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Home Explore Joseph Banks Soc News SpringSummer 2020

Joseph Banks Soc News SpringSummer 2020

Published by Trevor Olsson, 2020-05-19 05:54:01

Description: Frontpiece picture of geranium
Impact of Covid/work of students. Seminars planned for 2020
SJB Society and the geranium - how the geranium features in every collection held by society.
Lincs Planr Collection accessible to all. Digitisation of herbariun.
Surgical Precision - delicate work by ex-surgeon Gwyneth Owen on LoveLincsPlant specimens.
Joseph Banks & the Linnean society - detailed work by Prof. Mark R D Seaward
The 1769 Garden - NZ garden commemorating 1769 Endeavour voyage.
Natural sciences Collections ASS. (natSCA) Society has joined this association.
SJB Soc. And Lincoln Uni.conserve archive. SJB land sales and work to conserve them.


Read the Text Version

Sir Joseph Banks Society MAGAZINE SPRING/SUMMER 2020 The Sir Joseph Banks Society and the Geranium Surgical Precision Lincolnshire Plant Collection Joseph Banks and the Linnean Society The 1769 Garden

Events Owing to the Coronavirus Pandemic Members are asked to pay close attention to the Society website for up-to-date information on which events are taking place or cancelled and details of booking procedures. Stay Safe! 2 Sir Joseph Banks Society MAGAZINE

Chairman’s Letter founding Trustee and long- time minute Welcome to the Spring Edition of families held a small evening party secretary. Pearl was in fine form our magazine. I am sure you will not for the “back room” staff. Almost enjoying her tenth decade. need reminding that this year, the without knowing it we achieved a anniversary of the great man’s death is really special event. In terms of further celebrations special but there is already an ongoing this year we have a House of Lords tradition within the Society that we Amy Primavera and Sabeth Reception in November.The guest list mark Sir Joseph’s birthday (which is Hagenkotter our Lincoln University for this is just about closed but the as far as we concerned the 24th of students working on assignments at event in the Cathedral Chapter House February) every year. the Centre were there with their on Saturday 20th June will be every bit friends, as was the irrepressible Bindy as notable and open to all. This year we did things differently; Barclay, our principal New Zealand rather than the traditional tea and supporter. The Guest of Honour Bob Wayne birthday cake the Trustees and their was very much Pearl Wheatley a Two Special Full Day Seminars As part of our bicentenary year the society has put together two special Arlene will also discuss Lady Dorothea full day lectures to be held in Banks (1758-1828), wife of Sir Joseph prestigious locations.The first day Banks, who was – like her husband – an will be held in Lincoln Cathedral on avid collector. Shortly after she married, Saturday June 20th and the second day she transformed the dairy building at the will be at Erasmus Darwin House in Banks’s home in Spring Grove into an Lichfield on Wednesday 14th October. exquisite china cabinet. Josiah Wedgwood was a regular visitor. Speakers and subjects for both events include:- Sir Joseph Banks and the World of Medicine by Dr Patrick Kaye (EDH only) The Enlightenment of Doctor of Civil Laws at Reading University. Joseph Banks by professor He was a Kennedy Scholar at Harvard, Jordan Goodman 1969-70. He was M.P. for Bristol West Jordan Goodman will tell the story of between 1979 and 1997 and a Minister the foundation of British Empire, and of from 1981, serving in the Cabinet the brilliant man at its hub, who presided between 1990 and 1997. He is a director over the professionalization of science, of a number of companies. He is the and understood how it would change the Chancellor of the University of Reading, balance of powers in the world. Chairman of the Royal Mint Advisory Committee, former Chairman of the Collectors Sarah Sophia Banks Dr Patrick Kaye will review both Banks’s Science Museum and of the Rhodes Trust, and Lady Dorothea Banks by medical and family history and consider a founder trustee of the Mandela-Rhodes Dr Arlene Leis the role Banks, as President of The Royal Foundation in South Africa and a former Soho square and Spring Grove are Society, played in the development of trustee of Cumberland Lodge. normally associated with Sir Joseph Banks medical science in the 18th century.  There (Title of talk tba). PRS however, this talk will focus on the two will be some informed speculation on women within the households who became his emotional and physical health based Other speakers at Lincoln significant collectors in their own right, on writings in his Endeavour journal, and Cathedral include:- which was very unusual in georgian society. references to contemporaneous medical Firstly the collection of Sarah Sophia Banks, personalities during his 42 years as Prof Libby John Pro Vice Chancellor/ such as admission tickets and souvenir President of The Royal Society. Head of College of Science. advertisements,Arlene will demonstrate Lincoln University. how this material offers an alternative Lord Waldegrave of North Hill historical narrative to more durable is the Provost of Eton College George Fussey Director of Career masterpieces and monuments. (EDH only) Education at Eton College, Curator of He is Chairman of Coutts. He is a Eton’s Natural History Museum. Distinguished Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, an Honorary Fellow of Corpus Tickets for both events will be approx. Christi College, Oxford and an Honorary £40 which will include lunch, tea, coffee etc. Contact Erasmus Darwin House for the Lichfield event and book via the society website for Lincoln Cathedral. 3

The Sir Joseph Banks Society and the Geranium There once was a Dormouse who lived in a bed Sir Joseph Banks (1843–1920), who Of delphiniums (blue) and geraniums (red) accompanied Captain James Cook on his And all the day long he'd a wonderful view first voyage to locate Australia, was the Of geraniums (red) and delphiniums (blue) pre-eminent botanist of the late Georgian era. He was the de facto founding director The Dormouse and the Doctor, A.A. Milne of Kew Gardens, President of the Royal Society and friend of the King. He is probably best described as “The Grand Panjandrum” (Sir David Attenborough). 4 Sir Joseph Banks Society MAGAZINE

The Sir Joseph Banks Society exists to Our earliest geranium (to date) is Sir James Smith, the founder of the commemorate Sir Joseph’s life and work, Geranium versicolor. Unlike the previous Linnaean Society wrote: particularly his botanical activities. physical specimens this is a watercolour painted by Mrs E.M. Cheales (née Lane- “novel sight of African The Society curates several botanical Claypon), known as May. May painted this geraniums in York or collections, some contemporary and others geranium on the 16th June 1898 and the Norfolk…Now every garret that date back to the 19th century.These painting is one of over 150 produced over and cottage window is filled collections include herbarium specimens a period of 10 years. Despite the fact that with numerous species of collected from all over the world, botanical she was a highly regarded botanical artist the beautiful tribe and every watercolours lost for over a century and who had graduated from the Slade School greenhouse glows with the the Joseph Banks Tribute Garden that of Art, social conventions of the time innumerable bulbous plants includes almost a hundred species that dictated that when she married she should and splendid heaths of the Sir Joseph either personally collected or cease these activities and so she did. Her Cape. For all these we are sponsored their discovery. paintings remained forgotten for over a principally indebted to hundred years until the Society was given a Mr. Masson…” So in this eclectic mix of herbarium cloth bag containing these works – which specimens, watercolours and living we have now catalogued and digitised. Sadly,Thomas Masson was unable plants is there a genus of plants that May had a long married life and remained to return and enjoy a well-deserved features in every collection? Certainly alive until the 1960s so it is possible that retirement. Due to ongoing hostilities there is – it is Geranium! some older Lincolnshire readers may with the French that rendered sea passage remember her; if so please contact the Sir impossible he remained in Canada and died Our recent geraniums come from our Joseph Banks Society as we would love (it is thought) in Montreal on Christmas newest collection #LoveLincsPlants, a to know more about May.As an aside, if Day 1805. Heritage Lottery funded project to create one searches for Lane-Claypon online, a 21st Century Lincolnshire Herbarium several references will be found - none of The geranium specimens from each of that will include thousands of specimens of which refer to May.They are actually of these collections (together with hundreds native Lincolnshire plants. #LoveLincsPlants Janet Lane-Claypon, May’s younger sister, of other species) are to be found at the (LLP) which has already collected who achieved fame as a noted early 20th Society’s headquarters in Horncastle, numerous geranium species including century epidemiologist; the School of Life Lincolnshire, UK and are available for Geranium dissectum, G. mole and G. pusillum. Sciences at the University of Lincoln is inspection to members and subscribers of LLP is a partnership between the Joseph housed in the Lane-Claypon building – the Society.Whilst this is all well and good, Banks Society, Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust, named for Janet and not for May. effectively limiting access to those who Lincolnshire Naturalists’ Union, University are able to physically visit the Society is of Lincoln, Natural History Museum and Last but not least, as we have seen, clearly not the most effective use of these others.These specimens are currently the Society has a number of beautifully resources.We have recently commenced being collected, data logged, mounted and presented but clearly deceased specimens a major initiative to digitise and make archived by trained volunteers varying of the genus Geranium – but do we have all of this material available online. More in years from schoolchildren to those ‘of a living example? The Joseph Banks Tribute information on our progress and how we a certain age’.Whilst earlier herbarium Garden contains a large number of living are undertaking this task can be found at collections do include considerable detail plant species that are in various ways linked for each of the specimens collected, to Sir Joseph. One of these is Geranium modern advances in technology allow sessiliflorum. Many geraniums were brought Enabling beautifully mounted and painted additional information to be acquired: back to this country by Francis Masson, specimens to become globally available LLP specimen detail incorporates GPS who collected at The Cape,The Azores, is obviously a reward in itself. However, location data, high resolution images of Madeira,The Canaries and finally in an equally important factor is that these living specimens taken prior to collection Canada. Francis Masson was in regular collections provide a botanically significant and sachets of plant material intended correspondence with Sir Joseph Banks who record of plant species’ growth and for subsequent DNA analysis. Much of told King George III as early as 1782 that distribution over the last 150 years. Given this information is gathered by the use of Masson had brought back: the current concerns relating to climate bespoke Android™ and Apple™ Apps. change it may be that the information “a profusion of plants contained in these and other digitised Next up are geraniums from the unknown . . . to the Botanical collections can contribute to our scientific Seaward collection. One of the most Gardens of Europe . . . by understanding of how the environment respected collectors of plants is Professor means of these Kew Gardens responds to the challenges it faces, now Mark Seaward, who has collected plant has, in great measure, and in the future. species from all over the world and the attained to that acknowledged Society is proud to have been entrusted superiority it now holds over Trevor Olsson, with the curation of this collection. In every other establishment in Trustee, Sir Joseph Banks Society addition to specimens that Prof. Seaward Europe, some of which, the personally acquired the collection also Trianon, Paris, Upsala, till PostScript incorporates plants found by earlier lately vied with each other collectors, with collection dates that for pre-eminence without Whilst Geranium sessiliflorum is not an range over a hundred years from 1880 admitting even comparison inappropriate species for the Tribute to 1980.The collection includes Geranium from any English garden”. Garden, much better would be G. solanderi dissectum collected from Kildavin in Ireland – named after Banks’ travelling companion (1982) and G. rotundifolium collected on It was not only Joseph Banks who Daniel Solander.You can read more about L’Ancresse Common, Guernsey (1969). thought highly of Thomas Masson, Society Trustee, Lady Sally Bruce-Gardyne’s The Seaward collection is currently being struggle to obtain this species (think Joseph digitised by University of Lincoln students Banks & Merino sheep) in the next issue of working as volunteers and thus far some the Society magazine. 25% of specimens have been scanned and electronically catalogued. 5

Lincolnshire Plant Collection made globally accessible to all SJB Trustee Trevor Olssen explains how the digitisation of the 21st Century Lincolnshire Herbarium has been achieved – and why doing so was vital As many of you will know, the Society every specimen has an accompanying high becoming involved in these new developments is a broadening of the range is currently In partnership with the resolution image of the mounted plant and of opportunities available to volunteers. In addition to the traditional activities of organisations shown below to create a 21st some have a photograph showing the plant cataloguing etc we now also have software Century Lincolnshire Herbarium. engineers working on website and database growing in situ. development. Whilst this is undeniably a lofty ambition, To achieve this is not a trivial task. if our practical activities consisted solely of In addition to processing the physical Whilst digitisation of the Love Lincs listing individual plants, taking pictures of Plants project has progressed the furthest, specimens from collection through to it is the Society’s intention to eventually the mounted specimen and placing them in archive there are also a large number of digitise all of our collections, for example a cupboard, then very few would be able to data tasks involved in creating the online we currently have a University of Lincoln view the collection.This would not only be database.These two sets of activities run student on placement with us who is a shame considering the huge amount of cataloguing our large document archive in parallel and are mutually dependant.The dating back to the 18th century – and this work that volunteers have undertaken but diagram right gives some indication of the will also be available online in due course. would also be a poor use of the almost half complexity involved. a million pounds that the Heritage Lottery The key point to remember is that Sir Those of you who have followed the Joseph Banks worked primarily in the Fund have put into the project. field of science; we hope and trust that activities of the Society of the years will he would approve of the Society’s foray Our aim is to not only create a into these new areas of activity and is recognise that this type of work is, to consequently smiling down at us as we collection of the vast majority of native continue his work. say the least, a new departure for us. LLiinnccoollnnsshhiirree PPllaannttsCpeocllieecstbiount tMoamdeakGelobally AWcceeshsoibwleevteor Arellcognise the need for the SthJiBs TcroullsetceteioTnreavvaoirlaObllessteonreexsepalarcinhserhsoawndthe dSigoictiseatytioton sohfatrheeth2e1smt aCneynrteusroyuLricnecsotlhnasthire Hotehrebrariniutemrehsatesdbepearntiaecshgileovbeadlly-. 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eeevolexofdpwyloa-tuoinwacsnriledhlaoktwnweohawty,h2clWdi1etushoshtptediiiCbnnliSsegoggotniactsittriinuohesdrdati,ywsyitvtLiaiiiohssidsnnecuucvnuonoairltldfrvnaeseeptlnhhnr.ltiayerilyaenfb2tIeHns1lwey,sprttabawaraCtklorneoiiuennfmltrgtdsyu.hpbriapiyemcwtLabuiibtnirthlecieosothnltoeno,fsoihvtfrhiigeroaeewunmristapohtruieaonncctstoeilcdlaeslcptaeicoctniimv. iTetinheissancwdoonpuslliadstcneinodgtstoohnleelylmyboienf a a shame considering the huge amount of work that volunteers have undertaken but would 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haoblerikvrilvesrasve.sieeienaecIatsant.yrkltswnetiasoTtooodhd.maanohfdlesessoi.reeontrkgttiiesIanosh.a.nedntuoelIaiiafaknctrvtrroa/daewgeitcaldnpeiltooLdrtpiainonvtiedlunciisrtsoromeiecieeoftesnobtssisstoiseelhattnrnreenaougoslondrcahtffdtcohiiropndhemaergaaeetcppppetarraltahPetrisriynlioxtavleseacailuicitlsdcsatenykmeailntsilesnabisssnvnpieodvenrlorcvuaglievromnedetfe.dhminndiesunatfpuprtoaaahmlrlyytasalilscekalslaisnnpdveocalivrmeeedmnisuntfuroamlly bnelimowaggeivoefsthseommeouinntdeicdaptliaonnt of the complexity involved. n situ. sSpiercJiomseenpsh fBroamnktTshhSaootcsieetthyoiMsfAtyGyoApZuIeNwE ohfowhoarvkeisf,otlloowsaeydtthheeleaactsitv,itaiens eowf the Society of the years will recognise ing the 6 departure for us. We however recognise physical er of data tasks involved in the need for the Society to share the many resources that we curate and the most

Surgical Precision When you watch Gwyneth Owen working Gwyneth is quick to tell me that ageing dog.The coastal habitat offered up with a specimen in the LoveLincsPlants she really knows nothing about botany, lots of new finds and it’s clear from our herbarium the first thing you notice is her “everything I know about plants stops at A conversation that she enjoys the attention calm, quiet manner.“It’s like meditating”, LEVEL”. However, we speak further and it’s to detail that the subject requires,“the she says,“you just focus on the work and clear that she has held a personal interest more you look, the more you see”. everything else drifts away”. Gwyneth in plants for many years but is modest volunteers for the project one day a week about her knowledge as she lacks formal I asked her about the best part of the completing the intricate task of arranging qualifications in the field. work she undertakes for LoveLincsPlants, and mounting the plant specimens that “opening the next piece of newspaper; have been collected in the field. Faced with a large garden needing too you never know what you will find”. She is much weeding and lawn maintenance, also quick to tell me how welcoming and In a former life Gwyneth was an Ear, Gwyneth decided to reduce the effort generous people have been in sharing their Nose & Throat surgeon at Lincoln Hospital, by mowing paths through her trees.The knowledge and enthusiasm with her. often operating amongst the three smallest effect was apparently “far too much green”. bones in the human body. Something that This led to her introducing a range of wild Volunteers at the Society come from a isn’t hard to imagine watching her great flowers which she then scythed at the end wide range of backgrounds and have very attention to detail and manual dexterity. of the season. From here she gradually different levels of knowledge.What they Having retired, and with her three grew more interested in identifying flowers have in common is a desire to be part children flying the nest, she was keen to both at home and on trips. of creating, conserving and promoting do something locally that would keep resources that can be used by scientists to her active and involved in the community. After attending some courses run by understand more about the world that we Working as part of the LoveLincsPlants Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust, Gwyneth can live in. If you would be interested in lending team, Gwyneth applies the skills honed now identify flowers through a diagnostic your skills to the Society then please get in from her professional life in a context system.When on holiday in Cornwall last touch via the website www.joseph-banks. which she describes as,“new year she would photograph flowers on her, or if you are local pop in and see us. and interesting”. walks and then identify them on days when she stayed back to sit with the family’s Sarah Bulk 7

Joseph Banks and the Linnean Society An extended and modified version by the author of his contribution to the Oxford journal Christ Church Matters 44: 15-17 (2019) Mark R. D. Seaward Emeritus Professor, University of Bradford In Chambers Biographical Dictionary, Joseph influence, rather than through any single he was a confidant of King George III Banks is merely defined as an “English personal contribution to science. He and Queen Charlotte, adviser to cabinet botanist”: it devotes only 14 lines to him published little, but he inspired, encouraged ministers, and patron of the sciences at an – similar in size to the entry for the BBC and supported others. He was one of the international level that included promoting Sports Commentator David Coleman greatest figures in Georgian England – a enterprises associated with or resulting whose main claim to fame is his remark colossus.As well as being made a baronet in overseas discoveries. Furthermore, as towards the end of the 1966 Football (1781), High Sheriff of Lincolnshire (1794), a botanist he promoted plant interchange World Cup when the crowd prematurely Knight of the Order of the Bath (1795) to help develop imperial self-sufficiency invaded the pitch – ‘They think its all and President of the Royal Society (1778), through, for example, the appointment of over”, following this up with “it is now!’ as England sealed their win with a further Joseph Banks, by Benjamin West – 1738-1820 goal. Following the death of Banks, who Image courtesy of The Collection:Art and Archaeology in Lincolnshire was an honorary member of the Académie Royale des Sciences, George Cuvier, the famous French zoologist, (who incidentally gets 31 lines in Chambers Dictionary) opened his eulogy on Banks at a meeting of the Académie in Paris in 1821 with:“The works which this man leaves behind him occupy a few pages only...and yet his name will shine out with lustre in the history of the sciences”. To appreciate Bank’s legacy one has to take into account some important events in British history that would impact on his life:Age of the ‘English Enlightenment’, an Industrial Revolution, an Agricultural Revolution and an Ordnance Survey, as well as wars, particularly those with France and those leading to American Independence. This was an age of geographic discovery, especially in respect of the Pacific and the expansion of the British Empire, as well as scientific and technological advances. Coupled with these were the establishment of societies and institutions including Mechanics Institutes, Philosophical & Literary Societies and Subscription Libraries.The membership and involvement of Banks in these was considerable, being an Honorary Member or Fellow of at least 22 British and Irish Societies, including The Royal Society (also Council Member & President, being elected at the tender age of 35 to this office, which he held for 41 years), Linnean Society (Founding Fellow, Council Member & Vice-President), Society of Antiquities, Geological Society, Royal Society of Edinburgh, Royal Irish Academy, Royal College of Surgeons (Patron), and Society for the Improvement of Horticulture, today known as the Royal Horticultural Society (Original Member, Chairman, Vice-President); he was also an Honorary Member of at least 50 foreign societies. Banks’ significance lies in his far-reaching 8 Sir Joseph Banks Society MAGAZINE

naturalists on board discovery vessels – as James Edward Smith, MD FRS PLS – by John Rising, 1753-1817 a consequence of this global enterprise ‘Permission of the Linnean Society of London’ more than 126 overseas collectors were commissioned to send plant specimens to more accessible to him and his friends. London, to honour Linneaus’s material (and Banks for his herbarium at 32 Soho Square So he hired rooms in Chelsea, and Banks only indirectly its collector), was founded in or for the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew and Jonas Dryander, at that time Banks’s early 1788, Smith being its first President. which flourished under his guidance. Banks Librarian, helped him to arrange and make was clearly a one-man correspondence a preliminary study of the collections, Rather interestingly, Banks opposed centre, an academic institution, and an including a comparison with the Banks’ the formation of many scientific societies, important finance house. herbarium. such as the Geological Society and the Astronomical Society, on the grounds Banks was also awarded a Doctor of Before leaving for a tour of the that they were likely to encroach on a Civil Law at Oxford University (1771). continent in 1786, Smith discussed with field of knowledge hitherto within the Although a student there, he did not his friends the idea of establishing a remit of the Royal Society. However, in graduate – little wonder when you realize society bearing the name of Linnaeus. On the case of the Linnean Society, Banks that the Chair of Botany at that time was his return to London in 1788, Smith left raised no objections, and in fact it gained occupied by Humphrey Sibthorp who is his Chelsea lodgings and took a house both his approval and support. Perhaps reputed to have delivered only one lecture in Great Marlborough Street, his main it was a fortunate coincidence that its on his subject in 35 years! However, objective being to found a new Natural aims were similar to those in which the typical of Banks, he gained Sibthorp’s History Society which would incorporate President of the Royal Society was himself permission to import Israel Lyons from Linnaeus’s herbarium and library.After keenly interested; however, Banks saw it Cambridge to teach him botany while at consulting Banks and gaining his approval, as complementing rather than competing Oxford, and under Lyons’ direction, and Smith and his friends achieved their with the activities of the Royal Society.The with enthusiastic support of Banks, a lively objective and the Linnean Society of Linnean Society started with 20 Fellows, interest in botanical studies was revived there. Undoubtedly, Humphrey Sibthorp proved a disappointment after the previous occupant of the Chair, Johann Dillenius; however, John Sibthorp, the son of Humphrey Sibthorp, succeeded his father as Professor of Botany at Oxford, leading a 19th century botanist to remark that his father “did much more for the science by raising up a cultivate it, than by any writings or investigations of his own”. Banks was clearly a polymath. Some measure of his involvement can be gained from his role in the formation and development of the Linnean Society of London founded in 1788. In 1778, Carl Linnaeus, the great Swedish naturalist, died; his widow tried to sell his collections, but when she failed, she reluctantly allowed her son to remove them to Uppsala; when he died in 1783, the collections reverted to his father’s widow, who again attempted to sell them to Joseph Banks in the light of his earlier interest in buying the collections for £1200 after Linnaeus’s death. However, on this occasion Banks was apparently not in a position to do so, but recommended the 24-year old James Edward Smith to secure the collection himself. Smith just happened to be breakfasting with Banks at his home when the letter arrived offering Banks the option of buying all the collections for 1000 guineas. It can be claimed therefore that it was due to Banks that the Linnean Society was founded, the raison d’être being the guardianship of the Linnaean collections. Smith eventually persuaded his father to put up the necessary money, knowing that Banks would offer £100 for a very rare book included in the purchase. The entire collection, shipped in an English brig, comprised 19,000 sheets of preserved plants, 3200 insects, 1500 shells, 2500 minerals, almost 3000 books and about 3000 letters and manuscripts. Smith originally intended to house the collections in the British Museum, but later decided to take a house so that they would be 9

39 Foreign Members and 11 Associates, as had difficulty in refusing when offered were collection.The shell collection was only well as three Honorary Members, including those from distinguished patrons or men of partially identified by Banks’s Librarian, Banks, a Founder Member of the Society, science such as the extensive collections of Daniel Solander (who accompanied Banks and Jonas Dryander, the curator of Banks’s insects and shells donated by Banks in 1804 on Cook’s first voyage from 1768 to 1771 collections, who was appointed as the and 1815 respectively. and also to Iceland in 1772). Society’s Honorary Librarian. In the 1860s it was decided to retain The strength of the Linnean Society Soon after its foundation, the Linnean only part of the collection, particularly collection lay in the wealth of its holdings Society began to acquire a collection of the plants, and to give the remainder to from Australia, no doubt due to Robert mainly natural history specimens, which the British Museum or sell at auction.As Brown who was the Linnean Society Clerk in time led to the formation of a formally a consequence, the Society retained the and Librarian 1805-1822 and President recognised Museum collection additional to Linnaeus and Smith collections, while the 1849-1853); he was also Banks’s Librarian those of Linnaeus and Smith purchased in insect and shell collections of Banks, as well from 1810 to 1820. Banks bequeathed 1829.The Museum appears to have grown as a few other important animal collections, him a life-interest in his house, library and by accident rather than design, as the were presented to the British Museum, collections; Brown handed over the library Fellows of the Society donated specimens and the remaining collections of birds, and collections to the British Museum to the collection, as well as copies of their mammals, shells, insects etc. were sold. upon his appointment as Keeper of the books to the Society’s Library.Another The Banks collections included more than Banksian Botanical Collection there. It was strong motive for Fellows to donate 4000 specimens of insects, including type through Banks that Brown was appointed specimens was to support the papers material, registered by taxonomic groups, naturalist on the Australasian Expedition they were reading at Society meetings or but the shell collection of more than 1000 from 1801 to 1805 under the captaincy publishing in its Transactions. Incidentally, specimens was unregistered since very few of Matthew Flinders. Soon after the death the cost of the plates of the first volume of of the specimens were identified. Further of Banks, the Linnean Society and its Transactions published in 1790 was paid for work has shown that the collections collections moved into his former home at by Banks.Another category of presented of shells, while of historic interest, lack 32 Soho Square, and in 1857 they moved specimens which the Society would have the taxonomic importance of the insect to Burlington House, where they have remained to this day. Banks, though a naturalist of considerable attainments, did little technical work himself, particularly in published output, to advance the science of botany, but indirectly no one effectively exercised so great an influence on the subject for almost half a century.Actually, in early 1782, Banks noted that he had been engaged in a botanical work which he hoped soon to publish, as he had prepared almost 700 folio plates - it would provide an account of all the new plants (more than 800) that he had discovered on his voyage round the world. Due to the premature death of Solander in May of that year, he let matters drift. His collection was used by scholars in a piecemeal way, but not until the late 20th century that his Florilegium of 743 plants was published in its magnificent entirety – unfortunately 200 years too late! Nevertheless, science would have been very materially poorer but for Banks’s career, his wealth and the scientific position which he had attained making him the most conspicuous figure of the day in all that pertained to natural history. His house in Soho Square became the recognised centre of science, and his personal influence was paramount among its devotees. While he lived, he was certainly the most imposing figure of Sir Joseph Banks, Bt – by Thomas Phillips 1770-1845 – ‘Permission of the Linnean Society of London’ English science. 10 Sir Joseph Banks Society MAGAZINE

Linnean Society Library, Burlington House, London – ‘Permission of the Linnean Society of London’ 11

The 1769 Garden Bindy Barclay, a SJB Society member from New Zealand has been in touch with information on a garden that has been designed to commemorate the first encounter between Tairawhiti Maori and the crew of the Endeavour in 1769. The garden has been made in Gisborne a pleasurable experience for visitors by near Anaura and Tolaga Bays where the attempting to recreate the exotic aesthetic Endeavour made landfall and Banks and impression of New Zealand they imagine Solander came ashore to collect their first Banks and Solander experienced. Banks New Zealand plants. remarked on finding fine groves of large trees.And plantings have been made of Land for the garden was made available indigenous trees to recreate that feature. by Dame Anne Salmond, a historian and References have been made to the expert on Cook.The garden is now traditional Maori planting patterns that protected by a conservation covenant and Banks found; stone mounds have been laid is still relatively immature.  out in a traditional quincunx pattern to suggest those practices. Although great efforts have been made to feature native plants that were part Landscape artist Philip Smith was given of those first European collections the the task of designing the garden as part of designers have chosen to make the garden NORTH ISLAND Dame Anne Salmond with her husband Jeremy a larger restoration project, the Walkereru Ecosanctuary. He explained his initial thinking: All the people involved in the 1769 Ga“Itrdweasnsukcnh oa wlovetlhy egriarsslyeghiallscidyewthailtl really only come into its own for futIguadrirddeenn’gt awepnapnretortaaochttiaookfenstpshreaoytifynpNgiceeavlwebryoZtthaeinnaigc,landers. This is a relaxed place to be, and visitors are encouraged marking out the garden and then filling it to have picnics on the grass and discover it at their own with plants.” pace. Malcolm’s own favourites include Jovellana sinclairii with its pretty white bell-like ower and Garden Plan Geranium retrorsum which forms a pink- owered carpet over the rock piles. 10 While pockets of the 1769 Garden are already 2 N beginning to look pretty good, the people involved know their legacy will really only come into its own for 43 future generations of New Zealanders. Anne and Jeremy spend as much time as they can there, working on the land, and are powering forward with more conservation efforts – plans include creating a wetland and also a large community project to restore 8 the Waimata River to health. Of course, the 1769 Garden is far from nished. 6 7 Native plants take time and the ferns can’t be planted 5 until the trees have grown tall enough to provide a shade canopy. And there is always the chance 9 of Graeme appearing with something rare and interesting on the back of his truck. Welcome shelter The joy of the 1769 Garden for Anne isn’t only the 11 Bridge and entry plants but also the people who have been involved with Kōwhai grove the project over time – the right ones always seeming Pittosporum to appear whenever they have been needed. obcordatum grove “Jeremy and I realised early on that we couldn’t Upland path Kahikatea grove do everything ourselves because we’re incredibly busy,” Existing kānuka forest she says. Stone rows Stone mounds “So it is a garden that has emerged out of different passionate people coming together and having fun. And we all love it.” ✤ How to visit: The Waikereru Ecosanctuary (including Carpark the Welcome Shelter and 1769 Garden) can be visited 1 Mounds 52by arrangement only. Email [email protected]. Plan drawn by Renée Davies 53 12 Sir Joseph Banks Society MAGAZINE

Stone piles in quintex pattern Instead a less rigorous approach was containing a high vitamin C content that Microtis unifolia taken to plant selection. In constructing a Anthropologist Dame Anne Salmond and her architectplanting list examples of plants that Banks helped keep the Endeavour crew healthy. Garden Curator Malcolm Rutherford and Solander collected have been included has helped in the preparation of this article husband Jeremy have led the way in creating a gardenand – one at least – that was named after and says that pest control has been a major Banks – Senecio banksii , is used. Some of that botanically marks a turning point in our history.the plants the design team wanted to use problem.While the garden benefits from the trapping taking place on neighbouring were relatively easy to find while others land, some unhelpful wildlife still turn up presented difficulties. Graeme Atkins, an and try to eat young plants. expert in thheeinndCigeanpotuasiknnoJawmledegseCofook and Ptlhanetscarreewn’t labelled as thtehy iwnogusld,”breecalls Anne. “We went to Longbush and saw native NewofZtehaleanEdnpdlaentasvsopuenrt mrasntylandedinoanbotthaneiceaal sgtarden but leftafoFrovrisSitaolres tsoign and just looked at each other – it was hours in cthoeawstildoefrnNeseswseZarecahilnagnodutbtahcek ind1is7c6o9ve,rtihneaymfooruennadtural wsaoy: gorgeous.” daganerdsdiriesendsttaasoislplnaetonchnaieaertrsrhmk.aeGfy,olrosarooeerfkmeaonrmeueatseetefaodiesvrstwestcheoopveaenls1artd7anpl6etl9arsnfautsnlldy teea“rxsIietto’heasetsgoira.cntrhT.dthhTeaeenthr,ebeeduagstreheito’isapfrnow’souhtnaadt tp9re0aod1ppi0tlaliTeo0nhntthhaselaipnpcekoacorofiekuffspalremelnadnedd, up buying 20 hectares of bush and and embarking on an ambitious speciesbsouctahnasisCtosoJko’ssescpuhrvBy agrnaskss, palanntd DaninitehleSgoarldaennd,”esrays Malcolmr. estoration project, the Waikereru Ecosanctuary. “We began by doing pest and weed control, and planting the gaps, then started planting wildlife came ashore to collect hundreds of specimens, which All the people involved in the 1769 Garden know thewere dried and pressed, then taken back to England. Now 250 years later, our landscape has changed, and only come into its own for future generations omany of those natives are under threat. corridors up towards the ridgeline,” says Anne. The 1769 Garden followed on, partly thanks So Dame Anne iSnalcmreoantidnTagnhadisghaiserdraehrnuelstabhxaaentddbopJetlaarencmeictyaollby e, andttohveiasrWictoheriltcseoacmrteSeeaSnrhocesolhtueMrratughleladat,swtahnodds“Sdubdudielnt ly have led the way marks a turning point intothheahviestporicynoifctshoisnctohuentgrryass and dwieschoavdetrhiits abtetahuetiifruol wbunilding with a big area in front and the coming togetherpoafctew. oMcaulcltoulrmes’.sIot wis nnafmaveodu, rites ianncdluwdee tJhovoeulglahnt,awhat could we do with it. We had the ttingly, the 1769 Gardensi,nacnladiriitiswstiotrhy iatcstpuraelltytybewghanite belild-leiakeof woiwldeerrannesds education projects for kids, and decades ago. Geranium retrorsum which forms a ppliancke-whowerertehdeycacropueldt run around and have fun, Growing up, Anne usedovtoervtihsiet Lronckgbpuislehs,.a strip and see all the plants that used to grow.” 10 of lowland forest beside theWWhaiilme patoacRkievtesronfetahr e 1769 GardeLnanardescaalpreeaadrcyhitect Philip Smith was called 2 Gisborne – it was a lovelybsepgoint fnoirnsgwtiomlmooinkgpornethtyotgood, thine tpoecorpealeteina vdoelsvigendfor the 100m strip of land and summer days. abgeoc,aJuesrfkeeunmwAtoueynwrbaneontegthdheaeInnilwriedkrleeeaJregtgeriaroleoocmnwyoskyiwnoinsgifplgNlefrnoeewrdalalZysemoalnaulncyh“tohdIectetotkwarimnskma.eesewetsihuanrecsitghtothyhatipetlaisoycwvaocaelwaylbynnowgthfraoaanrstischygehawirldalsesinnd’etaptghopairntogaI cdthoidodnfo4’tstpwhreaaryneit.n3g “Then 20 years some land to buy Senecio quadridentawttuhsiethre,mwoorrekcionngsoenrvtahtieoHlnaibnisecdfusf,oriacrhntasrdds–oanpiri elapnoswinecrilnudgefocrrweaatridng 47 All ttahhweeeWptlaaeniomdpaatlnaedRiainvlsevorotaollvaheregdaeltcihon.mtmhuen1it7y6p9roGjecatrtdo reenstokrne owwww.tjohseephi-rbanlkes.gorag.ucky w13 ill8 rea Of course, the 1769 Garden is far from nished.

The Welcome Shelter xxxxxxx Scandia rosifolia xxxxxxx Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) For more detail on the garden: 14 Sir Joseph Banks Society MAGAZINE • Listen to the New Zealand Radio podcast: player?audio_id=2018621206 • Look up this link to an article in New Zealand Gardener com/file/d/1WZ6fxsdTCRX4aQb8zLbnY GmcdBW7hm5Q/view • Visit the Walkereru Ecosanctuary (including the Welcome Shelter and 1769 Garden) by appointment only. • Email [email protected] Photos: Tessa Chrisp and Malcolm Rutherford, Aerial Image: Michael Bergin

Natural Sciences Collections Association (NatSCA) The society has recently joined The Natural Sciences Collections Association (NatSCA) which is a UK based membership organisation and charity run by volunteers from the membership. Just a normal day for a curator – Museum of Zoology, Cambridge University NatSCA's mission is to promote and Collections: The Basics' day. It was held Laws and Legislation support natural science collections, the at the Museum of Zoology, University of Birds eggs, ivory, protected species etc. institutions that house them and the Cambridge on Monday 2nd March.The people that work with them, in order to society also paid for volunteers Rosana Networks and useful resource links improve collections care, understanding, Drobinoga and Sabeth Hagenkotter to accessibility and enjoyment for all. attend, they are currently undergraduates Schools, natural science and at Lincoln University studying curriculum links Most of the membership is made up of Conservation of Cultural Heritage and Natural science professionals including therefore the day was very useful for them. Care and use of Herbarium many curators and specialists in the field of specimens natural science and collections.They also From a society perspective we aspire to promote good quality practices and look become more professional in terms of how Collection conservation to increase awareness of the scientific and we look after and curate our collections cultural value of natural science collections. and membership of NatSCA will be the To conclude, the day met all of our perfect way to do this. expectations, and more.We met some Importantly for us, they also run very friendly and knowledgeable experts training courses and lecture days where Topics on the day included: in Natural Science, many of whom are best practice is shared amongst the Hazards, Health and safety curators of very large national collections. membership. including chemicals and To network and share knowledge with hazardous substances. these professionals was a privilege. We have already attended our first one day seminar titled, Natural Science Paul Scott 15

The Sir Joseph Banks Society and Lincoln University join forces to conserve archive The Society has a collection of documents and dust. Once this step is completed, and having grown up in Cologne, Germany, detailing land sales, conveyances and wills interventive conservation work can begin it was always around her. She chose to regarding Joseph Banks’ former estates. which will include cleaning the soiled study Heritage Conservation to combine These date from the late 1700s to the mid parchments and repairing maps that have this love of history with her appreciation 1900s and create an interesting record of torn along the folding lines of crafts and handy work. Following a the changing usage and ownership of the year working in textile conservation land. Sources include local people’s private History has always interested Sabeth in Germany, Sabeth then moved to the collections and a firm of local solicitors. University of Lincoln which is a leading authority in the field and has the largest We are fortunate to have recently centre for conservation and restoration been joined by Sabeth Hagenkotter, who study in the UK. is studying Heritage Conservation at the University of Lincoln, to work on this Sabeth will be working on the collection. During her placement Sabeth documents until the end of her placement will catalogue, digitise, archive and conserve in April.We will provide an update on her the documents. work and findings in a future issue of the Society’s bi-annual members magazine.The Many of the documents are fragile and documents themselves will be available partially degraded, so they require special for viewing on this website once the care and attention.Acid free paper needs digitisation phase of the project has been to be used to create folders, along with completed. archival boxes to shield them from light Membership Renewals Student Membership Subscriptions for membership of the Society are due from 1 April 2020 for the financial year 2020/21.The subscription rates remain unchanged: Individual membership - £15; The Sir Joseph Banks Society Joint (two adults at the same address) - £25; Institutions - £30; Students - £5. is offering a FREE online joint membership with the Lincolnshire Please consider setting up a standing order to pay your subscription automatically each Naturalists' Union. year. If you have any queries about your membership, or are uncertain if you already have a standing order in place, please send an email message to the Membership Secretary at Contact Stuart Crooks our [email protected] who can also provide a standing order form. Membership Secretary for further details. Gift Aid enables the Society to reclaim income tax on your subscription. The Membership Secretary can confirm if you have signed a Gift Aid consent or can send you a form to complete. Life membership of the Society is also available for a one-off payment of £200. Patrons: Sir David Attenborough and The Rt Hon The Lord Waldegrave of North Hill President: Professor Libby John Sir Joseph Banks Society Trustees: Bob Wayne (Chairman), Stuart Crooks (Vice-Chairman and Membership Secretary), Richard Locke-Wheaton (Treasurer), Hon Secretary - Frances Carr, Heather Slater, Lady Sally Bruce-Gardyne (Garden Supervisor),Trevor Olsson (Website) and Paul Scott Contacts Magazine Editor: Heather Slater Letters to the editor and proposals for articles are always welcome. Email: [email protected] Sir Joseph Banks Centre – Headquarters and Shop 9-13 Bridge Street, Horncastle, Lincolnshire, LN9 5HZ • +44(0)300 302 0049 • Shop: 01507 700012 Email: [email protected] • Website: Registered Charity Number: 1127728 Designed and Printed by Cupits, Horncastle •

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