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All American C1C2 sample

Published by Hamilton House Publishers, 2022-02-07 08:58:03

Description: All American C1C2 sampler


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AMERICAN James Suntres STUDENT’S BOOK Sarah Yu C1/C2

CONTENTS Unit Reading Vocabulary • Easily confused words • Phrasal verbs 1 Social media: It's not all bad! • Digital world vocabulary Hooked on social media? • Expressions • Expressions THE DIGITAL WORLD • Word formation: negative prefixes • Collocations pages 5–16 Taking real art to the street The first selfies • Fine arts vocabulary 2 • Phrasal verbs • Easily confused words WORKS OF ART • Word formation: verb suffixes pages 17–28 EXAM PRACTICE (Units 1–2) pages 29–30 3 Artificial Intelligence and • Environmental issues vocabulary • Collocations recycling • Phrasal verbs • Expressions OUR CHANGING • Prepositions ENVIRONMENT The ideal fuel? • Easily confused words pages 31–42 4 Box office success stories • Media and entertainment vocabulary • Collocations The reality of reality TV POP • Expressions • Easily confused words CULTURE pages 43–54 • Prepositions • Word formation: adjective suffixes EXAM PRACTICE (Units 3–4) pages 55–56 5 Working out at home • Health and fitness vocabulary • Collocations Sugar: Our worst enemy • Easily confused words • Words related in meaning HEALTHY BODY, • Prepositions HEALTHY MIND • Word formation: adjective suffixes • Collocations pages 57–68 • Expressions • Globalization vocabulary • Easily confused words 6 The forces of globalization • Phrasal verbs • Words with multiple meanings THE AGE OF A kinder and friendlier GLOBALIZATION multinational pages 69–80 EXAM PRACTICE (Units 5–6) pages 81–82 7 Great jobs with no university • Employment vocabulary • Proverbs degree! • Words related in meaning • Collocations CAREERS AND • Easily confused words EMPLOYMENT Changing career paths • Prepositions • Collocations pages 83–94 • Prepositional phrases • Urbanism vocabulary • Words related in meaning 8 Creating livable cities • Expressions Returning to the country • Word formation THE URBAN-RURAL • Easily confused words DIVIDE pages 95–106 EXAM PRACTICE (Units 7–8) pages 107–108 9 Taking control • Genetics vocabulary • Personality adjectives Fear and anxiety • Words related in meaning • Collocations GENETICS AND • Word formation • Expressions THE BRAIN pages 109–120 10 Hacking our bodies • Science and innovation vocabulary • Expressions Google and medicine • Collocations • Easily confused words SCIENCE AND • Phrasal verbs • Words with multiple INNOVATION pages 121–132 meanings EXAM PRACTICE (Units 9–10) pages 133–134 Speaking prompts pages 135–144 Writing bank pages 145–149 Grammar reference pages 150–168 2

Grammar Cloze Listening Speaking Writing • Present tenses Virtual reality Short conversations • Talking about yourself Article (1) • Future tenses Online gaming • Explaining and • Time clauses Short talks Art Deco recommending • Past tenses Installation art • Used to Reaching a consensus Essay (1) • Modal verbs Environmental science Segments from Presenting and Proposal (1) • Semi-modals a radio program convincing • Modal perfect verbs Climate change and ancient civilizations • Passive voice Fake news Short conversations Justifying and defending Article (2) • Causative form The Internet has transformed TV • Gerunds Slow food Short talks Summary: Stages 1–5 Essay (2) • Infinitives Fitness and overtraining • Relative clauses Fast fashion Segments from a Exam practice Proposal (2) • Reduced clauses ‘Glocal’ companies radio program • Participle clauses • Conditionals Job satisfaction Practice: Short Exam practice Essay (3) • Wishes Emerging jobs conversations Article (3) • Unreal past Rural living Practice: Short talks Essay (4) • Adjectives and Modern farming Essay (5) adverbs Practice: Segments Exam practice from a radio program • Comparative structures • Inversion Artificial Intelligence and Practice: Short Exam practice • Emphasis the brain conversations • Word order Cognitive brain functions Practice: Short talks • D eterminers and quantifiers Robotic exoskeletons Practice: Segments Exam practice Mars exploration from a radio program • The subjunctive 3

The Digital World POINT OF VIEW 1 The Internet and social media have drastically changed the way people all over the world interact and communicate. Social media networks give us the opportunity to share opinions with a far wider audience. But is using social media to blame for a deterioration in our communication skills, or is it merely changing them? And what are the potential drawbacks of digital means of communication? 1 How much do you know about digital communication? Write T (true) or F (false) for each statement. 1 Facebook is now the social media platform with the fewest active users worldwide. 2 Mental health experts are generally uncertain about how frequent Internet addiction actually is. 3 Studies show that cyberbullying is less harmful than physical bullying. 4 Teens who spend a lot of time online can develop healthier sleep patterns. 5 On average, students favor face-to-face instruction over being taught in an online educational environment. 6 When we push the panic button, we signal how excited we are about something. 7 According to a recent survey, about 10% of teens never log off from their social media. 8 There are currently clear guidelines that define what excessive Internet use is and how to prevent it. 9 Our behavior, when we are online, has to be just as exemplary as our behavior in the real world. 10 It is no longer necessary to deactivate our electronic devices when we fly. 2 Choose an appropriate synonym (A, B, or C) for the words in bold. 1 Mary is perpetually on her phone, tablet, or computer, to the point that I think she’s addicted. A continuously B hardly C intermittently 2 The Internet is, without a doubt, our most important medium, and we must always use it wisely. A regularly B intelligently C rarely 3 It is still not clear if spending too much time online has any long-term repercussions. A benefits B misunderstandings C consequences 4 According to some experts, it could be detrimental for teens to be online more than two hours a day. A harmful B advantageous C possible 5 If we don’t know how pervasive a problem is, then it is difficult to deal with it. A characteristic B limited C widespread 6 In order for a social media site to become quickly popular, it has to offer innovative content. A original B accessible C understandable 7 John spends an inordinate amount of money on gadgets and electronic devices. A sufficient B excessive C interesting 8 One phenomenon which is really plaguing society is online gambling. A benefiting B harming C inspiring 5

READING 1 Watch the video and answer the questions. 1 What is the danger of using social media as a tool for law enforcement? 2 What is the impact of social media at the workplace? 2 Read the passages and answer the questions. This passage is about social media. 1 What is the main purpose of the passage? A to explore the pros and cons of social media Social media: It’s not all bad! B to focus on the positive aspects of social media C to advise against the use of social media by Many are the voices blaming social media for the myriad of ills plaguing teens. However, many teenagers experts concur that those who use social media D to explain to parents which social media wisely are actually reaping a number of benefits. 5 According to a recent Pew Center Research survey platforms teens prefer of nearly 1,000 teens, 45% are perpetually online, not logging off even at night. 97% of teens use a 2 In the second sentence of paragraph 1, which social media platform to stay informed, exchange word could best replace concur? ideas, and to consume content such as movies 10 or music. The most popular platforms include A contest Instagram, Snapchat, and YouTube, and there is B agree always something innovative popping up. Thanks C dispute to these platforms, teens can be better informed D forbid about the world around them. They can familiarize 15 themselves with new cultures, increasing their 3 According to the passage, what is one important understanding of peers from around the world. benefit of social media for teenagers? Social media platforms can be used to support teens with their schoolwork since teens use them A They are able to find innovative apps. to request or provide assistance whenever they B They become better consumers. 20 have an issue with an assignment or project. C T hey can learn about adolescents in other However, for teens to enjoy these benefits, they have countries. to be guided on how to use these platforms wisely. D They find it easier to stay online. One cannot deny the fact that social media can be linked with a large number of problems, including 4 Which statement would the author probably agree 25 depression, disrupted sleep, and cyberbullying. with? Nevertheless, there is a lot that parents can do to mitigate the negative impact of social media. A With guidance, teens benefit from social media. They can begin by familiarizing themselves with B Social media should be used despite their the platforms their children are using, and even 30 have them explain how these platforms function. drawbacks. Parents can then teach their teenagers how to use C Social media are only good for entertainment. social media not only as a source of entertainment, D 45% of teenagers log off their accounts at night. but also as a tool for learning. 5 In the third sentence of paragraph 2, which word could best replace mitigate? A lessen B amplify C understand D manage Parents have to be exemplary when it comes to 6 What is the passage suggesting with regard to 35 their own use of social media, and any app for that parents? matter. One very useful rule is that all electronic A They need to set an example for their children. devices in the home, be they cellphones, tablets, or B They should spend more time online. computers, should be switched off after a certain C T hey must decide on which apps their children time. use. D T hey must forbid the use of all devices in the home. 6

This passage is about Internet addiction. 1 Hooked on social media? Exam strategy With the inordinate amount of time people typically • B efore reading the passage, it is important to read spend online, some mental health experts are beginning the one-line statement that introduces it. It will help to push the panic button. They even have a term for you identify the basic subject area the passage is someone who is glued to a screen, and that is Internet taken from. This in turn will help you activate your Addiction Disorder (IAD). Of course, not all mental health background knowledge, as well as recognize key 5 experts share this concern. This may be why IAD has words and phrases as you read. not yet been included in internationally recognized diagnostic manuals along with other disorders. So far, • Then, read the opening paragraph carefully. Establish the only governments to see IAD as serious enough to the author’s purpose. Underline key words in options take action are those of China and South Korea. A, B, C, and D. Is the author justifying, giving advice, trying to clarify or warning the reader? 10 IAD is difficult to quantify since devices with Internet access are so ubiquitous, and tablets, phones, and computers are perpetually available at home, school 7 What is the main purpose of the passage? and work. It is perhaps next to impossible even to define A to justify the expenditure of public funds for IAD what excessive Internet use is. This is not preventing B to give advice on how best to deal with IAD 15 some mental health experts from coming up with a basic C to clarify what and how widespread IAD is profile of an IAD sufferer. One primary characteristic of D to warn that 40% of adults and teens have IAD an Internet addict is an inability to perform optimally when it comes to academic, occupational, or professional 8 What is the author suggesting about IAD? obligations. In other words, a preoccupation, not to A There is no consensus on what or how common 20 mention obsession, with online games, celebrities on IAD truly is. social media, or sports results means one will end B IAD must be dealt with immediately by more up neglecting school or work. Internet use is also governments. problematic once it causes people to become neglectful C C hina and South Korea have the most IAD of family and friends. Finally, time online becomes sufferers. 25 detrimental when it is spent at the expense of time better D More teens suffer from IAD than adults. devoted to exercising, reading, or participating in other 9 In the first sentence of paragraph 2, which word fruitful activities. could best replace ubiquitous? Granted, an otherwise typical person can comfortably A intermittent spend hours on Facebook, YouTube or any other site B useful 30 without there being a problem. Anyone not suffering C versatile from IAD can very easily log off and deactivate their D common devices when they have to, or when they are asked to. The addict, however, cannot. Additionally, should a regular 10 Based on the passage, what is one consequence user be deprived of Internet access for any reason, there of IAD? 35 are no repercussions. In contrast, when an IAD sufferer A It disrupts relationships with loved ones. is prevented from getting online, it is not uncommon B It costs employers of addicts a lot of money. for this person to experience anger, tension, and even C Other health problems become more serious. depression. D Sufferers use the Internet only for Ironically, in the absence of a standardized diagnosis, entertainment. 40 no one has come up with a specific treatment for IAD. 11 According to the passage, what distinguishes Different, and often rival, research teams have adopted non-IAD sufferers from IAD sufferers ? protocols seriously lacking in consistency, which in turn results in faulty and even misleading data. This has A Watching YouTube is not their problem. resulted in an inability to establish just how pervasive B L osing Internet access doesn’t affect their 45 the problem is. Some researchers assure us that only health. 0.3% of us have a problem with the Internet, while others warn that almost 40% of adults and a growing number of C They easily keep up with school and work. D They have other addictions. teens need treatment for Internet addiction. Such varied 12 According to the passage, what do some interpretations explain why IAD has not yet been officially researchers believe? included in lists with other mental health problems. A Nearly 99% of Internet users have no problem. B M ost Internet users end up having addiction issues. C More teens than adults suffer from IAD. D IAD sufferers need to be deprived of Internet access. 7

Vocabulary 1 Read and complete the passage with these words. bombarded content distinction hooked impose interacted network scroll users virtual Social media platforms: The power of images Social media sites allow us to share ideas, interests and information within our (1) communities. We all know the platforms, and about 90% of us (2) through their pages every day. Which social media platform you prefer depends largely on your age group. Take the one with the highest number of (3) , Facebook. It is more popular with adults because they can connect with their peers. For example, businesspeople can expand their professional (4) . In contrast, the younger generation are (5) on visual platforms like Snapchat and TikTok. The young don’t want to be (6) with words. They want visual (7) . Many young people feel that words (8) an opinion on you, while visuals let you tell your narrative based on what you see. Another interesting (9) is that the younger generation want to keep their social media less personal. They’d rather see things they enjoy than learn details about people they know. This justifies the popularity of TikTok: its algorithms pick out the videos you see based solely on the ones you’ve already watched or (10) with. Whereas Facebook walls are filled with friends’ posts, your TikTok page will show you hysterical videos from complete strangers. 2 Circle the correct words. Did you know? 1 Google processes / proceeds 100 billion searches per month. 2 The fastest-growing component / segment of the Internet is social media, with an estimated one million new users every day. 3 Over two thirds of teens prefer online intercommunication / interaction to actually meeting up with their friends. 4 Bots, not humans, are responsible for generating / inducing 52% of all Internet traffic. 5 Spam that flogs / clogs our email accounts for over 60% of all emails. 6 3.5 billion people are on social media, causing experts to believe it poses / positions a genuine threat to people’s mental health. 7 The body of comprehension / knowledge available on the Internet is growing exponentially. Some scientists say that soon, 99% of all human thought and science will be found online. 3 Match the expressions in bold (1–7) to their meanings (a–g). 1 In the 21st century, almost anything can be done at the push of a button. 2 If you send an email invitation, none of us will get our wires crossed. 3 That teacher really has a way with children and always presses the right buttons! 4 Steve Jobs was said to be light years ahead of his competitors. 5 You plug it in and it connects automatically. It’s not rocket science! 6 Those two are never on the same wavelength. That’s why they argue so much! 7 As this project is going over budget, management will probably pull the plug on it. a able to understand one another e to cancel an initiative b simple to understand f to misunderstand one c very easily another d to manipulate someone into doing something g extremely advanced 8

1 4 Read the definitions and complete the phrasal verbs with the correct preposition. 1 log off/out = to disconnect from a 6 pop = to appear suddenly or computer or account unexpectedly 2 log = to connect to a computer 7 plug = to put the power plug using a username and password into the wall socket 3 back = to make an extra copy 8 go = to stop working of a file completely (for networks) 4 filter = to remove undesirable 9 cut = when the telephone line email messages is disconnected 5 key = to type words or numbers 10 click = to put your mouse on on a keyboard an item and select it 5 Complete with the correct form of the phrasal verbs in Exercise 4. 1 When you are using a public computer, you should always log off when you’re finished. 2 Once you select the right answer, it and it will be registered. TIPS ! 3 Always your files after you’ve saved them. 1 When you click on this icon, a list of 4 Sorry, but we were . Could you repeat what you just said? files on your screen. 5 I hate it when ads on a page. It’s so annoying! A clicks on 6 I don’t like using fingerprint ID. I prefer to a password. B logs off C pops up 7 I thought my computer had died, but then I realized that it wasn’t . D backs up 8 It took me ages to all the junk mail that had accumulated.  6 Use the correct prefix to make the words negative. de- dis- il- im- in- ir- mis- non- un- 1 activate deactivate 4 probable 7 literate Which of these 8 compatible phrasal verbs can you 2 connect 5 familiar 9 violent use to describe things that suddenly appear 3 calculate 6 regular on your screen? 7 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in bold. 1 The skeptical scientist discussed the improbability of artificial intelligence surpassing human intelligence. probable 2  Scientists believe we are on the 2 The of some apps with iPhones is a source of frustration for many of a major breakthrough in users. compatible 3 You must the alarm system before entering the office. activate 4 Some parents are computer and have a hard time keeping up with self-driving cars. their children. literate A verge 5 It’s easy to if you aren’t using a calculator. calculate B place 6 I’m sorry, but we were . I’ve been having Internet problems all day. C tip connect D edge 7 Although the new employee is with our company software program,  he’s learning very rapidly. familiar Only one 8 She is against most video games and is a great believer in in every of these words aspect of life. violent completes the 9 He was investigated because of the large number of in his income expression properly, so that it means tax return. regular “just about to 8 Circle the incorrect word in each sentence. happen”. 1 I’m going to call in a technician to update / upgrade / uplift my computer. 2 Some fear that technology is leading to a disapproval / disintegration / degradation of human relations. 3 The three main components / ingredients / parts of a computer are the input, the output and the processing unit. 4 The inventor is on the brink / edge / verge of making a major breakthrough. 5 For many people, apps are the main mode / method / module of communication with friends. 6 Older generations fail to acknowledge / grasp / hold the importance of improvements in communication. 9

GRAMMAR Present and future tenses, time clauses   1 Circle the correct answers. 1 Which of the following are stative verbs? belong / survive / prefer / realize / pursue 2 Which tenses cannot be used with stative verbs? simple tenses / continuous tenses 3 Which tenses can be used in time clauses, after when, once, after, by the time, etc.? present simple / present perfect simple / future simple 4 In this sentence, the underlined verb refers to the present / the past. Dwayne has taken various computer courses but is still not proficient. 2 Complete. Use the present simple, present continuous, going to, future simple, or future continuous. 1 Look at his face, I think he is going to 6 This time next week, you faint (faint)! (give) your speech in front 2 The children of a thousand people! (depend) on you to set up their new 7 Once you (get off) video console for the party tonight. your phone, we can finally sit down and have 3 You (find) dinner. it easier to use the program next tim e 8  (this console / you try it.  belong) to you? It’s really cool! 4 As soon as I 9 We can all go home while the technicians (hear) any news, I’ll call you. I promise. (finish up) the 5 The new VR technology repair work they’re doing. TIPS ! (not be) as advanced 10 This antivirus software 1 I fear that this as you’re expecting it to be. (update) automatically problem will get worse before it every 24 hours. better. 3 C ircle the correct answers. A is getting B gets 1 What happens next depends / is depending / has depended completely on whether the C has gotten IT Department can get the program running again. D will get 2 Why are your eyes so red? Are you reading / Do you read / Have you been reading Which answer e-books on your tablet all night?   is correct? Can you use the future in 3 Where have you been? I ’ve been looking / ’ve looked / will be looking all over for you! 4 I don’t think we’re that late; the class isn’t starting / won’t have started / won’t have a time clause with “before”? been starting yet. 5 By next week, you will have / will have had / have my laptop for two months. It’s about 2 It’s incredible that we each other time you returned it! for thirty years 6 Once you have written / are writing / will write a few documents in Word, you’ll get the at the end of this month! hang of it! 7 Her computer literacy seminars will be getting / are getting / get so popular that she’s A will be knowing B know planning to hire an assistant to help her present them. C will have known 8 Jake accepts / will have accepted / is going to accept that job offer if he gets it. D are knowing 9 What is smelling / has smelled / smells like it’s burning? Are you cooking something? 10 Why are you always forgetting / do you always forget / have you always forgotten to  Underline the time phrases. save your work? Which tense do we 4 C omplete the sentences with these time phrases. use to describe about to by the time forever nowadays once a state that will be since this time next week up until now true up to a point 1 Why is your brother scrolling on his phone? Doesn’t he have in the future? anything better to do? 10 2 , I’ll be lying under an umbrella on the beach. 3 Most of the staff will have gone home the Internet is up and running again. 4 No one has been able to solve this equation . 5 Alice has known how to use a touchscreen she was two. 6 It seems that , everyone has at least one cellphone. 7 How bizarre to bump into you here! I was just text you! 8 I can guarantee that you see the new technology, you’ll be hooked!

CLOZE 1 Read the passages and select the word or phrase that best completes each blank. This passage is about virtual reality. Virtual reality (VR) technology has grown 1 A that C will TIPS ! exponentially since the turn of the century. Worth B going D even around 500 million dollars in the late 1990s, it currently generates revenues of over 15 billion 2 A donning C letting B putting D occupying dollars. According to some estimates, 95% of 3 A points C results Question 9: households (1) have a VR device by 2025. B makes D allows Which word, VR generally involves users (2) a special Head 4 A consistent C familiar when used Mounted Device (HDM) which (3) them to have a B complete D compared with “of”, completes a simulated experience, (4) with sights and sounds. 5 A oriented C provided preposition VR applications continue to be predominantly B made D backed that means entertainment-(5), however, this is rapidly changing. 6 A preferring C turning “in place of B planning D learning something”? For example, more and more coaches are (6) to virtual reality technology to assist their athletes in 7 A connections C applications developing both their technique and their reflexes. B correlations D ratios A recent study has even found that mind-muscle 8 A inserted C applied (7) can be enhanced through VR technology. It is B investigated D prevented also being (8) in education. (9) of seeing a scientific 9 A Because C Instead experiment on video, students can now conduct that B Besides D Along experiment themselves. Similarly, tourism is never 10 A use C step going to be the same thanks to VR. Now there is no B wish D need (10) for travelers to fly to the Amazon for a rainforest experience since they can simulate it from the comfort of their living rooms. TIPS ! Question 14: This passage is about online gaming. 11 A catching on C turning to Try all the Online video games were developed by computer answer options out loud. Only programmers as a way to unwind in the early 1970s, B following up D letting up one of them but did not start (11) until the late 1990s. That was 12 A approachable C reliable sounds natural around the time Internet connections became both B expendable D able and grammatical fast and (12) enough to handle the immense (13) when followed games required. The three most popular games, 13 A quantity C bandwidth by “of”. B potential D structure Crossfire, Dungeon Fighter Online, and Minecraft, 14 A a combined total C an approximate number have (14) of 2.3 billion users. That is one third of the world’s population. B acquired most D managed to attract more 15 A at C over Now, we know that worried parents lose sleep (15) B between D about the fear that their gamer children are wasting their time. But (16) would they react if told that online 16 A what C when gaming has become quite lucrative? Quite a few B how D where gamers, by competing in tournaments, manage to 17 A excess C spite B hopes D number earn an average annual income in (17) of 18 A road to C recipe for US $60,000, while the really talented ones can B secret behind D attainment of hope for over a million. As with every professional 19 A approaches C programs activity, though, the (18) success is a bumpy one. B skills D lines Elite gamers must spend countless hours on their 20 A discourage them from C bear in mind consoles, forever honing their (19), something B warn about D fail to anticipate supportive parents should (20). 11

Listening Short conversations This type of listening task consists of a set of short 3  You will hear ten short conversations. After each conversations, each one followed by a multiple- conversation, you will hear a question about it. Choose choice question based on what you heard. Short the best answer, A, B, C, or D. conversations involve either two or three speakers and are heard only once. 1 What is the woman’s mistake? A She misread the instructions. 1  Listen to the short conversation. What question do B She keyed in incorrect information. you have to answer? C She forgot to enter her email address. D She keeps returning to the wrong page. Woman: John, have you figured out where you’re going to work this summer? Same 2 What will the boy probably do? computer repair place as last year? A get his hard drive replaced B buy a brand new laptop Man:  To be honest, I have a few offers. I’m C try to fix his laptop by himself going to see which one seems the best, D update his software and … umm, take my time, you know. Last year, I only cared about the wages, but the 3 What is probably the man’s relationship to the place was a disaster! company? Woman:  O h yeah, I remember. The basement office A He is a manager. with no windows. B He is an employee. C He is a competitor. Man:  Exactly, and it was unbelievably cramped. D He is a client. It was awful! 4 What does the woman think that the man should do? Narrator: W hat kind of job does the man say he A call a meeting with Jenna wants? B ignore Jenna C avoid seeing Jenna A one that offers the best pay rate D apologize to Jenna B one that has to do with computers C one that has good working conditions 5 What is the woman’s complaint? D one that is in an upstairs office A Her students are not attentive. B Her students are not studying. 2  Listen again and answer the questions. C Her students are absent. D Her students are failing. 1 It is important to understand the gist, or overall meaning, of the conversation. Which option do you 6 How does the boy help the girl? think answers the question best? Underline the A by telling her to write an email part of the conversation that expresses the option B by explaining an assignment to her you chose. C by advising her to talk to someone D by uploading a file for her 2 What didn’t the man like about his job last year? Based on your answer, can you eliminate any 7 What does the woman value most in her phone? option(s)? A its price B its size 3 What did he care about last year that he does not C its practicality care about this year? Based on your answer, can D its appearance you eliminate any other option(s)? 8 What are the speakers discussing? 4 Wrong options can sound logical but not be A getting repairs done to systems relevant. Which option states something that is not B shutting down the office for holidays mentioned in the conversation? C protecting a company from robbery D helping the woman to finish up paperwork Exam strategy 9 What does the man think is the biggest disadvantage • L isten for gist. Often in short conversations, the of 3D printing? answer is not directly stated, only implied. The key is to interpret the real meaning of what the speakers A the price are saying. Pay attention to the tone of their voice. B the time C the process • U se the process of elimination. The wrong answers D the materials often sound logical, but are either not stated or are an incorrect version of what was said. 10 Why did the woman leave her job? A She was let go by the company. • D o not be distracted by interruptions or informal B She was not good at it. expressions. The speakers talk in a natural way, and C She wanted more independence. often use pauses, sighs, interruptions, and filler D She was overworked. words like “umm” while they are speaking. 12

Speaking 1Talking about yourself, explaining and recommending 1 Read the points and make notes about yourself. 5  Zoey and Mario are on the committee to select a technological upgrade for the community youth center. • your name and age/grade Listen and answer the questions. • what you are currently doing and what you like/dislike 1 Which list does Zoey rephrase better in her own about it words, tablets or PCs? • y our favorite and least favorite school subjects • how you spend your free time 2 Which expressions does she use to describe • your plans for the near and distant future the two options? Check ✔ the phrases in the LANGUAGE BANK. 2  Listen to two students introducing themselves. Then 3 When does she mention the disadvantages? check ✔ the correct box(es). 4 What does Mario say to express his preference? Which student Robert Mandy 6 Over to You Read the information in EXAM STRATEGY. 1 uses a good range of vocabulary? Then take turns presenting the two lists to your partner. 2 gives short answers? Your partner should express his/her preference. Use 3 gives reasons to support their answer? expressions from the LANGUAGE BANK. 4 sounds unnatural? 5 performs better overall? Exam strategy 3 Over to You Read the information in EXAM STRATEGY. • P araphrase the points on the information sheet in Then with a partner, take turns talking about yourself. your own words. Write down synonymous words Make sure you cover all the points in Exercise 1. or another way of expressing the points. Exam strategy • Use linking words and expressions to organize your presentation. Group similar points together • The beginning of an interview is an icebreaker, so they flow logically. where you introduce yourself. You should talk about yourself in a descriptive way. • G roup the negative points together and introduce them with the appropriate connector • Respond to the interviewer’s questions in a natural (see LANGUAGE BANK). way. Do not memorize an answer. • W hen you go over each point, explain how it • Avoid short answers. Expand on your responses, relates to the task you are trying to complete. At especially by saying how you feel about them. the end of this stage, decide which of the two options on your information sheet is the best. • C ommunicate and interact with your interviewer and conversation partners as much as possible. Language bank 4 You are on a committee to select a technological Introducing points upgrade for the community youth center. Look at the First of all, … information sheet below. Write a full sentence about Firstly, secondly, finally, … Another point is … each point, using your own words as much as possible. It should also be considered that … In addition, … Selecting an upgrade Talking about advantages and disadvantages However, … Tablets Desktop PCs There is one negative point / There are a couple of negative points to think about. The following list provides The following list Another positive point/drawback is that … There is an upside/a downside … basic information about provides basic Expanding tablets: information about This will mean that … That’s great because it means that … • cost $90 per unit desktop computers: This is important because … For example, … • can have many apps on • cost $580 per unit … which is an advantage/a disadvantage because … Making recommendations them • wide range of uses I think that X is a better option. In my opinion, X would be better. • make online • useful for academic I recommend … entertainment easily purposes accessible • very large memory • appealing to young people • take up a lot of space • touchscreen is easy • can be upgraded to use • need replacing every • can’t be used to teach 5–6 years computing skills • need replacing every 2 years 13

Writing Article (1) Analyze the task B C A Teens checking phones 68% “The use of while in class cellphones in schools is not of teachers are bothered going to go away, so learning s7el0do%m 3o0fte%n by cellphone use in class. to effectively manage and handle them is a valuable skill – a recent opinion poll for students to learn.” – Helen Jones, teacher – a recent survey Article Your school plans to ban cellphones in the classroom during instructional time. Some teachers and students are positive about this idea, but others are not. Write an article for the school newspaper about the impact of such a policy and what you think about it. Include at least one piece of information given above to support your response. 1a Study the three sources. Then make notes explaining what each source is about. Source A When asked how often they check their phones while in class, the vast majority of teens Source B Source C 1b Look at the sources and read the task again. Then answer the questions. 1 What does each of the sources express or display? 2 What are some common themes linking the three sources? 3 What are the differences between the three sources? 4 What issues do the sources touch on that are different? 5 Do you find the information above in any way surprising? Study the model 2a Read the model article. Then match the paragraphs (1–4) to their functions (A–D). Paragraph 1 Paragraph 3 Jefferson High School, the largest high school in A better policy might be the following. Students should be allowed our city, just announced that as of Monday, students to keep their devices on, even while in class. However, they should will have to switch off all cellphones in classrooms use common sense and proper etiquette regarding how and when during lessons. The rationale for this is that they look at their devices. For instance, virtually no student will students are distracted. This seems to be a good access social media while a teacher is explaining something idea. But is it? important. As for teachers, they should learn to tolerate and even respect the need students have to access their phone even in Paragraph 2 class. Students participating in group work also tend to refrain According to recently published statistics, around from using social media. My own feeling is there is no problem. two thirds of teenagers seldom check their phones while in class, if ever. This means it may not be a Paragraph 4 problem to begin with. A recent opinion poll showed The policy to have students switch off their cellphones in class that 68% of teachers were bothered by cellphone is a mistake. Social media are important for teens, but teens also use in class. This still doesn’t mean students understand the importance of school. Students need to learn how should be made to switch off their phones. The to manage their use of cellphones and school is a great place devices being off doesn’t necessarily guarantee that to do that. In my opinion, students know how to maintain their students will stop thinking about what is going on focus on schoolwork when it matters and aren’t distracted by within their social media environment. cellphones. Paragraph 1 A Provides reasons why switching off phones is not necessary. Paragraph 2 B Rephrases the topic in a personal way and states the purpose for writing. Paragraph 3 C Concludes, briefly reiterating the topic and the main points of the article. Paragraph 4 D Explains the contradiction between the school policy and the survey findings. 14

1 2b Read the model article again and answer the 4b Study the task below and answer the questions. questions about paragraphs 1–4. Article Paragraph 1 Many experts feel that teens are spending more 1 How does the writer present the topic time in front of a screen than is good for them. Write an article for parents where you provide of the article? them with advice on how to get teens to cut down 2 How do we know the writer is going to disagree on their screen time. with this policy? 1 What are the key words and phrases? Underline them. Paragraph 2 2 What is the main topic? 1 What is the writer’s opinion of this policy? 3 How are you going to address the topic? 2 How has the writer used information 4c Write your opening paragraph. from the sources? Organize your paragraphs Paragraph 3 1 What does the writer think should happen? 5a Read about organizing the content of your paragraphs. 2 What reasons does the writer give to support this When developing your ideas, follow the four steps below: argument? • S tate – Write a general statement which briefly Paragraph 4 presents the controlling idea. 1 What is the writer’s final conclusion? Social media are extremely important for many of us. 2 Has the writer used any other source? • E laborate – Add more pertinent information or Think about language details to the opening statement. In other words, we rely on social media for countless 3a Study the sentences below. Put a check ✔ next to the sentences that express an extreme or absolute opinion. exchanges with our family, friends, and even colleagues. Some people conduct virtually all their 1 Some believe teenagers spend more time interaction through social media. than they should on social media. • E xemplify – Provide one to three examples to give further support to the controlling idea. 2 It is a shame that teenagers are wasting For example, people post to groups of friends and valuable time online. their family circle, maintaining virtual spaces where they pin messages and meet regularly. In addition, 3 It seems Facebook is no longer that popular people working remotely exchange ideas and share among younger social media users. job-related issues though social media. • Complete – Write one or two sentences in which you 4 Internet addiction is the most serious problem. complete the main idea you are presenting. 5 Parents may be at fault if their teenage  Social media are actually no different from the town square or neighborhood coffee house. However, children are addicted to social media. instead of being a physical meeting place, social 6 Students must never look at their phones media constitute a virtual meeting place. while in class. 5b Complete the paragraph for the statement below using the four steps in Exercise 5a and your own ideas. 3b Rewrite the absolute opinions in a softer tone, using the words given. There are many things parents can do to cut down on their family’s screen time. 1 Social media are the source of countless problems. (believe / to be) State: There are indeed quite a few actions that parents … Social media are believed to be the source of Elaborate: Without a doubt, some of these actions may be … countless problems. 2 Teens forced to stop using social media will react Exemplify: The first thing parents can do is to require in unexpected ways. (possible / that) that all electronic devices, be they cellphones, tablets, 3 Heavy users of social media actually aren’t as or computers, be switched off … sociable when they are offline. (tend not) Complete: In fact, households will find that there are a 4 A friend on social media is not a friend in the truest lot of alternatives … sense of the word. (not necessarily) 15 5 Social media are a cause of the depression which is so common among teens and young adults. (frequently / blame) Think about opening paragraphs 4a Study the opening paragraph of the model article in Exercise 2a and write Yes or No. 1 Is the opening paragraph brief? 2 Has the writer copied language from the prompt? 3 Is it mostly in the writer’s own words? 4 Has the writer provided any explanations, examples or elaboration?

Writing Article (1) Think about the task 6a Study the sources below. A Adults who worry about B C too much screen time 15 times per day “We reduce food intake ΝΟ to help our bodies become How often we check healthier. Likewise, we should go YES our smartphones on a digital diet to help our minds 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% – a recent study become healthier!” – a recent opinion poll – John Cooper, psychologist 6b Study the task and answer the questions. Article There is a rising concern about the amount of time people are spending in front of a screen. Given the importance of the Internet and information technology, an increase in screen time seems inevitable. Write an article for a local news website explaining your view of this trend and to what extent you see it as a problem. Include at least one piece of information given above to support your response. 1 What does the bar chart in source A represent? 2 What was the probable focus of the study mentioned in source B? 3 What is John Cooper implying in source C? 4 How do the three sources relate to the task? Brainstorm the topic 7 Make a list of activities that relate to your screen time. Screen time which is required by your work, studies or personal commitments 1 2 3 Ways to reduce screen time without this affecting school or professional commitments 1 2 3 Exam Write your article strategy 8 Develop your writing plan using the notes from Exercises 6 and 7. Consider which source(s) Study the sources you can quote to support your arguments. Then write your article. and the task carefully. Underline Paragraph 1 Rephrase the topic in your own words and state your purpose for writing. the key words and Paragraph 2 List reasons why the increase in screen time is unavoidable. phrases. This will Paragraph 3 Mention ways that screen time can be managed, using examples. help you: Paragraph 4 Conclude by summarizing the topic, the main points of the article, and your • identify and opinion. extract the information Language bank that makes the sources relevant Referring to the sources Expressing opinion to the task According to recently published statistics … The proposed policy/suggested proposal A recent survey showed that … seems like a good idea. But is it? • d evelop and Studies indicate that … A better policy might be … organize ideas for A recent opinion poll suggests that … My own feeling is … your article. In my opinion, … I, for one, do not really see it as a problem. 16

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