old, women, and children sought refuge in San Agustin. At the Chapel of Our Lady of Angustias within the Church of San Agustin, Manila's Governor Jaudenes prepared the terms for the city's surrender. The Americans soon seized the Church and monasteries. They pillaged the monastery, stealing books, food, money, and statues. IINNSSIIDDEE TTHHEE MMUUSSEEUUMM THE SALA RECIBIDOR/ANTESALA The first room that greets visitors after entering the massive 17th-century carved molave door is the Sala Recibidor, which was once a classroom for early Filipinos where they were taught music, art, and catechism. There's also the Antesala, which features massive paintings of various Augustinian friars. The sala now depicts the arrival of early Augustinian missionaries and the expeditions that led to the archipelago's historical encounters with the Western World. THE CLOISTER OF PROCESSIONS The arcaded Augustinian corridors are known as the cloister of processions and can be found after exiting the Antesala. It serves as a reminder that life is a journey, an earthly pilgrimage leading to our ultimate destination – love in all its fullness. The cloister's corners are lined with retablos, or altarpieces, dedicated to several Augustinian saints, each of whom narrates significant Christian values. RUIZ, P. (2021, SEPTEMBER 21). SAN AGUSTIN CHURCH AND MONASTERY - ICATHOLIC.PH SAN PABLO EL ERMITAÑO. ICATHOLIC.PH. HTTPS://ICATHOLIC.PH/SAN-AGUSTIN-CHURCH-AND-MONASTERY/

IINNSSIIDDEE TTHHEE MMUUSSEEUUMM THE INNER GARDEN An inner garden is located in the cloister's heart. However, there is a terrifying history behind its heavenly beauty. In 1945, the San Agustin church and monastery served as a concentration camp. Approximately 700 Intramuros residents were rounded up and imprisoned within its cloisters. The inmates drank from the courtyard's central fountain until it became contaminated, while the trees surrounding it were cut down for firewood. THE OLD SACRISTY/ANTESACRISTA/RETALBO OF SAN JUAN DELOS SANTOS The old Sacristy is another exciting location in the San Agustin Museum. The sacristy was where the priests got ready for Mass. It houses an extensive collection of ecclesiastical artifacts. The Antesacristia is located beyond the Antigua Sacristia's arch doorway. The museum's ivory collection is kept at the Antesacristia. There is also an old retablo in the old sacristy carved for the church in 1617 by the carver Juan De Los Santos. It was probably moved to the sacristy in the 17th or 18th centuries. SALA DE PROFUNDIS The Sala de Profundis is located on the cloister's west wing. It was here that the Augustinian friars gathered to pray for their brethren, benefactors, and the souls of the deceased. This was also the community's antechamber to the refectory, where they gathered for meals and snacks. This space was converted into a crypt in 1933, where the remains of Augustinian community members and other Filipino and foreign families are buried. The ashes of notable Filipinos such as Juan Luna and Teodoro Agoncillo are among them. A monument dedicated to the victims of atrocities committed during the Battle of Manila in 1945 can be found in the center. This includes 140 Spaniards who the Japanese killed in the final days of the Japanese occupation of Manila during World war ll. THE REFECTORY (REFECTORIO) The Refectory is located next to the Sala De Profundis. It was here that the friars used to eat their meals. The ceiling is one of the room's most interesting features. It contains paintings from the Spanish period thought to be the Philippines' oldest mural paintings. Anagrams of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph were painted in black, white, red, and earth tones on the murals. THE GRAND ESCALERA The San Agustin Museum's Grand Escalera is another impressive feature. From 1786 to 1789, this grand staircase was purchased from Canton, China, which features 44 3-meter-long granite block steps. Architect Luciano Oliver constructed the 8-meter- wide brick vault above it in 1863. AUGNET : 4259 PHILIPPINES - INTRAMUROS MUSEUM. (N.D.). AUGNET. HTTPS://WWW.AUGNET.ORG/EN/HISTORY/PLACES/4259-PHILIPPINES-INTRAMUROS-MUSEUM/

IINNSSIIDDEE TTHHEE MMUUSSEEUUMM THE UPPER CLOISTER The life and mission of the Augustinian friars in the Philippines are depicted in the upper cloister of the San Agustin Museum's hallways. The friars were responsible for constructing nearly 300 churches, with over 160 still standing in their original or restored state. This gallery features some of the country's most well-known churches. THE SALA SAN PABLO The majority of the rooms on the second floor were once classrooms or dorms. One of them is the historic Sala San Pablo, which has hosted numerous important meetings and Provincial Chapters. When the monastery became a museum, most of the rooms were converted into galleries to depict life in the monastery and exhibition spaces for additional artifacts. Furniture and religious paintings from Spain, Mexico, Japan, and the Philippines are displayed in this exhibition. THE FILIPINO SANTOS GALLERY The friars' room used to be in this location. Augustinian Friars brought religious images from Mexico and Spain, which they carved or painted. This room contains exceptional wood and ivory carvings for the friars' churches as well as for the export market. THE ROOM OF THE ARCHIVE/ORIENTAL CERAMICS The Augustinian Friars' Archives were once housed in this room. From the 16th to the 19th centuries, the Augustinian friars worked among the Mountain People, primarily the Abacas, Adang, Apayao, Balugas or Aetas, Ibilaos, Igorrotes, Ilongotes, Irapies, Isinais, Italones, and Tinguianes. This encounter yielded an anthropological, ethnographic, and religious collection. It also has a massive collection of Chinese, Japanese, and Vietnamese tradeware ceramics. THE CHOIR LOFT The Choir Loft is home to 68 intricately carved choir stalls or silleria commissioned by Fr. Miguel Garca Serrano, Prior of San Agustin at the time. A lectern, also known as a facistol, is located in the choir loft's center. It was here that the cantorals or choir books were kept. San Agustin also has an antique pipe organ, similar to the Bamboo Organ in Las Pñias. The current organ was constructed between 1810 and 1813 using molave, narra, baticuling, and tindalo woods. DILAY, G. (2021, JULY 21). SAN AGUSTIN MUSEUM: A LEGACY OF LOVE IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE. BLUPRINT. HTTPS://BLUPRINT.ONEMEGA.COM/SAN-AGUSTIN-MUSEUM/

IINNSSIIDDEE TTHHEE MMUUSSEEUUMM CAPILLA DE SANTIAGO APOSTOL DE PAOMBONG A chapel is one of the newest additions to the San Agustin Museum. In 2019, the Capilla De Santiago Apostol was inaugurated. It includes a beautiful altar and various images donated by Mario Aniceto Sumera. It also has several paintings by Bulakeno artists. THE SALA OF FLORA FILIPINA Some friars in the Augustinian Order dedicated their time to various sciences such as cosmology, astrology, biology, and botany. One of them is Fr. Gregor Mendel, known as the \"Father of Modern Genetics,\" was a pioneer in the field of genetics. This exhibition includes a variety of items related to medicine and other topics. Fr. Manuel Blanco's Flora De Filipinas book described and classified over 1,200 herbal species, including their botanical properties, applications, and medicinal qualities, dating from the 16th century. THE LIBRARY (BIBLIOTECA) The San Agustin Convent Library grew to be one of the best in the Philippines, but a series of events destroyed it. The room itself is not accessible to the public because it houses some old books, but it is protected with glass so visitors can still view it. The early Augustinians brought rare manuscripts and books to the country, which were housed in the original library. According to old photos, the books were kept in narra bookcases with carvings that framed the names of Augustinian scholars. RREELLEEVVAANNCCEE Hidden behind its modest facade, San Agustin Museum is a hidden gem with a wealth of galleries holding furniture, sculptures, literature, carvings, and other historical relics. This remarkable museum has one of the country's most extensive collections of historical antiquities. The San Agustin Museum is a tribute to the Filipino people's indomitable spirit and the harmonious merging of European and Eastern cultures that have produced the country's distinct qualities. Art, culture, faith, science, and love are woven together in a symphony that lingers long after the choir's final notes are sung. But beyond the olden artworks and artifacts it exhibits, San Agustin also strives to preserve the story of the Augustinians. In narrating the friars' rich and colorful history, the museum prevents their names, lives, and invaluable contributions from being lost in the tangled narratives of the country's past.

THE ARCHIVES Jose Rizal Museum On 6 October 1896, Jose Rizal was seized in Barcelona, Spain, while en route to Cuba to act as a tactical specialist. In the wake of being expelled to the Philippines, he was kept at Fort Santiago. He went through his last day getting visitors, making letters, and finishing his valedictory sonnet. In the first part of the day of 30 December, he started his walk to Bagumbayan field. Having acknowledged his destiny, Rizal was in a quiet demeanor approaching the hour of his passing. As shots rang out from the firearms of the discharging crew, Rizal attempted to confront his killers, tumbled down, and kicked the bucket confronting the sky. On the eve of the execution, José Rizal sadly wrote a letter to say goodbye to his family. Calmly accepting his tragic fate, he composed an untitled farewell poem. This became known as \"Mi Ultimo Adios\". On December 30, 1896, Rizal quietly surrendered to the firing squad in Bagumbayan. Reconstructed in 1953 after its destruction in World War II, the Museo ni Jose Rizal Fort Santiago pays tribute to Jose Rizal through its theme that is based on Jose Rizal's life, achievements, and even the final moments of his life.

5 Galleries in the museum Gallery 1: Silid pagninilay- This is where copies of his letters to his family and other colleagues can be seen. Gallery 2: Silid Piitan- This is Rizal’s actual prison cell, which contains a life-size wax effigy of Rizal by National Artist for Sculture Guillermo Tolentino. Gallery 3: Silid Paglilitis- A stunning light and sound display recreates Rizal's trial at the Cuartel de Espaa. Gallery 4:Kabayanihan- Clothing, pictures, replicas of Rizal's alcohol stove and valedictory poem, a piece of Rizal's vertebra encased in a reliquary, and a mural-size painting of Rizal's execution by National Artist for Painting Carlos V. Francisco are among the many relics on display. Gallery 5: Silid Pamana- Rizal's sculptures, original sketches, personal items, pictures, and species of insects and reptiles named after him are all on display.

THE ARCHIVES ncca gallery FFRROOMM AA MMOONNAASSTTEERRYY TTOO AA MMUUSSEEUUMM The National Commission for Culture and There are two different galleries, Glass Gallery the Arts (NCCA) has opened the NCCA and Open Gallery. In March, Joe Ayala's Jose Gallery in Intramuros Manila, an exhibition V. Ayala Jr.: His Life & Works will be on display space specially created for the at the Glass Gallery, and the Freedom Wall by contemporary art scene in the Philippines, artists Marvin Oloris and Ritchie E will be on as the governing body responsible for display at the Open Gallery national cultural and artistic activities. NCCA Gallery is one of the few galleries in Japan that is open to the public for free. PRIMER MEDIA INC. (2018, MARCH 1). NCCA GALLERY IN INTRAMUROS. TRAVEL. HTTPS://PRIMER.COM.PH/TRAVEL/2018/03/01/NCCA-GALLERY/

HISTORY In 2009, the National Commission for Culture and the Arts expanded its service to the Filipino Visual Arts community by establishing the NCCA Gallery in the foyer of the NCCA Building, which is located in the center of Intramuros. This was in reaction to the Philippines' developing contemporary art scene. The NCCA Gallery is a collaboration between the National Committee on Art Galleries (NCAG) of the Subcommission on Cultural Heritage and the National Committee on Visual Arts (NCVA) of the Subcommission on the Arts. It is dedicated to contemporary art. Wh o are the artists? Both the NCAG and the NCVA hope to use the gallery to give new and developing artists a platform for visibility while still allowing them to explore and express their creativity. Similarly, established artists will be able to share their conceptual tales with the public and inspire participation in the arts.

the more you know EXPERIENCE A TASTE OF HISTORY one of the best restaurants in the Walled City of Manila, Ilustrado. Offering savory and delicious flavors of delicacies, Ilustrado has been attracting customers through its Hispanic Architecture that is perfect for intimate luncheon and sets a remarkable experience to people. Ilustrado opened in 1989 and is a family-run company in the “Old Manila” environment. The restaurant is well-known for its various specialties, including the Paella Ilustrad and its unique Sampaguita ice cream. But Ilustrado is most renowned for one exceptional dessert: Sampaguita Ice Cream. As exotic as it sounds, guests are pleasantly astonished by how exquisite the flavor is. It truly tastes like a Sampaguita flower, the Philippines' national flower, and is created from its petals with infused spices. PRIMER MEDIA INC. (2015, SEPTEMBER 21). ILUSTRADO IN INTRAMUROS. HTTPS://PRIMER.COM.PH/FOOD/CUISINES/SPANISH/ILUSTRADO/

T aHE rchives EXPLORE HISTORY Babadilla | Bingabing | Gutierrez | Orilla | Villanueva

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