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Ultimate English B1+ Student's Book

Published by Hamilton House Publishers, 2020-07-13 06:18:07

Description: Ultimate English B1+ Student's Book

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Katrina Gormley English B1+ STUDENT’S BOOK

Contents UNIT ULTIMATE Reading ULTIMATE Vocabulary ULTIMATE Grammar Multiple choice questions (Identifying 1 the writer’s purpose) • Social media vocabulary • P resent simple, present The Selfie • Collocations, word formation, continuous, stative verbs Generation Missing sentences (Linking words and prepositions • C omparison of adjectives and phrases) • mini Practice (selective cloze) adverbs pages 5–18 • m ini Practice (key word • Entertainment vocabulary transformation) 2 • Collocations, film vocabulary, Be Your Own prepositional phrases, word • Past simple, past continuous Superhero! formation • Used to, be/get used to • mini Practice (selective cloze) • mini Practice (open cloze) pages 19–34 Multiple choice questions/four related • Shopping vocabulary • P resent perfect simple, present 3 texts (Identifying text types) • Collocations, noun phrases, perfect continuous Money Matters word formation • P ast simple, present perfect Multiple matching (Scanning texts for • mini Practice (multiple choice simple pages 35–48 specific information) questions) • m ini Practice (key word transformation) 4 The Perfect Crime • Crime and punishment • P ast perfect simple, past perfect vocabulary continuous pages 49–64 • Collocations, word formation • P ast perfect tenses, past simple • mini Practice (word formation) • m ini Practice (key word transformation) 5 Missing sentences (Looking for • Technology and innovation • F uture tenses (future simple, Going Forward matching words or ideas) vocabulary be going to, future continuous, • Computer vocabulary, easily present tenses for future, future pages 65–78 Multiple choice questions (Eliminating confused words, phrasal perfect simple, future perfect wrong answers) verbs, word formation continuous) 6 • mini Practice (selective cloze) • mini Practice (open cloze) Make It Work! Multiple matching (Matching key words in questions with ideas in texts) • Jobs and employment • M odals (1): ability, permission, pages 79–94 vocabulary requests, offers and suggestions • Easily confused words, • M odals (2): Obligation and 7 expressions with work, word necessity, prohibition, possibility, New Horizons formation advice and criticism, deduction • mini Practice (multiple choice • m ini Practice (key word pages 95–108 questions) transformation) 8 • Travel and tourism vocabulary • C onditionals (zero, first, second Going For Gold! • Collocations, word formation, and third conditionals) phrasal verbs • Mixed conditionals pages 109–124 • mini Practice (open cloze) • m ini Practice (key word transformation) Multiple choice questions/four related • Sports and games vocabulary • Wishes and preferences texts (Understanding implied meaning) • Easily confused words, phrasal • Gerunds and infinitives verbs, word formation • mini Practice (open cloze) • mini Practice (open cloze) 9 Missing sentences (Understanding • Environment and recycling • R eported speech: statements, A Lonely Planet connectors) vocabulary questions, commands and • Easily confused words, word requests pages 125–138 Multiple matching (Summarising formation, phrasal verbs • Reporting verbs each section before you answer the • mini Practice (selective cloze) 10 questions) The Power Of • Education and technology • T he passive: tenses, modals, Learning vocabulary personal and impersonal • Easily confused words, structures pages 139–154 collocations, phrasal verbs, • Causative forms: have and get word formation • mini Practice (word formation) 2

ULTIMATE Listening/Speaking ULTIMATE Writing Review 1 p. 16 ULTIMATE Listening Informal email Multiple matching (Paying attention to what you hear • Making notes Practice 1 rather than what you read) • Planning paragraphs pages 17–18 ULTIMATE Speaking Talking about yourself (Giving reasons) ULTIMATE Listening Story: Beginning with a sentence Review 2 Multiple choice questions (Underlining key words) • Sentence linking p. 30 • Using narrative tenses in stories Practice 2 ULTIMATE Speaking pages 31–32 Comparing photos (Comparing and contrasting photos; Progress check 1 (Units 1–2) expressing a preference) pages 33–34 ULTIMATE Listening Opinion essay Review 3 Multiple choice questions/pictures (Linking the • Ordering points in paragraphs p. 46 conversation to the pictures) • Grouping advantages and disadvantages Practice 3 • Using notes and adding your own idea pages 47–48 ULTIMATE Speaking Making a decision (Expressing your opinion and involving Article Review 4 your partner) • Introductions and conclusions p. 60 • Making your article interesting Practice 4 ULTIMATE Listening pages 61–62 Sentence completion (Identifying the form of the missing For and against essay Progress check 2 (Units 3–4) word) • Writing suitable introductions pages 63–64 • Presenting both sides of an argument ULTIMATE Speaking Review 5 Helping solve a problem (Making a suggestion; justifying p. 76 your choice) Practice 5 pages 77–78 ULTIMATE Listening Multiple choice questions/short talk (Understanding meaning from context) ULTIMATE Speaking Making a decision (Keeping the conversation going) ULTIMATE Listening Letter to the editor Review 6 Multiple matching (Listening for ideas that match • Using the correct style p. 90 options) • Stating the reason for writing Practice 6 pages 91–92 ULTIMATE Speaking Progress check 3 (Units 5–6) Comparing and contrasting photos (Answering questions pages 93–94 about two photos) ULTIMATE Listening Essay: Giving reasons Review 7 Multiple choice questions (Listening for words that • Introducing reasons p. 106 express similar ideas to the questions) • Giving examples Practice 7 pages 107-108 ULTIMATE Speaking Review Choosing an option (Giving reasons for your choice) • Introducing topics Review 8 • Including fact and opinion p. 120 ULTIMATE Listening Practice 8 Sentence completion (Completing notes with the words pages 121–122 you hear) Progress check 4 (Units 7–8) pages 123–124 ULTIMATE Speaking Justifying opinion (Sequencing your ideas) Review 9 p. 136 ULTIMATE Listening Article Practice 9 Multiple matching (Studying differences in options) • Engaging the reader pages 137–138 • Using direct speech and questions ULTIMATE Speaking Review 10 Discussion questions (Interacting with your partner; Formal email p. 150 asking for clarification) • S tating issues and suggesting course of Practice 10 action pages 151–152 ULTIMATE Listening • Writing an effective email of complaint Progress check 5 (Units 9–10) Multiple choice questions (Paying attention to the pages 153–154 interviewer’s questions) ULTIMATE Speaking Justifying opinion (Expanding your answers) Grammar reference pages 155–169 Writing bank pages 171–177 Speaking bank pages 178–179 Irregular verbs page 170 3

Going For Gold! 1 Read the quote and discuss these questions with a partner. 1 What does Michael Jordan say about failure? 2 Do you agree with the quote? Why/Why not? 3 How do you feel about failure? I’ve missed more than 9,000 shots in my career. I’ve lost almost 300 games. I’ve failed over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed. Michael Jordan, professional basketball player 2 W hat is the importance of Unit map sports? Discuss these ideas in Reading: Multiple choice questions (four related texts) small groups. Vocabulary: Sports and games Grammar: Wishes and preferences; gerunds and infinitives • most popular sports in your Listening: Sentence completion country Speaking: Justifying opinion Writing: Review • why people take part in sports Practice: Multiple choice questions: four related texts (Reading), • how sporting events benefit sentence completion (Listening) communities 109

Get the ball rolling! Multiple choice questions (four related texts) Reading 1 Watch the video and answer the questions. VIDEO 1 What are the university students doing in Porto? 2 Which country won both gold medals at the World Championships? 2 Look at the photo and answer the questions. 1 What sport do you think these people are playing? 2 What skills might be necessary for this sport? 3 Would you like to try it? Why/Why not? 3  Listen and read. What do the four texts have in common? A From: C. Mand <[email protected]> To: P. Simmons <[email protected]> Subject: Tickets for this year’s Cup Final Dear Pete, The directors and I have just finished our weekly meeting and I have been asked to contact you regarding this year’s Floorball Cup Final at our sports complex. As you know, the Panthers and the Flyers will be competing for the title here at the All Sports Arena on 3rd August. I’ve included all the details concerning the day, time and ticket prices in a document attached here. Could you please use the information to design an advert for our website promoting the event and informing fans? We will be offering a 30% early-bird discount. Please make sure this stands out in some way in the advert as we want to generate as much interest among fans as possible. Tickets for the Cup Final will be going on sale next week, so this is pretty urgent. We would like to upload the ad to our website in the next five days. Let me know if you need any further information. Best, B Claire Floorball Cup Final C The Flyers go home with the cup! TchhaemPpaionnts htitelersagwaiilnl sdtetfheendFthleyier rwsorilndthis by Nancy Walters year’s Cup Final. There’s never a dull moment in floorball, but this year’s Watch the two teams battling for the biggest Cup Final was simply exhilarating! With literally only prize in floorball! moments to spare, attacker Eric Carlton managed to DWWCoohhnseet’tnr: el:e : av3AR(efrioldnlirtkSAsstptiiulduolgderlatuesttsnietAct,,ksr7beea.otn3nsao0dsktppaymreotouaprtlte$ic3ak0egtesdn6o5w+! ) score the winning goal for the Flyers. The match had been a draw from the start of the third period, so it and go up to $90 was anybody’s game. The Panthers were left wishing OFbIunNyliAnyeLo3ub0rototiockkigneegtstnbaoy3w10sa%tvJaouinlanliben!lee.dQisucootuent if you they hadn’t missed a golden opportunity to score at the end of the second period. Missing that goal cost 110 them the championship. They’ll just have to settle for being runners-up after three years in a row at the top! The Flyers, on the other hand, started off the season as outsiders and ended up winning the cup! Their coach Andy Weller said that hard work had only just begun for his team. It’s back to training this morning as the team now have to defend their title.

4 Read the texts again and choose the correct answers. Work it out! Understanding implied meaning 1 Who are Claire and Pete? • Read question 1. Which section (A, B, C or D) mentions Claire and Pete? A floorball players • Read the underlined text in section A. What does it imply about the B colleagues at a sports centre relationship between Claire and Pete? C directors of a sports team • What other clues in section A allow you to work out who they are? Underline the relevant phrases. What is the correct answer? D floorball fans 2 Who can save 30% on the price of their tickets? 5 Replace the underlined words in the sentences with A students and senior citizens B fans who book tickets on 3rd August the highlighted words in the texts. C those who book online by a certain date 1 The coach had to replace the goalkeeper D fans who book tickets by 1st June 30 minutes into the game. substitute 3 What do sections A and B have in common? 2 They wrote an online article advertising the golf A They were written by the same person. tournament. B They mention last year’s Cup Final. C They advertise a sporting event. 3 The competition would be a very good chance to D They deal with the same sporting event. show his skills. 4 What does the author in section C believe? 4 We watched them trying hard to win the gold A The Flyers didn’t deserve to win. medal. B The outcome of the game could have been decided earlie r. 5 Both teams had scored twice after twenty C The Panthers should have trained harder. minutes of play. D Floorball is a very dull sport. 6 The gold medallists were not expected to win. 5 What is the main purpose of section D? A to give background information about the sport 7 The manager will supervise the organisation of B to attract new players to the sport C to compare floorball to other sports the sporting event. D to explain the rules of the game 8 We were defeated in the last and most important 6 Why does the author in section D mention hockey? game in the competition. A to describe this sport in detail B to compare it to floorball One to One C to inform us about when it was invented D to talk about the rules of this game D Work with a partner. Take turns to answer the questions. SportsPedia 1 Have you ever been to a big sporting Floorball event? If so, what was it like? If not, why not? Floorball is an indoor floor sport 2 Would you prefer to take part in similar to hockey. Two teams a match or watch a match? Why? made up of five players and 3 Do you prefer team or individual a goalkeeper play the game. sports? Why? Coaches can substitute players atphehtemoearcyipnkoheycdaaystsn,i.miiTstjhueiissesdtrfoeucanrhsaitansrenepgrgetaaweendmotdhaaresnetacwfdfheehrsroekorebilleselctrtaoeauatohmsveee.rorMtsfheataehtncethhsreteurselgeanasrgmeathnpe.d.laWythehedilleiingfhltohtowrreebeiagtlhwl tiesenqstiuymi-pmilmairnenutotte. The I went to the FA Cup T3foh6r0et,0hgae0m0firersewtgtiaismsteeirn,evadennpdltaeSydweiernsdSewwnoebrdledecwnamiidnee.tthIhnee2lfa0itr1es7t1,g9it6o0lwdsa.msAeisndocafllul2ids0et1sd8a,intthtthehriese were over Final last year. World Games international My team didn’t win, but that didn’t multi-sport event. matter. It was still an Rink dimensions: 18–20 m wide, 36­–40 m long with 26 holes in it) amazing experience. Equipment: Stick (96–115 cm) • Ball (23 g, hollow I’m really sporty, so I’d definitely prefer to take part in a match rather than watch it. I prefer team sports because success depends on the performance of the entire team. Reading 111

Vocabulary Sports and games 1 Complete the text with these words. Then listen and check your answers. ambitious co-operation defeat game skills priority reliance sacrifices self-confidence sportsmanship stamina Are you all for one or one for all? Attoapkafeortcuufprsoaamntedimaimnpcrsorpevoainsrtgeogoreuanrne1 rianldsfeiivtlnfid-ecusoasn,l fssidppeoonrrttcs?eca.nBiumtpisroitvebeotutrerabtoility piwaasihrnnIlpennhanadqoddsvodyivupreeitctaivioordortrs3iroedeua.wtcsauIpaeonhlaclexraescaktlvypesrneseeoponwpmrnitrntsootsceadsrrt.olkoitTyapvmshscilm5dalpitlosyauilhkseekaueeetrelsye’lsuscymdrpya4teocoolosllnrrygipent’et,omgt2yln,hoieokstevaueeirebnnarbtisnloreeiiettsivhsyneyeaagforttnoyuhitdrtnrhehtdaelchidtnitoyeevhgmbiinhlrdeaedapuptclveisatekceoet.lrsib.ftPtgpoopiyPeoorrrloeaognmaopiflt!yabvseahleseaernerbtcsrthhleyeey trtitTThneuheeeadnraaimismlovmloitmodhsusfuapetptvarooeoilrhcsfrtptas7totlnosatrdeyybe,asaapurcnchrcikdosh9mthlaheaoseavtmrvienno6glutloepay.abbTcaahcdleel,pdtbteaaa8ysm!dkTueecrtaaibnmnaglsplatoalilamnnlydwateetirfcnaso.hmIosef,htvmtabeahaapnreeltlyleia, Playing as a team promotes good 10 and it’s a fun way to stay motivated. 2 Circle the correct words. 1 They won / beat us 3–1 in yesterday’s match. 5 Ican’t believe I lost / beat such an experienced player! 2 Last year’s tennis champion was defeated 6 If he hadn’t lost / missed that goal, we would have by / from a younger player. won / defeated! 3 The match ended in / to a draw – both teams 7 The team celebrated their victory / sportsmanship finished with the same number of points. by taking photos with their fans. 4 The coach is upset because the team 8 In sports like football or hockey, defenders / referees lost / missed the match to outsiders. must stop the other team from scoring. 3 Complete the sentences with these nouns. association championship half-time league season semi-final tournament 1 NBA stands for National Basketball Association . 2 This is the first football match of the . 3 Our team is unfortunately at the bottom of the table. 4 He won the international golf for the third time. 5 Over fifty countries competed in the world chess . 6 They were defeated in the but won third place. 7 The score at was 34–20. 112

4 Complete the phrasal verbs with back, out or up. 1 I like working out in the early morning because that’s when I have the most energy. 2 After her injury, the hockey player has bounced and is at the top of her game again! 3 Coaches work hard to bring the best in their players. 4 Unfortunately, our team was knocked of the national championship. 5 How long should footballers warm before a game? 6 She missed more than three weeks’ training and had to drop of the marathon. 7 Is he going to try for the Olympics? 5 Complete the tables. 6 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word given. Verb Noun Negative noun 1 It was very irresponsible (responsible) 1 agree agreement disagreement of them to go surfing without checking the 2 appear weather forecast first. 3 approve 4 employ 2 The player left the team after a major 5 obey (agree) with the new coach. 3 Don’t be so (patient)! I’m working as fast as I can. Adjective Negative adjective Negative noun 4 Jane wanted to become a professional footballer, despite her parents’ 6 friendly unfriendly unfriendliness (approve). 7 happy 5 There are no excuses for the player’s (mature) on the field. 8 mature 6 Thousands of people lost their jobs and 9 patient youth (employ) has 10 responsible reached 20%. mini Practice 7 Read and complete the text. Write one word in each gap. Underwater football Underwater football is an underwater 1 sport played with two five-player teams. It is played in a swimming pool with snorkelling equipment (mask, snorkel and fins). It is 2 to water polo, but it is played entirely underwater. The goal of the game is to 3 a point by placing the ball on the opponents’ side of the pool. Players can go up to the surface to breathe as many times as needed. However, 4 they have the ball, no part of their body may be above the surface. Like traditional football, the player with the ball can advance it or 5 it to his teammates. Coaches can make a substitution at half-time or when a(n) 6 is injured. In tournaments, TIPS matches 7 45 minutes, consisting of two 20-minute Look at question 3. Which verb is used periods and a five-minute break at half-time. This little-known sport was with the word ‘point’ to mean ‘win a point’? 8 in Canada by a scuba diving instructor in the 1960s and Vocabulary 113 is now played around the world.

Grammar Wishes and preferences 1 Watch the video and answer the questions. VIDEO 3 Read about wishes and preferences. 1 What does the speaker say about taking up Wishes extreme sports? • We can use wish or if only to talk about our 2 Why is it important to ‘listen to your body’? own wishes. We use wish to talk about other people’s wishes. Compare: 2 Read the text and circle the correct answers. I wish/If only I was better at sport! (my own wish) The most dangerous sport Pauline wishes she was better at sport! (Pauline’s wish) Cheerleading is an athletic activity that uses organised dance routines, gymnastics and • W e use wish/if only + past simple to talk acrobatic stunts to cheer on sports teams at about the present or the future when we say games and matches. When young people see that something is not how we want it to be. cheerleaders perform, they often say, 1 ‘If only I was They wish they had a more experienced coach. a cheerleader!’ However, don’t let the pompoms If only everyone had your skills! fool you. Cheerleaders work extremely hard, train constantly and 2 they often wish they had more • W e use wish/if only + past perfect simple to free time. What most people don’t realise is how talk about the past when we say that we are dangerous cheerleading is. In the USA, only 3% of sorry that something did or did not happen. teenagers are cheerleaders, but they account for I wish they hadn’t arrived late for training. 65% of all serious sports injuries! 3 Do they wish they If only I had trained harder before the had taken up a less dangerous pastime? Young tournament. people say no because they would prefer to do something that they love than something that is • W e often use could after wish/if only. safe. The players wish they could have a day off practice. 1 If only + past simple is used to talk about the If only we could afford tickets for the present / past. Cup Final. 2 Wish + past simple is used to talk about the • W e use wish/if only + would to complain present / past. about a situation that annoys us. I wish the referee would be fair to both teams! 3 Wish + past perfect simple is used to talk about the present / past. Preferences To talk about what we prefer in general, we use: 114 • p refer + noun/gerund (+ to + noun/gerund). They prefer team sports. They prefer playing team sports (to playing individual sports). • prefer + full infinitive (+ rather than + bare infinitive). She prefers to play individual sports (rather than play team sports). To talk about what we prefer in a particular situation, we use: • would prefer + full infinitive (+ rather than + bare infinitive). We would prefer to go to the beach (rather than swim in the pool). • w ould rather + bare infinitive (+ than + bare infinitive). He would rather go to the match (than watch it online). Read 8.1–8.2 of the Grammar reference before you do the tasks.

4 Complete the second sentence so that it means the 6 Complete the sentences with same as the first, using the word given. Use between the correct form of the verb given. two and five words. 1 Is it worth paying (pay) 1 What a pity he’s not a professional swimmer. ONLY extra to be in the front row? only he was/were If a professional 2 The referee walked up to the player swimmer. (give) him a yellow card. 2 He regrets giving up baseball. WISHES 3 Don’t forget (take) your ice He up baseball. skates with you! 3 Why don’t you train to become a coach? WERE 4 She denied (cheat) in the race. If I to become a coach. 5 The manager has decided (hire) 4 Idon’t want to take the bus. I’d prefer to drive. another coach. RATHER 6 The athlete refused (talk) to the I the bus. journalist. 5 It would be great to have a sports centre in the 7 Iwish they would stop (cheer) neighbourhood. THERE so loudly! We wish a sports 8  (carry) the Olympic torch is centre in the neighbourhood. 6 I’m really disappointed that we lost the match. a great honour for an athlete. WON mini Practice If the match! 7 What do you like most, running or cycling? 7 Read and complete the text. Write one word in PREFER each gap. Do cycling? Gerunds and infinitives 5 R ead about gerunds and infinitives. Wheelchair boxing Gerunds We can use gerunds as nouns, after prepositions Donahue Fields is an extraordinary human being. and after certain verbs and phrases. Skiing is the most exciting sport I have ever done. Disability didn’t end his athletic dreams – it started It’s best to play without thinking about winning. The player admitted letting the team down. them. When doctors told him that he would It’s worth visiting that place. spend 1 the rest of his life sitting in Infinitives • We use full infinitives to express purpose. a wheelchair, he didn’t just sit around thinking We also use them after certain verbs, after ‘If 2 this hadn’t happened to me!’ adjectives and after the words too and enough. She went back home to get her PE kit. Instead, he picked himself up and discovered He refused to discuss the matter. We’re sad to leave our old club. wheelchair boxing. For a start, other people It’s too cold to go running. 3 treating him differently. He got • We use bare infinitives after modal verbs, had better and would rather. his confidence back and found a renewed reason You should warm up before you go on court. He had better obey the rules and regulations. 4 living. They would rather compete in next year’s championship. Helping other boxers in wheelchairs is something Gerund or infinitive? he is passionate about. ‘I want people Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or a full 5 enjoy boxing the way I’m enjoying infinitive with no change in meaning. However, other verbs can also be followed by a gerund or it,’ he says. Bouncing back after 6 a full infinitive, but with a change in meaning. He stopped to buy a new racket. (He interrupted a life-changing accident can be hard. It’s so easy what he was doing in order to buy a new racket.) He stopped buying a new racket every season. to spend your life wishing it 7 not (He changed the habit of buying a new racket every season.) happened. Donahue, however, turned his disability Read 8.3–8.7 of the Grammar reference before you into an ability. ‘Don’t be afraid 8 try do the tasks. new things,’ he says. ‘You know, the most difficult tasks are the most rewarding.’ Grammar 115

Listening Sentence completion 1 Look at the two photos. Which of these four sports do they show? footgolf quidditch slamball snowskating AB 2  Listen and tick ✔ the things that are true about photo A. 1 There are always 21 players on the team. 2 Teams can change players whenever they like during a match. 3 Players use a ball which is like a basketball. 4 Chasers, beaters, keepers and seekers are the four positions players can play in. 3  Listen and read the text. Then answer the questions in WORK IT OUT! and complete the sentences. Did you know that according to the World Sports Encyclopaedia, 1 Work it out! there are around 8,000 different sports and competitive games 2 in the world today? These sports can be divided into different Completing notes with the families. For example, the basketball family has a total of words you hear sixteen different sports including regular basketball, slamball • R ead questions 1 and 2 below. and netball. As for football, well, there are over sixty different sports that fit into the football family! Underline the words before and after the gaps. A lot of the sports listed go back thousands of years when • Is the missing word a noun, they were not competitive but were designed to build up self- adjective, number, verb, etc.? confidence, improve physical fitness and encourage teamwork. • L isten and read the text one more time. Can you complete There are (1) different sports in the basketball family. the gaps now? • Have you completed the notes The purpose of a lot of sports was to develop (2) , with the words you heard? improve physical fitness and encourage teamwork. Did you change the words in any way? 4  Now listen to a talk about emerging sports and complete the sentences with a word or short phrase. Emerging sports The point of competitive sports is (3) victory over the other player or team. The first hybrid sport mentioned is a mixture of (4) , and is played on a course. Quidditch was first played in the city of Vermont in Canada in (5) . A quidditch pitch is the same size as a (6) . Teams can (7) at any time during a quidditch match. In the Quidditch World Cup, global teams compete in the (8) to become world champions. Snowskates can be described as skateboards (9) . Snowskating can be practised on empty streets, in city parks or on remote 116 (10) .

Justifying opinion Speaking 1 Read the question and answers. Which of the three doesn't answer the question directly? Why do you think people enjoy watching sports so much? A Because they’re fun. B I don’t really like sports, so I don’t know. C I think it’s partly because it feels good to be part of a crowd and to cheer your team on. It can be very exciting to see sportspeople in action. 2 Which sentence (A, B or C) 1 gives a complete answer? 2 gives an answer that’s too short? 3 includes reasons and examples? 3 W ork in groups of three. Take turns to ask and answer these questions. Use the prompts to keep the conversation going. Work it out! Questions • Do you think team sports are better Justifying your opinion • L isten carefully to the question and take some time to think than individual sports? • If you could choose any sport, which about your answer. • J ustify your opinion by giving reasons and possibly an example. one would you take up? Why? • Present an organised argument by sequencing your ideas. • Listen carefully to what you partner says and try to add to their Prompts • What do you think? ideas. Show that you are interested in the points they make. • Do you agree? • And you? 4 Work in groups of three. Take turns to ask and answer these questions. ✓Language checklist Use the words and phrases in the Language checklist to help you. Sequencing your ideas To begin with, … Do you think competitive sports Well, they help people First of all, … are always a good thing? keep fit, build up For a start, … For one thing, … self-confidence and Next, … encourage co-operation Secondly, … Another thing is that … within a team. But Finally, … if players become Lastly, … obsessed with winning, it might have a negative effect on them. ONE-MINUTE TALK 1 Do you think competitive sports are always a good thing? Ycetholnaeujsosshyeaappvblreoaoyuomitnnpeagtmssoprtionowruhtateettclhpthaoiytntoygeuo.ll.uUtshee 2 What are the advantages of working out with friends? • What is the sport? 3 Do you think sportspeople should be paid a lot of money? ••• HWW ohhwaattisdaroiteyptolhaueylebikdee?naebfiotsuot fit? 4 How important are fans at sporting events? playing this sport? • W hich famous athletes play 5  Listen to two students answering questions 3 and 4 in this sport? Exercise 4. Then answer these questions. 1 What reasons do they give for their answers? 2 Do you agree with them? 3 Which phrases from the Language checklist do they use? 117

Writing Review The main purpose of a review is to describe and express a personal opinion about something that the writer has experienced. People read reviews because they want information as well as other people’s opinions. Good reviews include useful information for the readers and recommendations based on facts. 1 Read the writing task and answer the questions. 3 Read the review again and write the paragraph You see this announcement in an online magazine. topics. Reviews wanted! P ara gr aph 1: Introduction to the sports centre you are going to review Sports centres Paragraph 2: We’re building up our website for teenagers. We would like reviews from young people on a sports Paragraph 3: centre they have visited. Your review should include information about the location of the sports centre, Paragraph 4: the facilities it has to offer and the staff who work there. Would you recommend this sports centre to Paragraph 5: other people your age? Why/Why not? The best reviews will be published in the magazine. 4 Answer the questions. Write your review. (140–190 words) 1 What do you have to write? 1 What does the writer do in paragraph 1 to 2 Which four things should you include? attract the reader’s attention? 3 Who will your readers be? 2 Has the writer included both fact and opinion? 2 Read the model review and complete it with these 3 Is the review positive, negative or both? 4 Would you go to AllSports based on this review? phrases. as far as as for in terms of would recommend Why/Why not? AllSports Leisure Complex Are you looking for a modern and friendly environment to keep fit? If so, then head to the AllSports Leisure Complex in Coburn. It’s the trendiest new place in town to work out. 1 In terms of location, AllSports couldn’t be in a better place. It’s just at the entrance to Coburn Public Park, so it is in beautiful natural surroundings. The location is quite central with bus stops and two underground stations right outside the park. Getting to and from the complex couldn’t be easier. 2 the facilities are concerned, AllSports has a lot to offer. There’s a huge variety of fitness classes for all levels available at all times of the day. There’s an impressive range of high-tech sporting equipment for those who prefer to work out on their own. 3 the instructors, AllSports management have gone to great lengths to employ only the best. The fitness instructors and strength coaches are all very knowledgeable and helpful. They also pay a lot of care and attention to make sure that people train at their ability level and avoid accidents and injuries. I 4 AllSports to anyone who wants to join a gym with a difference. The location, general facilities and the standard of coaching all score extremely high. 118

5 Do these phrases describe fact or opinion? Write Work it out! F (fact) or O (opinion). Including fact and opinion • When you write a review, you should include fact and 1 convenient location O opinion. 2 changing rooms • To make your review interesting to read, you can use 3 excellent service a variety of adjectives to describe facts and opinions. • Remember that adjectives of opinion come before 4 friendly instructors adjectives describing fact (trendy new place, 5 indoor swimming pool convenient central location, etc.). 6 lively atmosphere 7 free weights area 8 variety of fitness classes 6 Read the writing task and underline the topics it should include. In what ways is it different to the task in Exercise 1? You see this announcement in an online magazine. Reviews wanted! Sporting or leisure events Have you been to a sporting or leisure event recently? Why not write a review of it for our website? Send us a review telling us what and where the event was, and describing what happened. Tell us whether you would recommend going to similar events or not. We’ll publish the ten best reviews! 7 Complete these ideas for a football match review. Include opinion and fact. 1 largest annual sports event 2 fans 3 stadium 4 atmosphere/experience ✓Language checklist 5 football players 6 goal Introducing topics 8 W rite the review in Exercise 6. Use ideas from Exercise 7 As far as … is/are concerned … As for … and the paragraph plan below. In terms of … When it comes to … Paragraph 1: Introduce the event and attract your readers’ attention. Adjectives high/low standard (un)friendly knowledgeable Paragraph 2: Say where and when it happened. (un)helpful modern Paragraph 3: Describe what happened. (un)impressive old-fashioned Paragraph 4: Describe the atmosphere. (un)qualified poor Paragraph 5: Make your recommendation. average remarkable dull thrilling ✓WRITING checklist electric trendiest excellent world-class Once you've written your review, make sure: high-tech • you have included all the necessary information • you have provided useful facts for the reader Recommending • y ou have stated your opinion I would definitely/certainly (not) recommend … • y ou have included a clear recommendation It’s worth noting that … You mustn’t miss … (positive or negative). … is perfect/ideal if you like … … would (not) suit … Writing 119 … is not the place for you if … I wouldn’t go to … unless/if …

Review 8 Vocabulary Grammar Choose the correct answers. Choose the correct answers. 1 It’s hard to George at chess. He’s an excellent 1 Iwish my sister borrow my clothes without asking player. me first. A win A doesn’t B defend B wouldn’t C beat C won’t D knock D hadn’t 2 Is he for the national swim team? 2 If only he missed scoring a goal in the semi-final! A trying out A didn’t B working out B wouldn’t C bringing out C hadn’t D dropping out D hasn’t 3 Jogging every morning? That’s very , isn’t it? 3 He regrets his career as a coach. A responsible A give up B mature B to give up C patient C giving up D ambitious D to giving up 4 The two teams are for the World Championship. 4 I wish I closer to the gym. A battling A lived B celebrating B should live C beating C will live D scoring D have lived 5 The rugby match unusually ended in a . 5 They regret with us to the tournament. A league A not to come B draw B to not come C half-term C not to coming D semi-final D not coming 6 The basketball player quickly after his knee 6 I’d rather to the team manager. operation. A to talk B talk A warmed up C to talking B brought out D talking C bounced back D tried out 7 Did your parents let you out until late? A to stay 7 He of the race after running one kilometre. B stay A knocked out C to staying B dropped out D staying C tried out D worked out 8 She would prefer to take up martial arts do yoga. A to 8 The runner’s parents made so that she could B than have the best coach. C rather D rather than A skills B opportunities 9 Michael will never forget a football match at Old C associations Trafford in Manchester. D sacrifices A see 9 It takes a lot of to run a marathon. B to see A stamina C seeing B confidence D to seeing C victory D priority 120

1 Read the texts and choose the correct answers. Practice 8 A Membership Gold: £80 per month ✔ U nlimited workouts with TLehiseureHCeuntbre Bronze: £30 per month ✔ T wo training workouts a qualified personal The trendiest place in town instructor to keep fit and have fun while with a qualified personal ✔ U nlimited group fitness working out! instructor per week classes ✔ F our group fitness classes ✔ U nlimited access to Opening hours per month indoor pool Monday, Wednesday and ✔ Access to indoor pool Saturday: 08:00 ─ 19:30 Monday to Friday Spring offer! Tuesday, Thursday and Friday: 08:00 ─ 22:30 Silver: £50 per month We’re offering two weeks’ Sunday: 10:00 ─ 16:00 ✔ F our training workouts free membership if you sign up throughout April! with a qualified personal instructor per week Free parking for all ✔ Six group fitness classes members per month ✔ A ccess to indoor pool Monday to Friday B C From: [email protected] To: erichartley@roots& The Hub Leisure Centre Subject: Leisure Centre Opening FWCMreieadn’yartoeryerp2Dil3seiraoadnsffeeMicdRaiaotrlcolhyhna,osn1pon0neo:n0uwi0nnilcgalem!attth–ean4td.T0th0heepHmoupbenLienigsuares the Dear Mr Hartley, guest of honour. ••••TeCmLtWerhxohyxopeecpesoeacLetwurlkeriitibetmlioslsonaupbucnucrtoeaedrenordsnstCuaeeewcrenrwvovintpelailltnfyrncprao,gehcrgcgoeiocnilrvivsaautme.iimrdteerpyesimtoaaiafoeurninrkusdsdastaad-hlgsnclvanleddiavcataseetctsyikomf.fesuoeknnrontt!naaeobrwhstliaeetoeiasnu.lmatrBhnehuydnitagtnhidnly I am writing on behalf of the management team at • bSbppaeeleoapcpnoicalpeel.pdcRiendelgeimebitenr.imttyhbrgeouruetgsohtsobfurritnogtmhyetohduearywaotuotroldmgoeraefptshploobcroat lowki!ll The Hub Leisure Centre, which is scheduled to open to your digital in March. I would like to enquire about your catering Mcaaleknedsaurresoyoyouuadddona’tremmisisndtheer big day! services. We are planning to have several juice bars and a canteen with health foods at the centre, and we would like to know if your company would be interested in supplying fresh produce for us. If that is the case, could you please send us a complete list of the goods you sell and their prices? Furthermore, we are currently organising our opening day event and we are inviting companies to participate. The event will be held on 23rd March at our new facilities on the outskirts of the town. Members of the general public will have full access to all our facilities on this day to get to know us better. Being committed to providing all-round help for health and fitness, we would also like to have stalls with nutritious, healthy food for people who train regularly. Would Roots and Fruits be interested in working together with us for this event? If so, apart from supplying food, would your staff also be able to offer visitors advice on their eating habits? If you need further information about either the juice bars and canteen or the opening event, please do not hesitate to get in touch with me. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Carla Baker Operations Manager The Hub Leisure Centre 121

Practice 8 1 What do all the membership packages in section A have in common? A They offer two weeks free in April. B Members can have access to the swimming pool on weekdays. D The Hub Leisure Centre opens with a bang! C They offer a restricted number of fitness classes each week. As a sports fan, I love visiting and trying out the sports facilities in my area. Last week, the long-awaited opening of D Members receive training with experienced instructors. The Hub Leisure Centre took place. Like hundreds of local 2 What is the purpose of section B? residents, I went along as the centre opened its doors to the A to inform readers about a future event general public. B to review a past event I was very impressed by the centre’s friendly and helpful C to make a special offer to readers management team. They had obviously done an excellent D to give advice about eating habits job of making sure the opening day was well organised. They 3 What is significant about 23rd March? proved that teamwork in all areas gets a job done better! They A A new mayor will be chosen. had brought in sporting celebrities from all over the country B New sports facilities will open. to talk to local athletes and sports enthusiasts about improving C Sports celebrities will take part in competitions. their game skills or just generally improving their fitness level. D The leisure centre car park will be closed. Permanent staff were also on hand to explain the different 4 What seems to be true about Roots and Fruits? kinds of membership that the centre has to offer. I signed A They are located on the outskirts of town. up for a year’s full membership with unlimited access to all B They regularly supply food to The Hub. classes and equipment. It was 30% cheaper than my old gym’s C They generally sell health foods. membership plan. D They sell health food at lower prices than other I also appreciated the fact that visitors were able to try out all areas of the leisure centre completely free of charge. From companies. high-tech gym equipment to the steamy sauna, everything was on offer. In addition, it was an excellent opportunity to 5 In section D, what does the author say about The get to know the gym instructors and to sign up for fitness Hub’s managers? classes. I am confident the Hub will become popular as there is something for everyone, from weight training to synchronised A They need to improve their teamwork skills. swimming. B They must increase their fitness level. In my opinion, The Hub Leisure Centre will become one of the C They could have done a better job. trendiest sporting venues in town. Now that I have my new D They did an impressive job. membership, I will definitely become a regular. 6 What do sections B and D have in common? A They were written by the same person. B They talk about health food. C They focus on the same event. D They deal with a future event. 2  Listen to a talk about marathons and complete the sentences with a word or short phrase. Run a marathon A marathon is a long-distance running competition where an athlete must run (1) . At the first modern Olympics in Athens (2) participated in the marathon. The Polar Circle Marathon, often referred to as ‘the (3) on earth’, is held in Greenland. When the oldest marathon runner crossed the finish line in Toronto, he was (4) old. In the past 40 years, London Marathon runners have managed to raise over £770 million (5) . Most London Marathon runners are (6) but scientists, nurses, etc. also take part. For non-professional runners, participating in a marathon is a(n) (7) – they want to test their limits. Non-professional runners usually start preparing at least (8) before their first marathon. Part of their preparation is running shorter races like five kilometres, ten kilometres or even a(n) (9) . They shouldn’t wear (10) , new shorts or shirts on the day of the marathon. 122

Vocabulary Progress check 4 1 Match. Then complete the sentences with the Units 7-8 correct words. 3 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the 1 boarding word given. 2 cabin 3 departure 1 It’s totally to turn up two 4 excess 5 flight hours late for practice. RESPONSIBLE 6 package 7 tour 2 The football players expressed their strong of the way their coach behaved. APPROVE 3 ‘I’ve made a huge mistake,’ the goalkeeper said A attendant . HAPPY B baggage C crew 4 ‘Come on, David. We're running late,’ Brian said D holiday E lounge . PATIENT F operator G pass 5 Reporters complained about the footballer’s distant and attitude in interviews. FRIEND 6 Can you please stop being so silly and ! MATURE 1 Can I see your , please? 7 We are aiming to reduce by 2 Natalia packed two huge suitcases and had to pay 50%. EMPLOY £125 for . 8 The athlete’s refusal to enter the game was 3 Amember of the showed another act of . OBEY us how to fasten our seatbelts. 4 Read and circle the correct words. 4 A(n) arranges transfers to and from the airport. 5 Kim works as a(n) for British Airways. 6 We sat in the waiting for our flight to be called. 7 Cost saving is the biggest advantage of choosing a(n) . 2 Replace the words in bold with the correct form of GOOOOOAL!!!! these phrasal verbs. The atmosphere is electrifying at the football stadium. Today is a big day; it’s the 1 half-time / check out of hold up see … off set off semi-final. I am a football fan and I regularly stop over touch down watch my team play to hopefully celebrate their 2 victory / sportsmanship at the end of 1 Our plane landed at Gatwick Airport at 14.30, ahead the game. This year my team is at the top of of schedule. the 3 association / league. We have 4 season / tournament tickets for the home games which 2 What time are we leaving tomorrow morning? I always attend with my father and brother. 3 Mark decided to spend a few days in Milan to see an It’s three o’clock and the players are on the field old friend. 5 warming up / working out before the game. 4 This morning I was delayed for hours because of the The 6 defender / referee blows his whistle and the match begins. My team scores a goal before traffic. 7 half-time / semi-final and I feel confident 5 We paid and left the hotel right after breakfast. about the outcome of the game. Unfortunately, their opponents score a last-minute goal, and 6 My dad came to the port to say goodbye to me. the game ends 8 in /to a draw. Now they will play two 15-minute overtime periods until there’s a winner. And that’s exactly what makes football so exciting to watch! 123

Progress check 4 3 Complete the second sentence so that it means the Units 7-8 same as the first, using the word given. Do not change the word. Use between two and five words. Grammar 1 Our coach is very strict. If only he could change. 1 Complete the sentences with the correct verb form. WISH I 1 We wouldn’t have got stuck in traffic if we so strict. (set off) an hour earlier. 2 It’s a pity our city doesn’t host athletic events more 2 When you check in online, often. (they / make) you fill in your passport number? ONLY If 3 If you had called the airline before your flight, you athletic events more often. (confirm) your booking. 3 I’m sorry I forgot to book tickets for the football 4 If I (be) you, I’d listen to match. the flight announcements. It’s boarding time. HAD I wish 5 We would be in Morocco right now if the agency to book tickets for the football match. (not cancel) our booking 4 I was disappointed because my team was beaten in last week. the semi-final. 6 If you had the chance, NOT (you / go) on a cruise or on a safari? I wish 2 Read and complete the text. Write one word in beaten in the semi-final. each gap. 5 I don’t really want to play basketball today. RATHER When it all goes wrong … I The vast majority of vacations go ahead today. smoothly and without significant problems. 6 Steve likes playing sports. He doesn’t like watching them. 1 we knew we wouldn’t PREFERS have a good time, none of us would ever go on Steve holiday. But what 2 you do if them. things went wrong? If you have signed a contract 4 Are the sentences correct or incorrect? Tick ✔ or cross ✘. with a tour operator for a package holiday, the 1 I avoid to drink water during practice. 2 He left the field without to say anything. travel agency 3 arrange 3 The coach makes them working out three everything for you. This means that if any issue hours a day. 4 They aren’t old enough to participate in comes up, it 4 be their the tournament. responsibility to sort it out. If you’re displeased, 5 They wouldn’t let the journalist to interview you 5 let your tour operator the player before the game. 6 Tom stopped playing for the local team know immediately. 6 you do two years ago. it right away, they may not be able to resolve 7 Cycling is one of my favourite sports. 8 It is difficult for me to advise you on which your problem and, more importantly, you may sport to take up. not be able to ask for a refund. If you know 9 It’s no use to be upset. Your team can’t who to complain to and what your rights are, always win. 10 You must apologise for behaving so it 7 make the difference irresponsibly. between having a memorable holiday or the 11 They regretted not to come with us to the most disastrous one ever! sport event. 12 Did you remember to collect the season tickets? 124

The Power Of Learning 1 Read the quote and discuss these questions with a partner. 1 Do you agree with the quote? Why/Why not? 2 What are the stages of education in your country? 3 What do you enjoy most and least about school? Learning is a treasure that will follow its owner everywhere. Chinese proverb 2 Why is education important? Unit map Discuss these ideas in small groups. Reading: Multiple matching Vocabulary: Education and technology • Everyone has the right to free Grammar: The passive; causative forms education. Listening: Multiple choice questions Speaking: Justifying opinion • Students should be allowed to Writing: Formal email focus on what interests them most. Practice: Multiple matching (Reading), multiple choice • It is easier to learn in a relaxed questions (Listening) environment. 139

The world’s a classroom Multiple matching Reading 1 Watch the video and answer the questions. VIDEO 1 What would be the role of teachers in an ideal school? 2 Does the speaker think robots will replace teachers? 2  Listen and read. Then match the headings (1–4) to the sections (A–D). 1 How AV1 works 3 Some background information 2 Where the idea came from 4 User stories No Isolation Robot A Some background information streamed through the microphone and camera. If a student wants to say something, they can ‘raise No Isolation, a Norwegian start-up, has developed their hand’. All they have to do is give the command robot technology for the classroom that is designed and the screen on AV1’s head changes colour. The to 1 assist students who can’t attend school for robot can also be used to express the student’s long periods of time. The robot, called AV1, has emotions by changing eye expressions. With AV1, been given the nickname The No Isolation Robot. students are able to 5 maintain a presence in the It is estimated that in the UK around 72,000 classroom, communicate with friends and socialise. students with disabilities or health conditions are absent from school for extended periods of time C every year. This long-term 2 absence affects their performance and progress at school, and causes No Isolation was set up by Karen Dolva, Marius social isolation. Over £500,000 has been invested Aabel and Matias Doyle, all three with a background in AV1 technology by the Department of Education in engineering and technology. Dolva got the idea in England and Wales in the past few years. As for AV1 after talking to a mother whose teenage a result, the school 3 attendance of students with daughter 6 struggled with long-term sickness and lengthy or repeated absences has increased from felt lonely and isolated. ‘We knew we could build 29.4% to 58.4%. just about anything, and after becoming aware of this major problem, there was no way we could sit B back and do nothing,’ Dolva said. Dolva and her team carried out research and decided to design AV1 is a telepresence robot. It’s an ‘avatar’ that acts a physical avatar to use in an educational context. like the eyes, ears and voice of students who cannot Since then, they’ve also expanded the use of AV1 be physically present in the classroom. Through the to sick employees who can connect with their AV1 app, the student can connect to their AV1 robot workplace as well as to old people. No Isolation which is at school sitting on their desk! The student recognises that loneliness is a public health issue is at home with their iPad or tablet and they can that affects people of all ages. It is working on hear through the AV1’s microphone, see through creating more tools to combat loneliness and the AV1’s camera and speak through the AV1’s isolation from the world as a result of special loudspeaker. A 4 live feed from the classroom is circumstances. D Zoe Johnson hasn’t been to school since she was 12. She is one of the students who have benefitted from using an AV1 robot. With the robot’s help, she was able to carry on with her education and even take her year-end exams at the age of 16. 140

3 Read the text again. For questions 1–10, choose from the four sections (A–D). The sections may be chosen more than once. WORK IT OUT! Which section Summarising each section before you 1 describes the functions of the AV1 robot? answer the questions 2 mentions where the idea for AV1 came from? • Quickly read through the four sections 3 quotes how much the government has spent on the project? and the headings you have selected. • Use this information to summarise 4 explains how using AV1 can benefit users’ classmates? each section before you begin 5 mentions how many students with long-term sickness answering the questions. Write one are absent from school? sentence for each section in your 6 refers to the founders of the company? notebook. 7 explains how students at home communicate with • Read question 1 and your summarising their teachers? sentences. Which section describes 8 mentions AV1 users who are not students? the functions of the AV1 robot? What is 9 explains which schools can benefit more from AV1 technology? the correct answer? 10 gives an example of academic success thanks to AV1? 4 Look at the words in bold in the text and answer the questions. One to One 1 What does assist mean? Work with a partner and discuss the help benefits of using AV1 technology. Use these ideas to help you. 2 What is the opposite of presence? • deal with loneliness 3 What does attendance mean? • stay in touch • keep up with lessons 4 What is a live feed? • socialise • p articipate in classes 5 What is a synonym of maintain? I think AV1 is a fantastic invention. 6 What is the meaning of struggle? It helps students who need to be away from school keep up with their lessons. 7 What do you do when you alert someone? They don’t fall behind; they can take exams and stay connected with their friends. 8 What do AV1 buddies do? ‘AV1 makes my life a lot more exciting and makes me feel like I haven’t been forgotten,’ Zoe said. When she wants to ask a question, the robot’s head starts blinking on and off to 7 alert the teacher. And when she’s too tired to participate, she can turn AV1’s head blue as a signal. ‘We’re celebrating because she did so much better than we ever dared hope,’ Zoe’s mother said. But the benefits of AV1 are not limited to the student who is absent. Their classmates also benefit by connecting with them and becoming more sensitive to their needs. Students often become AV1 8 buddies – they help the teacher carry the AV1 around and make sure it’s always charged. AV1 robots seem to work best in small classes and rural schools where students have close bonds with their classmates. Reading 141

Vocabulary Education and technology 1 Read and circle the correct words. Then listen and check your answers. The flipped classroom Most schools still use a teacher-centred approach to learning. Teachers 1 present / apply the lesson, students listen and then 2 give / do an assignment at home to practise what they’ve learnt in class. The class activity is centred on the teacher, not the student. But is this approach 3 beneficial / informative for all the students? Supporters of the flipped classroom don’t think so. A flipped classroom works by turning the learning process around. Students are asked to 4 prepare / present for classes at home by reading or watching videos about a subject before they go to school. Then, in class they are given the chance to discuss what they’ve learnt and 5 apply / do their knowledge in practical ways. For example, students might 6 give / do experiments in science or 7 assign / carry out tasks which require them to use their knowledge creatively. Teachers use class time to guide and support students in their learning, answer queries and 8 give / do them feedback on their work. A flipped classroom focuses on student engagement and 9 active / passive learning. It gives teachers a better opportunity to deal with students’ different learning 10 styles / ways. 2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of these verbs. apply attend enrol graduate hand in mark meet take 1 If you could enrol on a summer course, what would you choose? 2 We have to our assignment on the history of art this week. 3 Which university are you going to to? 4 Are you going to your English exam next year? 5 Students must deadlines for their written assignments. 6 She from university last year with a degree in economics. 7 When is Ms Brown going to our biology tests? 8 Students are expected to school regularly. 3 Complete the text with these words. absorb compulsory conventional direct fall fluency individual optional Self-directed learning Young people today need to develop their 1 fluency in digital media, their emotional intelligence, their motivation and their sense of purpose. This has changed our views about more 2 subjects like reading and writing. It has also affected the approach schools should take to 3 subjects – subjects that all students are required to study such as language and mathematics. Most educational systems realise how important it is to develop students’ talents and 4 interests. When students are interested in what they’re doing, they 5 information easily. Besides, students are less likely to 6 behind in subjects they’re genuinely interested in. Schools around the world are now allowing students more control over their learning and provide them with fun 7 subjects to choose from. For example, in Hawaii and Australia, surfing is a popular school subject, while some schools in Israel have introduced cyber security as an option for students. Some people feel students should 8 their own learning and follow a path they have chosen for themselves. The question is: are all school systems ready to give students complete freedom of choice? 142

4 Replace the words in bold with the correct form of these phrasal verbs. catch up with cross out drop out fit in get … across make out pick up sign up for 1 The new student tried hard to be accepted by her classmates. fit in 2 Please don’t delete your mistakes. 3 You can arrange to do a course in web design. 4 Our new chemistry teacher communicates his ideas well. 5 When we learn by doing, it’s easier to learn a new skill. 6 I can’t see what is written on the board from the back of the classroom. 7 I’ve been absent for two weeks and I must get to the same level as the rest of the class. 8 He started college but left without finishing his studies a year later. 5 Complete the tables. Adjective Noun Verb Noun 1 high height 7 advise advice 2 long 8 believe 3 proud 9 choose 4 strong 10 complain 5 warm 11 lose 6 wide 12 receive mini Practice 6 Read and complete the text with the correct form of the words given. Digital technology in the classroom Those who favour more 1 conventional approaches to teaching usually believe that CONVENTION screens have no place in the classroom. In a teacher-centred system, it’s often felt that digital EDUCATION APPROVE devices have little or no 2 value. Parents and teachers have expressed COMPLAIN their strong 3 of using the Internet at school as it might negatively affect BELIEVE students’ performance and progress. Furthermore, there are often 4 from CHOOSE ADAPT teachers that students these days have great difficulty concentrating on tasks. There is a general IMPORTANT 5 that students’ excessive use of digital devices is to blame for this. However, using digital technology in education is something we need to embrace. Online learning can offer young people more 6 in how, when and what they learn. They grow up to become more independent and 7 learners. We need to recognise the 8 of developing technology skills in students so that they will be better prepared for the digital future. TIPS Look at question 3. Do you need a noun, verb, adjective or adverb to complete the gap? Does the word need to be positive or negative in meaning? Vocabulary 143

The passive: tenses, modals, personal and impersonal structures Grammar 3 Read about the passive. 1 Watch the video and answer the questions. VIDEO • We use the passive voice when the action is more important than the agent, when we 1 What happens to students who are caught don’t know the agent or the agent is not cheating? relevant. All new students are given a tour of the 2 Why is it useful to prepare for exams with school. a study group? Whiteboards were invented in the 1960s. 2 Read and answer the questions. • We form the passive voice with the Exams and standardised tests appropriate tense of to be and the past participle of the main verb. We can use to Are you a fan of exams? Probably not! Exams and get instead of to be to talk about something standardised tests, however, are an integral part of unpleasant that happens by accident or student life. unexpectedly. The school was built in 2003. It got burnt down in 2018. • We form the passive with modal verbs + be in the bare infinitive + past participle. The essays must be handed in by Friday afternoon. • We often use verbs like believe, consider, expect, know, report, say, suppose and think in the passive voice. They can be used in an impersonal or a personal passive structure. • We form the impersonal passive structure with it + passive verb + that + clause. Many people believe that homeschooling is easier for some students. (active voice) It is believed that homeschooling is easier for some students. (passive voice) • We form the personal passive structure with noun + passive verb + full infinitive. Many people say that science subjects are more difficult than arts subjects. Science subjects are said to be more difficult than arts subjects. 1 S tandardised written tests were suggested in the Read 10.1–10.2 of the Grammar reference before USA in 1845 by educationalist Horace Mann. Until you do the tasks. then students were examined orally. Do we know who suggested the tests? Yes, Horace Mann. 4 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the Do we know who examined the students? passive. 2 Students in the UK may take up to ten standardised tests every year, while students in Finland take only 1 Five IT teachers were employed (employ) one standardised test every year. by the school last year. Are the verb forms in bold active or passive voice? 2 Online learning (promote) 3 The Higher Examination in China is 12 hours long more and more these days. and is carried out over two days. It is considered to be one of the toughest exams in the world. 3 Exams (may / hold) later than usual this year. Look at the text in bold. How can we say the same thing in the active voice? 4 It (believe) that school 4 16%–20% of students are affected by high test uniforms improve students’ self-confidence. anxiety. 5 Do you know if our history tests Why is the passive used in this case? (mark) yet? 144 6 All students (must / give) equal educational opportunities.

5 Rewrite the sentences in the passive. Write them in 7 Complete. Use the causative form. your notebook. 1 T he school is having interactive whiteboards installed 1 Many people believe that online learning is beneficial. (interactive whiteboards / install) in all classrooms today. 2 Academic stress affects students. 3 They will have updated the software by next week. 2 Two scientists 4 They have designed educational tools for young (their research learners. / publish) in an online journal last week. 5 Did the conversation inspire him to set up the 3 He (his dad / drive) company? us to the cinema tomorrow. 6 Many people think that standardised tests are 4 We (our tests / not ineffective. mark) yet. Causative forms 5 Steven (his smartphone / 6 Read about causative forms. steal) while he was shopping at the supermarket. Have/Get something done • W e use the causative form have + object + 6 The headteacher (the secretary / past participle to talk about something that we arrange for someone else to do for us. We call) all the parents yesterday evening. often use get instead of have. Our school had the website designed. mini Practice The physics teacher got a new projector installed by the lab technician. 8 Complete the second sentence so that it means • We can also use have + object + past participle to talk about something unpleasant that the same as the first, using the word given. Do not happens to someone. We cannot use get in change the word. Use between two and five words. that case. They had their project rejected. ✔ 1 We should encourage students to participate in They got their project rejected. ✘ class. BE Have somebody do something/Get somebody to do something Students should be encouraged to We can use the following structures in a variety participate in class. of tenses. 2 Will the school give tablets to all students next • We use the causative form have + object + bare year? GIVEN infinitive to say that we make someone do something. Will all students next year? The teacher has us work in small groups. • We use the causative form get + object + full 3 People believe that digital learning motivates students. BELIEVED infinitive to say we have persuaded someone to do something. It Finally, we got the headteacher to agree to an motivates students. end-of-term dance. 4 How can teachers use social robots in Read 10.3–10.5 of the Grammar reference before you education? USED do the tasks. How in education? 5 Many people think that test-taking helps students learn. THOUGHT It helps students learn. 6 They expect that the pass rate for the exam will go up this year. EXPECTED The pass rate for the exam this year. Grammar 145

Listening Multiple choice questions 1 Work with a partner. Read the statements below and write A (agree), D (disagree) or PA (partially agree). 1 Students learn better with technology. 2 Technology in the classroom can be a distraction. 3 Having a good teacher is more effective than using high-tech tools. 4 Technology makes learning more fun and engaging. 5 Teachers should be replaced by computers. 6 Technology enables students to work in a more collaborative manner. 2  Listen and read the text. Then answer the questions. Teacher: So, Andrew, it’s your turn to present your project to us. Now 1 What is Andrew’s you’ve done some research on the history of classroom technologies and project about? equipment. Can you tell us what you found out? 2 What did he have to Andrew: Sure. Let me begin by saying that my project focused only on the focus on? use of equipment in the classroom, and not in schools in general. So, I won’t be talking about equipment in labs, in the gym hall or elsewhere. 3 What is your favourite I’ll focus specifically on equipment and technologies used in classrooms. classroom technology? I spent about three weeks doing research online and I think that some of the findings are quite unexpected. 3  Listen to Andrew talking about his project and answer the questions in WORK IT OUT! . 1 What will Andrew’s presentation be about? WORK IT OUT! A technology in all aspects of school life B technology in PE lessons Paying attention to the C technology used in regular classrooms interviewer’s questions • Listen to the teacher’s first 2 What surprised Andrew when doing his research? A the transformative effect of blackboards on teaching question. What is she asking B how much blackboards reduced costs Andrew? C that it wasn’t always necessary for children to attend school • Read question 1 and the three options (A, B and C). 3 What does Andrew say about the first films used in education? Underline the key words in A They weren’t made specifically for teaching purposes. the three options. What are B They could only be used in history and geography. the differences between the C Teachers didn’t know how to use them. three options? • W hich two options don’t 4 What does Andrew think about overhead projectors? answer the question? Why? A They weren’t very useful. What’s the correct answer? B They were more practical than blackboards. C They had too many restrictions. 5 Which educational tool does Andrew feel benefits him personally? A computers B overhead projectors C interactive whiteboards 6 Andrew advises teachers to A help students manage their time better. B get students to use apps. C record their students’ progress. 4  Now listen to the rest of the interview and choose the correct answers for questions 2–6. 146

Justifying opinion Speaking 1 Look at the photos and answer the questions with a partner. AB 1 How important is arts education? WORK IT OUT! Expanding your answers 2 Are arts subjects given enough time in your school • L ook at this answer to question 1 in Exercise 1: timetable? Why do you think this is? It's very important. What is wrong with it? 3 What skills do arts subjects help students to develop? • You can expand your answer in two ways. You can 2 Expand the answers to the questions below. talk about the issue in general and justify your opinion. Alternatively, you can talk about the issue 1 A: Are sports taken seriously enough in schools? and describe your personal experience. Compare: B: In my opinion, sports aren’t taken seriously in schools. Generalising Most of the time, … Generally speaking, the arts are very important as 2 A: Should the school day be shorter? they help young people to express themselves and B: I think it should. One thing that I’ve noticed is that I … develop skills like self-confidence. 3 A: S hould students have unlimited Internet access in Personalising In my experience, the arts are very important. classrooms? Subjects like drama and music really helped me to B: Overall, it’s a good idea to have Internet access in express myself and feel more self-confident. classrooms. However, … 4 A: Do high school students get too much homework? ✓LANGUAGE CHECKLIST B: At our school they do. In my experience, … 3  Listen and complete the dialogue with phrases from the Generalising In general, … Language checklist. Generally speaking, … In the majority of cases, … Teacher: Claire, do you think young people should take a year off … is often the case. Most of the time, … between school and university? As a rule/Normally, … Claire: 1 Most of the time , students are very tired after Overall, … All in all, … taking their university entrance exams. 2 Personalising this, but my brother didn’t take a year off and he was very tired in In my experience, … One thing that I’ve noticed is … his first year at university. I will never forget the time when … Just a few days/months ago, I … Teacher: Harry, do you agree? I only have limited experience of … Personally, … Harry: 3 , I don’t think it’s necessary. Speaking from my own experience, … 4 , students have about four or five months before they start university following their high school exams. I think that gives them enough time to rest. 4 Work with your partner to answer these questions. Expand your answers by generalising or talking about a personal experience. Use the words and phrases in the Language checklist to help you. 1 Why do some students cheat in exams? ONE-MINUTE TALK 2 Does homework really help students learn? 3 Should students be tested more or less? Why? Ys• • saupbpjreocatcshteasugtohtteaching/learning 147 • classroom equipment •

Writing Formal email We write formal emails to people we don’t know well or for professional purposes. In the introduction, you should mention the reason why you are writing. When you write to complain about a service, product, situation or someone’s behaviour, you should clearly state what went wrong and what you expect to happen next. In your conclusion, you need to be specific about whether you want the person or company to apologise, give a refund, replace an item or take some other kind of action. 1 Read the writing task and answer the questions. 3 Complete the table with these sentences. Decide if Homework app they state an issue or suggest a course of action. Your school started using an expensive new app to A mistake has been made with our order. ✔ inform students about their homework. However, I believe the item should be replaced. the app is very slow at updating. Consequently, I insist that a full refund be given. students don’t find out about homework until the last minute and often miss critical deadlines. I would be grateful if you could identify a solution to this problem. Write an email to the software company complaining about the situation and suggesting what you think The equipment we were sent was damaged. should be done. Write 140–190 words in an appropriate style. There are considerable delays which create confusion. 1 What do you have to write? 2 What kind of language do you need to use? There seems to be a problem with the software. 3 Which points should you include? We think steps should be taken to prevent 4 How are you going to start your email? this from happening in the future. 2 Read the model email and answer the questions. Issue Course of action 5 1 A mistake has been made with our order. Dear Sir or Madam, 2 6 We are writing to express our dissatisfaction with the 3 7 HomeWork Pro app which our school licensed recently 4 8 from your company. Our school has almost one thousand students. It is, therefore, essential that we have effective systems to make sure teachers, students and parents are informed about what is happening at our school. We subscribed to HomeWork Pro hoping that it would assist us in keeping all students, especially those who are absent, up to date with their homework. When the app was first installed, it worked very well. However, an update which was installed on 7th May appears to have created glitches in the app. For example, there are considerable delays between teachers uploading new information and students receiving that information. Furthermore, when new data is uploaded for some classes, previous entries are automatically deleted. As you can imagine, this creates massive confusion which results in some students’ homework not getting done. We would like to be able to contact customer support when we face problems with updates. In addition, we should be given a full refund on our subscription as compensation for the confusion which has been caused. We look forward to your reply. Yours faithfully, Halifax Secondary School Student Council 1 Is the email formal and polite? 2 What are the issues? 3 What is the suggested course of action? 4 Look at the text in bold. Why has the passive been used? 148

5 Read the writing task. Work with a partner and complete the notes. WORK IT OUT! Writing an effective complaint email • E xplain what the problems are. Be as specific as you can without giving unnecessary detail. • State clearly what action you expect the reader to take. • Use the passive voice to be less direct and more formal. 4 Rewrite the sentences in the passive to make them School trip more formal. Write them in your notebook. Your school recently went on a trip to another country. However, the accommodation that the 1 You sent me a broken screen. students stayed in was not of the standard expected. 2 You should check all orders more carefully. On top of that, the tour bus broke down twice during 3 Everyone believes this mistake is unacceptable. the trip and an important day trip was cancelled. 4 You should give me a full refund. 5 You have to take steps to prevent this from Write an email to the travel agency that organised the happening again. trip complaining about the situation and suggesting 6 Please find a solution soon. what you think should be done. Write 140–190 words in an appropriate style. Formal email (complaint): School trip Issues: ✓LANGUAGE CHECKLIST Action to be taken: Stating the reason for writing I am writing to complain about … I am writing with regard to … I am writing to express my disappointment/ 6 Write your complaint email. Use ideas from Exercise 5 dissatisfaction with … Suggesting a course of action and complete the paragraph plan below. I would be grateful if … Greeting: Dear Sir or Madam, … I would appreciate it if … P aragraph 1: State the reason for writing. I think steps should be taken to … It is my belief that a refund/an apology/ Paragraph 2: an explanation should be given … Paragraph 3: I must insist on a full refund. Paragraph 4: I trust that you will replace the item. Sign off: Yours faithfully, … I would like to know what action you propose to take. Adjectives ✓WRITING CHECKLIST alarming dangerous When you've written your email, make sure: hazardous • you have included the reason for writing, what inadequate substandard went wrong and what you would like to happen unclean now unhygienic • your email starts and ends appropriately unsafe • y ou have used polite, formal language. Writing 149

Review 10 Vocabulary Grammar yesterday Choose the correct answers. Choose the correct answers. 1 This new computer software is designed to 1 The new interactive whiteboards students in class. morning. A assign A were installed B assist B had installed C absorb C were installing D apply D installed 2 They have been given instructions on how to 2 Instagram to be one of the top-ten social media the task. sites. A carry out A is considering B drop out B considers C cross out C is considered D make out D they consider 3 She Spanish while she was living in Mexico. 3 ‘Have you heard that PE class has been cancelled?’ A signed up ‘Yes, we earlier this morning.’ B picked up C caught up A are informed D made up B were informed C going to be informed D have been informed 4 Students are required to complete all homework 4 Application letters must by next Wednesday. by the end of the week. A be sent B send A subjects C have sent B paths D had sent C issues D assignments 5 He finished his project but didn’t on time. 5 Ms Parker to be a very competent teacher. A give it in A said B write it in B says C hand it in C should say D fit it in D is said 6 Sylvia the same school as her younger brother. 6 The teacher had the students an experiment in A learns the science lab. B prepares C focuses A done D attends B doing C do D did 7 The language teacher always gives us on our performance in class. 7 Incomplete assignments marked. A assistance A won’t have B feedback B won’t be C progress C wouldn’t D attendance D won’t 8 She started a degree in economics but a year 8 Harry got his classmate the essay for him. later. A write B written A dropped out C to be written B got across D to write C fell behind D took up 9 The school has had the computer network twice this year. 9 My eldest brother graduated university two years ago. A upgraded B upgrade A by C to upgrade B of D to be upgraded C from D in 150

1 You are going to read an article about an unusual school. Practice 10 For questions 1–10, choose from the four sections (A–D). The sections may be chosen more than once. Which section stresses the importance of having fun while learning? 1 describes a unique piece of furniture? 2 explains how the online community works? 3 illustrates how you can learn from your mistakes? 4 mentions how students’ progress is recorded? 5 gives details about the school building? 6 describes students’ involvement in an environmental issue? 7 mentions technology developed by students? 8 gives information about how student groups are organised? 9 talks about a different approach to research work done 10 by students? Is the future of learning already here? A C In most schools around the world, lessons are led by Even the desks at Agora School are completely teachers. There are some schools, however, that do different from those in conventional schools, things differently. Agora School in the Netherlands where they are all exactly the same shape and is a shining example. The school’s unusual approach size, and are just a functional piece of furniture. is obvious as soon as you enter the building. For a Not in this school. Students here are allowed to start, it’s an open-plan building and there are no customise their desks in any way they like. Some classrooms. Classrooms aren’t needed because there students even used part of an old car so that it are no scheduled classes. Students aren’t divided looks like they’re sitting in a convertible car! into groups depending on their age and level of The students took responsibility for designing education. They are allowed to move around freely their desks and sourcing the necessary and decide how they will spend their day and who materials. In doing so, they became aware of how they will work with. At Agora School, the emphasis the recycling process works. But they also learnt is placed on learning rather than on teaching. This the importance of accuracy in mathematics and means that students are encouraged to decide on getting the figures right. The front part of the car the best learning approach for them. They become they were going to use was too big and couldn’t motivated and get actively involved in what they are fit into the lift. They should have taken the size doing. of the lift into account. As a result, they had to start all over again. This definitely taught them B a lesson in making the right calculations and Learning at Agora School is entirely project-based. applying the information to any project. It is not done through lessons which are given by teachers in traditional subjects like maths, history D and science. In conventional schools, project work is Play is considered to be a very important tool in usually something practical that students do at the learning. It can be any activity that stimulates end of a unit of study, after they have been presented the brain. Play at school develops children with key concepts. At Agora School, students learn physically, socially and emotionally. At Agora by doing the project itself. However, that doesn’t School, students are allowed to play as much as mean that students don’t learn the same things as they wish. In fact, the school is partly a theme students in traditional educational systems. For park. What makes its educational model even example, mathematical concepts might be learnt more unique is that students aren’t tested using while doing a practical technology or geography exams either. Instead, their progress is tracked project rather than as part of a conventional maths by a special software program called Egodact. lesson. Naturally, the Internet is one of the most Not surprisingly, this software was specially important tools that students use for their projects. designed by three students at Agora School! They tend to favour ‘network knowledge’. They share This definitely doesn’t feel or look like a school. findings with their peers and are aware of what It’s too relaxed and too much fun! And that’s everybody else is doing at any moment. precisely the point! 151

Practice 10 2  You will hear an interview with Gina Warner, a high school headmistress, who is talking about testing. For questions 1–7, choose the best answer (A, B or C). 1 Gina would like a testing system that A measures students against a standard. B focuses on students’ accomplishments. C identifies students’ skills and talents. 2 What does Gina think of standardised tests? A Preparing for them is not boring. B They make schools adopt a learner-centred approach. C Teachers’ main focus is to prepare students for them. 3 What disappoints Gina as exam time approaches? A how little time is left for preparation B optional subjects being stopped C students feeling they will fail 4 What was the purpose of standardised testing? A to help students do better at school B to motivate students to study maths and science C to make learning more interesting 5 What does Gina believe should be a school's objective? A higher test results B better exam preparation C to improve students’ personal abilities and talents 6 Gina’s ideal educational system would A recognise students’ different learning styles. B not test students in any way. C test students using multiple choice questions. 7 What does Gina believe about school deadlines? A They cause students too much stress. B They help students to face up to their responsibilities. C They have both positive and negative effects on students. 152

Vocabulary Progress check 5 1 Complete the sentences with the correct form of Units 9-10 these phrasal verbs. 2 Circle the correct words. break down clean up cut down die out 1 Schools are trying to raise students’ heat up run out of throw away turn off environmental awareness / unaware. 1 Residents started city parks 2 Waste management is a matter of great importance / important. last Wednesday. 3 Lisa has the leading / leadership qualities 2 How is our ecosystem affected when we to be team captain. trees? 4 We need to find sponsored / sponsorship for our research trip. 3 How can I the water supply to the bathroom? 5 Local conservationists / conservations have arranged a meeting in two weeks. 4 Consumers in the USA around 6 Ian is an active campaign / campaigner 100 billion plastic bags every year. for animal rights. 5 The planet fast because of global 7 The activists / activities reported that the government refused to meet with them. warming. 6 Can you the costs of the project? 7 Dinosaurs millions of years ago. 8 What will we do when we natural resources? 3 Complete the sentences with these words. absorb apply compulsory fall fluency feedback optional 1 How can you what you have learnt in the workplace? 2 Iappreciate being given on my work. 3 Wearing uniforms is no longer in a lot of schools in the UK. 4 Students are asked to a lot of new information very quickly. 5 My daughter might behind with her schoolwork because she’s been absent for a week. 6 The history course is . Alternatively, one could choose poetry or creative writing. 7 Encouraging students to use apps is one way of building their in digital media. 4 Read the text and choose the correct answers. Did you know? Schools have changed a lot over the years. Blackboards have been replaced with 1 whiteboards and textbooks have been replaced with laptops. One thing that hasn’t changed much is homework. Students in China are 2 the most homework in the world – they do an average of 40 hours of homework weekly. In Pakistan, education is 3 only for children aged five to nine. In the Netherlands, children start 4 school as soon as they turn four years old, which means there is a new kid at school almost every day. This is different in Finland, where students first go to school at the age of seven. In Iceland, knitting is one of the 5 taught at school. It doesn’t matter if you are a boy or girl, you have to learn how to knit a sweater at a young age. Japan has one of the world’s best educated populations with 96% high school 6 nationwide and nearly 100% in the cities. The largest school in the world in terms of number of students is the City Montessori School in India with 32,000 students. A school in the Philippines is made entirely of 7 bottles filled with sand and water. It took about 9,000 bottles and dozens of volunteers to build it. Finally, in Russia, children always start school on 1st September (Knowledge Day), even when it falls on a weekend. 1 A effective B interactive C competent D directed 2 A tested B marked C prepared D assigned 3 A compulsory B passive C active D individual 4 A assisting B reporting C attending D maintaining 5 A lessons B subjects C units D projects 6 A performance B learning C fluency D attendance 7 A recycled B disposed C thrown D wasted 153

Progress check 5 3 Read and complete the text. Write one word in each gap. Units 9-10 Grammar 1 Rewrite the sentences in the passive. 1 The students have just completed their written assignment. The written assignment . 2 They must hand in their essays next week. Climate strikes The essays Climate strikes were a series of strikes and protests . that took place in September 2019. These strikes 1 3 They can take the exam again at the end of the inspired by Swedish climate activist Greta school year. Thunberg. 2 was reported that the protests The exam took place across 4,500 locations in 150 countries. . The protests were organised 3 different environmental groups and were probably the largest 4 We should replace blackboards with smart boards. climate strikes in world history. The protesters Blackboards demanded that action should 4 taken to . protect the planet and stop climate change. In Montreal, where Greta Thunberg talked, classes 5 5 You must meet deadlines for the end-of-year cancelled for about one hundred thousand project. students. Organisers claimed that half a million Deadlines for the end-of-year project people joined the protest in Montreal. Greta explained . her plan to 6 carbon emissions reduced by more than 50% by 2050 and 7 awarded the 6 Professor Schultz will answer queries by email. Key to the City of Montreal by Mayor Valerie Plante. Queries . 4 Complete the second sentence so that it means the 2 Rewrite the sentences in the causative form. same as the first, using the word given. Do not change the word. Use between two and five words. 1 A technician is installing a new smart board in their classroom. 1 ‘You’d better put the glass containers into the blue recycling bin,’ she said. They SUGGESTED . She 2 Cousin Jack filled out the application form for me. the glass containers into the blue recycling bin. I had 2 ‘We should see a lawyer,’ they said. . INSISTED 3 Dr Frazer insists that students should carry out They experiments without any help. a lawyer. Dr Frazer gets 3 ‘Businesses have to obey environmental laws,’ the activist said. . THAT 4 Someone is going to redesign our school website. The activist said We environmental laws. . 4 ‘Are you going to clean up the beach tomorrow?’ Greg asked. 5 The headmistress asks her assistant to check school attendance every day. WERE The headmistress has Greg asked us to clean up the beach the following day. . 5 ‘Please don’t throw away the food,’ he said to her. 6 Can you ask someone to photocopy the report? ASKED Can you He ? away the food. 6 ‘Do they transport oil in tankers?’ Paul wanted to know. TRANSPORTED Paul asked in tankers. 154

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