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Ubuntu Magazine Issue 20

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Read the Text Version DIRCOza @theDIRCOza thedircoza DIRCO flickr Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action 20th Edition Creating Conducive Conditions for Africa’s Development A better South Africa * A better Africa * A better world

The African Union Headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

In the spirit of Ubuntu

UBUNTU magazine – issue 20 UBUNTU c r e d i t sSouth Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action a Nguni word meaning humanity The Department of International Relations Publisher Clayson Monyela and Cooperation’s quarterly magazine Editor-in-Chief ON THE COVER Michelle Greeff – [email protected] Tel: +27 12 351 1743 The 33rd African Union (AU) Summit was held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in February 2020 Editor under the theme: \"Silencing the Guns: Creating Delien Burger - [email protected] Conducive Conditions for Africa's Development\". Tel: +27 12 351 0948 South Africa as Chair of the AU for the year 2020 will work tirelessly towards peace and security on Advertising the continent. In this regard, the country believes Nthabiseng Makuwa - [email protected] that both the African leadership and ordinary Tel: +27 12 351 0388 people must be the architects of their own peace and stability. Distribution To make real the commitment of “Silencing Olwethu Koli – [email protected] the Guns in Africa in 2020”, South Africa will Tel: +27 12 351 0006 collaborate with sister countries on the continent, focussing on the root causes of conflicts so that we Photographers are able to create an environment for permanent Jacoline Schoonees, Yandisa Monakali, Katlholo Maifadi and Yolande Snyman, Department of International peace and security in Africa. Relations and Cooperation; United Kingdom Department for International Development; Government Communication and Information System; SA Tourism; Xinhua/Chen Cheng; Jonathan Gill, Flickr; The Melrose Gallery (Cape Town); Owl Rescue Centre, Facebook; Luke Daniel / Red Bull Content Pool;; Ms Universe, Facebook; Miss Universe 2019, Twitter; Design Indaba; Delia Oosthuizen; Michael Tellinger; Craig Foster; Andreas Wittich; Southern African Wildlife College; Atlantic Campaigns, Facebook Ben Duffy; Juanita Mulder, Pixaby; Jean van der Meulen, Pixabay; Anthea Pokroy; Kagga Kamma Nature Reserve, Facebook; Hayward's Grand Safari Company; Baviaans Camino, Facebook; The Workshop Ko Kasi, Facebook; Oceana Beach and Wildlife Reserve, Facebook; and Sarah Koning. Acknowledgements President Cyril Ramaphosa; Dr GNM Pandor, Minister of International Relations and Cooperation; Alvin Botes, Deputy Minister of International Relations and Cooperation; Ambassador Anil Sooklal, Deputy Director-General, Branch: Asia and Middle East, Department of International Relations and Cooperation; Professor Cheryl Hendricks, Executive Director, Africa Institute of South Africa, Human Sciences Research Council; Sisa Ntshona, CEO of SA Tourism; John Measey, Senior Researcher at the CIB based in the Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University; Jen Snowball, Professor of Economics, Rhodes University; John J Stremlau, Honorary Professor of International Relations, University of the Witwatersrand; David Coplan, Professor Emeritus, Social Anthropology, University of the Witwatersrand; James Okwe Chibueze, Associate Professor, North-West University; Brent Lindeque, Editor in Chief, Good Things Guy; and Professor William Beinart, University of Oxford. Advertisers World Food Programme, Standard Bank, Iziko Museum, Apartheid Museum, Cipla, MTN, Old Mutual, BrandSA and Freedom Park. To subscribe Send an e-mail with the words SUBSCRIBE UBUNTU in the subject line, your organisation, e-mail address and delivery address in the body to [email protected] Back-issue enquiries [email protected] The Department of International Relations and Cooperation (DIRCO) ©2012 Tel: +27 12 351 1000, Private Bag X152, PRETORIA, 0001, Republic of South Africa 460 Soutpansberg Road, Rietondale, Pretoria, 0084 Republic of South Africa No portion of this magazine may be produced in any form without the written permission of the publishers. DIRCO is not responsible for unsolicited material and reserves the right to amend and to alter copy and visual material as deemed necessary. Copyright is reserved. Views in Ubuntu are not necessarily those of DIRCO or those of the South African Government. They can accept no liability of whatsoever nature arising out of or in connection with the contents of this publication.

UBUNTU magazine – issue 20 c o n t e n t sSouth Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action In every issue 6 Letter from the Minister 8 Publisher’s note Diplomacy 12 Ubuntu Awards 12 Ubuntu Awards celebrate excellence in diplomacy celebrate 18 Deepening economic integration at the top of SA’s agenda excellence in 24 A better Africa and a better world diplomacy 26 Building the Africa We Want: Strategies for South Africa’s successful Chair of the African Union in 2020 30 South Africa and the Indian Ocean Rim Association 32 South Africa is ready to respond to the Coronavirus 34 Remembering Mandela and his international links 38 Inaugural naval exercise held in South Africa 40 SA relations unchanged with UK amid BREXIT 42 Africa woos UK investors 46 SANDF to assist in supporting continental peace and security 48 South Africa-Ireland relations strengthened through mutual cooperation 50 The role of civil society in advancing human security Feature 46 SANDF to assist 56 Liberation Heritage: Joseph Shabalala in supporting 58 How the fall of the Berlin Wall 31 years ago resonated continental peace and security across Africa 60 BRICS scientists could help stem the tide of invasive species

Lifestyle 86 Meet the dogs being trained to 102 combat poaching in South Africa San spirit shared 62 How international trade can unlock the potential of the The top-rated SA cultural economy in developing countries experiences 66 Esther Mahlangu: Disrupting Patterns 106 68 Tourism creates one in five jobs – SA can’t afford not to be competitive 70 8 incredible South African innovations of 2019 74 In a rare sighting, astronomers observe burst of activity as a massive star forms 76 Miss Universe comes home 78 The most beautiful object in South Africa 2020 80 The oldest places in South Africa 86 Meet the dogs being trained to combat poaching in South Africa 90 The story of the pharma giant and the African yam 92 Flying the flag LIFESTYLE 100 New study reveals that Cape Town is Africa’s leading art capital 102 San spirit shared 104 Things to do at the longest promenade in sub-Saharan Africa 106 The top-rated SA experiences

LETTER FROM THE MINISTER South Africa assumed the make the most of our membership of this unstable, unsafe and in a precarious space or Chairship of the African Union strategic platform. being made to feel that way. (AU) at the 33rd Ordinary Session of the Assembly The first year of our membership was For many of our friends worldwide, South of Heads of State and beset by tectonic shifts in global affairs. The Africa is viewed as a powerful progressive Government of the AU in Addis challenges to multilateralism, while evident alternative able to articulate the concerns and Ababa, Ethiopia, on 8 and 9 February 2020. for many years, became a dominant reality interest of the marginalised and vulnerable that altered global realities and relations while upholding the agreed progressive This is a significant responsibility for fundamentally. universal principles of the UN Charter. South Africa to assume, particularly given the challenging times confronting the world of South Africa has showed firm resolve in its All these imposing international challenges nations. Our Chairship implies great obligations foreign policy, fairness, justice, equality and and responsibilities will exact a toll on South to the Global South and means we must respect for practices by focussing on its core Africa’s leadership capacity, and indeed actively pursue the tasks related to concretely values of human dignity. These can only find capabilities, at a time when we face a myriad silencing the guns, enhancing inclusion and expression in globally fair trade and inclusive of country challenges. equality and responding to climate change economic prosperity, even-handed global and the wide variety of risks and opportunities governance and the entrenchment of the It is no exaggeration to say politically, confronting Africa. principle of multilateralism. economically and on the governance front, South Africa is probably facing the sternest test Additionally, South Africa will concurrently It is now clear that these principles enjoy since the dawn of the democratic dispensation chair the African Peer Review Mechanism inadequate global support right now, not in April 1994. (APRM) and the AU Committee of Heads of because they are irrelevant but due to the fact State on Climate Change. that the global community has increasingly felt We are fighting off the possibility of a credit compelled to focus on self-preservation rather rating downgrade but also, we have the duty to As if this is not demanding enough scope than the good of all. revive a sluggish economy even as we push of work, 2020 is the final year of South Africa’s back a high unemployment rate in the face of non-permanent membership of the United As a result of growing global social inequality continued private-sector job shedding. Nations Security Council (UNSC). Our non- and the deteriorating living conditions of many permanent membership of the UNSC has across the world, as well as the baneful A credit rating downgrade would compound allowed us to leverage all opportunities to practice of unilateralism and its concomitant matters for us by further weakening our war baiting, the world is seemingly highly capacity to address our structural socio- economic imbalances, addressing social 6 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

inequality and creating conditions that about debt sustainability. Fourteen countries external incursions as material incentives are nurture social cohesion, nation-building and a have been marked as being in debt distress or easily disbursed to attract young people to democratic citizenship. at high risk of debt distress. Rising debt levels these negative activities. have stemmed from declining commodity Our electricity supply challenges as well as processes, a glaring infrastructure financing Globally, the ongoing United States (US)- the need to repair the state-owned enterprises gap and budgetary increases for security in China trade dispute continues to negatively and restore investor confidence in our countries affected by terror threats. affect global economic growth and the United country’s economy are pressing matters for Kingdom has increased trade uncertainty which continued engagement by government Debt accumulation raises questions about regarding the unknown consequences of a and the President in particular is a top priority. debt sustainability, particularly with regard to withdrawal from the European Union (BREXIT). Much is being done through the leadership of commercial debt sources such as Eurobond our President and government but much more and Chinese loans, with policy implications The rise of populism, trade protectionism hard work lies ahead for all of us. for tax-revenue collection and risk-mitigation and the disregard for multilateralism continue mechanisms such as blended finance and to be observed through actions of some Against this national and global background, public-private partnerships. developed countries, e.g. the US withdrawal South Africa is among African nations playing from the Paris Climate Change Agreement. host to thousands of African migrants often The agreement establishing the African Furthermore, rising nationalism, impatient violently uprooted from their home countries Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA), populations and seeming unresponsiveness of by civil strife, war, poverty and political or which is scheduled to come into effect by governments pose further threats. ethnic persecution. 1 July 2020, has raised high expectations as an “economic game changer” with the potential to While there are promising prospects for The intermittent attacks on foreign nationals raise intra-African trade by 25% – or between level-headed engagement between the US who are often accused of social crime and US$50 billion and US$70 billion – by 2040. and the People’s Republic of China, Africa ”stealing South African jobs” have become par has to be on alert against unforeseen global for the course, earning our country the criticism In spite of its laudable prospects for trade turbulences as our weak structural orientation of several countries in Africa and some and investment, there remains a number of renders us vulnerable to negative external civil-society organisations. sticky issues that will need to be resolved for currents, as it did during the 2009 global the agreement to move from aspirations to financial crisis. That said, I have no doubt in my mind that tangibles. These issues include: configuring we are equal to the task at hand. We have, over most-favoured-nation deals between all At the same time, Africa may be in a the last 26 years of democracy, accumulated countries; ironing out issues around rules position to take advantage of some of these the necessary experience to execute our of origin; delayed introduction of continent- developments as is apparent in the context of responsibilities effectively. wide trade facilitation measures; and gaps in BREXIT. buy-in from governments, African business Of course, Africa itself is in a very different and citizens. This is all the more plausible given the condition since the launch of the AU in Durban perception that Africa is “the last frontier of in 2002. Our continent has made much Politically, the continent has seen some growth”, which also continues to raise and progress while also being impacted by global progress being registered with the wave of receive geopolitical interest from other parts challenges and our own African problems. democracy continuing to grow with more of the world. Unfortunately, this can also be African countries holding peaceful elections. observed through increased military presence The key focus of South Africa’s Chairship of However, the conflicts and political instability on the continent of countries such as France, the AU during this term is themed: “Silencing in the Democratic Republic of Congo, US, China, Russia and Turkey. the Guns: Creating Conducive Conditions Libya and South Sudan continue unabated. for Africa’s Development”. Both our Cabinet The continent also welcomed the resolution We expect all of the abovementioned and the AU have approved this theme. of the border conflict between Ethiopia and dynamics as well as emerging and complex The underlying rational is there cannot be Eritrea in 2019. challenges such as the Coronavirus, to impact development without peace. South Africa’s Chairship of the AU in some Trends in conflict and violent events during way or other, hence, the need for focussed Continentally, South Africa assumes the 2019 have indicated an increase in the number strategic deliberations to develop appropriate Chairship of the AU under conditions in which of conflict actors and the transnational nature approaches. Africa’s economic growth has continued to of threats and vulnerabilities. Data sets and be positive, with gross domestic product analyses point to the proliferation of rebel and South Africa’s diplomatic missions on the projected to rise to 4% in 2020, up from 3.5% extremist groups, bolder linkages between continent and the Permanent Mission to the in 2019. However, this excludes the large transnational organised crime and violent UN are key to supporting, facilitating and economies of Angola, Nigeria and South extremists in Africa and the Middle East, communicating the mandate of our chairing Africa, which have a low average growth and a rise in the frequency and scale of riots the AU. of 2.5%. and protests. We hope that in addition to the understanding At the World Economic Forum in Davos Attacks by militants affiliated with the of the inter-connections and complex interplay in January 2020, much was made of the Islamic State (IS) and Daesh in the northern between the national, continental and global fact that some of the world’s fastest-growing Mozambique province of Cabo Delgado have processes, our country will, on the strength economies are on the continent and have had raised concerns about an IS presence in new of such penetrating comprehension, provide a growth rate of 5% over a five-year period, territories where it has drawn allegiance from the necessary political leadership, which will higher than the global average of 3.6%. These local militant groups. help transfigure current unsatisfactory global countries include Burkina Faso, Tanzania, relations into a focus on creating an irreversibly Uganda, Kenya, Senegal, Benin, Ghana and We should be worried, given that the fair, just and human world. Côte d’Ivoire. attacks on Mozambique point to the presence of IS in the Southern African Development By Dr GNM Pandor However, the positive growth outlook is Community region. History has shown that Minister of International Relations and dampened by downside risks, specifically poorer regions are most vulnerable to violent Cooperation rising levels of government debt and concerns Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 7

Publisher’s Note | Let’s talk foreign policy... Ubuntu Magazine marks a Zuma ascending to the position of Chair a platform for the developing world to articulate significant milestone with the of the African Union (AU) Commission. As a vision and a programme of action for itself. publication of this, our 20th coincidence will have it, our 20th issue is issue. The first issue rolled published at a time when South Africa is As our magazine continues to grow off the printing press and hit serving as Chair of the AU for the year 2020. in readership and diversify its content the shelves in August 2012. contributions continue to stream in not only Since then, the magazine has been a reliable Also, in 2012, when we published our first from government leaders, but also academics vehicle through which we share important issue, South Africa was serving as an elected as well as business and civil-society leaders. information about South Africa’s foreign policy member of the United Nations Security Council The magazine is also a useful research tool endeavours. (UNSC). Eight years later, South Africa is again for scholars, particularly those interested in The lead article in the first issue of Ubuntu in the UNSC as an elected member, serving its foreign policy, politics and international trade. Magazine was about Dr Nkosazana Dlamini second and last year in one of the UN’s most important organs. In 2017 and 2018, Ubuntu Magazine accompanied you, our readers, on a journey The magazine has documented significant of tracing the footsteps of two of our greatest milestones in South Africa’s foreign policy, diplomats, Oliver Reginald Tambo and Nelson including chairing the fifth and 10th Brazil, Rolihlahla Mandela, the longest-serving Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) President of the African National Congress summits in 2013 and 2018, respectively. The and the first democratically elected President former took place in eThekwini while the latter of South Africa, respectively. was held in Johannesburg. Tambo and Mandela’s teachings are at the As the only African country within BRICS, core of South Africa’s foreign policy work, from South Africa has found ways to bring other their commitment to international solidarity African voices to the fore of one of the world’s and the peaceful resolution of conflicts. most significant groupings of the Global South. These teachings remain relevant today as we With our first Summit in 2013, we invited continue to grapple with the difficult situations fellow African states representing the AU’s five in the Saharawi Republic and Palestine. regional economic communities to an informal outreach with BRICS leaders. Looking ahead to the next 20 issues of Ubuntu Magazine, it is clear that, at a The practice of an outreach with regional continental level, South Africa will remain at leaders has since been emulated by the forefront of efforts to bring about lasting subsequent chairs, with the result that BRICS peace and stability to Africa and, globally, will does not assume for itself the spokesperson of continue to amplify calls for the reform of the the developing world, but rather that it provides global political and economic architecture. 8 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

Celebrating 9 20 editions Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU

DIPLOMACY | The African Union (AU) Headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was designed to be an icon of the AU’s progression, symbolising the stabilisation, rejuvenation and peace of the united continent. The Grand Conference Hall’s ellipsoidal volume was placed in the centre of the complex as a prominent feature, emphasising the importance of inclusion and communication. In January 2020, South Africa took over the Chairship of the AU. 10 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

| DIPLOMACY Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 11

DIPLOMACY | UBUNTU AWARDS CELEBRATE EXCELLENCE IN DIPLOMACY Ubuntu Awards celebrate excellence in diplomacy The purpose of the Ubuntu Awards is to recognise South African citizens for their distinguished service and contribution to promoting South Africa’s national interests and values across the world. President Cyril Ramaphosa on promoting South Africa’s national interests and Arts and Cultural Diplomacy Award in the Saturday, 15 February 2020, values across the world. Youth Category for flying the South African flag delivered the keynote address high in his field of work. at the annual Ubuntu Awards, The event takes place traditionally after the hosted by the Department of Opening of Parliament and brings together World-celebrated musician Vusi Mahlasela, International Relations and captains of industry, civil-society leaders, who is a SA Music Awards Lifetime Cooperation (DIRCO) at the Cape Town members of Cabinet and other eminent Achievement recipient, was also a recipient of International Convention Centre. persons in addition to ambassadors and high the Arts and Cultural Diplomacy Award in the The purpose of the Ubuntu Awards is commissioners accredited to South Africa. Veterans’ Category. to recognise South African citizens for their distinguished service and contribution to Among the 2020 winners were The Daily Springboks assistant coach, Mzwandile Show host and Grammy Award nominee, Stick, received the Sports Diplomacy Award Trevor Noah, who was awarded the Ubuntu on behalf of the team. This after their Rugby 12 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

| DIPLOMACYUBUNTU AWARDS CELEBRATE EXCELLENCE IN DIPLOMACY WINNERS: 2020 Ubuntu Arts and Cultural Award (Youth): UBUNTU AWARDS Trevor Noah Trevor Noah is a comedian, writer, producer, Ubuntu Economic Diplomacy Award political commentator, actor and television (Africa): ABSA host of The Daily Show in the United States ABSA is a truly African brand, inspired by the of America. The show received three 2018 people they serve and determined to always Primetime Emmy nominations while Trevor has be brave, passionate and ready to make Africa written, produced and starred in nine comedy proud. ABSA Group Limited is listed on the specials. The latest stand-up special, Trevor JSE and is one of Africa’s largest diversified Noah: Son of Patricia, was nominated for a financial services groups with a presence in Grammy in the Best Comedy Album Category. 12 countries across the continent and around 42 000 employees. Ubuntu Arts and Cultural Award (Veteran): Vusi Mahlasela Ubuntu Economic Diplomacy Award Vusi Mahlasela is internationally celebrated (Global): Bidvest for his distinct, powerful voice and his poetic, Bidvest operates in the areas of consumer and optimistic lyrics. His songs of hope connect industrial products, electrical products, financial apartheid-scarred South Africa with its promise services, freight management, office and print for a better future. Vusi has toured globally solutions, outsourced hard and soft services, and shared the stage with the Dave Matthews travel and aviation services and automotive Band, Sting, Paul Simon and Josh Groban, retailing. Bidvest Bank has a footprint in Africa, among others Europe, United Kingdom (UK) and Australia. Ubuntu Sports Diplomacy Award: Ubuntu Youth Diplomacy Award: Michelle The Springboks Nkamankeng In 2019, the Springboks won both the Rugby At the age of 11 years, Michelle is South Africa Championship and Rugby World Cup titles. and Africa’s youngest author. The first of her four books was published at the age of seven. It was the first time that a Black South She is among the youngest writers in the world African rugby captain got to lift the Webb and has been recognised by the United Nations Ellis Cup. The Springboks’ most transformed Children’s Fund. Michelle promotes the culture team to date, they matched the All Blacks for of reading and is a child activist across nations. the most Rugby World Cup wins. It was a massively symbolic win for South Africa, which united the country. World Cup triumph in Japan last year and for uniting the country behind the slogan “Stronger Together”. The Ubuntu Lifetime Achievement Award went to Dr Brigalia Bam, a prominent gender activist. “What we are doing here this evening – celebrating excellence in diplomacy – aligns with our broader efforts to achieve these objectives, because conflict occurs only when diplomacy has collapsed. “The various categories of these prestigious awards are indicative of the fact that successful diplomacy is an integrated effort, and one that draws together different activities, qualities and capabilities,” President Ramaphosa said. President Ramaphosa thanked all the award winners and nominees for representing the country”. “I would like to say thank you for flying the South African flag high. You have assumed the task, as you fly this flag high, you have taken into your hands the task of elevating what I would call ‘Brand South Africa’ in the community of nations.” Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 13

DIPLOMACY | UBUNTU AWARDS CELEBRATE EXCELLENCE IN DIPLOMACY Ubuntu Social Responsibility Award: Dr Hany El Banna Dr Hany El Banna has founded several charities, including The Humanitarian Forum, Islamic Relief and the Muslim Charities Forum. He has visited over 60 of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable countries on behalf of these organisations. Among his many achievements, he has been awarded the Order of the British Empire, the Ibn Khaldun Award for Excellence in Promoting Understanding between Global Cultures and Faiths UK and the UK Muslim Power 100 Lifetime Achievement Award. Ubuntu OR Tambo Lifetime Achiever: Dr Brigalia Bam Dr Brigalia Bam is a prominent gender activist and brings her passion for the upliftment of young women. She is the Chancellor of Walter Sisulu University, a former Chairperson of the Independent Electoral Commission and former General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches. She was recently awarded the prestigious Mahatma Gandhi International Award for Peace and Reconciliation. “The various categories of these prestigious awards are indicative of the fact that successful diplomacy is an integrated effort, and one that draws together different activities, qualities and capabilities,” President Ramaphosa said. 14 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

| DIPLOMACYUBUNTU AWARDS CELEBRATE EXCELLENCE IN DIPLOMACY i From the State of the Nation Address: The President said these investments were having a real impact. “Already, projects with an investment value of R9 billion have Tapping into the international market been completed and 27 projects worth just over R250 billion are in implementation phase, with more coming on-stream this year,” South African businesswomen are set to benefit from a government he said. platform that will assist in taking their ventures to global markets. Made in Africa “We are introducing the SheTradesZA platform to assist women- owned businesses to participate in global value chains and markets,” “This year, the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) will President Cyril Ramaphosa said. come into effect. This is our moment, as the people of the continent, to give effect to the dreams of the founding fathers of African unity. Delivering his State of the Nation Address on Thursday, 13 February 2020, to a joint sitting of Parliament, the President said “South Africa will host an Extraordinary African Union (AU) over the next five years, the Industrial Development Corporation Summit later this year to finalise the modalities of the Free Trade was targeting R10 billion of its own and partner funding for women- Agreement before its implementation on 1 July 2020. empowered businesses. “Here, we will finalise the rules that define what is a ‘Made in “The empowerment of women is critical to inclusive economic Africa’ product, the tariff lines that will be reduced to zero over the growth,” the President said. next five years and the services sectors that will be opened up across the continent. “ In addition, government plans to designate 1 000 locally produced products that must be procured from small, medium, President Ramaphosa congratulated Wamkele Mene, who was and micro enterprises in an effort to create a larger market for elected as the first Secretary-General of the AfCFTA, and assured small businesses. him of the country’s full support as he assumed this historic and challenging responsibility. The President said the Procurement Bill would soon be presented to Parliament as part of an effort to empower black and emerging “South Africa has, therefore, prioritised the economic businesses and advance radical economic transformation. empowerment of Africa’s women during its term as AU Chair, working with all member states on measures to promote financial “This year, we intensify our investment drive with the establishment inclusion, preferential procurement and preferential trade of an integrated investment promotion and facilitation capability arrangements for women. coordinated from The Presidency,” President Ramaphosa said. “The AU heads of state have pledged their support for measures Government will hold its third South Africa Investment Conference to end gender-based violence on the continent and will work towards in November to review the implementation of previous commitments the adoption of an AU Convention on Violence against Women and to generate new investment into the economy. during the course of this year. “At the second South Africa Investment Conference last year, “Through the African Peer Review Mechanism, South Africa over 70 companies made investment commitments of R364 billion in will work with other countries to advance good governance and industries as diverse as advanced manufacturing, agro-processing, democracy. infrastructure, mining, services, tourism and hospitality. “We will use all the means at our disposal – including our “In the first two years of our ambitious investment drive, we have membership of the United Nations Security Council – to promote raised a total of R664 billion in investment commitments, which is peace and security on the continent.” more than half of our five-year target of R1.2 trillion,” he said. Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 15

DIPLOMACY | 10502 COLLABORATING TO ACHIEVE POSITIVE CHANGE Every conversation held at the World Eco- to go to the deadline for achieving both the nomic Forum’s annual meeting represents Sustainable Development Goals and South an opportunity for stakeholders to recommit Africa’s National Development Plan, greater to working together to solve pressing global collaboration between stakeholders to challenges. achieve actual outcomes that result in real change is critical. As we start a new decade, the imperative to align on common issues like poverty, “At Old Mutual, we’re figuring out how to inequality, inclusion and the environment is scale-up the work we are already doing with more urgent than ever. With just a decade a wide range of stakeholders, so that it creates DO GREAT THINGS EVERY DAY 16 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

| DIPLOMACY growth for our business, while at the same challenge of those considered “too rich” to time helping to solve the socio-economic receive free-government subsidised houses, challenges we face as a continent,” says Iain yet “too poor” to fall within the normal Williamson, Interim CEO. mortgage lending stream with financial institutions. Old Mutual strengthened its focus on Africa during mid-2018, a move that signalled US $ 2,4 billion has been committed to a renewed confidence in the growth clean energy projects across Africa, enough opportunities the continent holds. To unlock to sustainably power more than 800 000 its full potential, the business is committed to homes. working more closely with key stakeholders to better deliver shared value and growth. US $ 35 million committed to enterprise and supplier development projects that support The Group has already committed US $ 8,3 small, medium, youth, women and black- billion towards creating inclusive and owned business. Working in conjunction with sustainable economies on behalf of its key stakeholders in both government and clients and is working with its stakeholders business, the core focus is to create access across the continent to achieve SMART to funding, markets, as well as the technical objectives. Partnerships that are enhancing support necessary for these businesses to the lives of not only its customers, but also succeed. the communities across the 14 countries in which it operates, include: Despite persistent challenges, alignment between stakeholders around common goals US $ 92,3 million committed to providing makes it significantly easier to achieve progress. access to quality education in conjunction with National, Provincial and Local “We are as invested in driving change as all our Departments of Education. The Group’s partners are. We’re thinking about tomorrow Education Flagship Project in South Africa, by acting today and our stakeholders play an for example, forged strong partnerships integral part in this journey. We are inspired by with local education authorities across four the African proverb that says: If you want to go provinces over seven years to improve maths fast, go alone, if you want to go far, go together,” and science skills among matric learners. concludes Iain. It also ran an extensive school leadership programme for teachers and principals which Over the next decade, the Old Mutual Group has further helped to improve performance will be demonstrating its strengthened in these pilot schools. resolve to activate actual outcomes to ensure our commitments bear fruit. Working with US $ 845 million committed to affordable stakeholders to achieve this remains a priority! housing projects across Africa, in conjunction with a range of partners, including More at government. A core aspect of this approach is gap housing, which seeks to address the Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 17

DIPLOMACY | Deepening economic integration at the top of SA’s agenda As the Chair, South Africa is determined to take the project of continental unity, integration and development further, guided by our foreign policy priorities and the continent’s aspirations as espoused in Agenda 2063. By President Cyril Ramaphosa Council (PSC) and adopted the declaration on the continent have attracted world attention. on the Common African Defence and Some of these occurrences need the South Africa officially assumed Security Policy. intervention of those who are able to assist the Chairship of the African African countries to find solutions. Union (AU) for 2020 at The Chairship in 2002 presented South the 33rd Ordinary Summit Africa with an opportunity to build a lasting But in some cases, these interventions of the continental organisation legacy for the continent and our country. seem to be driven by ulterior motives. held in February in Addis This seems to be case at least with Libya Ababa, Ethiopia. The 2020 Chairship should also present us and South Sudan. with opportunities, albeit at a challenging time South Africa previously had the honour to for both our country, and the continent. Africa’s youthful population is impatient for hold the AU Chairship in 2002, at the seminal change and the creation of more economic session that officially launched the AU. In some countries, political and civil opportunities. instability persist. Violent conflict continues It was also there that we inaugurated the to hamper our efforts to achieve continental At the same time, we are presented with New Partnership for Africa’s Development peace development. As a result, certain events unprecedented opportunities for development, (NEPAD), established the Peace and Security most notably the implementation of 18 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

| DIPLOMACYDEEPENING ECONOMIC INTEGRATION the African Continental Free Trade Area Our Chairship of the AU will have an impact We know that the AfCFTA will only become (AfCFTA) Agreement. on all of South Africa’s missions – especially a reality if the infrastructure between African multilateral missions – since our ambassadors countries is developed. Infrastructure is at This is a momentous event in the decades- will need to promote not only South Africa and the core of Africa’s social, economic and long effort to integrate the economies of the its positions, but also the positions of the AU. political challenges. African continent. Concurrently, South Africa also assumed It is crucial for sustainable development It will make Africa the largest common the chairships of the African Peer Review and inclusive growth, and for diversification market in the world, with a population of more Mechanism (APRM) and the Committee of through industrialisation and value addition. than a billion people and a combined gross African Heads of State and Government on domestic product of over US$3 trillion. Climate Change. As the Champion of the Presidential Infrastructure Champion Initiative (PICI) under The AfCFTA will boost intra-Africa trade, Both of these areas of responsibility align NEPAD, South Africa has a critical role to play reignite industrialisation and pave the way with our responsibilities and priorities as Chair – and must act on the opportunity presented for the meaningful integration of Africa into of the AU. – in profiling infrastructure development in global value chains and the global economy support of the AfCFTA. in general. At the top of our agenda as Chair must be the deepening of economic integration. The PICI aims to promote priority projects Africa is diversifying its international for high-impact results. partnerships and broadening the scope of This is a historic moment that we cooperation with various international bodies must seize. The initiative works with the Programme for and countries. Infrastructure Development for Africa that was Together with our fellow African countries, adopted during the January 2012 AU Summit. As the Chair, South Africa is determined to we must implement the AfCFTA Agreement take the project of continental unity, integration with purpose and determination. We must The overall goal of the programme is to and development further, guided by our foreign undertake the detailed work, extensive promote socio-economic development and policy priorities and the continent’s aspirations consultation and complex negotiations poverty reduction in Africa through improved as espoused in Agenda 2063. required to give life to this agreement. access to integrated regional and continental infrastructure networks and services. Our domestic priorities, including In this regard, South Africa will work with economic transformation, job creation and President Mahamadou Issoufou of Niger, In this role, South Africa can also develop the consolidation of the social wage through who is the AU Champion on Continental linkages between the Southern African reliable and quality basic services, depend Economic Integration. Development Community (SADC) Regional on a politically stable and economically Infrastructure Development Master Plan and growing Africa. This work is directed towards the social and the PICI. economic development of the continent, and the realisation of a prosperous Africa based on On this basis, it is proposed that South Africa inclusive growth and sustainable development. hosts a High-Level Forum on Infrastructure during its term as AU Chair. South Africa will need to be proactive and assertive in seeking common approaches on Empowerment of women issues such as tariff lines, rules of origin, custom controls, trade in services and new generation Another pillar of South Africa’s agenda as AU issues like competition and intellectual property. Chair is the empowerment of women, with a specific emphasis on promoting financial and We will also need to address issues economic inclusion and combatting gender- like the ease of doing business in different based violence. African countries. Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 19

DIPLOMACY | DEEPENING ECONOMIC INTEGRATION AT THE TOP OF SA’S AGENDA On women’s financial and economic inclusion, to enhance their capacity to take advantage that disadvantage women and look South Africa will work with the AU’s Women, of the opportunities that the future of work to international instruments such as Gender and Development Directorate, which will bring. the International Labour Organisation is responsible for leading, guiding, defending Convention on Violence and Harassment and coordinating the AU’s efforts on gender The extent and persistence of violence as means to combat sexual harassment equality and development. against women remain a major cause and violence. for concern in almost all the countries on We will work closely with the AU Leader the continent. Promotion of good governance on Gender and Development, President Nana Akufo-Addo of Ghana, who has already In 2009, only 28% of sub-Saharan African The promotion of economic integration launched the Gender and Development countries had laws on domestic violence. and respect for human rights depend Initiative for Africa in 2017 as his flagship in large measure on the promotion of programme. By 2018, that figure had increased to good governance. 55%, which means that half of the countries The United Nation’s (UN) 2009 World still do not have laws that specifically As the Chair of the APRM in 2020, South Survey on the Role of Women in Development address the most prevalent form of violence Africa will be primarily responsible for driving notes that women’s equal access to financial against women. the APRM’s good governance agenda. and economic resources is critical for the achievement of gender equality and sustainable During this year, we need to mobilise The delivery of good governance through economic growth and development. African countries to focus on the prevention democratic practice and economic growth of violence against women and girls through, reduces political tensions in countries with In undertaking this work, we must look among other things, addressing the harmful social divisions. beyond “micro-finance solutions” to financing social norms that contribute to and perpetuate that will grow the businesses of women. such violence. Importantly, the APRM is now an autonomous entity within the AU’s structures The goal is to ensure that women and Harmful notions of masculinity and and has expanded its mandate to cover women-led businesses have access to and social attitudes that accept violence need tracking and monitoring implementation of are able to use multiple financial services as to be challenged and be replaced by norms Agenda 2063 and the UN’s Sustainable tools to develop their financial autonomy, allow that promote gender equality, respect and Development Goals. them to contribute to economic growth and non-violence. We also need to address discriminatory laws in African countries 20 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

| DIPLOMACYBRICS SCIENTISTS COULD HELP STEM THE TIDE OF INVASIVE SPECIES It has also developed an early warning system In South Sudan, we are engaged both • drive the implementation of the PICI in for conflict prevention on the continent, in the bilaterally and multilaterally, in particular as support of the AfCFTA context of harmony and synergy between Chair of the High-Level Ad Hoc Committee on the APRM, the African Peace and Security South Sudan, known as the C5. • advance gender equality and the Architecture and the African Governance empowerment of women and combat Architecture. South Africa is a member of the AU High- violence against women and girls Level Committee on Libya. The three main priorities for South Africa’s • strengthen cooperation between the AU Chairship – economic integration, women’s Our efforts will aim at affirming South and UN empowerment and good governance – must Africa’s commitment to peace, security and be underpinned by the promotion of a peaceful stability on the continent and ending the • promote peace and security and advance and secure Africa. humanitarian catastrophe and displacement of the effort to silence the guns. people in those countries. Silencing the Guns in 2020 If we remain focussed on these objectives, if we Since the Chairship also coincides with pursue them with diligence and determination, As South Africa’s Chairship will coincide with South Africa’s third tenure as a non-permanent and if we mobilise our fellow African countries in the end of the AU’s aspiration of “Silencing the member of the UN Security Council (SC), pursuing them, I am certain that our Chairship Guns in 2020”, it will be important to take stock South Africa should promote cooperation of the AU can be meaningful, effective of the achievements and challenges. between the three African members of the and impactful. UNSC and the AUPSC. This is particularly important for us as South Our Chairship of the Africa is the AU-appointed champion on AU- In summary, South Africa’s strategic African Union (AU) will UN cooperation on peace operations. objectives during its Chairship of the AU are to: have an impact on all of South Africa’s missions Specific focus will need to be given to two • promote South Africa’s values, interests – especially multilateral intractable conflicts on the continent – in Libya and continental and domestic objectives missions – since our and South Sudan – where South Africa is ambassadors will need already actively involved in seeking solutions. • support integration, economic to promote not only development, trade and investment on South Africa and its positions, but also the the continent positions of the AU. Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 21

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DIPLOMACY | A BETTER AFRICA AND A BETTER WORLD A better Africa and a better world Our Cabinet and the African Union member states are fully aware of the complexity underpinning the theme of South Africa’s tenure as Chair. It is an important theme reinforcing the nexus between peace and economic inclusion, development and ending war and conflict. By Dr GNM Pandor Minister of International Relations and Cooperation South Africa assumed the desire to place the continent on a different accompanied Chairship of the African Union trajectory. South Africa will and must play a key by many friends. (AU) in February 2020 at a role in ensuring that this new determination to The global geopolitical time of increased hope and implement Agenda 2063 succeeds. environment is one that has become aspiration. Of course, as with increasingly hostile to Africa’s interests and millions throughout the world, The SouthAfrican Government has selected ambitions. Rather than experiencing an we are faced with challenges but there are five priority areas as our focus for this year. The increasingly progressive world concerned visible signals of triumph over despair on our response from the AU membership has been about development of the most vulnerable, we continent. Africa has been struggling to fully one of overwhelming support, particularly for are facing increased nationalism, self-interest throw off the shackles of colonialism and the objective of silencing the guns as part of and greedily voracious interest in Africa’s enslavement for over 400 years. Time is fast our path for the heightened development of rich resources. Our continent, as evidenced running out and we as South Africa have to Africa. We will focus on peace and security; by Libya, has become the site for proxy utilise the Chairship to intensify efforts directed the financial inclusion of women and creating international conflicts, the host of increased at succeeding in development and to build conditions for their genuine empowerment; extremist groups and terrible devastation of on the momentum set in motion by previous promoting accountability and transparency helpless communities. We need to intensify chairs of our union. in governance through implementation of the the training and development of our African African Peer Review Mechanism; advancing security and intelligence agencies and work The deliberations and key decisions of the Africa’s climate change responses by attending closely together to successfully fight terrorism summit in February suggested Africa is ready. to green economy opportunities; and ensuring and all its manifestations. The agreement that we should address illicit firm and consistent support for sustainable financial flows, corruption, human development and successful implementation of the AfCFTA On the multilateral front, South Africa must and infrastructure and practical action on the Agreement. We have also undertaken to continue the work it is doing within the United massive agenda set by the Africa Continental act decisively on building the AU institution Nations Security Council (UNSC) to ensure a Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) point to a genuine we have the privilege to host, the focus on its core role of peace and security, Pan-African Parliament. and to actively promote the fundamental On the multilateral front, South structure and composition of the UNSC. Africa must continue the work Our Cabinet and the AU member states are it is doing within the United fully aware of the complexity underpinning the While focussing on Africa’s key priorities, Nations Security Council (UNSC) theme of South Africa’s tenure as Chair. It is an we will not desert our friends and the struggle to ensure a focus on its core important theme reinforcing the nexus between for freedom in Palestine and in Saharawi. We role of peace and security, peace and economic inclusion, development firmly believe that the people of Palestine must and to actively promote the and ending war and conflict. We will strive to be the ones who shape the outcome of their fundamental structure and address the root causes of conflict such as struggle and that no one can ever impose half composition of the UNSC. poverty, inequality, democracy deficits and a freedom on freedom-loving nations. We will the negative role played by foreign interests continue to urge Morocco to act in honour of that benefit from instability in resource-rich UN resolutions and the AU to ensure that the African countries. struggle remains on its agenda. We are fully alert to the fact that these positive aims for Africa do not come 24 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

| DIPLOMACYA BETTER AFRICA AND A BETTER WORLD We have noted visible signs of Africa • Lesotho Highlands Project phase two and will firmly advocate for efforts to reform addressing its infrastructure and other the UNSC to make it more representative, challenges. Five strategic initiatives deserve • Trans Africa Highway Project with nine democratic and inclusive. South Africa has mention, namely the: highways eventually connecting about been a strong voice for democracy, peace and • Kinshasa-Brazzaville Bridge and Rail 500 million people as it passes 41 cities in a renewed commitment to multilateralism in sub-Saharan Africa and linking 56 683 km order to advance progressive institutionalism Project, which has secured funding – a significant future contributor to the and solidarity as the basis for building a just trade connection of Africa. international order. • Lamu Port Southern Sudan Ethiopia Transport Corridor, which has registered These and many other infrastructure initiatives We are convinced that as Chair of the AU, good progress with berth one completed indicate our continent’s determination to South Africa will contribute towards Africa’s and berth two to be ready by the end of succeed. progress and its vision, which is rooted in this year durable stability, growth and development. This year also marks our second year • ICT One Network Africa Broadband and as a non-permanent member of the UNSC. Optic Fibre projects linking neighbouring We will continue our efforts to encourage states in east Africa dialogue as a means of resolving conflict We will focus on peace and security; the financial inclusion of women and creating conditions for their genuine empowerment; promoting accountability and transparency in governance through implementation of the African Peer Review Mechanism; advancing Africa’s climate change responses by attending to green economy opportunities; and ensuring firm consistent support for sustainable and successful implementation of the AfCFTA Agreement. Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 25

DIPLOMACY | Building the Africa We Want: Strategies for South Africa’s successful Chair of the African Union in 2020 South Africa is once again strategically placed to exercise both international and continental leadership. It is simultaneously one of three African countries in the United Nations Security Council; a member of G20 and Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS); Chair of the AU; Chair of the APRM; and Chair of the Committee of African Heads of State and Government on Climate Change. By Professor Cheryl Hendricks Executive Director, Africa Institute of South Africa, Human Sciences Research Council President Cyril Ramaphosa South Africa’s Minister Nkosazana Dlamini Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS); assumed the position of Zuma was elected as the AU Commission’s Chair of the AU; Chair of the APRM; and Chairperson of the African (AUC) Chairperson in 2012 and she occupied Chair of the Committee of African Heads of Union (AU), on behalf of South this position for one term. She was then State and Government on Climate Change. Africa, at the 33rd AU Summit on succeeded by the current Chairperson, Moussa 9 February 2020. President Abdel Faki Mahamat of Chad. It was during her South Africa occupies these positions in Fattah el-Sisi of Egypt held the Chair in 2019. term (the first woman to occupy this position) a period where the global, regional, local as The last time South Africa chaired the AU that Agenda 2063 was adopted and that well as the AU, as institution, are facing key was in 2002 – a key period in the formation the gender parity principle was implemented challenges. Globally, multilateral institutions of the AU itself. South Africa played a pivotal at the commission. are increasingly under threat with the return role in norm- and agenda-setting of the AU as of realpolitik and where major countries begin well as in the development of the key organs South Africa is once again strategically to revert to unilateral actions, which weaken of the AU, e.g. New Partnership for Africa’s placed to exercise both international and the institutions, and new trade wars have Development (NEPAD) and the African Peer continental leadership. It is simultaneously one emerged; democracies are deemed “ill” by the Review Mechanism (APRM). of three African countries in the United Nations 2019 Global State of Democracy Index; there Security Council; a member of G20 and Brazil, is a decline in the peacefulness of our states; 26 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

| DIPLOMACYBUILDING THE AFRICA WE WANT wars continue to produce high numbers of • Silencing the guns with a focus on Libya of “repeat mediations” can begin to cease? fatalities of citizens and a deluge of refugees and South Sudan. What needs to change in the way in which and internally displaced persons; and the these peace agreements and/or unity dominant conflict-management approaches • Strengthening AU-UNSC cooperation. governments are forged and implemented? are leading to the remilitarisation of South Africa has vast experience with our societies. These are sound focus areas though peace and security on the continent. How they may need further realignment for can we ensure not just the production of Africa is still on the quest for achieving greater efficacy. If implemented successfully, peace agreements but the sustainability of the goals that ushered in the Organisation of the AfCFTA could be the largest free trading peace? How, as part of the AU, can we show African Unity and its successor the AU: the area in the world. It will promote intra-Africa transformative leadership on this front? promotion of continental unity, solidarity, and trade in manufactured goods, investments, cooperation; defending our sovereignty and infrastructure development and, therefore, Towards the end of Egypt’s Chairship, territorial integrity; accelerating political and growth and prosperity of the continent. it started an Aswan forum, envisaged as a economic integration; and promoting, peace, Implementing regional integration through continental platform for discussion, dialogue security, democracy and development. Africa the reduction of tariffs is, however, not that and exchange of experiences. The focus in has yet to alleviate poverty and inequality and easy as the non-implementation of the Lagos 2019 was on post-conflict reconstruction, to meaningfully increase intra-Africa trade, and Abuja treaties attest to. Much will need education and sustainable development. Egypt which is only at 17% five decades later. to be done in the year so that the CFTA can also opened an AU Centre for Post-Conflict be realisable. Reconstruction, which it will host. South Africa’s Africa has to deal with the new challenges draft National Action Plan on Women, Peace posed by climate change, rapid unplanned Inclusive sustainable development is also and Security speaks to the need for a peace urbanisation and population growth, which will a huge challenge for the continent where we centre that will give attention to innovation in double by 2050. The AU planned to silence simultaneously have some of the fastest- all the spheres of conflict management (conflict the guns by 2020 but these weapons still echo growing economies in the world as well as prevention, peacemaking, peacekeeping, loudly in the many varied conflicts across the some of the poorest, and where there is peacebuilding), nationally, continentally and continent, i.e. farmers and herders, militia an inverse relationship between economic internationally and that will ensure that women against militia, warlords against governments, growth and equality. Two of Africa’s biggest are included in peace processes. This concept citizens protesting against their governments, economies, South Africa and Nigeria, are should be further explored. It also needs and in the rise in violent extremism. The ailing and remain with high levels of poverty to pay attention to new ways of dealing with silence is broken in countries such as Libya, and unemployment. violent extremism that threatens large areas of Somalia, Mali, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, the continent. Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, The APRM, which is located in South Central Africa Republic, and others. We cannot Africa, has made notable progress in signing South Africa is part of a collective at the keep administering the same antidote to these up member states for review and in conducting AU. Its priorities therefore have to coincide conflicts when the prescription is not having the peer reviews. The emphasis on renewal with what the AU’s priorities are. It also leads the desired cure. We have to develop new and reinvigorating the APRM has paid off. as part of a troika and a bureau and in close conflict-management approaches and be more It has also been given an expanded mandate cooperation with the AUC. South Africa bold and innovative in confronting these and to track progress on Agenda 2063 and therefore continues from where the previous other emerging conflicts. South Africa should the Sustainable Development Goals. Africa’s Chair left off as will the next incoming Chair. once again show leadership in this regard. governance challenges, however, remain Indeed, implementation of its outlined priorities acute where we note that there are 11 non- are dependent on the AUC and the member Within the AUC, the challenges of democracies and 18 hybrid democracies states. South Africa must therefore see that it effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability and its (Global State of Democracy 2019) and where continuously has the support of the collective connectivity to the broader African citizenry democratisation has not led to a decrease in and that it continues to support the AUC to were the drives behind AU reforms. These corruption as well as the many service delivery stay on course with the implementation of reforms are still in the process of being challenges. The continued strengthening the reforms. Only a strengthened and more implemented and continuity in this regard is of the APRM is a must. Moreover, efficient AUC can deliver on the aspirations important. ensuring that member states implement set out in the Constitutive Act, frameworks and the recommendations of their reviews is agendas of the AU. President Ramaphosa has outlined South a necessity. There should therefore be an Africa’s priority areas for its tenure as Chair of emphasis on accountability mechanisms. In conclusion, South Africa chairs the AU the AU. They are: in a year when the organisation kicks into • The implementation of the African The AU theme for the year is “Silencing election mode. This will itself impact upon the the Guns: Creating Conducive Conditions for delivery of programmes. South Africa should Continental Free Trade Agreement Africa’s Development”. As Chair of the AU, strengthen and draw on the support of its (AfCTA), which was signed in March 2018. South Africa must be seen to be at the forefront Embassy in Addis Ababa, its think-tanks which of championing this theme. South Africa is a have been working on these issues for many • Advancing inclusive and green economic member of the AU High-Level Committee on years, its top officials and some of its former growth and sustainable development. Libya and has been engaged with the South officials who sit with a wealth of experience. Sudan peace processes in both bilateral • Harnessing the potential of the Fourth and multilateral forums. Notwithstanding the South Africa’s greatest challenge is its Industrial Revolution and establishing an roadmap for effective resolution of the Libyan own legitimacy and/or credibility that hinges African Artificial Intelligence Forum. crises emanating out of talks in Brazzaville on whether or not there is another wave of and the announcements to form a unity attacks on other Africans, and our ability to • Advancing women’s economic and government in South Sudan, the challenges show vision and leadership on the key issues, financial inclusion and reducing gender- for peacebuilding in these countries are providing new innovative approaches to move based violence. The adoption of an AU numerous. How will South Africa lead the AU in the continent forward. The capacity is there, Convention on Violence Against Women ensuring that roadmaps are implemented and utilising it to its optimum is what is required. is being proposed. peace agreements adhered to so that the cycle • Promoting good governance through encouraging member states to sign up to the APRM. Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 27

DIPLOMACY | The Nelson Mandela Square in Sandton boasts a towering sculpture of South Africa’s favourite son. One of the largest open public spaces in the country, this European-styled piazza commemorates heritage and celebrates international style with the warmth of African hospitality. It draws a cosmopolitan society to its sidewalk cafes, some of the finest restaurants in South Africa and over 88 exclusive stores. The square serves as a stage for a host of local and international prestigious events. 28 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

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DIPLOMACY | HOW THE FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL 30 YEARS AGO RESONATED ACROSS AFRICA South Africa and the Indian Ocean Rim Association As the association grows and expands, it is important that we take stock of what it has achieved since its inception and and how member states could further chart the way forward. By Ambassador Anil Sooklal Deputy Director-General, Branch: Asia and Middle East Department of International Relations and Cooperation March 2020 marked 23 years Many people would ask the question; “custodian of this inheritance”, with a focus on since the establishment what is IORA and why is this issue important bettering the lives of all the people of the region, of the Indian Ocean Rim to South Africa? based on the principle of the Indian Ocean Association for Regional being characterised as a region of peace and Cooperation (IOR-ARC), The answer is very simple: IORA is the stability for sustainable development. now known as the Indian foremost organisation in the Indian Ocean, Ocean Rim Association (IORA), in 1997. an ocean that provides critical sea trade IORA was an initiative of the late President As the association grows and expands, routes connecting the Middle East, Africa, Nelson Mandela when, during an Official Visit to it is important that we take stock of what it Asia and Australasia; through which half of India in 1995, he said: “The natural urge of the the world’s container ships, one-third of the facts of history and geography should broaden itself to include the concept of an Indian Ocean has achieved since its inception and world’s bulk cargo traffic and two-thirds of Rim for socio-economic cooperation …” how member states could further chart the the world’s oil shipments pass. It contains This has resulted in the late President of South Africa being regarded as the “founding way forward. heavy mineral deposits and is rich in energy father” of IORA. In this way, he secured a leading role for South Africa in IORA, from its As part of this organisation’s many reserves, producing nearly 40% of the world’s establishment in Mauritius in 1997 to date. As a result, South Africa held the IORA Chairship milestones, South Africa recently completed offshore petroleum; a valuable resource and a for the period 2017 to 2019. The current Secretary-General, Ambassador Nomvuyo two years of chairing IORA from October main driver for the Indian Ocean Rim Nokwe, is a South African citizen. 2017 to November 2019, when Minister economies. It holds great potential for Naledi Pandor handed over the Chairship of innovation, job creation and sustainable socio- the association to the Government of the economic development. United Arab Emirates in Abu Dhabi in The Indian Ocean is the “inheritance” of November 2019. these countries and IORA is perceived as the 30 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

| DIPLOMACYSOUTH AFRICA AND THE INDIAN OCEAN RIM ASSOCIATION The Indian Ocean region is one of the and Sustainable Development”. It prioritised IORA Nelson Mandela “Be the Legacy” most diverse regions in the world, with a the strengthening of trade and investment heterogeneous mix of developed countries cooperation to promote sustainable and Internship Programme at the IORA Secretariat (such as Australia), developing countries (such equitable economic growth; stressed the as Sri Lanka), small island states (such as the importance of the empowerment of women in Mauritius. The Internship Programme is Comoros) and least developed countries (such and the youth; and the development of small as Yemen). With the exception of Australia, all and medium enterprises. This resulted in aimed at empowering and capacitating the IORA member states are members of the Non- the signing of an IORA Memorandum of Aligned Movement. Understanding on the Promotion of Small and youth of the Indian Ocean region to ensure Medium Enterprises in the Indian Ocean region. Today, IORA boasts 22 member states, the continued priority being placed on the namely: Australia, Bangladesh, Comoros, South Africa focussed on the maximisation India, Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, of commonalities and opportunities arising protection of our inheritance through IORA as Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Mozambique, from South Africa’s Operation Phakisa: Oman, Seychelles, Singapore, Somalia, Oceans Economy programme and IORA’s the foremost organisation in the Indian Ocean. South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, Blue Economy strategic outlook, promoted United Arab Emirates and Yemen, and with the advancement of women’s economic The future of IORA is inextricably linked to 10 dialogue partners: China, Egypt, France, empowerment and gender equality within Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, IORA and secured the establishment of the the commitment of the IORA member states the United States of America, Turkey, South IORA Working Group on Women’s Economic Korea and Italy. Empowerment within IORA. in ensuring that this important organisation IORAis essentially an economic cooperative Considering the importance of tourism, becomes a global voice for peaceful and community of littoral and island states whose South Africa prioritised the establishment of a shores are washed by the Indian Ocean. It is a Core Group on Tourism as a formal mechanism sustainable development; and that its charter-based regional multilateral organisation for IORA member countries to develop the that is collegial in nature. It seeks to build and tourism sector in the Indian Ocean region. principles are premised on advancing expand understanding and mutually beneficial Under South Africa’s guidance, the importance cooperation through a consensus-based, of water and the management of water were multilateralism, particularly in the context evolutionary and non-intrusive approach. recognised as a crucial resource for economic The cooperation is based on the principles development in the Indian Ocean region. of the current global environment, which is of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, and The Water Research Commission (WRC) political independence, non-interference in was identified as a potential IORA Centre of characterised by the rise of populism and internal affairs, peaceful coexistence and Excellence in advancing this important theme mutual benefit. within the Indian Ocean region. nationalism. The South African Chairship of IORA Under South Africa’s guidance, IORA South Africa views IORA as an important was guided by an overarching theme: supported United Nations Resolution 2832 “IORA – Uniting the Peoples of Africa, Asia, on the Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a platform for the articulation of its foreign policy, Australasia and the Middle East through Zone of Peace, established the IORA Working Enhanced Cooperation for Peace, Stability Group on Maritime Safety and Security and, which upholds the importance of multilateralism through the IORA Academic Group, secured a proactive research and innovation agenda to and global collaboration in resolving the support the work programme of IORA. intricate challenges facing the World. At the conclusion of the South African IORA Chairship in 2019 and to commemorate Under South Africa’s the lasting influence of President Mandela on guidance, IORA IORA, a Special Declaration was adopted to not only commemorate President Mandela’s supported United Centenary, but also to enhance his legacy Nations Resolution 2832 as the Father of IORA by establishing the on the Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace, established the IORA Working Group on Maritime Safety and Security and, through the IORA Academic Group, secured a proactive research and innovation agenda to support the work programme of IORA. Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 31

DIPLOMACY |SOUTH AFRICA IS READY TO RESPOND TO THE CORONAVIRUS South Africa is ready to respond to the Coronavirus While we may instinctively want to take cover and wait for the crisis to be over, this may, however, be just the time to explore collaborations and partnerships to put in place the mechanisms for Africa to become not just an alternative, but a first choice for the global travel and tourism market. By Sisa Ntshona The outbreak is also already impacting will not recover to pre-Coronavirus levels until CEO of SA Tourism negatively on global tourism described by the second quarter of 2021, and will cause a the World Economic Forum as a “huge global global loss of about US$80 billion. South African Tourism (SAT) business that accounts for 10.4% of global recently launched a new brand gross domestic product (GDP) and 10% of The World Travel and Tourism Council campaign centred around the global employment”. Based on the consistent is further estimating that the Covid-19 message: “Let’s Visit each growth of the sector, the United Nations World epidemic could be the biggest drag on global other and Welcome the World”. Tourism Organisation further predicted “growth economic growth since the financial crisis, with As the current outbreak of of 3 – 4% in international tourist arrivals for airlines alone expected to lose an estimated the Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) continues 2020, with international departures worldwide US$29 billion in revenues this year. This is not to spread, this message may now raise an particularly strong in the first quarter of this adding the impact on the hotel, conference and important question: how do we welcome year [2020]”. According to the World Travel other areas of the tourism value chain. the world? and Tourism Council, tourism contributed US$8.8 trillion to the world economy in 2018. South Africa needs to ensure that we There is no doubt that the economic maintain our robust health systems for impact of the Coronavirus will be felt across Worldwide, Chinese tourists account for the control of infectious diseases together most sectors, and tourism is no different. It is around one-tenth of all cross-border visitors. with greater awareness, combined with expected that this outbreak will affect tourism Looking at the potential of the Chinese market coordination, collaboration and additional time numbers from China and from other parts of the to contribute to South Africa’s national target to prepare. world. Travel restrictions and the cancellation of attracting 21 million visitor arrivals by 2030, of many planned visits, flights, and business, China has been identified as a priority market The current diagnoses concur with a study political, sports and leisure events are also for inbound tourist arrivals by SAT. published in The Lancet medical journal on impacting negatively on many service sectors. the “Preparedness and Vulnerability of African This is likely to persist for some time and the According to estimates by the Economist Countries against the Importation of Covid-19”, true effect may only be accurately calculated Intelligence Unit, Chinese outbound tourism where an international team of scientists much later. identified Algeria, Egypt and South Africa as 32 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

| DIPLOMACY the most likely to import new Coronavirus the Covid-19 outbreak present opportunities it presents an opportunity for creating cases into Africa despite having the best for other markets to up their game in respect sustainable incentives to help boost the prepared health systems on the continent. of travel and tourism? Will Africa be ready to domestic market and encouraging South welcome the world should travellers want to Africans to travel to regional tourist destinations The South African Government is exercising move away from the Far East in the immediate around the country. Price-sensitive local vigilance and has been implementing a aftermath of the outbreak? We cannot continue travellers will be looking for add-on packages formal, inter-sectoral plan to ensure our to cite the numbers in terms of how tourism can and exclusive experiences that will make their readiness, optimisation of resources and contribute to job creation and economic growth rands stretch further. capability to deal with the positive diagnosis without developing the infrastructure, systems of Covid-19. This includes a countrywide and processes to take advantage of this “huge The global impact of Covid-19 will be felt network of health facilities, the National global business”. for a long time and international and domestic Health Laboratory Service, which is able to cooperation is definitely crucial in times of perform diagnostic testing and the National While we may instinctively want to take crisis. SAT is committed to working together Institute for Communicable Diseases with its cover and wait for the crisis to be over, this with all tourism industry stakeholders to highly qualified staff, extensive sophisticated may, however, be just the time to explore prevent, mitigate and respond to the impact of laboratory systems and emergency operations collaborations and partnerships to put in the virus on our industry. centre. As a legacy of the Soccer World Cup place the mechanisms for Africa to become in 2010, South Africa has a sophisticated not just an alternative, but a first choice for Similarly, we can screening infrastructure at ports of entry, which the global travel and tourism market. SAT is leverage the same has been activated. looking ahead to when the crisis has passed digital capability to and is putting in place marketing campaigns Ironically, the international view is that and programmes to attract Chinese tourists to empower South Africa’s knowledge and competence in dealing South Africa. We are currently also assisting African tourism with outbreaks of the Ebola virus has actually tourists with domestic travel operators to helped our preparedness. finalise cancellations and waivers. players to be “at” international travel Yet, the impact of this disease cannot be The modifications being witnessed in and trade shows underestimated. With the epicentre of the business and leisure travel behaviour against outbreak being in China, it is predicted to the backdrop of the global outbreak of the and continue significantly disrupt global supply chains to the virus, afford us an opportunity to remodel to showcase extent that the global economic outlook will be how travel trade shows are delivered. By South Africa as a reduced. Several major global conferences leveraging the power of digital technologies, destination, when such as the Mobile World Congress and we can deliver digitally enabled meaningful they are unable to Europe’s largest travel trade show, ITB Berlin, trade experiences for buyers and delegates travel to such events. have already been cancelled. The Olympics and unlock Africa's opportunity to lead in digital has been postponed with airlines grounded trade show hosting. and travel limited except for essential services. Similarly, we can leverage the same digital capability to empower South African tourism As SAT, we too have looked at our own players to be “at” international travel and trade global platforms (meetings, incentives, shows and continue to showcase South Africa conferences and events) and made important as a destination, when they are unable to travel decisions to ensure the well-being of our to such events. citizens and all visitors. While a drop in international tourists and outbound travellers is a serious concern, There is always an opportunity in a crisis. So, the more important question here is, does Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 33

DIPLOMACY | REMEMBERING MANDELA AND HIS INTERNATIONAL LINKS Remembering Mandela and his international links The South African Government will continue to promote the values that Mandela taught us, particularly his commitment to the peaceful settlement of disputes. By Alvin Botes Deputy Minister of International Relations and Cooperation In December 2019, we marked seven years Fidel Castro. Mandela was inspired by the Diplomatic relations between South Africa since the passing of former President, Cuban Revolution. After his release from and Cuba have resulted in the establishment Nelson Mandela, an international icon and jail in 1990, Mandela travelled to Cuba the of the successful medical collaboration a symbol of hope for the oppressed and following year. There, he revealed that the programme. This began in 1994. Cuba’s marginalised people across the globe. writings of Che Guevara – the Argentine- training of South African students began as He passed away on 5 December 2013 at born hero of the Cuban Revolution – had a result of a bilateral agreement between the age of 95. inspired him throughout his imprisonment. “In Mandela and Castro. South Africa continues to In the work that we do internationally, all my years in prison,” said Mandela, “Cuba benefit from this programme, and new particularly in multilateral forums such as the was an inspiration and Fidel Castro a tower opportunities for collaboration in other sectors United Nations (UN) and the Non-Alignment of strength.” are being explored. Movement (NAM), South Africa benefits from the goodwill that Mandela and his comrades Cuba’s relations with African liberation The Cuban Government and people revere cultivated over the years. movements began in 1963, soon after the Mandela. In November 2019, a bust of the late The international community has not struggle’s triumph over the Batista dictatorship former President was unveiled in the Cuban forgotten that Mandela dedicated his life in Cuba. On 11 May 1994, Cuba and South capital, Havana, to commemorate the historic in service of humanity and contributed Africa established full diplomatic relations. ties between the two countries. Mandela immensely to the promotion of a culture In 1994, Mandela stated that, in accordance lauded the Cuban revolution as an “inspiration of peace throughout the world. He worked with South Africa’s policy towards countries to all freedom-loving people” and was a tirelessly in the struggle for democracy and with which it has normal diplomatic relations, it supporter of former President Castro. Together for the promotion and protection of human would endeavour to foster trade and economic, with the Minister of Employment and Labour, rights internationally. cultural and sporting links with Cuba that would Thulas Nxesi, I was privileged to attend the The South African Government will be mutually beneficial. prestigious ceremony of the unveiling of the continue to promote the values that Mandela bust of our late former President. taught us, particularly his commitment to the Castro paid a State Visit to South Africa peaceful settlement of disputes. That is why the and also attended the NAM Summit in Durban During his lifetime, Mandela was bestowed theme for South Africa’s UN Security Council in September 1998. Castro was given an with numerous awards and honours, including membership is “Continuing the Legacy: opportunity to address Parliament’s Joint the Nobel Peace Prize. At the initiative of the Working for a Just and Peaceful World” – “the Sitting of the National Assembly and the South African Government and the Nelson legacy” being that of Mandela’s commitment to National Council of Provinces. In his address, Mandela Foundation, the UN General international peace and security. Castro said the “dreadful legacy [of apartheid] Assembly in 2010 proclaimed 18 July, his Mandela forged partnerships with cannot be changed overnight”. He said under birthday, as Nelson Mandela International numerous personalities who were sympathetic Mandela’s leadership, “the new South Africa Day, to be observed annually. Nelson Mandela to the anti-apartheid cause, including Cuba’s would never be built on foundations of hatred International Day not only celebrates Nelson and revenge”. Mandela’s life, but it is also a global call to action for people to recognise their ability to have a positive effect on others around them. 34 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

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DIPLOMACY | Hout Bay, a 20-minute drive from Cape Town’s city centre, is situated almost halfway between Cape Town and Cape Point. Houtbaai, named by Dutch explorers, literally translated means Wood Bay. Once a small fishing village, Hout Bay has become very popular as a seaside resort town. It is recognised as one of South Africa’s leading destinations for local tourists and has become a sought-after place for international tourists to base their South African holiday. A growing bed and breakfast industry supports the demand from holidaymakers. 36 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

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DIPLOMACY | INAUGURAL NAVAL EXERCISE HELD IN SOUTH AFRICA Inaugural naval exercise held in South Africa The exercise took place off the southern Cape coast over the period 25 to 30 November 2019. According to the South African Navy, the exercise was primarily focussed on maritime economic security, interoperability and maintaining the good relations between the participating navies. A fter six months of planning, tanker Vjazma and rescue tug SB406 berthing the ship was not a threat. The gun battery warships from Russia and inside Table Bay Harbour, joining SAN ashore would then also harmlessly fire its guns China arrived in Cape Town fleet support vessel SAS Drakensberg and to indicate that their guns had been rendered at the end of November 2019 hydrographic survey vessel SAS Protea inside ineffective. This would indicate the ship was for the inaugural Exercise the commercial port. welcome to enter the harbour. This tradition Mosi, a multinational maritime evolved through the years and now the 21-gun exercise hosted by South Africa. At 13:45, a 21-gun salute was exchanged salute is adopted by most navies worldwide. between the Russian Navy Slava-class The exercise took place off the southern missile cruiser Marshal Ustinov and the South Thereafter, Marshal Ustinov and the Cape coast over the period 25 to 30 November. African Navy battery on Lion’s Head, which Chinese Peoples’ Liberation Army Navy According to the South African Navy (SAN), overlooks the harbour. A 21-gun salute is an (PLAN) Type 054A frigate Weifang berthed the exercise was primarily focussed on international naval tradition and stems from the at V&A Waterfront Jetty 2, joining the SAN maritime economic security, interoperability days of sail and wooden ships. As the ships’ frigate SAS Amatola, which arrived the and maintaining the good relations between guns were loaded with gunpowder and only previous day. the participating navies. had one projectile, the ship would fire its guns when entering a friendly harbour, in order to The vessels were greeted by SAN Flag Arrival day for the foreign warships was harmlessly expend the gunpowder, indicating Officer Fleet Rear Admiral Bulele Mhlana, Sunday, 24 November, with Russian fleet PLAN Rear Admiral Zongcheng Liu and 38 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

| DIPLOMACY Russian Rear Admiral Vladimir Ivanovich 344, comprising Russian Navy Slava-class with naval exercises of this nature, you start Zemskov. missile cruiser Marshal Ustinov, fleet tanker off small and then you develop, as we’ve Vjazma and rescue tug SB406, PLAN Type done with Exercises Atlasur, Good Hope and Exercise Mosi was conducted over five 054A frigate Weifang and South African Navy Ibsamar.” days, with the first three days alongside phase frigate SAS Amatola, navy fleet support vessel and the last two days with the execution of a SAS Drakensberg and hydrographic survey “(They) also started off small and we got sea programme. vessel SAS Protea. to very complex exercises, firing guns and missiles and doing complex anti-air warfare The theme of the exercise was: “The Speaking to defenceWeb, Captian Boucher and anti-submarine exercises. And I’m sure, Promotion of Safe Navigation and Maritime explained that the Task Force would comprise in time, if we’re given an opportunity, we will Economic Security”, with the following strategic three task groups, representing each of the develop into that.” and operational objectives: participating countries. A major component of the exercise was • developing Chinese, Russian and As Task Force Commander, he provided disaster control, whereby SAS Protea was the South African relations through the and set the aims and objectives from an designated ship in distress for which a set of reinforcement of multinational exercises operational and strategic point of view, but scenarios were scripted, including simulated between the three nations allowed each Task Group Commander to fires, floods and medical emergencies. execute the serials. • training a multinational task organisation The second major exercise involved a non- to counter security threats at sea South Africa has mostly exercised with compliant piracy type scenario, leading to a Western navies who operate to a very similar combined boarding with the three nations and • demonstrating a multinational willingness doctrine and standard. This exercise was the seizing back control of the ship. to ensure regional maritime peace, first time that the SAN exercised with Eastern security and stability. Bloc nations and presented new challenges, With naval helicopters being an organic particularly language, and thus the serials component of a modern warship, the South The alongside phase focussed on the were being kept simple. Africans took full advantage of the cross-deck finalisation of planning and sea programmes opportunities offered by the exercise. as well as military social and cultural activities, Said SAN Flag Officer Fleet, Rear Admiral among others. Mhlana: “There is an issue of language out Rear Admiral Mhlana noted “how privileged at sea as we struggle to communicate with we are as the South African Navy, to have our The sea phase, on 28 and 29 November, each other. However, the maritime language is guests come all the way to our seas for this focussed on surface gunnery exercises, common and we have these few days to better exercise”. helicopter cross-deck landings, boarding the understanding between the foreign navy operations and disaster-control exercises. crews.” Captain (SAN) Mike Boucher was appointed “Languages is a barrier, but we are working A major component Commander of the seven-vessel Task Force through it,” Captain Boucher explained, “As of the exercise was disaster control, whereby SAS Protea was the designated ship in distress for which a set of scenarios were scripted, including simulated fires, floods and medical emergencies. Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 39

DIPLOMACY | SA RELATIONS UNCHANGED WITH UK AMID BREXIT SA relations unchanged with UK amid BREXIT The United Kingdom is South Africa’s fourth-largest market for exports, behind China, Germany and the United States, and it is the seventh-largest supplier of imported goods. T he Department of Trade and for in the UK Withdrawal Agreement, that The SACUM-UK EPA effectively retains the Industry (dti) says South Africa’s trade between South Africa and the UK would terms of trade present in the existing SADC- trade relationship with the continue unchanged under the SADC-EU EPA. EU EPA, and will govern the bilateral trading United Kingdom (UK) continues relationship between each of the SACUM unchanged after the UK left the “South African exporters can plan ahead countries and the UK in the event that the European Union (EU). with confidence in the period ahead. Their SADC-EU EPA no longer applies to the UK “South Africa has been notified by the EU legal and regulatory arrangements remain after December 2020. that in terms of the Withdrawal Agreement stable and in place, as it was during the period concluded and ratified between the EU and that the UK was part of the EU. Minister Patel said the SACUM-UK EPA the UK, during the transitional period, the UK would enable South African businesses to will be treated as a Member State of the Union “The UK remains one of South Africa’s continue to export their products to the UK for the purposes of international agreements key trading partners. In 2018, the UK was market and protect South African jobs once the concluded by the Union, or by Member States the fourth-largest destination for South SADC-EU EPA ceases to apply to the UK. acting on behalf of the Union, or by the Union African exports, with bilateral trade between and its Member States jointly,” said the dti. the two countries amounting to more than “The preferential market access contained R140 billion,” said Minister Patel. in the SADC-EU EPA was transposed into The UK left the EU on 31 October 2019 SACUM-UK EPA. However, additional market in what is widely known as Brexit (British exit To avoid disruption to South Africa’s access was agreed for South Africa in regard from the EU). exports, once the UK exits the EU and the to 13 agricultural products, including wine and SADC-EU EPA does not apply to the UK any sugar, in the form of new volumes in relation to The transitional period is set to end on longer, South Africa and five other countries, the tariff rate quotas contained in the EPA with 31 December 2020, but can be extended on namely: Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho and the EU,” said Minister Patel. agreement between the EU and UK. eSwatini as well as Mozambique, engaged with the UK over a two-year period following The UK is South Africa’s fourth-largest South Africa’s trade with the UK currently the announcement of the UK’s intention to market for exports, behind China, Germany takes place under the terms of the Southern leave the EU. and the United States, and it is the seventh- African Development Community (SADC)-EU largest supplier of imported goods. Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). SACUM-UK EPA It is estimated that South Africa’s exports The EPA between the SADC EPA member A new agreement, which is known as to the UK support 56 500 direct jobs and a states and the EU entered into force on the SACUM (South Africa, Namibia, further 117 500 indirect jobs, bringing the total 10 October 2016. Botswana, Lesotho and eSwatini, as well as number of jobs supported by exports to the UK Mozambique)-UK EPA, was agreed between to nearly 175 000. Trade and Industry Minister, Ebrahim Patel, the parties in September 2019. said during the transitional period provided 40 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

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DIPLOMACY | Africa woos UK investors In a statement released after the summit, the United Kingdom (UK) Government said that the UK-Africa Investment Summit laid the foundations for new partnerships between the UK and African nations based on trade, investment, shared values and mutual interest. African leaders at the United in Africa and called for increased and renewed Dominic Raab, the International Development Kingdom (UK)-Africa Investment partnership between the UK and Africa. Secretary, Alok Sharma, and Prince Harry. Summit urged UK businesses to explore the vast investment Referring to Africa as a booming continent The presidents of Ghana, Nana Akufo opportunities that exist on with “staggering levels of growth”, Prime Addo; Kenya, Uhuru Kenyatta; and Mauritania, the continent. Minister Johnson said: “Look around the world Mohamed Ould Cheikh el Ghazouani; were also The summit, held on 20 January 2020, was today and you will swiftly see that the UK is not in attendance. Finance Minister, Tito Mboweni, attended by dignitaries and delegates from only the obvious partner of choice, we’re also and International Relations and Cooperation 16 African countries. very much the partner of today, tomorrow and Minister, Dr GNM Pandor, represented decades to come.” South Africa at the summit in London. In a statement, the African Development Bank (AfDB) said British Prime Minister, Boris The UK-Africa Investment Summit, the AfDB President, Akinwumi Adesina, Johnson, made the case for bigger investments first of its kind hosted by the UK Government, announced a new US$80-million AfDB- was attended by the Foreign Secretary, Department for International Development infrastructure financing partnership. 42 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

| DIPLOMACY “The issue of risk in Africa is exaggerated. “The City of London can play a role in mobilising During the summit, businesses highlighted The risk of loss is lower than Latin America. resources for Africa,” Sharma said. Africa’s huge economic potential. Leaders Yet, funds are not being channelled into were clear that Africa’s success was necessary Africa. There are US$8 trillion of assets In a statement released after the summit, for a secure and prosperous world. The summit under management in London, but only 1% is the UK Government said that the UK-Africa heard about the extraordinary dynamism invested in Africa,” said Adesina. Investment Summit laid the foundations for and innovation coming from African firms: new partnerships between the UK and African eight of the 15 fastest-growing economies He urged investors to look to Africa and nations based on trade, investment, shared are expected to be in Africa, and by 2050 recalled the achievements of the Africa values and mutual interest. Billions of pounds over one in four global consumers will be Investment Forum – a game-changing initiative of new commercial deals were announced, African. The summit demonstrated the breadth led by the AfDB and key partners to accelerate highlighting the strength of the UK’s offer and of opportunities for new investment and investment in the continent. existing relationship with Africa. The UK also business partnerships. announced new initiatives and funding which The unique multi-sector platform is will strengthen the joint trading relationship, The UK, African governments and partners designed to advance bankable deals to support African countries in their ambition to launched a package of new initiatives, funding, financial closure. At the 2019 forum, which transform their economies, launch a major commercial deals and partnerships to deliver took place in Johannesburg, South Africa, new partnership with the City of London, turbo- this ambition, and: deals valued at US$40.1 billion secured charge infrastructure financing and enable investment interest. Africa’s clean energy potential. • increase trade between the UK and Africa In his concluding remarks, the UK’s Sharma “Taken together, this will help to realise the • support African countries to transform expressed confidence in Africa, saying the UK’s ambition to be the investment partner of their economies, including by empowering continent “has a fabulous future”. choice for Africa, create hundreds of thousands women and young people of jobs and ensure the mutual prosperity of all Sharma announced five partnerships to our nations.” • mobilise sustainable finance for Africa, mobilise private-sector investment in quality including a step-change in work on infrastructure on the continent. infrastructure financing, and a new partnership with the City of London • enable Africa’s clean energy potential. The summit delivered results that will benefit people and businesses across Africa and the UK. This was reflected in commercial deals between UK companies and African partners announced at the summit worth over £6.5 billion, spanning sectors such as infrastructure, energy, retail and tech. These include agreements with well-known British firms such as Rolls Royce, GSK and Diageo. In addition, deals worth billions more were made during the day of the summit. The UK Government also announced over £1.5 billion of UK aid-funded initiatives that are expected to create hundreds of thousands of jobs and mobilise over £2.4 billion of additional private investment for the continent. The UK is open for trade with Africa. The UK is a key trading partner for African nations: UK-Africa trade increased 7.5% last year to £36 billion. As it leaves the European Union, the UK has ensured that businesses from 46 African countries can continue to export to the UK and pay reduced or zero tariff rates. This includes signed trade agreements with 11 African countries and having legislated for a trade preferences scheme with a further 35 African countries. The UK is working with the remaining countries to finalise continuity agreements by the end of 2020. In the future, the UK will aim to deepen these agreements to make them even better for business, ensuring they reflect the ambitions of African partners to increase trade with the UK in high-value services, harnessing the Internet and new Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 43

DIPLOMACY | AFRICA WOOS UK INVESTORS technologies. The UK also has a world-leading including from Africa and the UK, to trade new partnerships with investment promotion export finance offer: UK Export Finance with and invest across Africa (funding of agencies in Nigeria and South Africa (funding has provided financial support worth over £37 million) of £25 million). It will also deliver a new Digital £1.8 billion in the last two years to generate Access Programme in Kenya, Nigeria and contracts for UK firms in Africa, and now • new country-specific programmes, South Africa (£45 million of funding) to increase offers financing to over 40 countries across including a new programme in Malawi to connectivity and digital skills of marginalised the continent. The UK will continue to support support its shift into high-value sectors communities, build cybersecurity capacity and a rules-based international trade system for exports (funding of £95 million), and a establish tech hubs to grow the local digital – with the World Trade Organisation at its new programme in Ethiopia to support the economy and empower start-ups with the skills heart – that is inclusive and delivers for its private sector, foreign direct investment, needed to expand globally. African partners. industrial parks and investment climate (funding of £45 million). The UK reinforced its commitment to The summit demonstrated that the UK the AfDB. It will remain the top donor to the would go further to generate business-to- The UK committed to support African countries African Development Fund, which stimulates business links between the UK and Africa, to transform their economies, particularly in economic growth across the continent, and capitalising on the exciting potential of the growth sectors that could create quality jobs will establish a new Africa Infrastructure African Continental Free Trade Area, which at scale. Partnership to increase the bank’s capacity to when ratified, will create the world’s largest lead infrastructure development and financing free trade area, with a population of 1.2 billion. The country committed to increase its in Africa. The UK committed to over £397 million of work to support African nations to increase new programmes to boost further trade and growth. Among others, the UK will deliver investment links between the UK and Africa; and the UK will: • assist southern Africa to increase intra- African trade flows, reduce barriers to trade and increase investment (funding of up to £200 million over seven years) • launch a new Africa Investors Group to drive future growth and investment • establish an import promotion service, Trade Connect, to support African businesses to increase their presence in international markets, as well as support UK firms to source quality products from Africa (funding of £20 million) • establish a Growth Gateway, available immediately to support all businesses, 44 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

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DIPLOMACY | SANDF TO ASSIST IN SUPPORTING CONTINENTAL PEACE AND SECURITY SANDF to assist in supporting continental peace and security “We count on the South African National Defence Force as an organ mandated by the African Union and the United Nations respectively to discharge the important responsibility of promoting peace,” President Ramaphosa said. President Cyril Ramaphosa says “As a continent, we have set milestones He commended the SANDF soldiers for South Africa is proud of the towards the attainment of a better and safer staying true despite the many challenges South African National Defence continent for all Africans, but our progress they face. Force (SANDF), which is an remains mixed. Conflict continues in several enduring symbol of the country’s African countries, undermining our collective “These men and women do remarkable rainbow nation, and that includes efforts to achieve peace and security. work in safeguarding our borders and in in its ranks both men and women from all assisting the South African Police Service with race groups. “In our quest to silence the guns, we crime prevention. We commend them, knowing Speaking at this year’s Armed Forces Day acknowledge the enduring challenges of that the vast stretch of our border requires far event held in Polokwane, Limpopo, on Friday, armed conflict in Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger, more resources on the ground. 21 February 2020, President Ramaphosa said in North Africa, in the Sahel, in the Horn of South Africa looked to the SANDF to assist in Africa and in the Great Lakes region. “As a nation, we owe a great debt of meeting the country’s obligations with regard appreciation to our National Defence Force to supporting continental peace and security. “We count on the SANDF as an organ for being not just a fighting force, but a mandated by the AU and the UN respectively developmental force. Across our country, to discharge the important responsibility of we have seen the SANDF render essential promoting peace,” President Ramaphosa said. 46 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

| DIPLOMACYSANDF TO ASSIST IN SUPPORTING CONTINENTAL PEACE AND SECURITY services through the deployment of health The activities took place at various locations Armed Forces Day professionals at public health facilities that are around Polokwane from 14 to 19 February seeks to expand public in crisis,” President Ramaphosa said. 2020 and included static displays of military equipment, a career village for prospective understanding of the He said he was pleased that the programme recruits, arena events, sports events, including role of the SANDF in the for the 2020 Armed Forces Day included a sports clinics and a fun run. military careers showcase for young people. life of the nation and to The celebration of Armed Forces Day demonstrate through “I hope that young people who wish to included a capabilities demonstration as well develop themselves and grow South Africa will as a night shoot and military parade. live simulations of military embrace these opportunities through which action the capability they will make an important contribution to the Armed Forces Day is held annually on security and sustainability of our nation,” the 21 February in commemoration of the sinking of the Army, Navy, Air President said. of the SS Mendi steamship on 21 February Force and South African 1917, one of South African’s worst tragedies Medical Health Service. He commenced the day with a wreath- of the First World War (1914 –1918). laying ceremony at the Polokwane Municipal Gardens in memory of the sinking of the A total of 616 black South African troops SS Mendi. died when the SS Mendi steamship sank on its way to France. Armed Forces Day Other activities over the weekend saw Armed Forces Day seeks to expand public a 5-km and 10-km fun walk and run on understanding of the role of the SANDF in the 15 February and an inter-faith service on life of the nation and to demonstrate through Sunday, 16 February. live simulations of military action the capability of the Army, Navy, Air Force and South African The weeklong programme featured Medical Health Service. career exhibitions where young people had the opportunity to explore various careers in the SANDF. Issue 20 South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action UBUNTU 47

DIPLOMACY | SOUTH AFRICA-IRELAND RELATIONS STRENGTHENED THROUGH MUTUAL COOPERATION South Africa-Ireland relations strengthened through mutual cooperation South Africa values its partnership with Ireland, which is founded on the common struggle against colonialism and oppression and also because of Ireland’s support for South Africa’s economic and development agenda. By Alvin Botes Deputy Minister of International Relations and Cooperation South Africa continues to foster nationalist identification with the Boer cause national priorities contained in the National close cooperation with countries during the South African War of 1899 – 1902, Development Plan. In this regard, there is in the European Union (EU) with but cost concerns prevented an exchange of still great appreciation in South Africa for the a view to create opportunities high commissioners. Nevertheless, there were sterling work done by the Irish AAM under the for South African citizens and regular private visits by South Africa’s London- leadership of the late Kader Asmal and the businesses as we strive to based high commissioners, most notably successes achieved was in no small measure attract investment, grow our economy and Charles te Water in the 1930s, and Dr AL as a result of the support from the Irish create much-needed jobs. One of those Geyer, who was a guest of Taoiseach Éamon Government and the Irish people. countries is Ireland, known fondly among South de Valera in 1952. Africans as an active and leading participant in The Department of Higher Education the anti-apartheid struggle. From the early 1960s, Ireland vehemently and Training has, in partnership with the opposed apartheid in South Africa. Irish Government, set up the Kader Asmal South Africa-Ireland relations have been Fellowship Programme, which receives cordial since 2004 and have been managed While purely financial considerations support from both governments. Since 2013, through the biennial meetings of the South had prevented the mutual exchange of a total of 81 students have received an Africa-Ireland Partnership Forum (PF). The ambassadors, by the 1960s, a principled award to study at Master’s level in a range of most recent PF between South Africa and stand against apartheid came to prevent subjects, including Law, Business, Engineering Ireland was held in October 2017 in Pretoria such an upgrading of relations. As a result, and Agriculture, and a Kader Asmal Alumni during which a wide range of bilateral political Ireland was the only EU country that did not Association has been established. and economic relations were expressed on have full diplomatic relations with South Africa the progress achieved in various areas of until 1993. An exchange of ambassadors was During the inaugural session of the JCC, cooperation since the previous PF of 2015 agreed with the De Klerk administration in the two parties discussed a range of bilateral and agreement was reached to further explore anticipation of the ending of apartheid, despite and multilateral issues and exchanged views other areas of cooperation over the coming forceful protests from the Irish Anti-Apartheid on key developments in Europe and in Africa. years, including agriculture and education. Movement (AAM), led by Kader and Louise Representatives from relevant government Asmal, which regarded such relations as ministries in both countries reported significant South Africa and Ireland demonstrated premature. South African Nelson Mandela, progress in bilateral cooperation on political, their commitment to intensify cooperation by then a dissident, later President, was awarded economic and social development since the signing the Joint Declaration of Cooperation the Freedom of the City of Dublin in 1988 while last bilateral consultations took place in Pretoria (JDC), which created a Joint Commission for a political prisoner and he collected the award in 2017, and identified several areas in which Cooperation (JCC) between South Africa and upon his release in 1990. cooperation could be further strengthened in Ireland. The inaugural session of the South the coming months and years. Africa-Ireland JCC was held in November The Irish Embassy opened in Pretoria 2019 in, Dublin, Ireland. in 1994. The JCC between South Africa and The signature of the Memorandum of Ireland underlines the close ties of friendship Understanding (MoU) on Research and The two countries have a rich history that between the people of Ireland and South Africa Development in Science and Technology, stirs from the early 1930s. The opening of and the common interests and values that the which took place on the margins of the Mid- bilateral relations was strongly considered by two countries share. Term Review of the PF in Dublin in 2018, was both governments in the 1930s and 1940s, welcomed. Both sides committed to explore following a successful State Visit by South South Africa values its partnership with opportunities to progress implementation of African Prime Minister, General JBM Hertzog, Ireland, which is founded on the common the MoU. to Dublin in 1930. At that time, connections struggle against colonialism and oppression between the two “restless dominions” were and also because of Ireland’s support for Developments and ongoing cooperation in particularly cordial, based also on an earlier Irish South Africa’s economic and development a range of other sectors, including immigration, agenda, and in particular for South Africa’s tourism, arts and culture, and agriculture were also discussed. 48 UBUNTU South Africa’s Public Diplomacy in action Issue 20

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