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GENERAL PREFACE Dov Gabbay, Paul Thagard and John Woods Whenever science operates at the cutting edge of what is known, it invariably runs into philosophical issues about the nature of knowledge and reality. Scientific controversies raise such questions as the relation of theory and experiment, the nature of explanation, and the extent to which science can approximate to the truth. Within particular sciences, special concerns arise about what exists and how it can be known, for example in physics about the nature of space and time, and in psychology about the nature of consciousness. Hence the philosophy of science is an essential part of the scientific investigation of the world. In recent decades, philosophy of science has become an increasingly central part of philosophy in general. Although there are still philosophers who think that theories of knowledge and reality can be developed by pure reflection, much current philosophical work finds it necessary and valuable to take into account relevant scientific findings. For example, the philosophy of mind is now closely tied to empirical psychology, and political theory often intersects with economics. Thus philosophy of science provides a valuable bridge between philosophical and scientific inquiry. More and more, the philosophy of science concerns itself not just with general issues about the nature and validity of science, but especially with particular issues that arise in specific sciences. Accordingly, we have organized this Handbook into many volumes reflecting the full range of current research in the philosophy of science. We invited volume editors who are fully involved in the specific sciences, and are delighted that they have solicited contributions by scientifically-informed philosophers and (in a few cases) philosophically-informed scientists. The result is the most comprehensive review ever provided of the philosophy of science. Here are the volumes in the Handbook: Philosophy of Science: Focal Issues, edited by Theo Kuipers. Philosophy of Physics, edited by John Earman and Jeremy Butterfield. Philosophy of Biology, edited by Mohan Matthen and Christopher Stephens. Philosophy of Mathematics, edited by Andrew D. Irvine. Philosophy of Logic, edited by Dale Jacquette. Philosophy of Chemistry and Pharmacology, edited by Andrea Woody, Robin Hendry and Paul Needham.

vi Dov Cabbay, Paul Thagard and John Woods Philosophy of Statistics, edited by Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay and Malcolm Forster. Philosophy of Information, edited by Pieter Adriaansand Johan van Ben- them. Philosophy of Technological Sciences, edited by Anthonie Meijers. Philosophy of Complex Systems, edited by Cliff Hooker. Philosophy of Ecology, edited by Bryson Brown, Kent Peacock and Kevin de Laplante. Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science, edited by Pau Thagard. Philosophy of Economics, edited by Uskali Mki. Philosophy of Linguistics, edited by Ruth Kempson, Tim Fernando and Nicholas Asher. Philosophy of Anthropology and Sociology, edited by Stephen Turner and Mark Risjord. Philosophy of Medicine, edited by Fred Gifford. Details about the contents and publishing schedule of the volumes can be found at http://www.johnwoods.ca/HPS/. As general editors, we are extremely grateful to the volume editors for arranging such a distinguished array of contributors and for managing their contributions. Production of these volumes has been a huge enterprise, and our warmest thanks go to Jane Spurr and Carol Woods for putting them together. Thanks also to Andy Deelen and Arjen Sevenster at Elsevier for their support and direction.

PREFACE One of the most striking features of mathematics is the fact that we are much more certain about what mathematical knowledge we have than about what math- ematical knowledge is knowledge of. Mathematical knowledge is generally accepted to be more certain than any other branch of knowledge; but unlike other scientific disciplines, the subject matter of mathematics remains controversial. In the sciences we may not be sure our theories are correct, but at least we know what it is we are studying. Physics is the study of matter and its motion within space and time. Biology is the study of living organisms and how they react and interact with their environment. Chemistry is the study of the structure of, and interactions between, the elements. When man first began speculating about the nature of the Sun and the Moon, he may not have been sure his theories were correct, but at least he could point with confidence to the objects about which he was theorizing. In all of these cases and others we know that the objects under investigation - physical matter, living organisms, the known elements, the Sun and the Moon - exist and that they are objects within the (physical) world. In mathematics we face a different situation. Although we are all quite certain that the Pythagorean Theorem, the Prime Number Theorem, Cantor's Theorem and innumerable other theorems are true, we are much less confident about what it is to which these theorems refer. Are triangles, numbers, sets, functions and groups physical entities of some kind? Are they objectively existing objects in some non-physical, mathematical realm? Are they ideas that are present only in the mind? Or do mathematical truths not involve referents of any kind? It is these kinds of questions that force philosophers and mathematicians alike to focus their attention on issues in the philosophy of mathematics. Over the centuries a number of reasonably well-defined positions have been de- veloped and it is these positions, following a thorough and helpful overview by W. l D. Hart, that are analyzed in the current volume. The realist holds that math- ematical entities exist independently of the human mind or, as Mark Balaguer tells us, realism is \"the view that our mathematical theories are true descriptions of some real part of the world.v ' The anti-realist claims the opposite, namely that mathematical entities, if they exist at all, are a product of human invention. Hence the long-standing debate about whether mathematical truths are discovered or invented. Platonic realism (or Platonism) adds to realism the further provision that mathematical entities exist independently of the natural (or physical) world. 1w. D. Hart, \"Les Liaisons Dangereuses\", this volume, pp. 1-33. 2Mark Balaguer, \"Realism and Anti-realism in Mathematics,\" this volume, pp. 35-101.

x Preface Aristotelian realism (or Aristotelianism) adds the contrary provision, namely that mathematical entities are somehow a part of the natural (or physical) world or, as James Franklin puts it, that \"mathematics is a science of the real world, just as much as biology or sociology are.,,3 Platonic realists such as G.H. Hardy, Kurt Codel and Paul Erdos are thus regularly forced to postulate some form of nonphys- ical mathematical perception, distinct from but analogous to sense perception. In contrast, as David Bostock reminds us, Aristotelian realists such as John Stuart Mill typically argue that empiricism - the theory that all knowledge, including mathematical knowledge, is ultimately derivable from sense experience - \"is per- haps most naturally combined with Aristotelian realism.t'\" The main difficulty associated with Platonism is that, if it is correct, mathe- matical perception will appear no longer to be compatible with a purely natural understanding of the world. The main difficulty associated with Aristotelianism is that, if it is correct, a great deal of mathematics (especially those parts of mathematics that are not purely finitary) will appear to outrun our (purely finite) observations and experiences. Both the Kantian (who holds that mathematical knowledge is synthetic and a priori) and the logicist (who holds that mathematics is reducible to logic, and hence that mathematical knowledge is analytic) attempt to resolve these challenges by arguing that mathematical truths are discoverable by reason alone, and hence not tied to any particular subject matter. As Mary Tiles tells us, Kant's claim that mathematical knowledge is synthetic a priori has two separate components. The first is that mathematics claims to provide a priori knowledge of certain objects because \"it is the science of the forms of intuition\"; the second is that \"the way in which mathematical knowledge is gained is through the synthesis (construction) of objects corresponding to its concepts, not by the analysis of concepts.\" 5 Similarly, initial accounts of logicism aimed to show that, like logical truths, mathematical truths are \"truths in every possible structure\" and it is for this reason that they can be discovered a priori, simply because \"they do not exclude any possibilitles.v'' Exactly how much, if any, of such programs can be salvaged in the face of contemporary meta-theoretical results remains a matter of debate. Constructivism, the view that mathematics studies only enti- ties that (at least in principle) can be explicitly constructed, attempts to resolve the problem by focusing mathematical theories solely on activities of the human mind. In Charles McCarty's helpful phrase, constructivism in mathematics ulti- mately boils down to a commitment to the \"business of practice rather than of principle.\" 7 Critics claim that all three positions - Kantianism, logicism and constructivism - ignore large portions of mathematics' central subject matter. (Constructivism in particular, because of the emphasis it places upon verifiability, is regularly accused of failing to account for the impersonal, mind-independent 3 James Franklin, \"Aristotelian Realism,\" this volume, pp. 103-155. 4David Bostock, \"Empiricism in the Philosophy of Mathematics,\" this volume, pp. 157-229. 5Mary Tiles, \"A Kantian Perspective on the Philosophy of Mathematics,\" this volume, pp. 231-270. 6Jaakko Hintikka, \"Logicism,\" this volume, pp. 271-290. 7Charles McCarty, \"Constructivism in Mathematics,\" this volume, pp. 311-343.

Preface xi parts of mathematics.) Formalism, the view that mathematics is simply the \"formal manipulations of essentially meaningless symbols according to strictly prescribed rules,\" 8 goes a step further, arguing that mathematics need not be considered to be about numbers or shapes or sets or probabilities at all since, technically speaking, mathematics need not be about anything. But if so, an explanation of how we obtain our non-formal, intuitive mathematical intuitions, and of how mathematics integrates so effectively with the natural sciences, seems to be wanting. Fictionalism, the view that mathematics is in an important sense dispensable since it is merely a conservative extension of non-mathematical physics (that is, that every physical fact provable in mathematical physics is already provable in non-mathematical physics without the use of mathematics), can be attractive in this context. But again, it is a theory that fails to coincide with the intuitions many people - including many working mathematicians - have about the need for a realist-based semantics. As Daniel Bonevac tells us, even if fictionalist discourse in mathematics is largely successful, we are still entitled to ask why \"that discourse, as opposed to other possible competitors, succeeds\"; and as he reminds us in response to such a question, any citation of a fact threatens to collapse the fictionalist project into either a reductive or modal one, something not easily compatible with the fictionalist's original aims.\" The moral appears to be that mathematics sits uncomfortably half way between logic and science. On the one hand, many are drawn to the view that mathematics is an axiomatic, a priori discipline, a discipline whose knowledge claims are in some way independent of the study of the contingent, physical world. On the other hand, others are struck by how mathematics integrates so seamlessly with the natural sciences and how it is the world - and not language or reason or anything else - that continually serves as the main intuition pump for advances even in pure mathematics. In fact, in spite of its abstract nature, the origins of almost all branches of mathematics turn out to be intimately related to our innumerable observations of, and interactions with, the ordinary physical world. Counting, measuring, group- ing, gambling and the many other activities and experiences that bring us into contact with ordinary physical objects and events all playa fundamental role in generating new mathematical intuitions. This is so despite the sometimes-made claim that mathematical progress has often occurred independently of real-world applications. Standardly cited advances such as early Greek discoveries concerning the parabola, the ellipse and the hyperbola, the advent of Riemannian geometries and other non-Euclidean geometries well in advance of their application in contem- porary relativistic physics, and the initial development of group theory as long ago as the early 1800s themselves all serve as telling counterexamples to such claims. Group theory, it turns out, was developed as a result of attempts to solve sim- ple polynomial equations, equations that of course have immediate application in 8Peter Simons, \"Formalism,\" this volume, pp. 291-310. 9Daniel Bonevac, \"Fictionalism,\" this volume, pp. 345-393.

xii Preface numerous areas. Non-Euclidian geometries arose in response to logical problems intimately associated with traditional Euclidean geometry, a geometry that, at the time, was understood to involve the study of real space. Early Greek work studying curves resulted from applied work on sundials. Mathematics, it seems, has always been linked to our interactions with the world around us and to the careful, systematic, scientific investigation of nature. It is in this same context of real-world applications that fundamental ques- tions in the philosophy of mathematics have also arisen. Paradigmatic over the past century have been questions associated with issues in set theory, probability theory, computability theory, and theories of inconsistent mathematics, all now fundamentally important branches of mathematics that have grown as much from a dissatisfaction with traditional answers to philosophical questions as from any other source. In the case of set theory, dissatisfaction with our understanding of the relationship between a predicate's intension and its extension has led to the development of a remarkably simple but rich theory. As Akihiro Kanamori reminds us, set theory has evolved \"from a web of intensions to a theory of exten- sion par excellence.\" 10 At the same time, striking new developments continue to be made, as we see in work done by Peter Apostoli, Roland Hinnion, Akira Kanda and Thierry Libert.U In the case of probability theory, the frustrating issue of how best to interpret the basic concepts of the theory has long been recognized. But as Jon Williamson suggests, Bayesianism, the view that understands probabil- ities as \"rational degrees of belief\", may help us bridge the gap between objective chance and subjective belief.l 2 Wilfried Sieg 13 and Chris Mortensenl\" give us similarly exciting characterizations of developments in computability theory and in the theory of inconsistent mathematics respectively. Over the centuries the philosophy of mathematics has traditionally centered upon two types of problem. The first has been problems associated with discover- ing and accounting for the nature of mathematical knowledge. For example, what kind of explanation should be given of mathematical knowledge? Is all mathemat- ical knowledge justified deductively? Is it all a priori? Is it known independently of application? The second type of problem has been associated with discovering whether there exists a mathematical reality and, if so, what about its nature can be discovered? For example, what is a number? How are numbers, sets and other mathematical entities related? Are mathematical entities needed to account for mathematical truth? If they exist, are mathematical entities such as numbers and functions transcendent and non-material? Or are they in some way a part of, or reducible to, the natural world? During much of the twentieth century it was the first of these two types of problem that was assumed to be fundamental. Logicism, formalism and intuitionism all took as their starting point the presupposition that 10Akihiro Kanamori, \"Set Theory from Cantor to Cohen,\" this volume, pp. 395-459. 11 Peter Apostoli, Roland Hinnion, Akira Kanda and Thierry Libert, \"Alternative Set Theo- ries,\" this volume, pp. 461-49l. 12Jon Williamson, \"Philosophies of Probability,\" this volume, pp. 493-533. 13Wilfried Sieg, \"Computability,\" this volume, pp. 535-630. 14Chris Mortensen, \"Inconsistent Mathematics,\" this volume, pp. 631-649.

Preface xiii it was necessary to account for the absolute certainty that was assumed to be present in all genuine mathematical knowledge. As a result, all three schools em- phasized that they could account for the resolution of antinomies, such as Russell's paradox, in a satisfactory way. All three hoped that such a crisis in the foundations of mathematics could be guaranteed never to happen again. Their disagreements were over matters of strategy, not over ultimate goals. Only in the latter parts of the century was there a shift away from attempting to account for the certainty of mathematical knowledge towards other areas in the philosophy of mathematics. This leaves us, as Mark Colyvan says, \"with one of the most intriguing features of mathematics,\" 15 its applicability to empirical science, and it on this topic that the current volume ends. For their help in preparing this volume, my thanks goes to Jane Spurr and Carol Woods as well as to the series editors, Dov Gabbay, Paul Thagard and John Woods, but most especially to the contributors for their hard work, generosity of spirit, and especially their redoubtable expertise in such a broad range of fascinating and important topics. Andrew D. Irvine University of British Columbia 15Mark Colyvan, \"Mathematics and the World,\" this volume, pp. 651-702.

CONTRIBUTORS Peter Apostoli University of Pretoria, RSA. peteroornerstone snyahoo.ca Mark Balaguer California State University, Los Angeles, USA. [email protected] Daniel Bonevac University of Texas, Austin, USA. [email protected] David Bostock Merton College, Oxford, UK. Mark Colyvan University of Sydney, Australia. [email protected] James Franklin University of New South Wales, Australia. j [email protected] W. D. Hart University of Illinois at Chicago, USA. [email protected] Roland Hinnion Universite libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. [email protected] Jaakko Hintikka Boston University, USA. [email protected] Andrew D. Irvine University of British Columbia, Canada. [email protected]

XVI Contributors Akira Kanda Omega Mathematical Institute [email protected] Akihiro Kanamori Boston University, USA. [email protected] Thierry Libert Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. [email protected] Charles McCarty Indiana University, USA. [email protected] Chris Mortensen Adelaide University, Australia. [email protected] Wilfried Sieg Carnegie Mellon University, USA. [email protected] Peter Simons Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. [email protected] Mary Tiles University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA. [email protected] Jon Williamson University of Kent at Canterbury, UK. [email protected]

REALISM AND ANTI-REALISM IN MATHEMATICS Mark Balaguer The purpose of this essay is (a) to survey and critically assess the various meta- physical views - i.e., the various versions of realism and anti-realism - that people have held (or that one might hold) about mathematics; and (b) to argue for a particular view of the metaphysics of mathematics. Section 1 will provide a survey of the various versions of realism and anti-realism. In section 2, I will critically assess the various views, coming to the conclusion that there is exactly one version of realism that survives all objections (namely, a view that I have elsewhere called full-blooded platonism, or for short, FBP) and that there is ex- actly one version of anti-realism that survives all objections (namely, jictionalism). The arguments of section 2 will also motivate the thesis that we do not have any good reason for favoring either of these views (i.e., fictionalism or FBP) over the other and, hence, that we do not have any good reason for believing or disbe- lieving in abstract (i.e., non-spatiotemporal) mathematical objects; I will call this the weak epistemic conclusion. Finally, in section 3, I will argue for two further claims, namely, (i) that we could never have any good reason for favoring either fictionalism or FBP over the other and, hence, could never have any good reason for believing or disbelieving in abstract mathematical objects; and (ii) that there is no fact of the matter as to whether fictionalism or FBP is correct and, more generally, no fact of the matter as to whether there exist any such things as ab- stract objects; I will call these two theses the strong epistemic conclusion and the metaphysical conclusion, respectively. (I just said that in section 2, I will argue that FBP and fictionalism survive all objections; but if I'm right that there is no fact of the matter as to whether FBP or fictionalism is correct, then it can't be that these two views survive all objections, for surely my no-fact-of-the-matter argument constitutes an objection of some sort to both FBP and fictionalism. This, I think, is correct, but for the sake of simplicity, I will ignore this point until section 3. During sections 1 and 2, I will defend FBP and fictionalism against the various traditional objections to realism and anti-realism - e.g., the Benacerrafian objections to platonism and the Quine-Putnam objection to anti-realism - and in doing this, I will write as if I think FBP and fictionalism are completely defensible views; but my section-S argument for the claim that there is no fact of the matter as to which of these two views is correct does undermine the two views.) Large portions of this paper are reprinted, with a few editorial changes, from my book, Platonism and Anti-Platonism in Mathematics (Oxford University Press, Handbook of the Philosophy of Science. Philosophy of Mathematics Volume editor: Andrew D. Irvine. General editors: Dov M. Gabbay, Paul Thagard and John Woods. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

36 Mark Balaguer 1998)1 - though I should say that there are also several new sections here. Now, of course, because of space restrictions, many of the points and arguments in the book have not been included here, but the overall plan of this essay mirrors that of the book. One important difference, however, is this: while the book is dedicated more to developing my own views and arguments than to surveying and critiquing the views of others, because this is a survey essay, the reverse is true here. Thus, in general, the sections of the book that develop my own views have been pared down far more than the sections that survey and critique the views of others. Indeed, in connection with my own views, all I really do in this essay is briefly sketch the main ideas and arguments and then refer the reader to the sections of the book that fill these arguments in. Indeed, I refer the reader to my book so many times here that, I fear, it might get annoying after a while; but given the space restrictions for the present essay, I couldn't see any other way to preserve the overall structure of the book - i.e., to preserve the defenses of FBP and fictionalism and the argument for the thesis that there is no fact of the matter as to which of these two views is correct - than to omit many of the points made in the book and simply refer the reader to the relevant passages. 1 A SURVEY OF POSITIONS Mathematical realism (as I will use the term here) is the view that our mathemat- ical theories are true descriptions of some real part of the world. Mathematical anti-realism, on the other hand, is just the view that mathematical realism is false; there are lots of different versions of anti-realism (e.g., formalism, if-thenism, and fictionalism) but what they all have in common is the view that mathematics does not have an ontology (i.e., that there are no objects that our mathematical the- ories are about) and, hence, that these theories do not provide true descriptions of some part of the world. In this section, I will provide a survey of the various versions of realism and anti-realism that have been endorsed, or that one might endorse, about mathematics. Section 1.1 will cover the various versions of realism and section 1.2 will cover the various versions of anti-realism. 1.1 Mathematical Realism Within the realist camp, we can distinguish mathematical platonism (the view that there exist abstract mathematical objects, i.e., non-spatiotemporal mathematical objects, and that our mathematical theories provide true descriptions of such ob- jects) from anti-platonistic realism (the view that our mathematical theories are true descriptions of concrete, i.e., spatiotemporal, objects). Furthermore, within anti-platonistic realism, we can distinguish between psychologism (the view that our mathematical theories are true descriptions of mental objects) and mathemat- ical physicalism (the view that our mathematical theories are true descriptions 1I would like to thank Oxford University Press for allowing the material to be reprinted.

Realism and Anti-Realism in Mathematics 37 of some non-mental part of physical reality). Thus, the three kinds of realism are platonism, psychologism, and physicalism. (One might think there is a fourth realistic view here, namely, Meinongianism. I will discuss this view below, but for now, let me just say that I do not think there is fourth version of realism here; I think that Meinongianism either isn't a realistic view or else is equivalent to platonism.) I should note here that philosophers of mathematics sometimes use the term 'realism' interchangeably with 'platonism'. This, I think, is not because they deny that the logical space of possible views includes anti-platonistic realism, but rather, because it is widely thought that platonism is the only really tenable version of realism. I think that this is more or less correct, but since I am trying to provide a comprehensive survey, I will cover anti-platonistic realism as well as platonistic realism. Nontheless, since I think the latter is much more important, I will have far more to say about it. Before I go into platonism, however, I will say a few words about the two different kinds of anti-platonistic realism - i.e., physicalism and psychologism. 1.1.1 Anti-platonistic realism (physicalism and psychologism) The main advocate of mathematical physicalism is John Stuart Mill [1843, book II, chapters 5 and 6]. The idea here is that mathematics is about ordinary physical objects and, hence, that it is an empirical science, or a natural science, albeit a very general one. Thus, just as botany gives us laws about plants, mathematics, according to Mill's view, gives us laws about all objects. For instance, the sentence '2 + 1 = 3' tells us that whenever we add one object to a pile of two objects, we will end up with three objects. It does not tell us anything about any abstract objects, like the numbers 1, 2, and 3, because, on this view, there are simply no such things as abstract objects. (There is something a bit arbitrary and potentially confusing about calling this view 'physicalism', because Penelope Maddy [1990b] has used the term 'physicalistic platonism' to denote her view that set theory is about sets that exist in spacetime - e.g., sets of biscuits and eggs. We will see below that her view is different from Mill's and, indeed, not entirely physicalistic - it is platonistic in at least some sense of the term. One might also call Mill's view 'empiricism', but that would be misleading too, because one can combine empiricism with non-physicalistic views (e.g., Resnik and Quine have endorsed empiricist platonist views'\"); moreover, the view I am calling 'physicalism' here is an ontological view, and in general, empiricism is an epistemological view. Finally, one might just call the view here 'Millianism'; I would have no objection to that, but it is not as descriptive as 'physicalism'.) Recently, Philip Kitcher [1984] has advocated a view that is similar in certain ways to Millian physicalism. According to Kitcher, our mathematical theories are about the activities of an ideal agent; for instance, in the case of arithmetic, the activities involve the ideal agent pushing blocks around, i.e., making piles of 2The view is developed in detail by Resnik [1997]' but see also Quine (1951, section 6).

38 Mark Balaguer blocks, adding blocks to piles, taking them away, and so on. I will argue in section 2.2.3, however, that Kitcher's view is actually better thought of as a version of anti-realism. Let's move on now to the second version of anti-platonistic realism - that is, to psychologism. This is the view that mathematics is about mental objects, in particular, ideas in our heads; thus, for instance, on this view, '3 is prime' is about a certain mental object, namely, the idea of 3. One might want to distinguish two different versions of psychologism; we can call these views actualist psychologism and possibilist psychologism and define them in the following way: Actualist Psychologism is the view that mathematical statements are about, and true of, actual mental objects (or mental constructions) in actual human heads.i' Thus, for instance, the sentence '3 is prime' says that the mentally constructed object 3 has the property of primeness. Possibilist Psychologism is the view that mathematical statements are about what mental objects it's possible to construct. E.g., the sentence 'There is a prime number between 10,000,000 and (1O,000,000! + 2)' says that it's possible to construct such a number, even if no one has ever constructed one. But (according to the usage that I'm employing here) possibilist psychologism is not a genuinely psychologistic view at all, because it doesn't involve the adop- tion of a psychologistic ontology for mathematics. It seems to me that possibilist psychologism collapses into either a platonistic view (i.e., a view that takes mathe- matics to be about abstract objects) or an anti-realist view (i.e., a view that takes mathematics not to be about anything - i.e., a view like deductivism, formalism, or fictionalism that takes mathematics not to have an ontology). If one takes pos- sible objects (in particular, possible mental constructions) to be real things, then presumably (unless one is a Lewisian about the metaphysical nature of possibilia) one is going to take them to be abstract objects of some sort, and hence, one's pos- sibilist psychologism is going to be just a semantically weird version of platonism. (On this view, mathematics is about abstract objects, it is objective, and so on; the only difference between this view and standard platonism is that it involves an odd, non-face-value view of which abstract objects the sentences of mathematics are about.) If, on the other hand, one rejects the existence of possible objects, then one will wind up with a version of possibilist psychologism that is essentially anti-realistic: on this view, mathematics will not have an ontology. Thus, in this essay, I am going to use 'psychologism' to denote actualist psychologism. By the way, one might claim that actualist psychologism is better thought of as a version of anti-realism than a version of realism; for one might think that 30bviously, there's a question here about whose heads we're talking about. Any human head? Any decently trained human head? Advocates of psychologism need to address this issue, but I won't pursue this here.

Realism and Anti-Realism in Mathematics 39 mathematical realism is most naturally defined as the view that our mathematical theories provide true descriptions of some part of the world that exists indepen- dently of us human beings. I don't think anything important hangs on whether we take psychologism to be a version of realism or anti-realism, but for whatever it's worth, I find it more natural to think of psychologism as a version of realism, for the simple reason that (in agreement with other realist views and disagreement with anti-realist views) it provides an ontology for mathematics - i.e., it says that mathematics is about objects, albeit mental objects. Thus, I am going to stick with the definition of mathematical realism that makes actualist psychologism come out as a version of realism. However, we will see below (section 2.2.3) that it is indeed true that actualist psychologism bears certain important similarities to certain versions of anti-realism. Psychologistic views seem to have been somewhat popular around the end of the nineteenth century, but very few people have advocated such views since then, largely, I think, because of the criticisms that Frege leveled against the psychol- ogistic views that were around back then - e.g., the views of Erdmann and the early Husserl.f Probably the most famous psychologistic views are those of the intuitionists, most notably Brouwer and Heyting. Heyting for instance said, \"We do not attribute an existence independent of our thought. .. to... mathematical objects,\" and Brouwer made several similar remarks.f However, I do not think we should interpret either of these philosophers as straightforward advocates of actu- alist psychologism. I think the best interpretation of their view takes it to be an odd sort of hybrid of an actualist psychologistic view of mathematical assertions and a possibilist psychologistic view of mathematical negations. I hope to argue this point in more detail in the future, but the basic idea is as follows. Brouwer- Heyting intuitionism is generated by endorsing the following two principles: (A) A mathematical assertion of the form' Fa' means 'We are actually in possession of a proof (or an effective procedure for producing a proof) that the mentally constructed mathematical object a is F'. (B) A mathematical sentence of the form <: P' means \"There is a derivation of a contradiction from 'P' \". Principle (A) commits them pretty straightforwardly to an actualist psychologistic view of assertions. But (B) seems to commit them to a possibilist psychologistic view of negations, for on this view, in order to assert 'rv Fa', we need something that entails that we couldn't construct the object a such that it was F (not merely that we haven't performed such a construction) - namely, a derivation of a con- tradiction from 'Fa'. I think this view is hopelessly confused, but I also think 4See, for instance, Husser! [1891] and Frege [1894] and [1893-1903, 12-15]. Husser!'s and Erdmann's works have not been translated into English, and so I am not entirely certain that either explicitly accepted what I am calling psychologism here. Resnik [1980, chapter 1] makes a similar remark; all he commits to is that Erdmann and Husser! - and also Locke [1689] - came close to endorsing psychologism. 5Heyting [1931, 53]; and see, e.g., Brouwer [1948, 90].

40 Mark Balaguer it is the most coherent view that is consistent with what Brouwer and Heyting actually say - though I cannot argue this point here. (By the way, none of this is relevant to Dummett's [1973] view; his version of intuitionism is not psychologistic at all.)6,7 1.1. 2 Mathematical platonism As I said above, platonism is the view that (a) there exist abstract mathematical objects - objects that are non-spatioternporal and wholly non-physical and non- mental- and (b) our mathematical theories are true descriptions of such objects. This view has been endorsed by Plato, Frege, Godel, and in some of his writings, Quine.\" (One might think that it's not entirely clear what thesis (a) - that there exist abstract objects - really amounts to. I think this is correct, and in section 3.2, I will argue that because of this, there is no fact of the matter as to whether platonism or anti-platonism is true. For now, though, I would like to assume that the platonist thesis is entirely clear.) There are a couple of distinctions that need to be drawn between different kinds of platonism. The most important distinction, in my view, is between the traditional platonist view endorsed by Plato, Frege, and Godel (we might call this sparse platonism, or non-plenitudinous platonism) and a view that I have developed elsewhere [1992; 1995; 1998] and called plenitudinous platonism, or full- blooded platonism, or for short, FBP. FBP differs from traditional platonism in several ways, but all of the differences arise out of one bottom-level difference concerning the question of how many mathematical objects there are. FBP can be expressed very intuitively, but perhaps a bit sloppily, as the view that the mathematical realm is plenitudinous; in other words, the idea here is that all the mathematical objects that (logically possibly) could exist actually do exist, i.e., that there actually exist mathematical objects of all logically possible kinds. (More needs to be said about what exactly is meant by 'logically possible'; I address this in my [1998, chapter 3, section 5].) In my book, I said a bit more about how to define FBP, but Greg Restall [2003] has recently argued that still more work is 6Intuitionism itself (which can be defined in terms of principles (A) and (B) in the text) is not a psychologistic view. It is often assumed that it goes together naturally with psychologism, but in work currently in progress, I argue that intuitionism is independent of psychologism. More specifically, I argue that (i) intuitionists can just as plausibly endorse platonism or anti-realism as psychologism, and (ii) advocates of psychologism can (and indeed should) avoid intuitionism and hang onto classical logic. Intuitionism, then, isn't a view of the metaphysics of mathematics at all. It is a thesis about the semantics of mathematical discourse that is consistent with both realism and anti-realism. Now, my own view on this topic is that intuitionism is a wildly implausible view, but I will not pursue this here because it is not a version of realism or anti-realism. (And by the way, a similar point can be made about logicism: it is not a version of realism or anti-realism (it is consistent with both of these views) and so I will not discuss it here.) 7Recently, a couple of non-philosophers - namely, Hersh [1997J and Dehaene [1997] - have endorsed views that sound somewhat psychologistic. But I do not think these views should be interpreted as versions of the view that I'm calling psychologism (and I should note here that Hersh at least is careful to distance himself from this view). 8See, e.g., Plato's Meno and Phaedo; Frege [1893-1903]; Godel [1964]; and Quine [1948; 1951J.

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