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FFA Centennial Anniversary Magazine

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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy TABLE OF CONTENTS IMPORTANT DATES Congratulatory greetings from Dr the Honourable Nyan Gadsby-Dolly, Minister 3 IN THE HISTORY of Education on the Centennial Legacy Celebration of Agriculture at The UWI St OF AGRICULTURAL Augustine RESEARCH AND INNOVATION AT Message from the Vice-Chancellor on the Centennial Legacy Celebration of 4 ST AUGUSTINE Agriculture at The UWI St Augustine 1921 West Indian Agricultural The Centennial Legacy: 100 years of agricultural teaching, research and innovation 6 College (WIAC) formally Professor Brian Copeland established From Undergraduate in the Faculty of Agriculture to Deputy Principal 7 1922 First students admitted Professor Indar Ramnarine 8 1924 WIAC renamed the Imperial Propelling the FFA into a future of possibilities Dr Mark Wuddivira 9 College of Tropical Coming out of the shade to establish firm roots Agriculture (ICTA) Professor Wayne Ganpat 10 1924 First issue of Faculty journal Origins of the Faculty of Food and Agriculture 12 Tropical Agriculture New Head of Food Production’s vision for the department 13 1948 University College of the West Innovative, integrative and inclusive research in Crop Science Indies (UCWI) established in Dr Wendy-Ann Isaac 15 Jamaica Soil Science knowledge management at UWI 1949 Diploma in Tropical Dr Gaius Eudoxie 16 Agriculture (DTA) first The UWI St Augustine Faculty of Food and Agriculture, a leader in livestock offered. This was an science, teaching, research and outreach 17 important qualification for Dr Martin Hughes agriculturalists throughout Charting the future of geography in higher education 19 the former British Empire, Dr Kegan Farrick although not equivalent to Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension offers unique career and 20 a BSc research opportunities 21 1950 Present UWI Field Station at Dr Sharon Hutchinson 24 Mount Hope established Tropical Agriculture journal: 100 years old 1951 Female students admitted for Former distinguished faculty members 26 the first time Celebrating 100 years of knowledge development at St Augustine: the transition 27 1960 UCWI established a presence Ronald Bartolo, Arlington Chesney and Winston Rudder in Trinidad. ICTA replaced Streets of Curepe and St Augustine 28 by the UCWI Faculty of Gender and agriculture in the Caribbean: 100 years of progress Agriculture Dr Tessa Barry and Dr Arlette Saint Ville 29 1962 UCWI became the University The Faculty of Agriculture helped the Class of ’78 to find our passion of the West Indies (UWI) Dr Lystra Fletcher-Paul 30 1996 UWI Faculty of Agriculture Seychelles official remembers his study years in Trinidad 30 became part of UWI Faculty Mr Antoine Mustache of Science and Agriculture Testimonials from current students and past graduates 31 2012 Current UWI Faculty of Food Propelling the FFA into a future of possibilities 32 and Agriculture Dr Paul Ivey 33 DTA graduates have fond memories of Trinidad 2 Tariq Ali remembers his student days My years at UWI, St. Augustine Dr Mervin St Luce

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Congratulatory greetings from Dr the Honourable Nyan Gadsby-Dolly, Minister of Education on the Centennial Legacy Celebration of Agriculture at The UWI St Augustine Campus Dr the Honourable Nyan Gadsby-Dolly Minister of Education Congratulations to The University dependence on imported foods. The competent experts at The UWI’s Faculty of of the West Indies, St Augustine GORTT is also focused on building a more Food and Agriculture who have accepted Faculty of Food and Agriculture as you technologically advanced agricultural the mantle to train others to take our commemorate the Centennial Legacy system, as there is the need for a shift food sustainability to the next level. The Celebration of Agriculture at The UWI St from historical agricultural practices- faculty has extended its collaborative Augustine Campus! This year marks 100 which are typically labour and time network, and maintained a professional years of excellence, exemplified through intensive, high risk and low rewarding- relationship with institutes such as teaching, research and innovation; and I to those that are profitable, technology- CARDI, IICA, FAO, CABI, USDA, and EU, for am happy to bring greetings on behalf of driven, and capable of providing strengthening agricultural education and the Ministry of Education. sustainable livelihoods in a safe and research. secure environment. The Faculty of Food The world has arrived at a critical and Agriculture, (FFA), is well poised It is this type of collaboration and juncture where we face numerous to provide technical support to the foresight that is needed as we work challenges in the production of food. The GORTT as it continues to work towards towards making the economy more Government of the Republic of Trinidad enhancing the Agricultural Sector in this resilient; which in turn will shield us to and Tobago (GORTT) has identified stead. some extent from food supply shortages agriculture as a major pillar of its national and supply chain disruptions. The GORTT development strategy; and continues The Ministry of Education and the is confident that our vision is well within to make significant strides towards food Government of Trinidad and Tobago reach, because of the institutional and sustainability and security, economic understand the major role that education educational grounding of students of The diversification and entrepreneurship. plays in achieving the nation’s food UWI FFA. These plans are clearly outlined in the security objectives, and as such, we must Vision 2030 National Development closely monitor and be guided by the On behalf of the Ministry of Education Strategy, where the Food Security research and development from The UWI. and the Government of Trinidad and Development Programme is highlighted Tobago, I commend The UWI FFA on its as one of the broad areas for national As the Ministry considers Curriculum continuous support and dedication to transformation. Reform and the transformation of the our efforts in achieving food security. education of our students, a refocus on The Food Security Programme has exposure to sustainable agriculture at the The nation looks forward to learning positioned agriculture at the forefront, earliest levels must be included. I applaud and benefitting from your experience and is directly linked to the Sustainable the UWI FFA programme, the only one of and research in the years ahead. Development Goals outlined by its kind in the region, as it continues to the United Nations. The GORTT’s fulfill its directive to produce the human developmental goals have therefore resources needed for our region to attain forged policy postures that are geared food and nutrition security. towards increasing domestic production capacity to reduce the country’s Trinidad and Tobago and the rest of the region are fortunate to have a body of 3

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Message from the Vice-Chancellor on the Centennial Legacy Celebration of Agriculture at The UWI St Augustine Professor Sir Hilary Beckles Vice-Chancellor, The UWI My heartiest congratulations to the downturn in many economies in the habits, and agriculture as a central player. leadership of the St Augustine Caribbean. The resultant shift towards Another clear and present danger Campus and the Faculty of Food and service economies in particular tourism Agriculture on the attainment of a and financial services contributed to the facing the agriculture sector and the most significant milestone – a century development of some countries across Caribbean as a whole is climate change. of dedicated and committed teaching, the region. However, inexorable global The deleterious effects of climate change research and innovation, and support to influences have continued to change the in the region in the past decade include the agriculture sector across the region. balance in trade, making imports cheaper severe storms – Irma and Maria in 2017 This anniversary provides us with an than import substitution resulting in that impacted Antigua & Barbuda and opportunity to reflect on the role that an untenable regional food import bill Dominica, Dorian in 2019 that wrought agriculture has played in our history and coupled with a legacy of chronic non- so much damage in The Bahamas. the role that it must play in our future. communicable diseases caused by poor The history of our Caribbean nations dietary habits. Such events have brought heightened cannot be told without reference to the attention to the impact of climate way in which agriculture has featured in The most common NCDs impacting change. The need for an informed the fortunes or misfortunes of colonial the people of the Caribbean are diabetes, response to disaster mitigation and even powers, enslaved and indentured hypertension and cardiovascular disease. more importantly how to safeguard the peoples, and without addressing the These diseases are impacted directly agriculture sector from severe damage, or legacies that have been left for our by undernourishment and other forms building in resilience measures has never contemporary societies to confront as we of malnutrition, specifically poor diets. been more critical, particularly in the face consider a present and a future in which Other consequences such as obesity, of food insecurity challenges. And now, poverty alleviation and food security or its are on the rise. Data show that obesity we have the COVID-19 Pandemic that converse, food insecurity are inextricably has increased significantly since 2000, in has laid bare the inequities in societies. intertwined. all Caribbean countries. This disturbing Reduced demand for food products as trend of NCDs and poor dietary habits has a consequence of reduced incomes has An Agrarian Revolution its roots in our colonial history and the impacted negatively on the agriculture Bananas and sugar cane or its extracts generational impact is only now being sector, interrupting agro-trade and food molasses, sugar and rum were the assessed using the scientific techniques processing industries. backbone of the agriculture industry in available to us. What do you expect if you the region during the colonial period. take a people and entrap them on sugar The time for an Agrarian Revolution has Corporations in the empire were built plantations for 300 years, feed them arrived. The region has come full circle in on the exports of these crops. Today sugar every day, and tell them they must acknowledging the important role to the sector is much more diversified eat what they grow and what they grow be played by agriculture in addressing and includes coffee and cocoa, and is sugar - every day they eat sugar and on the wealth of our nations, the health of processed food products have made top of that they are fed on salt fish and our people and the revenue generating their way into the exports from the salt pork every single day for all of their capacity of the sector. region in the wake of the reforms of lives? This pandemic of NCDs is 300 years European Union agricultural policies old and we understand now, why at the For the agriculture sector to become and global trading arrangements. The end of this history, our people are having more competitive, inclusive and impact of those reforms on the sugar a difficulty with consumption of salt and sustainable, it will be necessary to adopt and banana industries was a significant sugar. A revolution is required – one of innovative approaches, policies and food awareness, attentiveness to dietary coordinated and targeted investment strategies. 4

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Frank Stockdale Building, Office of the Dean of Faculty of Food and Agriculture An Intellectual Tradition: issues in the Caribbean agricultural sector sector. The ability to pivot to provide Past, Present and Future with a view to its transformation, the technical assistance and services in areas There is a solid intellectual tradition of increasingly important challenges of food most needed by regional governments teaching and research in agriculture in the and nutrition security and agricultural in the wake of natural disasters and crop region. One hundred years ago, on August diversification. Work in supporting infestations, represents the agility of 30, 1921, the importance of agriculture areas such as coastal geomorphology, the committed members of faculty and to the development of nascent nations hydrology and water resources, the students who we are preparing for in the British West Indies and across the meteorology, disaster risk resilience, the agrarian revolution. The Faculty is British Empire, was recognised in the natural hazards, geographic information committed to continuing on this path. establishment of the Imperial College science, remote sensing, environmental Closer collaboration with our partners of Tropical Agriculture (ICTA). The ICTA sustainability, and ecology is also done along the entire food production chain served as the centre for postgraduate by the Department of Geography which will be absolutely critical in areas such training in tropical agriculture for the is part of the Faculty. To disseminate its as targeted investment from public and Colonial Empire and for the year ending work, the Journal Tropical Agriculture private sectors, international partners and August 31, 1938, records indicated that first published in 1924 has also adapted full participation from the farmers and 159 past students of the College were to technology and is available online in other players along the food production appointed to the Colonial Agricultural addition to the printed version. chain. Service and allied services, posts held in thirty different parts of the British Empire. The work of the Faculty of Food and As we look toward the next one According to Hansard records, at the end Agriculture reflects the key pillars in The hundred years, I salute the Faculty of of 1941, there were 72 students enrolled UWI’s current Strategic Plan – Access, Food and Agriculture and its leadership in the College and the following year, the Agility and Alignment. Through the past and present, who are all committed drop in numbers to 50 was attributed expansion of its programmes at the to advancing the Faculty and the work to the “entry into the Armed Forces of undergraduate, graduate and certificate being done therein. The revolution has young men who would, under normal levels, and its research, the Faculty begun. The UWI stands prepared to circumstances have become students at provides increased access to the breadth play a significant part in transforming the College.” The same report considered of its expertise to a broad spectrum of Caribbean agriculture in ways that ensure the “advisability of offering scholarships players in the sector. Alignment with that the sector can have a sustainable to native-born students.” Fast forward to industry and Government needs has also long-term future in supporting the 2020, in the academic year 2019/2020, facilitated the development of policies region’s development. To not be attentive there were 7,536 students registered and strategies that have underpinned to this important sector, would be to our in more than 50 undergraduate and recent advancements in food processing. detriment in many stark ways. postgraduate programmes. What a long The work of the Cocoa Research Unit way we have come! in the transformation of the chocolate Blessings, There is significant and impactful work industry in Trinidad and Tobago is a Professor Sir Hilary Beckles, being done by members of faculty and particular area to be celebrated. Work in Vice-Chancellor, The UWI students across the Departments within extension services, crop management, the Faculty. Current research addresses agribusiness all reflect the alignment between the Faculty and players in the 5

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy The Centennial Legacy: 100 years of agricultural teaching, research and innovation Professor Brian Copeland Pro Vice-Chancellor and Campus Principal If we are to truly trace the story of postgraduate students as at August 2021. all year round expected fare; meanwhile The UWI, St Augustine Faculty of Many of those have excelled on the global our local, vitamin-enriched wide Food and Agriculture, we would have stage. A recent example, of course, is variety of fruits languish to the point of to begin in 1898 when the Imperial Dr Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted, a 1971 unavailability. Department of Agriculture for the graduate of this Faculty. Her research, West Indies was created in Barbados. innovations, and life-changing impacts One hundred years after establishing Its mission was to conduct research on saw her becoming the 2021 World Food an agricultural teaching and research Caribbean crops, other than sugar, and Prize Laureate. This is an international institution, we continue to import assist planters and farmers to improve award which recognises individuals who most of our food. Sixty years after that their operations by adopting scientific have made significant contributions to college became the cornerstone of the methods. the quality, quantity, and ease of access St Augustine Campus of The University of to food worldwide and highlights the the West Indies, the Dean of the Faculty Just over 20 years later it was replaced importance of a having sustainable food of Food and Agriculture, Professor Wayne by the West Indian Agricultural College supply for every human being. Ganpat, was still acting the part of plaintiff which was formally established August in the May 2020 issue of UWI Today: 30, 1921 in Trinidad. So begins the story This is in line with the definition of the of agricultural teaching, research, and United Nations’Committee onWorld Food “Food sovereignty must be the driving innovation at St Augustine that has led us Security that “all people, at all times, have force. It will keep farmers and farm to this milestone anniversary. physical, social, and economic access to families employed while producing safer sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that and healthier food for the population. Indeed, that investment 100 years meets their food preferences and dietary ago of a lump sum of 50,000 pounds needs for an active and healthy life.” This Our farmers in the region can produce from Trinidad planters, 2000 pounds relates to availability, access, utilisation, small livestock, a range of staples, and from government, plus 84 acres of the and stability. a wider range of fruits and vegetables government estate at St Augustine for with increased production using a the site of the college, has paid dividends. However, the reason and the reasoning variety of technologies: hydroponics, that drove the establishment of the micro irrigation systems and fertigation In 1924 the name West Indian College in the early 20th century, remain methods. Land is no longer a main Agricultural College was changed to the unchanged. Economies grappled then limiting factor of production with the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture. with the devastating World War I; now, development and promotion of intensive By the time the Imperial College of we battle with a pandemic that is equally crop and livestock systems. The need to Tropical Agriculture served as the crippling globally. The basic requirement incentivise farmers is the major limiting foundation for the St Augustine Campus for food security, food sovereignty, and factor. of The University of the West Indies access are of concern to all governments, in 1960, it had already established an but particularly to those emerging Technology is usually costly and both internationally renowned reputation for economies such as Trinidad and Tobago traditional farmers and emerging entrants the high quality of research conducted and the Caribbean. will need support, entrepreneurs more by its top scientists in tropical agriculture. so. It is critical that the agricultural sector The St Augustine Faculty of Agriculture, Part of the problem, of course, is our find imaginative ways to encourage them our oldest faculty, unquestionably acquired tastes, honed and developed – particularly younger persons – to get continues in that tradition. over generations. As a people, we have into production.” moved from apples and grapes as Fifteen students in 1921 turned into novelties during the Christmas season to In 2007, at Nyéléni Village in Mali, the just under 1,000 undergraduate and first global forum on food sovereignty was held. There were over 500 representatives 6

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy from more than 80 countries, comprising systems. It puts the aspirations and of Food and Agriculture, is spurring on a organisations of peasants/family farmers, needs of those who produce, distribute positive change in attitudes towards food artisanal fisherfolk, indigenous peoples, and consume food at the heart of food production. landless peoples, rural workers, migrants, systems and policies rather than the pastoralists, forest communities, women, demands of markets and corporations. We are proud of the work that youth, consumers and environmental succeeding generations have done in and urban movements. The Declaration The UWI has a responsibility to terms of research and innovation. We of Nyéléni stated, in part, that: advocate for both food sovereignty and are proud of our graduates who have security. Outreach, introducing youth gone out in the world and at home Food sovereignty is the right of peoples to technological innovations in food to do great things. We are absolutely to healthy and culturally-appropriate food production as well as public education committed to this country and this produced through ecologically sound initiatives, including expos and short region to make food sovereignty and and sustainable methods, and their right courses, are among the ways that the St food security a reality. to define their own food and agriculture Augustine Campus, through the Faculty Professor Indar Ramnarine: From Undergraduate in the Faculty of Agriculture to Deputy Principal, UWI, St Augustine Many of the graduates from the Faculty of Senior Lecturer and finally to Professor of Food and Agriculture and its predecessors Fisheries and Aquaculture in 2008. have gone on to distinguished careers all over the World. Some, however, have gone That was not the end of his move up the ladder on to equally distinguished careers right here as he was the founding Dean of the Faculty of in Trinidad and Tobago. A good example is Science and Technology, then University Dean Professor Indar Ramnarine, Deputy Principal, before becoming Deputy Principal in 2017. UWI St Augustine Campus. This climb up to administrative heights has not interfered with high quality academic work. Indar Ramnarine graduated top of his B.Sc. Professor Ramnarine’s areas of specialisation class at the Faculty of Agriculture in 1980 and are aquaculture, aquaponics and sustainable his first job was a loans officer at the Agricultural fisheries management and he has published a Development Bank. He then decided to go for book, a monograph, three book chapters and a career in fisheries and graduated from the has been published over 100 times in refereed University of Wales with an M.Sc. in Fisheries international journals. Biology and Management in 1985. He then returned to UWI as a teaching assistant in Professor Ramnarine’s services are often the Department of Zoology and came under requested throughout the World. He has the supervision of the late (and very famous) completed voluntary assignments in Professor Julian Kenny. Ramnarine obtained his Bangladesh, Belize, Cambodia, Guyana, Ph.D. and moved up the Department of Zoology Jamaica, Nepal, St Lucia, Suriname andThailand. ladder from Assistant Lecturer, to Lecturer, to 7

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Propelling the FFA research in Agriculture and Agriculture- needed global and regional attention. For into a future of related disciplines. New programmes too long the sector has been viewed with possibilities were developed, research coverage was some level of disdain, with the remnants widened, and expertise was acquired to of colonial hegemony and negative Dr Mark Wuddivira capture evolving regional needs while stereotyping at the forefront. Dean, Faculty of Food and simultaneously fostering the ideology Agriculture that Agriculture is much more than The sneering approach that Agriculture production. We strived to ensure that all is the age-old practice that does not The Faculty of Food and Agriculture aspects of the geophysical environment require expertise to innovate and (FFA) has a rich and interesting history that undoubtedly influence Agriculture develop technologies, which has hitherto spanning over 100 years that predates were featured in programmes and placed the FFA at the lowest pecking the independence of all countries in the research alike. order, must depart. As the premier agri- English speaking Caribbean. environmental tertiary level institution These efforts led to the birth of in the Caribbean, we will strive to ensure The Imperial College of Tropical three distinct but complementary that the FFA becomes a beacon of light Agriculture (ICTA) established in 1921 departments namely, the Department of in the Caribbean. We will demonstrate represented the first formal agricultural Food Production (DFP), the Department the tremendous potential to do training institution in the region and laid of Agricultural Economics and Extension groundbreaking research and develop the foundation for the modern-day FFA (DAEE), and the Department of technologies required for the region and by extension, The University of the Geography (DoG). and the wider world. We will work in West Indies St Augustine Campus. making the FFA the first-choice Faculty In the last five years, significant for student enrolment and stakeholders The Faculty of Agriculture was officially effort was placed into improving the alike seeking developmental solutions. established in 1960 and subsequently institutional profile of the FFA. The FFA We will therefore pursue strategic underwent numerous transformations continues to respond to regional needs approaches in the development, before the proclamation of the present-day by developing new and innovative delivery, formulation, and naming of FFA in 2012. The Faculty and its precursor programmes and is currently in the our programmes and services to make played a crucial role in the development process of numerous revisions to ensure them not only attractive but relevant of regional economies, which were all that our offerings are aligned to the and impactful. We will continue to work firmly rooted in Agriculture prior to the modern student as well as regional towards developing and delivering 1980s. The onset of the tourism and fossil developmental strategies and agendas. globally acclaimed programmes and fuel-based industries together with the We have also contributed to capacity services, leading innovation efforts, and loss of preferential trade agreements building in many Caribbean islands, most importantly serving the needs stymied general interest in Agriculture outside of our conventional taught of regional developmental agendas. and Agriculture-related disciplines, which programmes. The interconnectivity in the Through our teaching and research, we was exacerbated by revised regional real world demands that we come out of will make plain the driving relevance developmental agendas. Nonetheless, our traditional cocoons by expressing the of a strong and modern local agri-food the faculty evolved accordingly and stood endowed strength in our diversity so that system in having healthy populations and firm to our mandate to support capacity we can launch out as one united front for vibrant economies, and in developing building, and spearhead innovation and the common good. a sustainable, resilient, and quality environment. COVID-19 was and remains an awakening as it has exposed vulnerabilities of populations throughout the world and more so in small island developing states, like ours, where a myriad of complex geophysical and societal issues hinders our ability to develop effective and sustainable resilience strategies. The importance of Agriculture and the environment in combating the challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic were exceedingly obvious. Notably, in the spectrum of calamities, opportunities are plentiful. Agriculture has been propelled into focus and has attracted much 8

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Coming out of the shade to establish firm roots Professor Wayne Ganpat Former Dean, Faculty of Food and Agriculture (2016 - 2021) The present Faculty of Food and other areas. Secondary school students in focussed on making Faculty programmes Agriculture (FFA) became unhinged particular, were brought into the various much more widely accessible to from the Faculty of Science and laboratories, both field and traditional, prospective students with CSEC passes Technology in 2012 and emerged from to interact with faculty, students and only. The goal was to give them access the shade into a new sunlight. What an scientists. to degree programmes via an alternative excellent opportunity presented to it to route. Three certificate programmes were continue the legacy of its world famous The future of food security lies with the developed and made available from predecessor, the Imperial College of adoption of new technologies within the 2019. On successful completion, students Tropical Agriculture. It was indeed a sector; protected systems of production, can start a degree programme. The struggle to get going once again as its precision agriculture, the increased use transitioning of these courses to online name, once well-known and trusted in of robotics in farming, intensive systems mode in the near future will enable the region, had faded significantly. of production to include controlled greater access to students from across environment systems, and the rapid the region into the FFA. In the period 2012-2016, the FFA digitalisation of agriculture. This is the sought to establish new roots in future, and it will require well-informed At the postgraduate level, the preparation for a period of sustainable and retooled food producers, comfortable transitioning of all MSc programmes from growth and development. As Dean of the with the use of smart technologies. The face to face to online delivery in 2021, Faculty (2016-2021), I made it a priority Faculty of Food and Agriculture is now makes higher level capacity building to revitalise the FFA on the Campus and preparing such persons for the region opportunities available to persons re-establish it as the premier teaching by the review of programmes to bring regionally, if not internationally. No need and research agricultural institution in them in line with modern advances in to come to St Augustine to complete a the region. One of my immediate goals technology and the introduction of new graduate degree; one recurring call of was to make the Faculty and its research programmes to meet current challenges stakeholders delivered. programmes much more visible at UWI and risks to food production in the and in the region. Stakeholders were Caribbean. The rolling out of the new MSc in Food re-engaged and research refocused to Security in September 2021 demonstrates meet some of their needs, however, it To re-engage our regional and local that the FFA has its pulse on the needs was evident that while the Faculty was audiences and get closer to them, of regional stakeholders for innovative doing a tremendous amount of research several regional seminars, webinars programmes needed to meet food and and generating solutions, it was short on and conferences were held, with the nutrition goals for the region. This follows communicating the results to its various most significant being the International on the heels of the MSc in Value Addition publics. Conference on Climate Change Impacts for Food and Nutrition Security started in on Food and Nutrition Security held in 2019. Industry needs demanded the FFA 2018. Other areas of engagement with accelerate its efforts in research and regional bodies continue in the areas of In September 2021, the first fully teaching of modern technologies to water and irrigation, nutrition to combat online professional certificate will start. transform the sector, and this was non-communicable diseases, disaster This initiative with the Open Campus prioritised. One of the very early initiatives risk resilience and other relevant fields. will develop the technical capacities was the TechAgri Expo, held annually In recent times, the Faculty’s work is ever of plant quarantine officers across the from 2016 to 2019 on the grounds of present on its new website, Facebook region. Virtual training of technical staff the Faculty. This national event brought page, Instagram and other social media in Dominica in Climate Smart Agricultural all manner of persons into the very platforms; all managed by techno-savvy Technologies and Methodologies will heart of the Faculty to experience new graduate students and support staff. also start in September. These will add technologies available in agriculture, as to the various training courses and well as to see the work of the Faculty in A major strategy to increase enrolment consultancies that staff have been in programmes in the last 5 years was delivering over the last few years in 9

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy response to industry requests. The FFA professional certificates, the increased Food and Agriculture. is indeed becoming relevant and once use of modern technologies in food I end my tenure as Dean satisfied that again becoming the first port of call for production, and the supporting services research and technical development. that will be available from the FFA to under my stewardship the Faculty of Food farmers across the region, such as soil and and Agriculture has indeed come fully out At the middle of 2021, the Faculty of water testing and leaf tissue analysis. The of the shade into the Caribbean sunlight Food and Agriculture is poised to reap Faculty will shortly launch a bio-pesticide, and well on its way to establishing deep, the rewards locally and regionally, of developed and produced in-house, that strong roots. I am also confident that the stronger roots and begin to bear fruit will transform the way diseases of some name and work of the Faculty is once in abundance, fruit that will last. This is of our major crops are treated. Safer more being held in high regard both expected to be evidenced by the higher vegetables are on the doorstep due to nationally and regionally. numbers of persons trained across the efforts of researchers at the Faculty of the region in degree programmes and The Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, 1920s Origins of the Faculty of Food and Agriculture Although the pursuit of agricultural research at St Augustine should be set up in the West Indies as soon as possible, “to is now 100 years old, the roots go back even further. In 1898, create a body of British expert agriculturalists versed in tropical the Imperial Department of Agriculture (IDA) for the West Indies conditions”. Debate settled on Trinidad as the location of the was created in Barbados. Its mandate was to conduct research College, although Jamaica and Barbados were other options for on Caribbean crops other than sugar and to assist planters its location. and farmers to improve their operations by adopting scientific methods. In 1920, the Trinidad Agricultural Society (founded in 1894) pledged that Trinidad planters would contribute the A Department of Agriculture was established in Trinidad in initial £50,000 to the College and the government agreed to 1908, which worked closely with the IDA in Barbados. Before make annual grants of £2,000 and to donate 84 acres of the the 1914 – 1918 First World War, Sir Norman Lamont, a Scottish government estate at St Augustine for the site of the College. planter and businessman who owned several estates and had Pledges for annual contributions came from Barbados, the strong family links to Trinidad, and Sir Francis Watts, the second Leewards and Windwards groups and British Guiana (from Imperial Commissioner for Agriculture in Barbados, called 1924). In 1920, it was agreed that IDA, in Barbados, would for an agricultural college in the British Caribbean. Sir Francis be absorbed by the College, “to avoid duplication of efforts Watts, in 1917 delivered a speech to the Royal Society of Arts, and waste of resources”. Hence staff (the principal, several UK, in which he called for a college that would do fundamental professors, some administrative staff and clerical staff ) and a research in tropical agriculture and train men for service in specialised library were transferred to Trinidad. tropical conditions. Thus the forerunner of the present day UWI Faculty of Food In August 1919, UK Secretary of State, Viscount Milner, set and Agriculture, the West Indian Agricultural College (WIAC) up the West Indian Tropical Agricultural College Committee was formally established on 30th August 1921. The initial goal in London. Two of its members were Watts and Lamont. The was “training of men to staff the growing colonial agricultural Committee recommended that a Tropical Agricultural College services and the larger plantation enterprises”. Sir Francis Watts 10

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy was the first Principal and the transfer of the IDA staff, library agricultural scholarship), five from Barbados and one from and equipment took place in 1921-1922. Jamaica. The other four students did special courses; three were British (including two Cambridge graduates), the other Existing buildings on the St Augustine estate were was from Antigua. The priority of the College was research on renovated and used by the College: The Yaws Hospital (The “Old pests and diseases of tropical crops. The key disciplines were Agriculture Building”) which was burnt down in 1989 served as entomology, mycology, plant genetics, soils chemistry and soil the main WIAC building, housing the Principal’s and Registrar’s science. offices, laboratories, classroom and library and the estate house was used as the Principal’s residence. In 1923-1924, the Administration Building for the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture (ICTA) was constructed; the The College was formally opened by Governor of Trinidad foundation stone of the new Administration Building read: and Tobago, Sir Samuel Wilson, on 16 October 1922 and the “via colendi haud facilis” or “the way of farming is not easy.”The first 15 students were admitted; 11 of these students were building still serves as the Main Administration Building for the enrolled for the Diploma or undergraduate programme, five St Augustine Campus. from Trinidad and Tobago (including the holder of the colony’s Signpost of the University Farm The main ICTA Building, late 1922, formerly the Old Yaws Hospital In January 1924, the WIAC was re-named“ The Imperial College factories throughout the Caribbean. The student numbers of Tropical Agriculture”, to aid fund-raising efforts. The name ranged from 15 in the first year to 106 in 1956/57. In the 1930s, change was proposed by the Rhodes Trustees, who pledged a two-year certificate course was offered, which allowed £5,000. From the inception of WIAC/ICTA and throughout its admittance to students with lower entrance requirements. The existence, the institution was run by the Governing Body based demand for this programme was low and it was discontinued in London and consisting mainly of British representatives of after a few years. the Colonial Office and the Colonial Governments, leading UK universities, the West India Committee and organisations with From 1922 to 1960, ICTA graduated 214 persons with the an interest in tropical agriculture, such as, the Empire Cotton DICTA: 384 with the postgraduate AICTA and 363 with the DTA. Growing Corporation. During its existence, ICTA never granted degrees; the DICTA was not equivalent to a BSc. There was considerable debate about Principal Watts had pushed for an ICTA journal and, in the relevance of the DICTA courses to the actual conditions and January 1924, Tropical Agriculture was started as a monthly needs of West Indian agriculture. Thus ICTA was urged to revise publication. Its initial aim was public education and exchange its programme to meet actual requirements for existing fields of information, rather than a scholarly refereed journal. of employment in the West Indian area, and, in particular, the Between 1924 and 1954, Tropical Agriculture was published by needs of private employers (plantations, sugar factories). the Trinidad and Tobago Government Printery, but, in 1954, the decision was taken to publish it in London. The initial research farm was on the southern side of the St Augustine campus. From 1942 to 1945, during the Second The WIAC/ICTA student body consisted of undergraduates, World War, the farm provided seeds and plants to local farmers mainly West Indians, doing a three-year diploma (DICTA) engaged in the Grow More Food campaign. In 1947, the Trinidad programme, and postgraduates, mainly from the United and Tobago government gave ICTA 300 acres of the Bamboo Kingdom, doing courses and research projects for the Plantation at Valsayn/ Mount Hope. This became the ICTA’s new associateship (AICTA) or from 1949, the Diploma in Tropical farm in the 1950s (now the University Field Station). Agriculture (DTA). A course in sugar technology was also offered and its graduates occupied senior technical positions in sugar Meanwhile, in 1948 the University College of the West Indies (UCWI), Mona, Jamaica was opened. 11

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Arial view of ICTA, mid 1950s In the early 1950s, two of the future University of the West undergraduates who entered in 1960 was that of UCWI/London Indies (UWI) Professors who made a tremendous impact in the and they graduated in 1963. Faculty were trained at ICTA. Vincentian born, John Spence, obtained the DTA (postgraduate diploma), having received a In 1962, UCWI became The University of the West Indies scholarship from the Colonial Office and Guyanese born, Nazeer (UWI). Within the Faculty, six departments (Agricultural Ahmad, obtained the DICTA. Economics and Farm Management, Animal Production, Botany and Plant Pathology, Crop Production, Soil Sciences At around the same time, one-year refresher courses (at least and Chemistry, Zoology and Entomology) were created. UWI four courses, not including research thesis submission) were created its own degree programmes and the major components offered. Students were required to take examinations in each of the BSc Agriculture degree for undergraduates who entered and on being successful, were awarded a Certificate. And, in UWI were crop, animal production and farm management. 1951, the first two females were admitted to the college for the The Faculty gave up the old ICTA farm situated at the southern DICTA award. Neither completed the programme. part for campus expansion. Equipment was transferred to the present University Field Station. The Field Station later lost some From 1954, ICTA made its campus available to the UCWI’s lands to Nestlé, but still maintains 55 acres at Valsayn and this is Extra Mural Department for various residential summer complemented by the 200 acre Agricultural Innovation Park at schools and to local organisations and regional governments Orange Grove. Today, the UWI Alma Jordan Library, Faculty of for conferences and courses. In June 1957, a proposal was put Engineering and student dining areas are among the buildings forward to transfer to UCWI the whole of the ICTA organisation, which stand on the site of the former ICTA farm. with fabric and facilities to be developed as the School of Agriculture. In February 1958, the Council of the UCWI accepted In 1996, the Faculty of Agriculture merged with the Faculty the proposal in principle. Approval for the merger took place in of Natural Sciences to become the Faculty of Science and March 1959 and ICTA ended its history on 31st July 1960. Agriculture. In 2012, the Faculty de-merged from the Faculty of Science and Agriculture to become the current Faculty of Food The first meeting of the Interim Board of Studies of UCWI’s and Agriculture (FFA). Faculty of Agriculture was on October 3rd 1960, chaired by Sources: Most of this article contains material extracted from: Brereton B. John Purseglove, ICTA’s last professor of botany and first Dean 2011. From Imperial College to University of the West Indies: A History of of the Faculty of Agriculture. The Faculty of Agriculture opened the St Augustine Campus, Trinidad & Tobago. Additional material provided its doors in October 1960 to 25 undergraduates in the new BSc by Sarojini Ragbir. Photos: Alma Jordan Library and Terry Sampson. Agriculture programme, and postgraduate students inherited from ICTA to allow them to complete their studies. The BSc replaced the DICTA programme. The degree offered to the New Head of Food To develop agricultural degree programmes based on the latest innovative technologies in agriculture and produce Production’s vision for the graduates on par with international standards to deal with emerging issues in crop and livestock production, plant and department soil health management, climate change and natural disasters with a focus of ensuring regional food security and food safety. Emphasis will also be to provide quality services in the agro- Professor Duraisamy Saravanakumar environmental sector including pest diagnostics, analysis Head, Department of Food Production of animal feed and soil properties for the benefit of external stakeholders. 12

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Innovative, integrative and inclusive research in Crop Science Dr Wendy-Ann Isaac Lecturer, Crop Science Climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic have The following broad areas are encompassed: soil chemistry; significantly impacted food security, shifting rainfall physics and the environment; food safety; microbiology and patterns and disrupting supply chains respectively. More quality assurance; tropical crop production; biotechnology; intense rainfall producing flooding periods, more frequent crop breeding and crop protection; tropical livestock droughts and offseason precipitations are not uncommon. production, breeding and technology; tropical commodity Offseason rainfall during critical stages of crop growth can utilisation and post-harvest physiology and technology. The lead to a very significant reduction in crop yield and intensify Department supports impactful and innovative research the appearance of diseases. We therefore face the massive in crop science research with its fully equipped research challenge of delivering a sustainable and secure food supply laboratory facilities (Food Production, Food Biology, over a period of significant climate change. These existential Microbiology, Plant Pathology, Plant Tissue Culture and challenges demand that an interdisciplinary and diverse Soil Science) and the University Field Station supported by community of crop science researchers are trained during didactic teaching experts to enhance various areas of crop the 21st century. production and to ensure a sustained food supply. Our research in crop science has the aim of advancing agriculture Engaging students and the public in the importance through research to increase food security while protecting of crop science and production to food security and the environment. environmental changes, requires renewed efforts that takes advantage of technological advances and knowledge There have been many notable developments and dissemination. Recognising these challenges, the Faculty of milestones in crop research over the past four decades. Some Food and Agriculture has over recent years been engaged are highlighted below: in transitioning our curricula to train a diverse spectrum of - In the early 1980s Professor Richard Brathwaite and Mr students, researchers, educators and administrators from across the region in sustainability and climate adaptability in Sarran Harryram developed one of the first varieties of agriculture. sweet corn known as UW7 Sweet corn which is now available commercially. Incidentally many of these challenges are not new and - Over 20 years of research on 33 breadfruit accession ever since the inception of ICTA, crop researchers have had from the Caribbean and the Pacific in the germplasm to devote research efforts to combating pest and disease collection spearheaded by Professor Laura Roberts- problems in tropical crops. Nkrumah. - Over 30 years of research on yam accessions conducted With its early origins as a sugar factory, the St Augustine by Dr Lynda Wickham. campus was first utilised as an ‘experimental station’ with With a research history stretching back to the 1920s, the sections planted in different varieties of sugar canes, research continues to expand, building on this 100-year coconuts, camphor trees, soya beans, salad vegetables, heritage. The current research portfolio has two major pineapples, rubber and alfalfa for fodder. drivers: - To mitigate environmental impacts of cropping by There is a long history of germplasm conservation with improving primary productivity maximising resource- early collections including Theobroma cacoa (cocoa) and use efficiency and minimising crop protection inputs. Musa spp. (banana) which were mainly of agricultural - To optimise societal benefits of plant-based food importance and conserved based on the research interests of production by improving product quality and nutritional the needs of the territories that ICTA served. Later collections benefits. of UWI included Artocarpus altitlis (breadfruit), food legumes The research therefore tackles the key issues associated with (including corn and pigeon pea) and root crops (yam, cassava crop production including genetic improvement, nutrition and sweet potato). Unfortunately many of these collections use efficiency, plant protection and yield enhancement. have been reduced over the years, but attempts are now It plays a vital role in tackling major environmental and being made to do in vitro conservation for these important food security issues that impact on societal sustainability. crops. Opportunities for hands-on research experience are provided The Department of Food Production’s major research pillars are focused on relevant and impactful research with the goals of food and nutrition security and agricultural diversification. 13

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy to both undergraduates in their final year projects and to for the sustainable management of rice blast and sheath blight postgraduate students as they complete their MSc, MPhil and diseases in Guyana involving resistant germplasm, biologicals PhD studies. The department works in close collaboration with and new generation fungicides. Another research project in St colleagues throughout the university and other agricultural Lucia involved the development of resistance in tomato against institutions such as the Caribbean Agricultural Research and wilt disease through innovative grafting techniques. In Jamaica Development Institute (CARDI), the Inter-American Institute work has been done in developing an innovative certification for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA), the Government of the protocol for production of quality and disease-free planting Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Ministry of Agriculture, Land materials in ginger and tumeric through the introduction of and Fisheries and other national, regional and international single bud technology and certification standards. institutions and companies in the public and private sectors. Our crop science crosses interdisciplinary boundaries to Other noteworthy research in plant pathology, spearheaded heighten research capabilities in food science, the humanities, by Professor Duraisamy Saravanakumar, includes the social sciences and engineering, spanning a number of areas in development of molecular diagnostics for tropical diseases and industry. development of biological techniques for environment friendly management of vegetable diseases. The microbial based Crops and soil: Recent research investigates yield, quality bioformulation was developed and field tested as an alternative and nutritional status of cassava grown on tropical acid soils in to the highly hazardous pesticides in vegetable disease response to the addition of nitrogen and lime. management. Currently, the research is focused on (i) increased scale of production and commercialisation of biopesticides, Crops and climate: Researchers undertake modelling work to (ii) study of mechanisms involved in the biological control of determine the impact of climate change on crop production. diseases employing conventional and molecular techniques One such project investigated the physiological and and (iii) exploring novel biopesticide molecules for use in environmental adaptation of selected sweet potato varieties vegetables. under low moisture and high temperature stress conditions in Trinidad. As we move into an uncertain future, UWI crop scientists will continue to be more innovative, inclusive and integrative in Crops and development: Using farmer field school techniques, how they engage with students and in outreach to the farming one researcher has been investigating ways in improving community to reverse the worrying trends and disruptions nutrient management in cassava through appropriate timing in our food supply. As we generate a roadmap for our future and placement of fertilisers. efforts, we aim to embrace more community partnerships and scale up outreach to citizenry by promoting the importance of Crops and engineering: Collaborative research has been crop production. We will continue to train the next generation conducted in manufacturing indoor, environmentally of scientists who will ensure long-term sustainability and health controlled plant factory modules for cultivating high priced of citizenry through digital agriculture, precision farming and imported crops such as romaine lettuce and strawberries under other technological advances. Although our story began 100 artificial lighting. New technologies examining non-traditional years ago, the world has changed immensely since then. Yet, vegetable production have also been investigated using our mission is still the same – to educate a new generation to hydroponics, aquaponic and vertical farming systems. advance the agriculture industry. Crops and society: The research also addresses the challenges to agriculture in the region. One such project explored strategies FFA greenhouses 14

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Soil Science Knowledge Management at UWI Dr Gaius Eudoxie, Senior Lecturer, Soil Science and Deputy Dean, Outreach Teaching, research and development soil maps of each Caribbean country and developmental issues such as climate of soil science jointly celebrate 100 other narrative outputs remain relevant change and environmental pollution. years at St Augustine. Internationally, soil and useful, although profile updating Presently, a wide range of subdisciplines science enjoys an enviable history among including exploration of additional is taught and researched contributing applied sciences, with St Augustine informative properties will expand the to scientific knowledge and regional being recognised as a major hub and range of application. Individual Caribbean development. Within the UWI Faculty of developmental node for tropical soils. countries have, to varying levels, digitised Food and Agriculture (FFA), soil science The Diploma in Tropical Agriculture (DTA) the maps, which combined with other is positioned as a subdiscipline of from the Imperial College of Tropical environmental datasets have supported agriculture and environmental science, Agriculture (ICTA) was a major conduit for decision making at multiple scales. whilst its history suggests that it should early training and capacity development be afforded greater prominence. Notable in soil science in the Commonwealth. That era generated baseline linkages to the broader remit of soil Dr Frederick Hardy was one of the first information that served as the core and science are reflected in its key role in the scientists at ICTA and, whether purposive impetus to a transition to research and Environmental and Natural Resources or coincidental, he greeted new development on the management of Management and Disaster Risk Resilience students to the DTA programme with an soil resources. It also produced a cadre in Agriculture and the Environment introduction to soil science. A geologist of professionals, many of whom continue programmes. Academically, advances by training, Dr Hardy endeavoured to to contribute to regional development. in soil science are similar to many other investigate, understand and document With increased manpower and broader core areas in agriculture, natural resource the physical and mineralogical diversity expertise teaching and research management and environmental of soils of the Caribbean. While teaching expanded into areas such as soil organic sciences; however, public recognition and learning were aligned to plantation matter management, microbiology, and awareness of its importance is low. agronomy, early insights into soil fertility and crop nutrition and physical Knowledge, research and development classification and distribution were management, still with a central focus on Sustainable Soil Management (SSM) central to further development of the on agriculture. Research and outreach have not been mainstreamed into policy science. With the transition from the ICTA facilitated best management of several or legal instruments across the region, to the University of the West Indies (UWI), classes of soils including heavy clay, leaving our soils vulnerable to misuse continued attention was placed on the calcareous, volcanic, mountain, acid and and degradation. nature and properties of tropical soils and sandy soils. their capabilities for agriculture. Professor Nazeer Ahmad, Guyanese by birth The science has continued to expand and Caribbean by nature, significantly together with the evolving needs advanced research and development of of transitioning agriculture and also soil science in the region and beyond. He was globally recognised as a leading The late Professor Nazeer Ahmad examines a soil profile scholar on tropical soils. During the 1960s and 1970s, focus remained largely on characterising and surveying regional soils, but interest grew with exploration into other sub disciplines including soil chemistry, fertility and management. The regional soil surveys, a collective effort among many stakeholders remain the most significant and only regional scale soil-specific intervention, focused on data and information gathering. The 15

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Traditionally, soil science has been monoliths represents another significant soil information app, has increased user branded a challenging subject by contribution to soil knowledge access to soil data and information. students, but mix-mode instructional management both within structured strategies, particularly field practicals and unstructured offerings. The museum With a solid foundation and strong have been a key element facilitating of monoliths available at The UWI, has internal capacity, the FFA continues to knowledge transfer. Among those lucky served as an advocacy tool in arousing contribute to soil science knowledge enough to have been taught by Professor interest in the discipline and raising management. Several generations of soil Ahmad, who doesn’t recall him explaining general awareness of “soil as more than science professionals have graced this profile features related to management dirt”. The monoliths were conceptualised institution and the tradition continues in a soil pit? and executed by Dr Gregory Gouveia, a to attract the best minds. The discipline, student of the late Professor Ahmad. This its practitioners and its home at the The soil profile represents a functional effort at broader outreach and awareness FFA continue to grow and attain global unit suited to communicate the nature, is complimented by a resurgence of recognition, with the assurance that the properties and vertical stratification interest and activity in soil science within job is not over until soil as a resource is of soils as relates to their function and the framework of SSM and sustainable recognised, preserved and conserved. management in a visual modality. land management (SLM). Nationally, the The capture of soil profiles for major development of AgriMaps, a geospatial soil classes in Trinidad through soil The UWI St Augustine Faculty of Food and Agriculture, a leader in livestock science, teaching, research and outreach Dr Martin Hughes 3. Since 1996, the FFA, through the visionary work of Professor Lecturer, Livestock Science Gary W. Garcia has distinguished itself as a global leader in teaching and research in neo-tropical wild-life production, Excellence in teaching, research and outreach in the livestock conservation and management. This achievement came science discipline stands firmly among the many successes through pioneering research on agouti, opossum and and pioneering contributions of the Faculty of Food and collared peccary. In 2000, only nine refereed publications Agriculture (FFA), The University of the West Indies (UWI), were available in literature on the agouti. Since then, through St Augustine campus since its inception. Here are just three research efforts the FFA has contributed over 40 refereed examples: publications that expanded the knowledge on the health, 1. The first PhD in Livestock Science at the UWI was awarded social, reproductive and nutritional characteristics of this species. Presently, the FFA neo-tropical wildlife programme to Dr Karl Wellington in 1968. It was from this academic has the largest scientifically managed agouti unit in the platform that Dr Wellington would distinguish himself as world. In 2014, the FFA hosted the 11th Conference on the animal geneticist and livestock development researcher Management of Amazonian Wildlife as testimony of its partly responsible for the development, maintenance and global impact and achievements in advancing research in conservation of four premiere cattle breeds - Jamaica Red, neo-tropical animals. Successful hosting of this conference Jamaica Brahman and Jamaica Black beef cattle and the and continued pioneering work has cemented the FFA’s Jamaica Hope dairy cattle. These breeds have formed the place as a global powerhouse in production, conservation back-bone of the cattle sector in the Caribbean region and and management of neo-tropical wildlife animals. many other tropical areas for the past 40 years. 2. The FFA was integral in the development of the Sugarcane Over the years, students have been trained at the Feeds Centre at Pokhor Road Longdenville, through undergraduate and postgraduate levels in both specialised collaborations with McGill University, Canada in 1976. and general areas of livestock science. The FFA, through the This centre has and is still focussed on applied research, Department of Food Production, presently offers a variety of development, demonstration and training in integrated exciting, challenging yet rewarding courses of study in livestock agricultural systems that sustainably optimises utilisation science that contribute to the award of bachelor’s degrees, of locally available resources for production of dairy and diplomas and certificates in general agriculture, agriculture beef cattle, buffalypso, small ruminants (sheep and goat), technology and natural resources management. The courses monogastrics (rabbits, pigs and poultry), integrated aquaculture of tilapia, cascadura and black river conch, neo- tropical animal production models and forage production. 16

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy are always evolving to keep pace with and to expose students • Improvements in rumen fermentation efficiency to the latest advancements and technologies in livestock using enzymatically hydrolysed yeast cells-wall and production science. Teaching within the livestock science fermentation by-products. discipline at the UWI employs different methods including lecturers, hands-on training in management, handling of farm An agouti at the Neo-tropical Animal Wildlife Research Unit animals, laboratory exercises and field trips. The postgraduate established by Dr Gary Garcia programmes are specifically designed to train and prepare students to respond to existing and future challenges in the Cattle grazing in an improved pasture Caribbean region through research and innovative thinking. Currently 37 students are enrolled in postgraduate studies in livestock science. The faculty continues to work towards developing successful production models for agouti, opossum and collared peccary through advanced research and study of their reproductive, nutritional requirements and social interactions in captive rearing systems. Much emphasis is also being placed on developing sustainable feeding and nutrition systems for domesticated livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, pigs, poultry and rabbits) with a focus on production and utilisation of available resources including forages. Ongoing research activities can be broadly summarised into the following areas: • Intestinal parasitic load, profile and impacts on the development and health of agouti • Nutritional requirements and feed utilisation by agouti • Breeding, reproductive and social characteristics of opossum in captive rearing • Development of alternative feeding models for domesticated livestock • Agronomic and management practices to optimise production and nutritional value of tropical forages • Development of non-invasive techniques to determine yield and nutritive value of tropical pastures and dry matter intake during grazing Charting the future of geography in higher education Dr Kegan Farrick Head, Department of Geography What comes to mind when you think in 2012, based on the need to bring high involved in developing many practical of geography? Maps, teaching, quality geographic and environmental solutions for a myriad of current issues the outdoors? Geography is so much education to Trinidad and Tobago and locally and across the wider Caribbean. more. Climate change, natural disasters, the wider Caribbean, the Department Dr Junior Darsan leads research pollution, social and environmental of Geography continues its mission of in sustainable coastal and beach justice, and human migrations are some being leaders in geographic teaching management, coastal vulnerability of the major challenges facing our and research by nurturing innovative assessment and mitigation. Trinidad and planet, and geography is designed to problem solvers and scholars with an Tobago is one of the major nesting sites deal with them all. At UWI, St Augustine appreciation for the interrelationships for the endangered leatherback turtle, Campus, the Department of Geography among the physical, human, and and ongoing research by Dr Darsan was created to train students to tackle economic environment. focuses on society, leatherback turtles these complex problems and develop and environmental change in Grande sustainable solutions to them. Formed The department is producing exciting Riviere. Dr Darsan’s research team utilises and ground breaking research and is 17

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Dr Junior Darsan briefing students before The recent migration of Venezuelans especially clear in two of our most exciting fieldwork data collection at Maracas River has become a very personal issue to us in courses, the Tobago and the International Trinidad, and the Geography Department Field Courses. In these courses, students Surveying beach profile in has sought to tackle these complex spend one week in Tobago or another Little Rockly Bay, Tobago social justice issues. Migration and the country and learn to do interviews, homelessness situation in Trinidad has design questionnaires, map and survey interdisciplinary methods and employs been investigated by Dr Priya Kissoon. landscapes, interact with the community, coastal geomorphology, Geographic and measure water quality and coastal Information Systems (GIS) and surveying Access to clean and reliable water processes. Unfortunately these courses techniques to look at the environmental continues to be an issue locally and have had to be suspended because of factors that promote turtle nesting. throughout the Caribbean, which is the current pandemic, but when it ends The team combines natural and social expected to worsen under climate these field courses will be restarted. sciences to understand the ecosystem change. Dr Kegan Farrick has been In the meantime, the department has services, community and turtle nesting looking at how land use change across adapted, through the introduction of towards better management of this and Trinidad impacts water resources and virtual labs and field trips, as well as at- other similar ecologically sensitive areas. what solutions can be applied to ensure home practical exercises which allow that we maintain clean and sustainable students to apply concepts in geography The flooding map currently in use supplies of water. Dr Farrick is also and environmental management and by the ODPM was developed by the working with local NGO IAMovement apply it in their own communities. department’s Dr Gabrielle Thongs. on developing techniques for restoring The department has strong ties and abandoned quarries to functional forest The next generation of geographers collaborations with local and regional ecosystems. and critical thinkers are important to us. disaster management agencies like the Every year we hope to inspire this group ODPM and CDEMA, and Dr Thongs uses Dr Arlette Saint Ville, is researching through a range of outreach activities innovative GIS, remote sensing and social food and nutrition security across which are highlighted by our annual science approaches to analyse disaster the Caribbean. During the COVID-19 Geography Awareness Week. This brings risk management and resilience. One of pandemic, one of Dr Saint Ville’s PhD together high school students from her current projects involves the critical students looked at how food security across Trinidad and Tobago for a variety of mapping of shelters and structures which was impacted by regional public health activities including photo competitions, will prove critical during hurricanes policies in select countries and an games, prizes and on-campus tours. In and volcanic eruptions like what was undergraduate student investigated 2021, we hope to continue this tradition recently experienced in St Vincent and how the pandemic has affected food through a virtual platform and aim to the Grenadines insecurity in households with children make it a regional event. across Trinidad. Both these students highlighted how geography can inform As the world continues to change the agriculture-food system and provided and evolve so do we in Geography. The novel solutions to enhance food security COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the outcomes. need for a digital transformation and information technology skills. We are A visiting international researcher, excited to incorporate these technologies Dr Julia Kotzebue is working closely into our programmes having most with the Charlotteville community in recently adopted a blended approach Tobago on a sustainable transportation as well as made some courses fully project, funded by the German Research online. We are working tirelessly towards Foundation. updating our curriculum to enhance quantitative and technical skills which The diverse research conducted by will continue to ensure that we produce our staff is reflected in the courses career-and-industry ready graduates. The offered by the department, meaning future of geography and environmental our students learn highly applicable management is in excellent hands as skills for real life scenarios. The three our graduates have gone on to have programmes offered by the department: impactful careers across the world. If the BSc in Geography, and majors in you are interested in solving real-world Geography and Environmental and problems and in creation of a better Natural Resource Management are very world, then our programmes are for you! hands-on, where students learn through a range of practical experiences. Our staff and students love the outdoors, and we encourage this by having a range of field trips and out of class activities. This is 18

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension offers unique career and research opportunities Dr Sharon Hutchinson Head, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Most of the programmes of the Department of Agricultural students who now have leadership roles worldwide. Many of Economics and Extension (DAEE) are offered both full- the graduates are working at international policy agencies, time and part-time. The department name hides the many multinational manufacturing companies and in government unique opportunities awaiting students. Even before the institutions. There are well-equipped computer and food COVID-19 pandemic, the food sector was a prominent and labs, so that students get practical experience. The focus is quickly growing sector in the Trinidad and Tobago and larger on practical experiences, such as field trips and engagements Caribbean economies. The pandemic has shown us that even with stakeholders through guest lectures and other one-on- in very difficult times, the food sector is extremely robust and one interactions. The programmes are being redesigned to critical for our survival. As a result, there are significant job offer long-term blended options so that students can engage opportunities for persons who wish to gain training in getting in online learning. the skills needed to become a dietician, a sports nutritionist or a public health nutritionist. As the Caribbean is increasingly This year, the DAEE is launching new MSc Marketing and burdened by non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and Agribusiness and MSc Agricultural Economics programmes in hypertension, our populations require increasing research and blended format (online with limited practical components). This advice in this area. This advice is needed by private institutions, is tailored for working persons who need career advancement gyms, doctors’ offices, public hospitals and health centres. The and overall professional development in the areas of food DAEE provides training in these areas. Training options include policy, food security, international trade, natural resource and the 1-year Certificate in Human Ecology, which requires only environmental economics and agricultural economics. five CSEC (or CXC) passes, including English, Mathematics and select subjects. There is also a 3-year BSc in Human Nutrition The DAEE is also involved in developing Caribbean health and Dietetics. policies and food systems. Recently food databases have been developed for use in current and future nutrition For those more interested in managing a kitchen operation research. In January 2021, the DAEE completed a national (from small to large, public or private) or in starting a catering Food Consumption Survey in St Kitts and Nevis, gathering business, the best option would be the BSc majoring in Foods information on what persons usually eat, using online data and Food Service Systems Management. Persons who wish capture software. This is the first time such software was used in to have their own fashion and design business or teach in this the region. This work included collaboration with researchers area, using computer aided design, should sign up for the BSc and technical experts in Brazil, France, Australia and at the majoring in Family and Consumer Sciences. Food retail is now Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). We also analysed using online marketing and sales options; those wishing to and reported on food consumption data previously collected work in the distribution, sales or marketing of food products, are in St Vincent and the Grenadines. This provides data to support encouraged to sign up for the BSc majoring in Entrepreneurship evidence-based nutrition policy and serves as a pilot for other or the BSc majoring in Agribusiness which is especially a good countries. Staff are also providing research which focuses on option for those wishing to start a business This plethora of the food security status of Venezuelan migrants in Trinidad and options allows training to be an agricultural economist, project Tobago. manager or consultant. Another DAEE activity, through a collaboration with FAO, is The DAEE programmes may also be combined with a major data collection and analysis of the seabob shrimp value chain in Agricultural Extension or a minor in Communication and in Guyana. This work details the participation of various actors Extension, which will allow graduates to develop social media along the value chain, and assesses business opportunities. An and other ICT skills in supporting online learning tailored to assessment of the value chain on the social, environmental and any audience, including youth, local communities and farmers. economic goals for Guyana is also conducted as part of this Persons with communication skills are in high demand in the work . new remote work environment. The department is actively fostering outreach in early The DAEE has a long history of excellence. The team has 15 childhood education to teach children about healthy diets full-time staff members with significant research, teaching and lifestyles, through interactions with teachers, students and outreach experience locally, in the wider Caribbean and parents. The creation of the Caribbean Network in Human and internationally. The DAEE has graduated thousands of Movement and Health is being spearheaded, to engage universities and ministries in the Caribbean to further promote 19

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy healthy lifestyles. Agriculture, and researchers from Purdue University. Virtual Extension staff have been engaged in online extension training covered a range of topics such as the use of ICTs. training series via webinars, in collaboration with regional DAEE plans to continue research in the varied areas and international extension units, as well as the Caribbean mentioned above, as well as in the areas of food demand, Agricultural Extension Providers Network (CAEPnet). Through impacts of disasters on local communities and sustainable food its Farmer2Farmer programme, the DAEE carried out training systems. with NAMDEVO, the Rural Women’s Network, the Ministry of Tropical Agriculture journal: 97 Years Old In 1924 the Imperial College of Tropical The present format of quarterly issues as banana, sugar and cocoa. A similar Agriculture (ICTA) published Volume 1 purely of academic articles was adopted observation could be made after of the Tropical Agriculture Journal. This in 1947. examination of papers published from year, 2021, the UWI Faculty of Food and outside the Caribbean in the middle years Agriculture is publishing Volume 98; this The first article in Volume 1 Number 1 of the 20th Century. In more recent times, marks 97 years of continuous publication of Tropical Agriculture in 1924 was entitled the Caribbean emphasis has been more with Volume 100 looming in the not too “Trinidad cacao” by W Dunlop. In 1934 an on vegetables, root crops and livestock distant future (2023) and 2024 will be the article on Trinidad larvicidal fish by P L such as chicken and small ruminants. centenary year of the journal. Guppy was published. P L Guppy was a This indicates the shifting of Caribbean descendant of Robert John Lechmere agriculture from export earnings to local Tropical Agriculture is by far the oldest Guppy who first described the Guppy fish food security. It is also noticeable that academic journal produced in the in Trinidad in 1866. The 1930s and 1940s papers submitted from Africa, Asia and CARICOM Region and its continuous saw publication of several studies on elsewhere are often focused on food publication over the years contrasts to soil management including one on soil crops for those country’s populations. some other journals which have come erosion in the Trinidad Northern Range and gone. Besides being the oldest and another on the fertility of volcanic In many tropical countries, agriculture journal, Tropical Agriculture is probably soils in St Vincent. In 1957 Tropical has retained its importance in livelihoods the Caribbean journal which attracts Agriculture published an article on BBC and economies. There is evidence that the most diverse geographical range of overseas agricultural broadcasts and the Caribbean is moving back to putting articles submitted. For example in 2021 in 1962, J S Campbell wrote on school agriculture on the front burner. Tropical the journal has received or reviewed gardening in Trinidad. Agriculture will remain poised to bring papers from the Caribbean Region, the latest research results to agricultural Costa Rica, Indonesia, Iran, New Zealand, In recent years there have been a scientists and students throughout the Nigeria, South Africa, Sultanate of Oman, number of special issues including one on tropical world. USA, Vietnam and several other countries. the International Breadfruit Conference held in Trinidad in 2016. A special issue When first published in 1924, Tropical in 2018 on enhanced preservation of Agriculture was a monthly publication fruits reported on research results from and, besides peer reviewed academic a Canadian led project which was also articles, it included newsletter type items executed by partners at UWI and in India, such as results of sports events at ICTA; Kenya, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. A special births, marriages and deaths, reports issue this year, 2021, will publish some of on visits to Tobago and other Caribbean the landmark papers which the journal islands by staff members and notices of has published since 1924. which staff were proceeding on leave. One of the activities of the centenary of The Faculty of Food and Agriculture is an electronic conference in November; during 2022 Tropical Agriculture will be publishing a special issue of peer reviewed papers from this conference. When the journal was first published over 90 years ago, most of the crops dealt with in articles from the Caribbean were the plantation export crops such 20

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Former distinguished faculty members LIST OF FACULTY DEANS FROM Professor Lawrence A Wilson 1960 TO PRESENT Professor Lawrence A Wilson contributed Professor John Purseglove significantly to education, research and 1960-1961 development in the field of tropical agriculture. Professor Peter N Wilson He was well known regionally and internationally 1962-1963 for his work in tropical root crop physiology and postharvest biology. One of the early graduates of the University Professor Parajasingham Mahadevan 1964-1972 College of the West Indies in Jamaica, he graduated with the BSc (Botany, Zoology, Chemistry) in 1957 Dr Copeland K Robinson 1972-1973 and the MSc in Plant Physiology (1960), before attending the University of Bristol, Long Ashton Research Station, where he obtained the PhD in Plant Physiology in 1964. On his return to Trinidad and Tobago, he pursued research at the Central Experimental Dr Elwyn Iton 1974 Station, Centeno, of the Ministry of Agriculture, on mineral nutrition of vegetable and field crops, and formulated fertilizer recommendations for farmers. Professor Wilson joined the Faculty of Agriculture at The University of the West Indies Professor John Spence 1975-1981 (UWI) in 1967 as a Lecturer in Plant Physiology/Biochemistry. By 1975, he was appointed as Professor and Head of the Department of Crop Science (1975-1980) and as Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture for three terms over 1981-1986 and 1991-1994. He also acted as Professor Lawrence A Wilson 1981-1984 Principal of the St Augustine Campus on several occasions. In 1994, Professor Wilson was appointed Head of the Caribbean Sub-regional Office of Professor Frank Gumbs 1984-1988 the FAO with its headquarters located in Bridgetown, Barbados. After a two year stint in that position he returned to his substantive post in the Faculty of Agriculture. He held this post until he retired in 2002. He then served for a number of years as Editor-in-Chief of Tropical Professor Lawrence A Wilson Agriculture. 1988-1995 Internationally, he served as a Member and as Chair of the Board of Trustees of the Dr Albert Donawa CGIAR International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Ibadan, Nigeria. He served as a 1995-1996 Member and Chair of the Committee of Board Chairs of the CGIAR International Agriculture Research Centres. Prof Wilson was an advisor to the International Foundation for Science, a member of the International Editorial Board of Tropical Science and the Board of the Professor Charles McDavid 1997-2004 Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau International (CABI). He was a founding member of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops and Professor Dyer Narinesingh 2004-2012 an Honorary Life Member of that Society. Additionally, he was a Fellow of the Third World Academy of Science. Among the many awards Professor Wilson received were the National Institute of Higher Professor Carlisle Pemberton 2012-2013 Education, Research, Science and Technology (NIHERST) “Lifetime Achievement Award” for his outstanding contribution to root-crop research and post-harvest biology in 2000 and the “Commitment to Excellence Award” in recognition of distinguished teaching and Dr Isaac Bekele research in Postharvest Physiology and Biochemistry, from the International Society for 2013-2016 Horticultural Science (ISHS) in July 2013. Professor Wayne Ganpat 2016-2021 Dr Mark Wuddivira 2021- Present 21

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Professor Francis Cope He held this post until 1967 when he was appointed to the Chair of Botany Professor Francis William Cope was born on 15 August 1913 and Plant Pathology as Professor. and passed away on 23 February 2004. He grew up and was In 1968 he was appointed the first educated in Britain but spent his entire professional life in the Head of the Department of Biological English-speaking Caribbean. Sciences, formed by the merger of the Department of Botany and Plant He completed the BSc in 1934 and the BSc (Special) and Pathology and the Department of the Associateship of the Royal College of Science at Imperial Zoology and Entomology. College, University of London in 1936. He began his professional career as a Research Fellow at the Imperial College of Tropical Professor Cope retired from active Agriculture (ICTA), Trinidad, in 1937, where he initiated studies service in 1973 and was accorded the status of Professor Emeritus on the genetics of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). In 1940, he was in 1974 for his invaluable contribution to The University of the appointed as the Botanist at the Cocoa Research Unit, a post he West Indies. held until 1944, when he was transferred to Grenada as Cocoa Agronomist to the Windward Islands. He returned to the ICTA After his retirement, he continued his association with the in 1948 as Senior Plant Breeder and was appointed Principal Faculty and the University, delivering the occasional course and Scientific Officer, Cocoa Research, in 1953. demonstrating in laboratory classes. In addition, he was Editor­ in-Chief of Tropical Agriculture, published by Butterworth on Throughout the years, he worked assiduously on breeding behalf of The University of the West Indies both in Trinidad and systems in cacao. This research resulted in a number of papers in the United Kingdom, a post he held until the Journal was published in scientific journals, culminating in the publication of repatriated to Trinidad in 1992. “The Mechanism of Pollen Incompatibility in Theobroma cacao L.” in 1961, a study still regarded as the definitive work on the During the repatriation process, Professor Cope assisted in subject. He was awarded a PhD by the University of London in overseeing the smooth transition of the journal back toTrinidad. 1959 for his work on the genetics of cacao. He was very helpful in imparting his knowledge regarding the journal’s operating procedures. This professionalism was With the merger of the ICTA with the University College always one of his trademarks. Professor Cope gave 55 years of the West Indies in 1960, he became a member of staff of of service to the faculty and its predecessor at ICTA, 19 of which the latter institution, and in 1962 when the UCWI was granted were after reaching his age of retirement. University status, he was appointed Senior Lecturer in Botany in the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture. Professor Frank Gumbs to the University community, Professor Gumbs found time to render valuable Professor Frank Gumbs joined The University of The West service to Trinidad and Tobago through Indies (UWI) in 1971 as a lecturer in Soil Science and remained his work in the areas of agroforestry, with UWI until his passing in 2004. His academic career is one sugar industry, crop diversification, and of personal distinction with promotion to a Personal Chair agricultural development generally. in Soil Science in 1998 and with publication of several books, The wider Caribbean Community monographs, and many refereed journal papers along the way. (CARICOM) was also a beneficiary of his It should not be surprising that Professor Gumbs distinguished talent and devotion through his direct himself as a scholar. His intellectual gifts and his self-discipline employment as Chief of the Agricultural were heralded in· his attainment of being first in the Senior Development Section of the CARICOM Cambridge Scholarship Examination in Guyana in 1957, and by Secretariat while on secondment from UWI between 1988 and the scholarships he won for undergraduate and postgraduate 1990 and his membership of the Committee on Agricultural studies in prestigious universities in England and Canada. Training. Professor Gumbs was a model university man. He served in Professor Gumbs reached beyond the Caribbean in his work many administrative capacities. No task was too large for him to and received wide recognition, notably from the University of handle and no task was too small for him to accept. He chaired the South Pacific to which he was an External Advisor and Editor and also served as an ordinary member on many committees. He of the Journal of South Pacific Agriculture. was Head of the University’s Analytical Services Unit and served as Head of the Department of Food Production, University Professor Gumbs was the consummate teacher and Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture, Editor-in-Chief of Tropical student advisor. He was widely sought after by students for his Agriculture, Deputy Dean of Graduate Studies and Research, and compassion, gentle understanding, wise counsel and for his Campus Coordinator and Chairman of the Campus Committee technical expertise. for Graduate Studies and Research. In addition to his wide administrative and professional service 22

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Professor Nazeer Ahmad use surveys to help improve agricultural productivity in Professor Nazeer Ahmad was a world recognised expert on Guyana and other parts of the tropical soils. His work provided the Caribbean and other Caribbean and Latin America. His areas with a better understanding of the properties of their definitive work was published soils, what uses they should be put to, and how they could be in the book “Soil Genesis and managed to support higher crop yields. He was awarded the Taxonomy”(1983). He also has 200 Gold Medal by the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation in publications and contributions to Agriculture for his contributions. three books. Nazeer Ahmad was born on January 27th 1932 in Dundee, He joined the School of Guyana. His days started at 4 am tending livestock and planting Agriculture, University of theWest crops on his family’s farm. At age nine he learnt from his teacher Indies (UWI) in 1961. He improved soil research and teaching about fertilisers and soil types to achieve increased crop yields facilities and built a sophisticated Soil Science department. He and became interested in learning about soil management. developed a postgraduate school of research and supervised over 100 students. In 1996 he was appointed Professor Emeritus He attended Novar Canadian Mission School and Berbice of Soil Science at UWI. High School. After only three years, he gained a grade one pass in the Cambridge School Certificate and attended the imperial Professor Ahmad was the Director of the National Agricultural College of Tropical Agriculture (ICTA) in Trinidad on a British Research Institute, Guyana for five years until retirement in 2000. Guiana Agricultural Scholarship. He graduated with the Diploma He also served at the International Board for Soil Research and in Agriculture (1951) and Postgraduate Associateship (1952) Management and the International Society of Soil Science, and from ICTA. He pursued a MSc in Soil Science at McGill University was a Fulbright Professor at the University of Illinois, USA. in Canada and a PhD degree at University of Nottingham in the UK (1957). Professor Ahmad died in 2013. Ahmad headed the Division of Agricultural Chemistry in the Ministry of Agriculture, Guyana. He conducted soil and land Professor John Spence important contributions to the world cocoa industry. John Arnott Spence was born in St Vincent on 15th July 1929 As an Independent Senator (1986 and migrated to Trinidad at age 11. He attended Queen’s Royal – 2000), he lobbied government to College and later the University of Bristol, where he obtained a address the decline of the agricultural Bachelor of Science in Botany (1951). He attained post-graduate sector and promoted national food diplomas in Agricultural Science (1952) and Tropical Agriculture security. He advocated increasing (1953) from the University of Cambridge and the Imperial capital, knowledge-intensive College of Tropical Agriculture, respectively, and a doctorate production systems to develop from the University of Bristol (1961). international competitiveness and new market opportunities. His research showed the role of the polyphenol oxidase He supported development of the country’s capability in enzyme in the resistance of cocoa pods to invasion by biotechnology, by helping to direct NIHERST-funded research at Phytophthora palmivora (black pod disease). This demonstrated UWI in plant tissue culture. He served on many bodies including a resistance mechanism in fruits to fungal attack. the Caribbean Industrial Research Institute, Association of Professional Agricultural Scientists of Trinidad and Tobago, the Spence contributed to the development of dwarf pigeon pea International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (Rome) and varieties that could be harvested mechanically. He showed that the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (Colombia). He rooted sweet potato leaves could produce tubers and received sat on advisory committees to the Inter-American Institute for a Guggenheim Fellowship to pursue physiological studies on Cooperation on Agriculture and the Commonwealth Science rooted leaves. His research work is recorded in over 50 scientific Council. publications. Spence received the Chaconia Medal (Gold) in 1980, was elected Fellow of the Caribbean Academy of Science (1990) and His career spaned 44 years of dedicated service to agricultural received a NIHERST Lifetime Achievement Award (2000) for his and scientific bodies. He worked as a Plant Pathologist in the contribution to agriculture. Ministry of Agriculture, Lecturer, Professor of Botany and Dean He passed away in 2013. of the Faculty of Agriculture, The University of the West Indies (UWI), St Augustine. He headed the Cocoa Research Unit (CRU) after retirement from UWI in 1989. He is credited with restoring the CRU into an internationally recognised centre of excellence, holding the largest collection of cocoa varieties and making 23

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Professor Holman Williams Celebrating 100 years of Professor Holman Eugène Williams was born in Guadeloupe Ronald Bartolo, Arlington Chesney in 1926 and grew up in Guyana. He commenced his tertiary and Winston Rudder education at ICTA in 1944 and went on to obtain first class honours in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, University of In August 2021, St Augustine, Trinidad, is celebrating 100 years Toronto (1949), followed by the Master of Science, University of its being a premier location for knowledge development in of Wisconsin (1950) and Doctor of Philosophy, University of the Region; with agriculture being the initial focus. During this Edinburgh (1958). century, 1960 was a pivotal year. It marked the transition from an extra regionally inspired centre of excellence for agricultural Professor Williams dedicated his professional life to education and research, the Imperial College of Tropical improving the standards of tertiary education and providing Agriculture (ICTA) to a regional tertiary educational institute, opportunities for all students that crossed his path. After a the University College of the West Indies (UCWI), a regionally period of employment with the Government of Trinidad controlled institute, linked to the University of London. and Tobago, where he rose to become the Chief Veterinary Officer, he joined The University of the West Indies in 1965. He This transition was influenced by some notable factors moved quickly up the promotion ladder and was appointed (a) the emerging global and regional political trends, (b) Professor of Livestock Science in 1971. He taught students the demographics of the major actors – the management in the Faculty of Agriculture and at the Mt. Hope Veterinary (administration and Teaching) and the students, (c) the School. He was a member of the task force that built the Eric orientation of the education and research agenda, and (d) the Williams Medical Sciences Complex and he was instrumental anticipated outcomes and results. in setting up the School of Veterinary Medicine, Mount Hope. Rise of nationalism He liaised with colleagues both at UWI and the University Globally, the late 40s, 50s and early 60s saw the rise of of McGill to establish the Sugar Cane Feed Centre in nationalism with colonies seeking independence. In the Longdenville, Trinidad. Later he prepared Accreditation Caribbean, this drive was led by national leaders, such as, Policies and Procedures in Veterinary Medical Education. Barrow (Barbados), Bird Snr (Antigua and Barbuda), Bradshaw (St Kitts, Nevis and Anguilla), Jagan (Guyana), Manley (Jamaica), During his career, Professor Williams was a member of and Williams (Trinidad and Tobago). The transition from ICTA the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, United Kingdom; to UCWI may be seen as inevitable: a reality of the prevailing Chairman of the Veterinary Surgeons’ Registration Board, political trend. Trinidad and Tobago; President, Caribbean Veterinary The major actors at St Augustine were the staff and students. Association, Trinidad and Tobago Branch; member of the The former, who were responsible for all activities were generally Scientific Advisory Committee, Caribbean Epidemiology European with entrenched practices and modalities. Even when Centre, Pan-American Health Organization, Trinidad; Board the Faculty of Engineering began in 1961, the composition of Member of Palo Seco Agriculture Enterprises, Ltd and member the professors remained unchanged. However, even though of the Board of Management, Institute of Marine Affairs. their attitudes could have been influenced by their colleagues in the Faculty of Agriculture, the staff/student relationship in that In addition to the Caribbean countries that he visited, Faculty was much more humane and less aloof. In 1960 there Professor Williams travelled to 29 countries. These were in all were two groups of students. Firstly, the residual undergraduates continents, Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North, Central and postgraduates from ICTA. They were primarily European and South America. These visits enabled him to develop with few Caribbean. and establish recommendations for the curricula at both Secondly, there were UCWI undergraduates in both the Department of Livestock, St Augustine and the School Faculties (first intakes, Agriculture and Engineering, 25 and 23, of Veterinary Medicine, Mount Hope. He lived to the ripe old respectively), all young Caribbean nationals and graduates of age of 94, passing away in 2020. premier secondary schools in their respective countries, where equality was already a buzz word. There existed challenges, relative to culture, understanding and approach with respect to the charting of a methodology to facilitate achievement of 24

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy knowledge development at St Augustine: the transition the primary objective of providing and receiving sound tertiary Regional human capital educated regional professionals. Firstly, a St Augustine and Caribbean, as opposed to a national community. With a “small” student body there was inevitable ICTA was established by Britain “as a college that would do intermixing of “ICTA” and “UCWI” students on and off campus. fundamental research in tropical agriculture and train men Similarly, there was the “revelation” that Bahamas and Belize for service in tropical conditions”. ICTA had global reach only were nearer to Guyana than Britain. This revelation nurtured limited by the boundaries of the British Empire and range of “Caribbeaness”. Secondly, there was a professional community. commodities which supported the industrial development of The first wave (1960 to 1963) students have made significant Britain. It also had the freedom to develop its own teaching contributions to regional human capital. Academically, there curricula and research programmes, albeit of high quality and were many individuals from this wave who gained postgraduate very appropriate for meeting its given objectives. qualifications. This led to Caribbean professors in regional and North American universities. With the advent of UCWI, the geographical area and trainees In the public sector from this wave there have been: a Speaker were confined to the Caribbean and its nationals. Further, the of a National Assembly; a Deputy Prime Minister; three Ministers teaching staff lost some of its independence as it had to discuss (Caribbean and Pacific); three Permanent Secretaries; and three with the university authorities on the content and sequencing Chief Technical Officers and a plethora of Departmental Heads in of the curriculum. For the first two years of the Faculty of the Ministries of Agriculture, Hydraulics and Works particularly. Agriculture, there were some flaws in the choice of the tropical One member contributed significantly to the economic crops that were of current or projected economic importance restructuring of an oil and gas sector in the region. In the private to the region. For example, rubber not rice was a crop of choice. sector, there have been many owners/ managers of successful The teaching staff also experienced challenges in adjusting from commercial entities, including farms, brewery, engineering a continuous assessment system to one that had only two key consulting and contracting and IT firms of regional and non assessments: at the end of first and third years. regional registration. At the regional and multilateral level, there were very Challenges senior managers at the World Bank, United Nations Food The challenges of producing tertiary educated professionals and Agricultural Organization, Inter-American Institute for for regional development were considered to be of a “teething Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) and Caribbean Agricultural nature”, presenting mutable handicaps and allowing for Research and Development (CARDI). It is obvious that the meaningful and tangible adjustments with time. These transition from ICTA to UCWI/UWI in 1960 laid the foundation for adjustments, which generally occurred without much the development of St Augustine as a leading site for knowledge robust conversations, were accelerated when some regional creation and expansion in the Caribbean and beyond. professionals assumed senior technical and managerial positions. By the end of the 1961 academic year the adjustments Arlington Chesney and Winston Rudder were admitted to UCWI in 1960, were substantially completed, in time for the first intake of the first year of the University at St Augustine. Ronald Bartolo was admitted engineering students. Unfortunately, this was not in time to stop in 1961. a significant loss from the first intake of agricultural students to other areas of Caribbean development. Notwithstanding, it can very safely be concluded that the transition from ICTA to UCWI to UWI at St Augustine was a major success. Two developments verified this success. 25

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Streets of Curepe and St Augustine Watts Street, Curepe is a long Churchill Roosevelt Highway by the side Dash, Cheeseman Avenue is named after mainly residential street which of St Augustine Girls High School. E E Cheeseman and Hardy Drive is named runs eastwards for nearly 2 km from its after Professor Frederick Hardy. Perhaps junction with the Southern Main Road How many people know that these Professor Hardy is the best known of all passing into St Augustine until it joins the two streets were named after two of these founder staff; he was instrumental Churchill Roosevelt Highway. Over the the first Principals of the West Indian in setting up the soils department at final one third of this route, Watts Street Agricultural College and the Imperial St Augustine which completed soil runs along the southern boundary of the College of Tropical Agriculture? Sir Francis classifications throughout the CARICOM UWI, St Augustine campus. Watts was the first Principal from 1922 countries; Hardy was still active at St (when the first students were admitted) Augustine in the 1970s and has a building Evans Street is another long mainly to 1924 and Professor Geoffrey Evans was named after him. residential street which starts in Curepe at also one of the founding teaching staff a junction with the Southern Main Road members who later became Principal. Watts Street and Evans Street are and runs for nearly 2 km to the Churchill known to thousands of motorists Roosevelt Highway in St Augustine. Evans Both Watts and Evans Streets carry who drive along them. Dash Street, Street is not parallel to Watts Street; in fact fairly heavy traffic these days as they Cheeseman Avenue and Hardy Drive are the two streets cross near the boundary are quite important through routes. only visited by people living and visiting of Curepe and St Augustine. Evans Street But there are three other streets named the few houses along those roads. All are starts just south of the Priority Bus Route after the first teaching staff for those named after members of the staff who at Curepe Junction, first heading east 1922 students. These other three streets taught the first St Augustine students in then curving towards the south east and are quite different in character, all being 1922. running along the eastern boundary of quiet cul-de-sacs in the the northern The UWI campus, then curving due south part of St Augustine comprising housing crossing Watts Street and meeting the initially built for those early staff. Dash Street is named after Professor J Sydney Adapted from Google Maps 26

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Gender and agriculture in the Caribbean: 100 years of progress Dr Tessa Barry and Dr Arlette Saint Ville In 2015, 17 sustainable development goals training in the Caribbean, historically male- Dr Tessa Barry (SDGS) were adopted as part of global calls dominated, we are now seeing changes in the Dr Arlette Saint Ville for action on development that balances social, gender representation and enrolment at the economic and environmental sustainability. highest levels. As colonies of Britain prior to SDGS aims to achieve gender equality and the 1970s, extension services served botanical empower all women and girls. As we celebrate gardens, large estate owners, and export crop the 100th anniversary of agricultural research producers. A study conducted by the Caribbean here at St Augustine campus, this article looks Agriculture Extension Programme (CAEP) back to the origins of gender and agriculture, and indicated that although women worked as farm progress made toward ending all discrimination owners individuals and jointly with their partners, against women and girls as a basic human right, not much consideration was given to women in and a necessary condition for sustainable food the areas of training and extension. Further, a and nutrition secure futures. review of women in front line extension service in the Windward Islands by CAEP, revealed a total Historically, the importance of gender of only 13 women in the four territories. This equality to agricultural development was not raised calls for a gendered-focus on research, appreciated. In 1921, the establishment of review of extension materials on women’s non- the West Indian Agricultural College (WIAC) traditional roles to increase food production, forwarded a colonial, male, Eurocentric agenda and greater representation of women trained at for the sector, tasked with the “training of men tertiary levels to lead this agenda. who would staff the growing colonial agricultural services”. WIAC placed little emphasis on the Although the regional professional extension role of women, in 1922 the first student intake field remains dominated by men, recently in comprised 15 male students enrolled to be 2018-2019, representation sharply increased trained for employment on plantations and when, the Faculty of Food and Agriculture factories. This was a time of widespread gender graduated three women with their PhDs in inequality and this historical male-dominated agriculture extension. These women currently focus is a concern since many studies show play leading roles in regional extension and that gender inequality is associated with food are actively involved in advocating for the insecurity. development of regional extension. The Caribbean region has accomplished In March this year the Caribbean Public remarkable progress in the area of SDGS over Health Agency warned that overweight and the past 20 years. For example more girls of the obesity levels in CARICOM countries are the region are enrolled in school compared to 15 highest compared to the rest of the world and years ago, and most countries have achieved alarmingly high in children, which puts them at gender parity in primary and secondary risk for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The education, and in some fields at tertiary levels. role of women in food preparation, services and retail will require further gendered analysis at all These more recent changes in women’s levels in the food and agriculture food system, education and agriculture can be seen right here as the region seeks to tackle this serious public at The UWI Faculty of Food and Agriculture. For health food-related issue. example, in the area of agricultural extension 27

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy THE FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE HELPED THE CLASS OF ’78 TO FIND OUR PASSION Dr Lystra Fletcher-Paul read in scientific journals about crops or in the newspapers about the significance of agriculture in the national economy. Iremember the first day I attended classes in the Faculty of Professor Tom Henderson, Dr P.I. Gomes and Mr Garth Southwell Agriculture in September 1975. I was one of ten women in a were giants in the field of agricultural extension and certainly class of 60 students. We were a veritable CARICOM Community shaped our understanding of the human dimensions of with classmates from Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Dominica, agriculture and our respect for farmers. Drs Richard Brathwaite, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St Kitts and Nevis, St Chelston Brathwaite and Winston Harvey were outstanding Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago. teachers whose lectures I have not forgotten to this day. In the second year, we were joined by a student from Zambia! I was in awe of my classmates, many of whom had taught or Then there were the quirky lecturers, who will remain worked for a few years and had also attended the Eastern anonymous, gave us pause for thought about their fashion Caribbean Institute of Agriculture and Forestry (ECIAF), the sense (clothes or hairstyles) or choice of beverage to sustain Jamaica School of Agriculture (JSA) or the Guyana School of them through the class – their gait and speech did not suggest Agriculture (GSA), before coming to UWI. They were experienced that all coffee was not coffee. An unfortunate memory is that and knowledgeable. And they were a bit mysterious too, with of a lecturer who announced at his very first lecture, that no ‘names’ like Zoon, Gonzo, Chicken, Dragon, Kaiso, Freddo and student ever got higher than a C in his course. Now this was not Small Head to name a few. For me, this CARICOM immersion something to say to the class of 78! We took action and ours was gave me a sense that I was part of the dream of Caribbean Unity. his last class in this faculty! Biometrics Approachable I was shy and felt so dumb because I joined straight out of How could we forget Dr Dyanand Rajkumar, who was our high school. I decided to study agriculture because I did not patient, nay long-suffering, chaperone on that eventful Harland know what I wanted to do. I loved mathematics but hated Society tour of 1978 to Dominica, Grenada, St Lucia and St physics, so engineering was not for me. I loved biology and Vincent and the Grenadines. What struck me about many of zoology but could not stand the sight of blood and although those lecturers was the fact that despite their high academic I had the grades, medicine was out of the question. I did not standing and positions in the University, they were never want to teach neither did I want a job where I would be tied to a arrogant or condescending. They were approachable and open desk, because I loved being outdoors. With the limited options to questions and challenges from the students. available to us in those days, I decided to study agriculture Many of my classmates have distinguished themselves because my brother was already in the programme and I knew nationally, regionally and internationally in public and private that the programme offered a wide range of courses – not just sector as well as in academia in and out of agriculture-related the pure sciences, but also new areas like geology, sociology, fields. The following are just a few. Our commercial farmers economics and statistics. I figured that after 3 years in the include Dr Moses Simbwanzna, who is now Cassava Consultant programme I would find something to excite me. I was right, by at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in the end of my second year, I discovered Biometrics. The subject Zambia. Mr Howard “Kaiso” Murray, who after a career in IT, is combined my love for mathematics and biology. now an organic farmer in Jamaica. Professor Wayne Ganpat Our lecturers were interesting characters and celebrities in returned to the Faculty of Food and Agriculture after serving as their own right, mainly Caribbean persons, but with some from Director of Agricultural Extension in the Ministry of Agriculture other parts of the globe. Professor Frank Cope, a former staff in Trinidad and Tobago and rose to become the Dean of the member of the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture (ICTA) Faculty. Professors Laura Roberts-Nkrumah, Gary Garcia and who had distinguished himself in his research on cocoa and Nasser Mustapha have also made sterling contributions to sweet potato genetics; Professor Nazeer Ahmad, a former ICTA crop, livestock and sociology research at UWI, St Augustine graduate and Dr Frank Gumbs were the pioneers of soil science Campus. Also, Mr Kamaldeo Maharaj, Cocoa Agronomist at in the region. Professor Holman Williams, Dr Keith Archibald the Ministry of Agriculture in Trinidad and Tobago; Dr Jerome and Dr Raj Rastogi, did outstanding work in livestock science, Thomas became the Director of Agriculture of St Kitts and Professors Lawrence Wilson and John Spence were names we Nevis and then the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Representative for Jamaica, Belize and the Bahamas. Dr Marla Berry-Holder was a philanthropist, fighting for the cause of rural women, who worked on soils, agricultural education and was a pioneer leader in Belize’s citrus industry, before her untimely death. Dr Wendell Parham became the Executive Director of the 28

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute Seychelles official remembers (CARDI). Dr Victor Gongorra has distinguished himself in the his study years in Trinidad field of veterinary medicine in Belize, Mr Claude Browne became the Director of Agriculture of Montserrat, Mr Ronald Pilgrim Mr Antoine Mustache was the CARDI Representative for St Lucia, Mr Alford Williams, headed the Coffee Board of Jamaica. Also, in Jamaica, Mr Philip In my boyish teens growing up in the then unknown (Charlie) Chung who served as Principal Director, Division Seychelles of the late 1960s, the only local radio station often of Technical Services and Director of Training at the Rural aired French singer Sacha Distel’s Scandale dans la famille. The Agricultural Development Authority (RADA). Mr Carl (Chicken) lyrics of the song strangely got stuck on my mind for years McDowell, formerly Risk Manager, National Water Commission and left me with a sense of wonder not about the societal is now the Chief Risk Office for the University Hospital, Jamaica. complexity of the subject being addressed in the song but Mr Franklyn Michael continues to make a sterling contribution rather of the evocation of a distant, exotic land. As fate would at the Caribbean Centre for Development Administration have it, I landed in Trinidad in late September 1979 for an (CARICAD). Ms Marcia Marville (nee Baugh) recently retired undergraduate degree course in tropical agriculture. as Head of the Agriculture Department of the Barbados Community College; Mr Julius Ross has been an advisor to I finished the pre-agriculture year and went on to the three several Ministers of Agriculture of Antigua and Barbuda, Mr Paul year BSc in agriculture. It felt like a marathon with 12 subject Bacchus, is the Executive Director of the National Development courses per year in three semesters of 12 weeks each. Foundation of Antigua and Barbuda. Mr Cuthbert Joseph is now a successful businessman who owns the Bargain Centre chain At first, interpersonal communication was frustratingly of supermarkets and hardware stores in Antigua and Barbuda. difficult, as I could not understand the Caribbean accents of Mr Phillip Iloo owns and manages a successful plant nursery fellow students, but after a while I got to travel throughout in Florida. The late Dr Edmund Rampersad was the Manager Trinidad and several other CARICOM countries, thanks to the of the Agricultural Diversification Company of Caroni (1975) many true friends that I made. Limited. Mrs Earlyn Sambury (nee Nurse), Mrs Aysha De Leon (nee Hosein) and Mr Andre Lashley, have made their mark in In October, 1983 I had an agriculture degree certificate from financing agriculture at the Agricultural Development Bank in UWI, St Augustine in one hand and one of matrimony from the Trinidad and Tobago. Mr Hilary Bengochea is a highly sought- Red House in the other. I obtained my degree and married a after business coach and business development and marketing Trinidadian lady from San Fernando. consultant. My brother, Ian Fletcher, was the Commissioner of Lands in the Government of Trinidad and Tobago. I, too, have I returned to UWI for MPhil studies between 1988 and 1991. had a very rewarding career in Agriculture, having worked with My postgraduate qualification from St Augustine has led to several regional and international organisations, including the my being selected for board membership in the centres of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations from agricultural research of the Southern African Development which I recently retired. Since retiring from FAO, I have returned Community and of the Common Market for Eastern and to my beloved UWI faculty where I currently teach mathematics Southern Africa. and statistics. Sadly, a few of our colleagues have passed on – David Francis from Grenada, Dr Marla Berry-Holder from Belize; Lowell Brown and Carlton “Dragon” Lewis, from Jamaica and Dr Edmund Rampersad and most recently, Kenneth Hosten from Trinidad and Tobago. Passion The Faculty of Agriculture is where many of us found our passion. We were nurtured by brilliant and caring professional and non-academic staff and encouraged to be the best that we can be nationally, regionally here in the Caribbean and globally. We owe a debt of gratitude to the faculty. I congratulate the faculty on achieving this milestone and look forward to at least 100 more years of teaching and research in the exciting and important field of food and agriculture in the Caribbean. 29

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy TESTIMONIALS FROM CURRENT STUDENTS AND PAST GRADUATES Cais Baptiste Jameelah Castillo Lee-Ann Rasool BSc Agribusiness Management MPhil Human Ecology Student Current student. Major in My time in this Faculty was very Agribusiness and Entrepreneurship In my three years of study at UWI in rewarding even though the studies the Faculty of Food and Agriculture, I were challenging. The lecturers I appreciate that the Faculty of Food have been equipped with essential and and staff are very helpful and they and Agriculture has opened my mind lifelong skills of critical thinking and encourage you to always push to the vast potential our country has effective communication. This allows harder. in the Agribusiness sector and the me to be an asset to any room I walk opportunities that exist for individuals into. such as myself. PROPELLING THE FFA INTO A FUTURE OF POSSIBILITIES Dr Paul Ivey In 1987, I was among eight graduates from the then College hero, said, “Without confidence one is twice defeated in the race of Agriculture (COA) in Jamaica admitted to The UWI St of life.” Besides, the world is neither this nor that, but all things at Augustine campus on a trial basis after a hiatus that resulted once, and to each according to his vision of it. I told myself that from the closure of the Jamaica School of Agriculture (JSA) there was no way I was going to fail. So, I adopted a death before and its replacement by the COA. Our job was to prove that dishonour attitude, tackled the assignment and broke the back the COA was a worthy successor to the JSA whose graduates of it. This buoyed my confidence and I took on Soil Physics, and traditionally were accorded advanced placement into second all the other courses, with this same determination. year of The UWI Faculty of Agriculture’s three-year programme of study. I still have among my prized memorabilia my UWI letter What was happening psychologically was that the Faculty of acceptance, signed by then Registrar, Carmen Redhead, and of Agriculture, UWI, at the very onset, was challenging me my identification card. to think and problem solve. And this formatting enabled me to complete my degree with Honours in 1989. The Faculty’s My first class was in the course, Soil Physics, taught by Dr cognitive formatting also became the scaffolding for my post- Joseph Lindsay, a Jamaican and graduate of the JSA and UWI, St graduate studies and my professional career. Augustine. Before classes began, Dr Lindsay was our chaperone helping us getting settled in the country. In class, he was Over its 100 years of existence, the Faculty of Food and professional as he delivered the course material. When his first Agriculture UWI, St Augustine and its predecessors have lecture ended, Dr Lindsay gave an assignment that required formatted and empowered thousands of individuals to become solving a set of problems concerning bulk density, porosity, productive citizens who have made significant, positive water holding capacity and other parameters related to soil contributions to human society. I am one of those grateful condition. The problems were interrelated and the answer individuals, who, over the past 30 years have been a researcher for one was needed to proceed with another. This was my and lecturer in Entomology and Environmental Science, introduction to University level work! At first, I was completely a curriculum developer, a research manager, and a higher at sea with the assignment! I was in the throes of experiencing education administrator. UWI’s legendary reputation as a demanding institution. I salute my alma mater Faculty for a well-played century! Self-doubt became a menace and I began to question whether Former President, College of Agriculture, I could successfully manage this highly challenging academic Science & Education, Jamaica. work. Well, as Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jamaica’s first national 30

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy Kashan Williams Shaquana Osario Candida Khan Current student. Major in Agribusiness MPhil Agricultural Economics I am a registered Dietitian Nutritionist, and Entrepreneurship Wellness Coach and Lifestyle Expert. These past few years at UWI have The interactions with lecturers was I completed my BSc Human Nutrition prepared me for almost anything the best part as a student. They are and Dietetics in 2014, then my Diploma life can throw at me. The friends and very down to earth, they don’t sugar in 2015 and completed my Masters in memories I have made will stay with coat how hard the course can be, they Nutrition in 2017. My entire background me for a lifetime. always want you to excel and they is nutrition based and it was only recognise the effort when you do. The through the degree that I realised entire UWI experience as well was my passion for the field! I operate a one of the best. We did a lot of group nutrition consultancy and have written work that allowed us to bond and get recipe books and developed nutrition to know each other’s cultures and we products. also had class games and activities that really helped us as students to be more open and interactive. DTA GRADUATES HAVE FOND MEMORIES OF TRINIDAD Perhaps the best known qualification which used to be community and set out to try to understand the factors that led awarded by the former Imperial College of Tropical to the micro-scale but highly productive vegetable gardeners Agriculture (ICTA) was the Diploma in Tropical Agriculture (DTA). to be so innovative. The respect for small farmers that I learnt The DTA was awarded from 1949 until the early 1970s when the through my close engagement with them shaped much of my UK government stopped supporting British nationals to study subsequent work in Jamaica and then with United Nations Food for the qualification. There were also West Indian students who and Agricultural Organization where I ended up as Director of completed the DTA, but by the 1970s, the Faculty of Agriculture, Field Operations.” UWI had developed a range of undergraduate and postgraduate Dr Andrew Bennett, although retired is President of theTropical programmes and these were more than adequate replacements Agriculture Association, which has members worldwide. He for the DTA for Caribbean nationals. states“My year in Trinidad (1965/66) was the start of my career in As it is now about 50 years since the end of the DTA programme, tropical agriculture and international development. On our first there is only a diminishing number of graduates, and all of these evening in St Augustine we were advised that it was essential are retired either partially or completely. Nevertheless, many of that we remember the recipe for rum punch - one of sour, two these retirees have very fond memories of studying in Trinidad of sweet, three of strong and four of weak, angostura bitters and and experiencing some of the rich culture. nutmeg to taste - a cure for all challenges and inspiration for For example Dr Andrew MacMillan writes from Italy “After many opportunities.” getting a degree in agriculture at Cambridge, I was lucky to be Another with fond memories of Trinidad is Mr David selected by the British government to take a DTA at UWI in 1964. Wendover. “My DTA year at ICTA was a wonderful introduction I ended up staying there for three and a half years, leaving with to life in the tropics and provided a sound base for a career in a PhD in agricultural economics. In retrospect, I think that the international development specialising in livestock production DTA course was the most influential element in my education. and project management. Lecturers were knowledgeable Apart from the very high standard of teaching, it introduced me and approachable. I have worked on internationally funded to living in a multicultural society and a tropical environment. smallholder agricultural and rural development projects in My doctoral research, was conducted in the Aranjuez Malawi, Nigeria, Zambia and Tanzania for some 22 years and 31

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy From left - Andrew Bennett, Andrew MacMillan, and David Wendover carried out short term consultancies and business assignments bachelors qualification at the new university rather than the DTA in several others. I particularly remember the vibrancy of which was still being awarded. However before 1960 ICTA did Trinidad and warmth of the people, Carnival, the humour of train many Caribbean students, these usually obtained DICTA, Mighty Sparrow and watching leatherback turtles nesting on which was higher than DTA and a very small number completed the beach.” AICTA which was a postgraduate qualification. Many others have passed away, but they left a deep footprint At least one Trinidadian AICTA is still alive, Dr Patrick Alleyne behind. Dr John Wibberley, chairman of the Tropical Agriculture who is now in his 80s. Dr Alleyne is a former Permanent Secretary, Association remembers his tutor Dr Geoffrey Masefield, (1911- Ministry of Agriculture, Trinidad and Tobago and he went on to 2001) who studied at ICTA in 1934/5. Dr Wibberley writes “I was be UN FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Head of Mission, taught tropical agriculture in a dynamically practical way by Barbados and Eastern Caribbean and also FAO Head of Mission, Geoffrey Masefield of the University of Oxford. His qualifications Tanzania. included AICTA from Trinidad and this must have given him a marvellous start to his career in which he wrote several Dr Alleyne says that his memories of that time are becoming books on tropical agriculture; he truly inspired my interest in hazy, but he remembers students who graduated with DICTA tropical agriculture from the seeds sown in his life by the ICTA and AICTA qualifications from several Eastern Caribbean Islands. experience.” He states that among these were a few females including Marion Jones from Woodbrook. He also remembers students When ICTA became the University College of the West Indies from Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica and Trinidad who studied for in 1960, West Indian students usually opted to study for the the qualification that ICTA offered to sugar technologists. TARIQ ALI The Faculty of Food and Agriculture (FFA) which prepared me for not only the world of REMEMBERS is the Faculty of Innovation, Action and work but also to appreciate the rich diversity HIS STUDENT Creating future leaders of the world. I am a that is present within the faculty and by DAYS graduate of The University of the West Indies extension The UWI. where I spent 7 years pursuing my BSc in 32 Agriculture with specialisation in crop science I currently work as an agronomist at an and production and my post graduate degree agro chemical company, and I am very grateful in tropical crop protection. The programmes for the outstanding education this faculty has were wonderful, informative, interesting to given to me to execute my job efficiently and say the least. What made this experience effectively. I have been able to network with so more enjoyable was that there were amazing many persons. I grew so much in those 7 years lecturers who used various teaching styles as a student and it was been one of the most to deliver the content while having that edifying experiences of my life that will always connection to their student as that of a parent be with me. and as a friend. Year after year, the FFA continues to produce I also participated in various co-curricular some of the finest students in various areas of activities which included serving on The UWI study whether it be in agriculture, geography, Agricultural Society Executive, Faculty of Food human nutrition, extension or in landscaping and Agriculture Representative and Guild Vice and environmental and natural resource President. Both academic and co-curricular management. I have seen many go on to be enabled me to meet so many persons from future leaders in their respective fields and various backgrounds, learn about different contribute to the forward movement not only cultures, religion, foods and personalities at the FFA and the UWI but by extension the world in the areas of research and production.

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES | Celebrating 100 Years of Agricultural Legacy MY YEARS AT In August 2000, I left Dominica to pursue a BSc in General Agriculture at the UWI, ST AUGUSTINE St Augustine Campus of The University of the West Indies. I was enrolled in the Department of Food Production of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Mervin St Luce Sciences (now the Faculty of Food and Agriculture). Certainly, I was nervous but I BSc, MPhil (UWI); PhD (McGill) knew what I wanted to accomplish and was determined to do so. I vividly recalled Research Scientist my first few weeks and classes on campus, especially the introductory course in Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada soil science (Soils and the Environment). Wow!! This was an eye-opener and really challenged me to work harder than I’d ever done. The knowledgeable, highly There are many opportunities that are skilled and dedicated professors and lectures in my faculty played major roles presented to a student at the FFA. I will forever in my success. A big thank you to them! “Read, read, read, you’re here to read be proud of this faculty and grateful for all that for your degree” was the reminder given by one particular professor on several the persons have done for me and the amazing occasions. Of course, the library became one of my best friends and I’m grateful programmes which allowed me to grow, to all the resources that were available to students. develop and create a better life for myself and for many others. The UWI, St Augustine is a melting pot of Caribbean and international students. This diversity provided the opportunity to learn and understand different cultures The first and the best faculty that would and perspectives, and to make new and life-long friendships. Being away from ever be, the FFA, my home away from home home, these new friendships and classmates at UWI, St Augustine became my and a second family to many. “family”, which provided support and encouragement. Additionally, it created a vibrant atmosphere outside the classroom, with exciting social activities, on- and off-campus. I have such warm memories of Milner Hall, my “home away from home”. Truly, The UWI is “A Light Rising From The West”. This light gave me a deeper understanding of agricultural science, increased my enthusiasm and pursuit of knowledge, and compelled me to ask thought-provoking questions, which led to further research, new knowledge and discoveries. Despite the shock I received in my first few weeks at The UWI, St Augustine, I am proud to have graduated in 2003 with a BSc in General Agriculture (First Class Honours). During my time at UWI, St Augustine as an undergraduate, I developed such a profound interest and love for agriculture and soil science in particular. This ultimately culminated in a MPhil degree in Soil Science at UWI, St Augustine in 2010 and PhD in Soil Science at McGill University in 2013. Without a doubt, my experience and qualifications gained at The UWI laid the foundation for my future success. I’d like to congratulate the Faculty of Food and Agriculture, St Augustine on such a marvellous accomplishment of 100 years of agricultural teaching, research and innovation. There are few universities around the world that can boast of such an achievement. I’m immensely thankful and proud of UWI, St Augustine, and honoured to have passed through its doors. I wish UWI, St Augustine another 100 years and more of excellence. The legacy continues! Acknowledgement Thank you to all who contributed to this magazine. The support of The UWI Faculty of Food and Agriculture 100th Anniversary Committee is acknowl- edged. Editors: Mr Bruce Lauckner, Ms Sarojini Ragbir and Dr Lystra Fletcher-Paul. Layout and Design: Mr Joshu Morris. Financial support for the publication of this magazine: Food and Agriculture Organization. 33

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