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Societies and Stereotypes

Published by manahil fatima, 2022-02-26 16:40:09

Description: The TNS Boundless team is delighted to announce the publication of their first issue with their new team of the academic year 2021-2022! Happy reading.


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DIRECTOR'S NOTES Welcome Back Readers! We are thrilled to present the the first issue of the Jan-June 2022 term of Boundless! First and foremost, we’d like to introduce the executive team for this term: Anum Azhar, Manahil Fatima and Sereen Yusuf are the co-Editors-in-Chief, Salena Akbar is the News Editor and Emaan Shams and Kabir Khan are the co-Publishing Directors. The February issue features several excellent articles, op-eds, and creative pieces related to the theme “Society and Stereotypes”. Pay special attention to our School Affairs column to learn more about the DP art exhibition and other events that took place this past month! The planning and publishing process ran smoothly and our team was able to overcome any and all challenges we encountered. The writing and compiling process has also become more streamlined this month. Working with the writers was a pleasure and their ideas were creative and thoughtful. We’d like to give special thanks to our hard working executive and creative teams for working diligently on this issue. We’d also like to note that we’ve added new members to the marketing and creative teams. They’ve worked tirelessly to understand the publishing process and were extremely involved in this month’s issue. The end product was definitely worth the time and work put in by the entire team. As the Boundless team continues to grow and develop, we are extremely grateful for our readers’ support. To our readers, we hope you enjoy reading this issue as much as we enjoyed producing it! Editors-in-Chief, Anum Azhar, Manahil Fatima & Sereen Yusuf

Dear Readers, I am so delighted to present to you this issue of Boundless, Society and Stereotypes. As a first-time News Editor, it has been amazing watching the process of how each issue comes to be and the hard work put in by everyone, particularly the Executive Team to make each issue a possibility. The process of creating each issue is beyond smooth and well- organized and it is incredible to watch so many like-minded people working together to produce excellent articles. From the sub-editors coming up with outstanding topics and the magnificent writing skills of the writers, we were able to overcome any and all challenges we faced and ensure the entire writing process was done successfully. In this issue, our articles range from Gender Norms in Sports to The Evolution of Cancel Culture to recent school events so there is surely something that everyone will enjoy reading. It was a pleasure to be able to edit these impressive articles and play a part in bringing the school community together and creating an amazing issue to start this year off with. Our feature article for this issue is written by Rukhezainab Rizvi and is titled “DP 2 Art Exhibition” so make sure that you give the article a read. It has been amazing creating this issue and we hope you enjoy reading it as much as we enjoyed creating it. Happy Reading! News Editor, Salena Akbar

Welcome Back Readers! We are all excited for you to dive into this issue of Boundless and be as inspired by the its content as we were. This issue was indeed a great feat, with our new members carving out their skill set and our older members polishing their prowess. What you're reading right now is the result of weeks of hard work undertaken by the Boundless Team. The issue you are about to read might just be our best one yet! Filled with articles about a plethora of subjects, ranging from articles about lifestyle and culture, such as Dua Azhar's article about 'Societies Beauty Standards' , all the way to articles about sports, such as 'Women in Sports' written by Yahyaa Khan. Despite the Boundless Team changing this term, the publishing process went smoothly and we were able to tackle any and all challenges we faced. We look forward to brining you more issues, and hope to deliver accurate, authentic and entertaining stories to you for the foreseeable future! It was truly an amazing experience being able to take these artistically written articles and turn them into the beautiful pages you see before you. It may not have been an easy task - from formatting to color swatching, each step took careful consideration and hours of work which, looking back, are all worth it. We hope all of our efforts create the ideal reading experience! We would like to thank the entire Boundless Directorate, our Writers, and all our Subeditors for their dedication and hard work towards making this issue a possibility. We all hope you enjoy this issue! Publishing Directors, Emaan Shams & Kabir Khan

SCHOOL AFFAIRS Aitchison Business Concept (ABC) The event required delegates to create presentations on real-world problems and then, required them to Agha Asfandyar Haider represent a company and create partnerships. Sophiya Ifthikhar and Ayleen Sheikh (the President of TBIS) of With a school that is rich in culture and history, team A were successful throughout the category event Aitchison College never fails to amaze us with its being able to handle multiple crisis situations and exhilarating events. The 4th weekend of January problems posed to them throughout the event. Their welcomed Aitchison College's 9th annual Business hard-work during this event is what led to them coming event, widely known as the Aitchison Business in 2nd place in the category. Concept (ABC). This event was initially established The students who participated in the category were in 2010 and stands as a crucial event for business able to get a great insight into how the industry truly societies in schools across Lahore to attend. This works. made for a great opportunity to showcase TNS’s newly established Business and Investment Society The other category in which our delegation won second (TBIS). The TNS Business and Investment Society is place was the Mystery category which played out an a student-led society that empowers emerging interesting approach to business on the more thrilling business leaders that aim to pursue careers in side of affairs. This category began on the second day entrepreneurship, marketing, finance, and when delegates were instructed to run around the large management by allowing students to work with campus and find hidden golden tickets in order to like-minded individuals and develop real-life skills qualify for the category. Delegates were then given a in the field of business. . murder mystery case study, where they were given hints and riddles to help find the identity of the killer Several schools from across the city attended ABC and produce a ompelling research paper that included such as LGS 55 Main, some sending delegations from all the hints collected along with their journey to Team A-Y which added to the incredibly victory. Huzayn Buksh, Amaan Ahmad, and Abdullah competitive environment of the event. Hence, Asif (the VP of TBIS) were able to bring home the 2nd despite the runners-up positions, our participation place position in the entire category. and victories remain quite significant. Aitchison has encountered plenty of passionate students from As a new student to TNS myself, it has become quite TNS in the past who stop at nothing to win, at clear that TNS is a school that is built on the foundation events like AC Artfest- in 2019 TNS won 'Best of hard work and passion. This year's ABC might not delegation' and at AC Literature Fest in 2020- TNS have been ours for the taking but in the next year, TBIS got the first position in the 'Icarus Interpretive will prove how our approach to learning without contest'- and countless more victories that boundaries can build our very own members into the established our competitive students as bright and aspiring entrepreneurs they strive to be. We look driven delegates. forward to what the Business society has in store for TNS next! TNS sent 3 teams to Aitchison to compete in these events, (Team A, Team B, Team C) and all three teams worked exceptionally well in all the categories they participated in. Although the work environment was highly competitive, our delegation was able to achieve runners-up in 2 categories: Social Entrepreneurship and the Mystery Category. For the Social Entrepreneurship category, there were three rounds and a total of around 200 delegates took part in the category.

The Law Society’s Upcoming Projects attend our events or want to be members of the society. For now, if you want to be a member of Salena Akbar society, you should consistently attend our events and participate in our initiatives. Today, I’ll be introducing you all to the TNS Law Society (TLS), which is ideal for students in TNS who If you have any queries, feel free to reach out to us are passionate about learning about law and pursuing through Instagram @tnslawsociety or through a career in it. The TNS Law Society was an initiative email at [email protected]. started by Sabrina Qureshi from Grade 10 and Bilquis Mir from DP1, stemming from their love for the Inter-School Debates Tournament subject. The TNS Law Society aims to create a space where a Salena Akbar passion for law is nurtured and learning of the subject area is furthered. Furthermore, we want to TNS’s first-ever debating tournament as well as the encourage young, aspiring lawyers to have a platform first-ever inter-school event on campus was held from for them to learn about the discipline through the 21st to 23rd January 2022. With 7 rounds of rigorous possibilities that TNS and TLS offer to students. At debating, 26 teams with students under the age of 17 TLS, we aim to encourage students to create a sense of from all over Pakistan came to attend. Some of our community within students to learn, motivate country's best schools ranging from LGS, themselves, and find creative mediums to utilize their Beaconhouse, SICAS, and our very own home team enthusiasm for law and become the leading lawyers of sent diligent debaters for the tournament. There the future. were over 200 people on campus for the duration of the event which included debaters, the host team, In order to achieve our goals, we intend on adjudicators and team managers. Despite the introducing a variety of activities for TNS students constant delay due to the roaring pandemic, the Host such as law talks from practicing lawyers and Team and the TNS Management made a great effort to representing the school in inter-school law moots. ensure that all COVID-19 protocols were followed throughout the duration of the event which included There is a multitude of reasons that you should join mandatory social distancing, mandatory mask TLS. The first one is that you can truly learn and wearing and mandatory vaccination for all understand the subject of law while being able to participants above 12 years old. interact with like-minded students. Secondly, the IB program doesn’t offer law as a subject hence why if The TNS home team consisted of Daud Rafi Khan, Ali you want to pursue it in the future, being a part of the Muhammad, Zarar Tariq, and Maryam Ali Khan from society would allow you to get a comprehensive grade 8 were the youngest debaters in the understanding of the subject. Lastly, being a member competition. Despite this, Ali Muhammad was able to of TLS can be an integral part of of your college rank 6th best speaker in the whole event and our applications. The activities you partake in and the team was able to come 6th in the entire event. knowledge you gain as a part of TLS can be something you include in your personal statements or college The event took months of arranging by the keen event applications which can help you on your career path head Shafay Asghar, who is also the Vice President of to becoming a lawyer. the Debating Society and Deputy Head Boy of TNS. Alongside Shafay, the TNS Debating Coach, Sobaan Our executive team consists of 8 students: Sabrina Qadeer as well as the Chief Adjudicators, Daniyal Qureshi and Bilquis Mir (Co-Presidents), Ayleen Maqbool, Lyba Bashir and Hamza Hashim were all Sheikh (Secretary-General), Salena Akbar (Creative integral to the ultimate success of the event. Director), Alisha Amjad (Event Planner), Emaan Shams (Content Writer), Rvasiya Nval and Mustafa (Graphic Designers) We will keep conducting a range of events and participating in a variety of activities where students can attend if they are truly passionate about the subject area. Once we have done a few events, we will be creating a formal group chat with the students who regularly

In addition to the industrious help of the coaches and Half of the world’s population is affected by dengue the adjudicators, the incredibly large pool of supportive and every year, 400 million people are affected by TNS student-volunteers helped pave the smooth dengue across the world. Dengue isn’t catchy or running of the event. contagious, it doesn’t spread from person to person but primary transmission is through mosquitos themselves. Over 20 students from Grade 5 to DP1 volunteered Their bacteria spreads infectiously through every during the event with roles ranging from working on individual bite. There are no specific readily available the logistics of the event, at the registration desks and medicines to take for dengue, therefore the most as floor ushers. The experience meant a lot to the convenient solution that remains is to rest and take students who volunteered because as a result, they antibiotics to help cope with the unfortunate disease. were able to learn the conduct of debating, the important event-planning skills and interaction with The dengue fever/illness can be transmitted from a new students from all over the country. mosquito carrying this virus, to another organism (usually humans). The mosquitoes which mainly carry Despite the initial stages of success in the event, the dengue are called ‘aedes aegypti’. When this particular final round of the debate was postponed due to COVID- mosquito bites a person who has already been affected 19 cases rising in the country. The final round was held by dengue fever, the mosquito becomes infected with online on Thursday, the 2nd of February. An intense the virus that causes this disease. round of debate took place between LGS JT and LGS 1A1. LGS JT won the round and were officially Dengue mosquitoes usually bite one on their ankles or announced the winners of TNS’s first-ever Under-17 elbows (but of course in other body parts too). The InterSchool Debating Competition. Students from all dengue mosquito bite will look much more red and grades watched the debate online and this served as a swollen than normal mosquito bites and will feel much great opportunity for students interested in joining the more itchy too. When the body is affected by dengue, debating society as well as an indulgence in an intense blood vessels become damaged and leaky. Eventually match of heated debating between fellow students. this can lead to shocks, internal bleeding, organ failure and, unfortunately, even death. Dengue There are many precautions or measures that can be Leyla Mirza, Rasheel Mir, Raania Ali, Hashir taken to prevent dengue. Some include: applying Rameez & Eshal Salman mosquito repellent, wearing full-sleeves or long pants to cover arms/legs, avoid visiting areas with mosquitos LAHORE, PAKISTAN - In this article, we will be and avoid going outside in the evening. informing you about a common virus in Pakistan and many other countries called dengue. The cold, rainy, Dengue fever is caused by four different viruses and and humid winter season has approached in Pakistan spread by mosquitoes. Symptoms range from mild to which also means dengue fever is knocking on all our severe. One mosquito bite is sufficient to transmit the doors. Want to learn how we can safely open our doors dengue virus and make you sick for days. Dengue can to this virus and tackle the situation as well as why, and strike you again and again but with each subsequent how it happens? Read more to find out! infection being deadlier than the ones before. Dengue fever is a common viral infection that occurs in There has been a great impact of dengue which tropical and subtropical areas. It spreads when female includes hospitalization, requiring professional care, mosquitoes bite humans and their infections spread, deaths, absence in school or work and a great loss of particularly in the winter as all mosquitos use water to income as treating dengue can be very costly. 2021 has lay their eggs. Dengue began when an epidemic disease not only brought many cases of the COVID-19 pandemic broke out in the West Indies in 1635 and from 1779-1780 but has also bought immeasurable cases of dengue. the first dengue outbreak was reported in Chennai, From the 1st of January to the 25th of November 2021 India. After a while, it started spreading widely in Asia, the reported cases of dengue have increased to 16,580 Africa, North and South America. Brazil is the country confirmed cases including 257 deaths. that is most affected by dengue with 813,881 patients till this day. The latest statistic by the WHO reveals that up until the 25 of November 2021, a total of 48,906 cases including 183 deaths as a result of dengue have been reported from Pakistan.

Thank you very much for reading this article. We hope The two themes that he wanted to link together were you found it interesting and informative! By reading the value of time and society's detrimental impacts on this article you now know what dengue is and how we the environment. He displayed these themes through can work together to prevent it. Feel free to share it all of his pieces but a particular example is his with your friends and family and follow our Insatgram installation piece. In his installation piece, he placed a @dengueawarenesscampaign_. colour-changing circular globe in a dark room with a smoke machine. This work was displayed to showcase Before ending this article here are some fun facts: the damaging effect’s of air pollution and the harm for - A person can get infected by dengue upto 4 times in humanity of releasing emissions at the rate they are his/her life. currently being released at. - In 1943, Ren Kimura and Susumu Hotta first isolated the dengue virus. Maryam Babri was another student who put forth incredible art pieces showcasing her theme of emotion DP 2 Art Exhibition which she portrayed various types of through her artworks. Her theme can evidently be seen through her Rukhezainab Rizvi art piece “The Anatomy of a Hug” which is used to depict how powerful hugs are as a gesture and how a Visual art encourages students to challenge their delicate touch fuels our body with excitement. She also creativity and thought process by experimentation to discusses that we hug people in different times of our bring their ideas to life. On the 11th and 12th of lives whether it is during difficulties or when we are February, the visual art students from the graduating truly happy. batch of the IBDP held an extravagant exhibition that showcased the student’s artworks over the past two Another highly skilled artist was Faiz Mansoor who years. Students presented a variety of their fine works depicted humanity’s progression of life from birth to which included an installation piece as well as some death and the different elements that are a part of our paintings, drawings, and the use of a variety of media life such as where we stand in society or the emotions which were all based around a global issue or problems we feel. We can see his concept through his piece titled we face in today’s world. This exhibition gave students “Unstable Serenity” which is a digital art piece the chance to see each other’s works that each had depicting a pyramid with a single eye on a floating diverse representations of culture, spiritual views, island. Until the viewer does not take a close look at the backgrounds, and opinions. Although the creation of eye, you cannot see the tears falling from the eye which each art piece entailed a time-consuming process, it shows how depression is bottled up by people and how allowed the artists to learn how to express their ideas, crying is often as a result of emotional instability. find the correct materials to create their pieces, and ultimately display them. The remaining students presenting at the exhibition were Wania Imran, Fatima Majid, Mahroush Mahmud, They were all tasked to bring different materials from Zoya Schehrezade, Alina Ali, and Mohammed Ahmed a range of manufacturers, stores or to even build them who also had impressive and outstanding artworks in some cases to create their pieces. Constructing the with extreme detail. Their skills and techniques could installations labored the artists with the skills to be seen by every visitor at the exhibition as they saw analyze artistic elements such as how glue would sit on the story and message that all of their pieces certain materials and how colors would contrast each represented together. Every single student performed other. With paintings, photographs, and illustrations, extraordinarily and deserves to be recognized for the the artists had to create multiple rough sketches using hard work they put into the exhibition. They are all assorted media until they had accomplished their goal exceptionally talented and their works are one-of-a- of what they wanted to create. When students knew kind. As each viewer took a step to examine an art what to make, they were automatically led to piece, a new perspective was shared and they were able experimenting with new materials to perfect the type to comprehensively understand the thought-process of of finish they would prefer, for example, getting to use each artist. We look forward to seeing what the next glass paint for a varied look. This led to the artists’ batch of DP presents in their exhibition next year! gradually polishing their techniques and getting more precise with their work. During the exhibition, each artist conveyed a theme through each of their pieces. One of the extraordinarily talented artists was Amaan Ahmad.

Business How Does Stereotyping Affect The How Stereotyping Asian Americans Workplace Environment? Can Be Damaging Professionally Maryam Kamran Moosa Sadiq What Is Stereotyping? Stereotyping is when someone in a way labels someone or a group of people Being an Asian who happens to be good at maths as based on their skin color, nationality, gender, etc. well, I found this topic to be a very interesting one. This can affect their lives in the workplace in many Asian students are often seen as the “model ways. minority”, especially in maths. In fact, Asians actually thrive economically in multiple ways. As Stereotyping can create low motivation/morale for compared to other ethnic groups, Asian-Americans a person or a group of people this creates a very seem to have high marriage rates and high toxic workplace environment. The people who educational achievements. This is because they are constantly get stereotyped usually lose interest in more educated than other ethnic groups. While 36% performing their jobs as they are mentally of white people, 16% of Hispanics and 23% of black occupied. people have a bachelor’s degree, 54% of Asian- Americans have one. In a way, this stereotype can be The workplace environment should be a place seen as racism being disguised as a compliment. At where everyone can be comfortable and safe going first glance, this isn’t an issue since Asians have a to work which gives their work a better good reputation, right? Well, unfortunately, it isn’t outcome.When people get stereotyped they may that simple. According to research done by Stacey feel as if they don't belong or are highly Lee, a professor at the University of Wisconsin, the insecure.When Stereotyping is done the workplace “model minority” stereotype actually deters Asian becomes a negative area which American high school students from seeking help brings social insecurity and\\or anxiety. when they’re struggling academically since it socially isolates them. Ironically, it results in worse academic The two most common types of stereotyping are performance. It has also been found that this gender and nationality stereotyping.Gender stereotype places a lot of pressure on Asian stereotyping is when a specific gender is labelled Americans to act against racial harassment since about something they should or shouldn't do.For they are seen as the ethnicity that doesn’t attract example if someone said girls boys should be doing attention and complain. all the work while girls stay at home that would be a gender stereotype. This is probably the reason why this issue is less talked about than discrimination against other For nationality stereotyping what could happen is ethnicities. Asian American professional lives are that someone judges or labels a nation like how shaped by this stereotype since white people are people say that Americans are loud or that English three times more likely to be admitted to prestigious people love talking about the weather. universities than Asian Americans with similar Ways to fight against stereotyping! qualifications. This impacts their access to prestigious degrees and high-status jobs. On top of First get to know people before you judge them. that, even if Asian Americans do secure high-status Secondly focus on the positive things about jobs, it doesn’t stop there. Management jobs are often people.Thirdly imagine how you would feel if you restricted from Asian-Americans since they are were getting stereotyped. stereotypically passive and weak. This hurts them in jobs which reward those who are strong-willed. The icing on the cake is that these racial biases are mostly unnoticed. While African Americans have along history of activism, Asian Americans lack the resources to combat their issues since their stereotype seems innocent enough to most people.

Crypto....Breaking The Stereotype be made easily, at a low cost, and in a manner more private than most other transactions. Using a simple Nyle Kamran smartphone app, hardware wallet, or exchange wallet, anyone can send and receive a variety of Cryptocurrency, oftentimes called ‘Crypto’, is any cryptocurrencies. Some types of cryptocurrencies, form of currency that exists digitally or virtually. It including Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum, can be uses cryptography to secure transitions due to which bought with cash at a Bitcoin ATM. A bank account only the sender and the intended recipient can access isn’t always required to use crypto. Someone could the contents. Crypto is derived from the Greek word buy bitcoin at an ATM using cash then send those ‘Kryptos’, which means hidden. As of 2021, it is coins to their phone. For people who lack access to estimated that over 300 million people use crypto the worldwide. In aggregate, cryptocurrency holds a traditional financial system, this may be one of the staggering $1.65 trillion market cap which biggest pros of cryptocurrency. Another major constantly fluctuates on a daily basis. Bitcoin and selling Ethereum are the two cryptocurrencies that point for crypto is its Incredible Security. Because accumulate the highest market cap with $827 billion they are based on cryptography and blockchain and $402 billion security, decentralized cryptocurrencies tend to respectively. make for secure forms of payment. This might be one of the most definite benefits of cryptocurrency. As of recently, crypto has been earning a bad Crypto played a major part in industry building and reputation due to many influential bankers, is businessmen, and government officials calling it a perhaps one of the best-performing assets of the last ‘far fetched idea’ and that the only true economy is decade. Its market cap grew from a mere $1.6 billion ‘based on either dollar or gold reserves’. The owner in 2013 to $1.4 Trillion in June 2021. On a more of JP Morgan, one of the largest banks in the world, personal scale, most cryptocurrencies offer close to Jamie Dimon stated, ‘Bitcoin is worthless.’ Warren astronomical returns. Bitcoin, for example, was Buffet himself is also a strong disbeliever of crypto. virtually valueless when it started (2009) and has Back in 2018, Buffett described Bitcoin as \"probably kept a steady return rate of millions of percentage rat poison squared.” Many believe that crypto is a points per year. By comparison, the S&P 500 index of speculative asset that doesn’t produce anything and stocks returns an average of about 8% per year. has no inherent value. He sees it as similar to the tulip mania that took hold in The Netherlands in the All in all, it must be noted that crypto is still a 1600s, with people buying something in the hope relatively untested and misunderstood economic they could sell it for even more than they'd paid. sector and it will take a further 10-20 years for it to \"When you buy non-productive assets, all you're establish its credibility. In my opinion, crypto is a counting on is whether the next person is going to form of financial transaction that will and should be pay you more because they're even more excited used in the future. Its benefits outweigh the threats it about another next person coming along,\" he said, on poses and if used responsibly, it can truly be CNBC TV. \"But the asset itself is creating nothing.” advantageous. Adding onto the list of businessmen, Peter Schiff, the owner of Euro Pacific Capital, a firm believer of commodities, sees crypto as valueless as well, unless it is backed by gold. One may argue that these claims are justified. After all, crypto has no base currency reserve or supervising authority due to which fluctuation is common. Over the past 6 weeks, it devaluated over 50%, making even fanatical crypto miners rethink their investment. Based on what you have read above, you may have concluded that cryptocurrency is not worth it. You may be right, but nevertheless, it is crucial to see things from another perspective. There are countless benefits of cryptocurrency, namely, easy transactions. Crypto transactions can

Politics & History The Evolution Of Cancel Culture This continued from 2015 to 2018. It just went away, silence. After that long period, 2019 began. The new Abdullah Akber year revamped Cancel Culture and gave it this new ideal workspace. More, and more fell, victim, but Cancel Culture, or “Call-Out Culture”, refers to the then 2014 movement when Stephen Colbert uses racial Covid-19 came out. This was great news for Cancel slurs, about Asians, and gets reported by activist Culture, as it is usually online. The worst of cases Suey Park. Typically cancel culture targets racism, came out in 2020, and 2021, as many famous figures environment damage, animal Abuse, child abuse, any like J.K. Rowling, and Johnny Depp have been type of assault, or even just talking nonsense. canceled, but they just about managed to slip out of Sometimes authoritarian governments use it as a it. Most of the time it was avoidable but in 2021, It sign of power, or it’s just some activist or became nearly impossible. In 2021 you stood a better environmentalist. Most of the time Celebrities get chance of winning a jackpot than avoiding Cancel “canceled”. This movement is usually on the internet, Culture. Just like in 2015, Cancel Culture started but in some cases, it happens in-person. rising. Now as we fast-forward in 2022 the Omicron variant of Covid-19 came, this dreaded new variant First, let’s move to the basics. Like, what is canceling halted the rise of Cancel Culture, as everyone was culture? What does this mean? And how did it begin? now scared of Omicron. They had no time for Cancel Culture, or in this case, “Call-Out Culture”, Cancelling. 2022 turned the Mountain of Cancel means to Call out a specific group, or person, and Culture into a flat plateau. ostracize them. Cancel Culture can also be referred to as the modern way of ostracizing, a group, So, as of now, Cancel Culture has dealt a lot of abundance, or family. This could be on any platform, damage, Causing fear, trauma, and torcher to the social media, virtually, or even in person. victims of it. Cancel Culture, is it good or bad? Highly debatable, but Cancel Culture still stays a mystery. Cancel Culture also promotes the #MeToo movement. In this case, to cancel means to stop giving support to someone. Cancel Culture reaches a public scale where not just a small group knows, but a large number of people know. Usually, when the term Cancel Culture is heard, it is reporting a negative vibe, something, bleak, unenthusiastic. Now we know what Cancel Culture is let’s discuss, the evolution of cancel culture. Cancel Culture began in March 2014. Just your regular day on Twitter, then suddenly Activist Suey Park without question calls out a tweet about being racist to Asians. This was posted by the Authentic twitter account of Stephen Colbert, American Comedian. Then out of nowhere a giant army of Twitter accounts posted the same thing. #cancelcolbert. Although this was fixed in early 2015. As soon as Colbert got “canceled” not just the internet but the entire world felt the rath of Cancel Culture. It became the feared thing on the internet. This led up until 2015 when the world felt the peak of Cancel Culture. This is ranked the peak of its evolution, until it just stopped. Some smaller level cases were happing but only of fewer public figures.

Where Did Gender Norms And No doubt, biology has played a significant role in the origin of gender norms and roles but the evolution Stereotypes Originate From? and perpetuation of these gender stereotypes rests mainly with society. The realization of the Daud Azfar differences between men and women lead to defined positions for them in society and the reasons these Scientists and sociologists still argue about the origin positions were so defined probably had to do with of gender norms, combating between biology and practicality. Men tended to go out and hunt while social construct. In fact, the struggle is really women brought up and nurtured children and defining a line between where biology ends and subsequently took care of the home as an additional social construct begins. There is no doubt about the duty. Even though the situation shifted away from difference in the male and female bodies. It is easy to survival with time, social constructs around gender see why biology alone can then be felt to be the sole had been well-established and persisted. Men determining factor for gender norms. The truth is continued to be in the dominant position and women more complex. The first group of humans valued remained stuck in this savage and unfair system. brute strength due to its significance in those times Indeed, most cultures have been built around these for procuring food by hunting and therefore, norms with religions playing a major role in setting survival. It shaped the gender stereotypes we have out defined positions for men and women, creating a today and historically established males in a power dynamic in all relationships from marriages dominant position, both physically and to families to the workplace, all to the detriment of intellectually. Indeed, their physical strength is born women and the glory of men. In fact, these cultural out biologically since women are just over half as gender norms are still prevalent in most societies strong as men in their upper bodies, and about two- today, if not all. thirds as strong in their lower bodies. Yet as far as psychological development is concerned, female It begets the serious question of why women haven’t brains tend to have a stronger connection between historically fought against such damaging norms? their logical and intuitive parts, making women The answer is brutal and devastating. Throughout more likely to combine logic and intuition to solve history, these patriarchal norms have been problems whereas men tend to directly solve reinforced and embedded as culture and values. problems due to strong connections between the Introduced during their childhood, from parents and perceptions and actions areas of the brain. Women peers and then reinforced in family and the larger also tend to use different parts of their brain when social context like schools, media, workplaces, solving a difficult problem while men might tend to religion, etc, they are treated as sacred and over-engage one part. It lends to the theory that honorable in many cultures. gender norms and stereotypes originated as a unique amalgamation of both sociological and biological Thus, many women themselves remain conflicted in factors. challenging them. Endorsement by many religions compounds the issue keeping the inequitable power This understanding which illuminates our dynamic between man and woman alive. Recent exploration of the origins of gender is endorsed by times have seen such norms challenged at the global diverse research. According to a meta analysis of level. Change has been slow in coming though. research reviewing 16 studies on the subject, Education, enlightenment and awareness for both involving around 1,600 children (Sex differences in men and women, societies and cultures are our only children's toy preferences: A systematic review, hope if we are to evolve beyond these gender meta-regression, and meta-analysis, 2017), babies stereotypes. The fear is that as long as society exists, haven’t been indoctrinated into man made social gender norms in some way, shape or form likely will constructs but the two genders tend to have too. The origins of gender norms may lie both in preferences that are linked to what we traditionally biological and social factors but in fact, society alone see as a girl or boy’s toy. This was found to be true can choose to overturn these norms. even in more egalitarian countries like Sweden. The study concluded though by acknowledging that, “... overall, the data reflect broader findings in psychology, which show that biology and society interact to cause gendered behavior.” Thus, the clear inference is that both biology and society contribute to the origins of gender norms and stereotypes.

SCIENCE & TECH The Use of Technology in Our Education Although many people like to rely on traditional System methods of teaching, the possibilities that open when technology is brought into the classroom are endless. Sabaoon Huma For one, access to education has been significantly broadened as a result including a wild range of Technology has impacted almost every aspect of life learning styles and degree options. today, and education is no exception. Or is it? In some ways, education seems the same as it has been for Some benefits of technology in education are: many years. The term educational technology refers Immersive learning. You probably agree when I to the use of technology in educational settings, claim that classroom learning is not only about whether it is in elementary and secondary schools, chalkboards and textbooks. colleges and universities, corporate training sites, or Gamification. independent study at home. Accessible long-distance learning. Personalized education experience. How important is technology in education? The Student preference... COVID 19 pandemic is quickly proving why online A blended learning environment. education should be a vital part of teaching and Better engagement. learning. By integrating technology into the existing curriculum, as opposed to using it solely as a crisis- management tool, teachers can harness online learning as a powerful educational tool. Covid has brought the whole world to online learning, but there are times when teachers struggle to understand what to do and how to post a task, while students are left confused as well. Virtual classrooms, video, augmented reality (AR), robots, and other technology tools can not only make the class more lively and interactive, but they can also create a more inclusive learning environment that fosters collaboration and inquisitiveness. Enabling teachers to collect data regarding students' performance. Still, it is important to remember that technology is simply a tool used to improve education, and should not be heavily relied upon. The guarantee of educational technology lies in what educators do with it and how it is used to best support their students' needs. Technology is a powerful tool that can transform education in various ways, from making it easier for teachers to create instructional materials, to enabling new ways for people to learn and work together, with endless resources on the internet to choose and learn from. It is up to instructors and educational heads to make the most of the opportunities provided by technology to modify education so that effective and efficient education is available to everyone, everywhere.

Is Artificial Intelligence a Threat to There is also a range of benefits we could get from humanity? artificial intelligence such as web browsers which allow us to get immediate answers to our questions Ayla Danish and help us conduct research. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the development Artificial intelligence could help people build safer computer systems have which allows a digital cars and safer public transportation that can allow computer or a computer-controlled robot to people to safely go from one place to another. AI perform any task which if we as humans perform could also improve healthcare facilities and could will take human intelligence and will take a while. help businesses grow by boosting sales and providing Examples of tasks that can be done through data on the entire business allowing them to artificial intelligence are decision-making and determine what they should improve. In conclusion, language translation. This technology was AI has both its pros and cons in terms of its impact on invented by John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky humanity but in my opinion, it is not a threat to who are known as the father of the field of AI. humanity. In fact, I believe it could be highly beneficial to us in our everyday lives but, you should At the moment it is said that this technology is a be wary of your usage of technology especially where threat to humanity as this technology has led to you are putting your data on the Internet as it can be the creation of extremely dangerous weapons. If detrimental to you and your safety. this technology would be in contact with any human surface it could lead to loss of human control over dangerous weapons which could be done through poorly regulated use of AI. Some scientists say that it could be a threat to humanity but others disagree. Yes, this intelligence can potentially cause threats. But if it is being created and used correctly, the real question is, is it really affecting us humans? Artificial intelligence has the ability to keep all your data such as your search history on search engines or what you watch on Youtube. Inventors of this technology believe when this technology has all your data it is able to recommend better things according to your preferences. AI follows a technique where a a large amount of data is eaten by technology and it notices patterns in your everyday life in terms of how you use it. Contrary to what developers of this technology say, this technology is not safe in terms of cyber security. It is likely that all your passwords etc are transferred to other people. It is difficult to determine where your data is going and if it is being stored safely and used for its intended purpose or whether this technology is stealing and transferring your personal data.

Virtual VS Augmented Reality AR is based on a real-world setting whereas VR is 100% virtual Shahmir Jamal AR users can control themselves in the real world however, VR users are controlled by the system Virtual vs Augmented Reality they are using. Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are VR requires more equipment, such as a headset ways for us to live through real-world experiences. and a device to pair up with such as a phone or They enhance our physical world by combining computer, whereas AR only requires a virtual and 3-D elements. Both of these experiences smartphone or tablet. have great future potential in the fields of gaming, AR enhances both the virtual world and real-life marketing, e-commerce, interior design, and while VR creates fictional reality for people to be education. However, despite having various a part of. similarities and being based around the same concept, they possess just as many differences, which Job Opportunities is what people tend to focus on. With the advent of new technologies, endless opportunities for businesses and employment have AR opened up. It is estimated that by 2022, the AR and Augmented reality (AR) is considerably more VR market is estimated to grow by $209.2 billion. VR efficient as a marketing and gaming tool compared to and AR are transforming industries through ever- VR as almost anyone with a handheld device like a growing software and hardware development, smartphone or tablet, can gain access to It. AR graphic design, research, and much more. operates by changing one's real-world setting as well as adding models to create a more spirited and Some in-demand careers for this field can include: multicolored world by adding to what one can Software engineering and development already see. This is achieved by viewing Project management surroundings through a phone's front camera. Software maintenance Augmented reality is simply adding to one's existing Graphic design experience. As virtual and augmented reality become more VR integrated with how we work, play, and learn, the Virtual reality (VR) carries the same components as industry will only continue to grow even further. In AR but at another level. Instead of using hand-held recent times, many universities offer courses that devices and adding to our experiences, VR uses an connect design and innovative technology to help entirely computer-generated world and puts a students learn about the cutting-edge technology person in this world. VR is a much more immersive used by these industries. An example is the digital experience than AR as it requires a special headset to design program at Tulane School of Professional use, and provides you with a full 360-degree view of Advancement which helps students turn their your environment. These simulations can create passion for VR and AR into a career, which will almost any visual experience fitting the user's continue to expand in the future as the industry preference, and this can be enhanced by using grows. additional computers to run higher quality games and simulations, as well as the use of interactive tools such as controllers for the user to interact with his environment. Differences The main distinctions between AR and VR usually come down to the devices that they use, as well as how the user experiences the world. These are their primary differences:

Lifestyle & Culture Societal Beauty Standards people presume that that is what they look like in reality. It makes people want to look like someone that Dua Azhar doesn’t in actuality exist which causes an obsession to looking a certain way, causing eating disorders to There are approximately seven billion people on the occur and plastic surgery to increase in America planet. None of them look the same. We all are unique mostly but this is a global phenomenon. However, some and different in our own ways from our appearances countries such as France are progressing, introducing to the way we talk. And that's why we feel the laws that ban the use of digitally photoshopped images constant need to fit in. The media over many decades of women in certain industries. has defined the word ‘beautiful’ for us. The media also portrays the perfect ideal appearance for people as For real change to happen we need to actively start having flawless skin with no pimples, glowing and having discussions about beauty standards, preventing healthy hair that flows lusciously and having an the media from advertising products that are harmful hourglass figure. Yet average people struggle to to one’s mental wellbeing and the creation of laws that exhibit that exact definition that mainstream media the governments would have to implement. The world calls ‘perfection’ and therefore, label themselves then needs a shift away from the present definition of worthless and unwanted. Beauty standards will attractiveness and its implications in order to continue to deteriorate and fail to empower our celebrate, showcase people that come from all society but with this comes a challenge to prevent different walks of life. We should embrace each other’s unrealistic expectations and promote that we are all imperfections. beautiful in our own ways. We look at magazine covers and use them as a catalyst to compare ourselves to the model in the commercial who is highly edited in reality. We open social media often, seeing posts of carefully curated content to feed people with lies that we eat. The magnitude of this problem can be seen by the fact that the length people will go to advertise and make money about ‘imperfections’ is truly sick. Examples of these products are hair straightening tools, whitening creams, body oils and diet pills. We are told who is beautiful and who isn’t from an extremely young age. According to a study by WebMD, it was shown that the self-esteem of girls from five years old are being harmed by television shows. When watching television shows and movies, the way children view themselves and those around them is affected, feeding them unrealistic perspectives on beauty. For example, in Disney movies, there are princesses and princes who look perfect according to societal beauty standard and it’s only an animation yet children don’t understand the difference between the animation and reality and want to look like the princesses and princes. Beauty standards have been so explicitly instilled in everyone’s brains that social media apps like Snapchat and Instagram have even introduced a wide range of filters that make one look fairer, remove any blemishes and change the structure of their face. When celebrities and influencers post pictures, they put filters on their images and highly edit their pictures without disclosing they do so which makes the average

Equality Has No Gender In 2022, women can be seen in almost every field and sector as scientists, doctors, engineers, lawyers, and Rania Asif various other professions which in olden times weren’t considered suitable for women. We must come together as Gender discrimination is when certain people are a society to promote gender equality to give women a fair treated differently directly as a result of their gender. opportunity to get a start in life, in terms of education and It is the difference between how men and women are opportunities that we all equally deserve. treated based on societal expectations. These expectations have existed for centuries and still exists The Pressures of Education in parts of the world today. However, as we are evolving, the time has come to remove such notions of Rania Adnan Khan gender roles. First of all, I know it says “educational institutes” in the There are many causes of gender discrimination, a title but in my article I’m only going to focus on schools major one being illiteracy. If people won’t educate (because that is the only type of educational institute I’m themselves, they will continue to follow old practices familiar with). A lot of us love school (I hope so! At least I disguised as traditions and norms. For example, do!) but let’s face it – sometimes there’s just too much Pakistani women in olden times were not allowed to pressure. For example, when we fifth graders sat for go outside of their homes instead their main exams for the first time in our lives this year, it was responsibility was to work in the house, bring up probably the most stressful thing we have ever faced children and they weren’t treated to be independent (other than the FitKids Challenge!). We were lucky to have as their own people. Also due to the lack of education very supportive teachers but sometimes the school just women receive, they are not able to find a suitable job, can’t do anything to help us kids and reduce the pressure hence having to be financially dependent on their on us because that’s just the way the educational system is. partner for money. This is precisely how our society And too much pressure affects the development of our thinks and this is what is wrong. Women are brought minds. up differently than our male counterparts; females are designed to cook and clean whereas males work Grades, exams, class positions, winning or losing, teacher’s and earn money, which is a stereotype that has existed pressure to understand things the way they are teaching from the first human communities. The work us, parents adding to the peer competition, every child accomplished by so many strong women is still not having different levels of learning abilities for different being valued and doesn’t get the recognition it truly subjects – any or all of these things can be a big issue and deserves. affect the developing minds of children. Sometimes the school is focused entirely on studies, grades Gender discrimination has a huge impact on society as and class positions and not allow students to develop basic a whole. Firstly, it impacts children as they have young skills like creativity or other basic life skills. This can cause and impressionable minds and are presented gender a student to feel constant pressure on their grades. Not stereotypes which they must abide by which has its every student can be great at all subjects. Each child is negative impacts on them. This impacts their different. Some students are good at math, while others behavior, ambitions and their personality drastically can learn languages very quickly. Some students are as their parents are force feeding them an unrealistic amazing at drawing, and other students are great at verison of life. Secondly, it impacts adults: their pay sports. between both genders is rarely the same. One gender, men, gets higher pay which leads to women then Next, I’ll be talking about how bad experiences with protesting their right to equal opportunities. teachers can impact students in a negative way. Even one bad encounter with a teacher can lead to students We cannot eliminate gender discrimination overnight developing a pattern of foul behaviour that cannot be as it isn’t a small issue, instead we can try to promote broken easily. For example, the adverse effect of a bad gender equality in our lives. It is every citizen’s teacher can cause troubles for other teachers or students, responsibility to prevent gender discrimination if they with he/she basically takes out his or her frustration on witness it. Parents should share household chores and their peers or other teachers, rather than that energy take care of their children equally and businesses going into developing their minds. Unfortunately and most should provide equal wages. Our government should importantly, a bad interaction with a teacher can very also take responsibility to create and enforce laws that easily destroy the self-confidence of a student, sometimes ensure equal rights which can done by introducing forever. programmes that promote gender equality.

Sports Women in Sports - Gender The Unjust Racial Stereotypes in Society Stereotypes Today Yahyaa Khan Naayl Bedaar “No matter how toughened a sportswoman may be, Racial stereotyping is an old and common practice and is her organism is not cut out to sustain certain a major problem in today’s world. Racial stereotyping is shocks” said Pierre de Coubertin, who was the categorizing people by their race, caste, creed or President of the International Olympic Committee nationality. Stereotyping is when we expect certain in 1896. things from certain types of people, and are surprised or shocked if that is in fact not the case. This is actually Female athletes were not allowed to participate in prevalent in all areas of our lives, and sports are no the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 because exception to this. Coubertin considered it inappropriate. A lot has Shouldn’t sports be judged purely on the individuals changed over the years and women are playing merit, ability and stamina? Unfortunately this is not nearly every sport at a competitive level today. always the case as lots of people racially stereotype in Recently, a large number of female players have sports. One simple and common example is that people excelled in cricket, soccer and baseball which think that only black people can play basketball and were considered sports for men in previous times. whenever they see a white basketball player they are surprised. But the question is if both genders are being treated the same ? While the gap between men and Another example is that when someone sees a Chinese women in sport is apparently getting much smaller tennis player they feel surprised and think that Chinese from a historical perspective, women’s treatment players only play table tennis but that is just a in sports is still very different to the way men are stereotype. There was a very recent theory of racial treated. For example, there is still a low ratio of stereotyping put forward with the world’s number one female coaches and executives in sports tennis player, Novak Djokovic. He was heading to organizations. The number of female coaches with Australia for the iconic Australian Open tournament and leadership positions has not increased even though the Australian government decided to not allow Novak the more women are playing sports at a Djokovic to stay in the country. Some of his supporters competitive level now. Are women not as capable think that this is because he is Serbian and that if he was of being successful coaches? from a more mainstream country perhaps they would have let him play despite his unvaccinated status and let Race, gender, history and sexual orientation him participate in the tournament. should not be the deciding factor of a woman’s treatment in the sporting world. Historically, it has This is just a theory which may or may not be true, but an been understood that the \"natural order of the example that has been confirmed is the incident with universe\" consists of men being dominant, and South Africa when they were banned from international women subordinate and the same order is being cricket for 21 years for the racist apartheid policies of continued in sports, which is incredibly wrong. the government and refusing to play with people of color in their team, which caused a lot of controversy. Now, coming to some modern day examples, in the US even though 40% of sportspeople are women There are other examples of racial profiling and only 6-8% of the total sports media coverage is stereotyping as well. If we look at the very British game devoted to them. According to the Women’s Sports of cricket, it was once very different. It was considered Foundation, male athletes get $179 million more an elitist game that only “gentlemen” could play. Today, than female athletes in athletic scholarships in lots of nations from all over the world compete in cricket universities each year. .Colleges spend only 24% of events, however these racial stereotypes are not so easy their athletic operating budgets on female sports, to erase. Looking at all of this we realize that racially as well as just 16% of recruiting budgets and 33% of stereotyping people is wrong and should not be scholarship budgets on female athletes. Why can happening. Have you ever thought that when you the budget not be equal when the student racially stereotype someone they feel limited to some population of both genders is equal. sports?

For example if a white person wants to become a professional basketball player but people say “only black people play basketball” he will feel demoralized and give up on his dreams. Racial stereotyping is the reason that stops many people from achieving their dreams and is a grave issue we see examples of in our everyday lives. I believe that everyone should be given equal opportunities in sports and they should not be judged based on their race. We need to stop this. We must change our attitudes to people in sports and it should be “normal” to see a white basketball player or a Chinese tennis player.

Mental Health and Awareness How Can One Prevent Mental Though preventing mental breakdowns may Breakdowns seem daunting at first considering one's stressful situation, there are many simple ways Safoora Khan to do it. Which vary from having a schedule which gives one time to do the things they love Feeling stress, anxiety, or occasionally crying are all to meditating and deep breathing. All of which normal human actions, right? Though if one puts off are effective ways to combat mental dealing with these emotions for too long, causing it to pile breakdowns. In the end, it is important to up, it can lead to mental breakdowns. This is when a remember that we are all human beings who do person is put under immense stress caused by have the right to cry, feel stress and anxiety, but school/work, trauma, major life changes, and anything at the same time deserve mental stability and that can cause an almost incalculable amount of stress. breaks from time to time. Mental breakdowns can last from a few hours to weeks. Its symptoms include uncontrollable weeping, a withdrawal from loved ones, an inability to connect with everyday life, and a disruption in one's sleep cycle. Though this condition may seem daunting at first, there are multiple ways to overcome it. The first simple way to prevent mental breakdowns is to have a schedule where you can take breaks in which you do things that you love. Such as reading a book, writing, watching a show you like, talking to a friend, or playing with a pet, which all induce happy hormones. This is extremely important as it grounds one back into reality, giving them time to cope with the stress at hand. If one starts to follow a schedule that is inconsiderate of this, that will quickly lead them to a mental breakdown caused by burnout. The second way is to have a set sleeping schedule, as sleep plays a major role in one's mental health. An irregular sleeping pattern can lead to irritability, anxiety, and depression. On the other hand, research says a regular sleeping pattern of 6 - 8 hours as well as going to bed at a set time will leave one feeling energized and happier overall. Moving onto the third way which is having a balanced and healthy lifestyle. What this means is that to prevent mental breakdowns one should have a healthy diet and get at least 20 minutes of physical activity, preferably outside. It is a known fact that what you eat is what you become. So to ensure a healthy and balanced mental state it is vital for one's diet to reflect that. Exercise is also known to induce happy hormones and is recommended for those dealing with stress and anxiety. Especially taking walks in nature and doing yoga. The last way is to have techniques to calm oneself, which are practiced daily. A few examples include meditating, doing yoga, and practicing deep breathing. By doing this, it ensures that one can come out of a state of stress and think clearly and calmly once again. Which is very important when it comes to taking care of one's mental health.

Stigma, prejudice, and they are blamed for a naturally developing discrimination disorder. When looking for a job many choose not against people with mental to hire them due to their health conditions. Others illness may not choose to hire them as they believe people with mental illnesses do not have the same Fatima Akber capabilties as “normal” people. . What exactly is discrimination? Discrimination is the Leaving people out of the opportunities they unjust treatment of people from diverse categories. deserve is wrong. Rather, even if one suffers from The category being discussed in this article is those depression, you can help them deal and cope with who suffer from mental illness. One may ask it. For example, there’s a scenario of you being an themselves about stigma, prejudice, and employer hiring employees for your business. You discrimination against people with illness, not a hire someone with depression. It seems you have disability, but a mental illness. cured and helped them cope with their depression by giving them a job which they needed, to earn Many people suffering from mental illnesses and money, to get a house. If they were a homeless disorders, involving bipolar disorder, depression, person then with your help being the employer, dementia, and schizophrenia, are disadvantaged by you just saved someone’s life.. their conditions and are treated differently as a result of their disorder and condition. Research Other times, it is not like that. Other times people shows in 2020, 13% of the world's population suffered may not wish to communicate or socialize with from mental illness and during the pandemic, the someone with autism. The reason is that having number inevitably increased as depression and autism is something you get mocked for. anxiety were common during the pandemic. Stereoytping is a serious problem but if we chose to Countries with the highest rates of mental illness are not have stereotypical thoughts such as Arabs are the United States, The Netherlands, and Ukraine. The all terrorists, we wouldn’t have sexism, racism, or main causes of mental illnesses are stress, pressure rather discrimination or unjust actions against and burdening yourself with complications. All of someone who has depression, bipolar disorder, these causes are bad for human health and can lead to dementia or any mental illness. the development of mental illness or light autism. I believe that this is unfair to discriminate against But, with this pressure and discrimination presented people with mental illnesses as it is unjust. It also from the public, it creates difficulties for those makes the person suffering from the illness more struggling with mental illnesses to recover or even insecure about themselves and less self-efficient control the illness. More than half of the people and lowers their self-esteem. Additionally, it makes suffering from these disorders don’t even receive them feel more different and more inhuman. The help for them and often treatments get delayed effects of discrimination against people with mental because of concerns of mockery or being ridiculed, illness are lethal and can frequently lead to them losing their jobs, or being treated differently. Still, harming themselves or those around them. these people are treated differently, like they’re some virus or disease. With this mockery, pressure is added on to those struggling with mental health issues, and can thus lead to self-harm, suicidal thoughts, and other dangerous actions . People with mental illnesses are discriminated against in many ways whether it be cyberbullying or physical abuse. The harmful effects of stigma and discrimination include reduced hope and faith, low self-esteem, harmful acts, difficulties with work and social life, difficulties with communication and relationships, and high anxiety. The general public views people with mental illnesses as dangerous and people stay away from them thinking the disorder is “contagious” (as some may believe) and

The Male Gaze The male gaze is defined in the Oxford dictionary as the perspective of a notionally typical Shehrezade Naveed Chowdhry heterosexual man considered as embodied in the audience or intended audience for films and other No. I’m killing boys.” said Jennifer Check. visual media, characterized by a tendency to Jennifer’s Body is a prime example of what the male objectify or sexualize women. In 1973, the concept gaze is and what it isn’t. “male gaze” was invented in a article by a British ‘A newly possessed high school cheerleader turns into a feminist film theorist, Laura Mulvey and the article succubus who specializes in killing her male explained the way that mainstream media tends to classmates. Can her best friend put an end to the objectify women, showing the female body through horror?’ This is the description on IMDb for the 2009 heterosexual male lens as their opinion matters cult classic film. Yet it is not entirely true, it focuses on and viewership matters apparently. For example, empowering young women in the choice of having two Megan Fox in the posters for the promotion of female protagonists that are leading characters and the Jennifer’s Body is extremely vulgar as the studio friendship Needy and Jennifer have (also the fact that wanted the film to appeal to male eyes or the writer and director are both female plays into the perspectives. On the poster, Megan wears a mini femininity of this film). The male cast members on the skirt, red fitted top with heels in a classroom sitting other end “are [merly] just placeholders, they [do] come on a table with words ‘hell yes’ plastered on the and they go” meaning get murdered by Jennifer, played chalkboard. This is inherently wrong and deeply by Megan Fox who stirred the media with her presence. influences the main issue in our society which is sadly male misogyny. Her rise was accompanied by constantly being sexualized and objectified at the age of fifteen by fellow In other words, female bodies are not a means or actors, media officials or interviewers. For example, on merely an object for the male ego and satisfaction. Jimmy Kimmel, Megan tries to open up with the feeling We as females should stand our voice because it is of being “lost and trying to understand, like, how [is greatly needed at a time like this where we are she] supposed to feel value[ed] or find purpose in this living in a primarily patriarchal world. horrendous, patriarchal, misogynistic hell that was Hollywood at the time?” Further she exclaims that she was cast as an extra in a bar scene, was told to wear a stars and stripes bikini with six-inch heels and when the director found out she was underage, his solution was to have her dancing underneath a waterfall getting soaking wet. This alone shows the misogyny of the director yet when Megan was explaining her struggle, the interviewer burst into laughter. Megan Fox is an remarkable, respectable American actress who has made multiple appearances in major film franchises like Transformers and Jennifer’s Body. On ET Live, Diablo Cody the director and Megan Fox both come back and celebrate the anniversary of 10th for the horror comedy film now known as Jennifer’s Body, with discussions about the inception and the film being a commercial failure yet the targeted issue being discussed was the marketing being done. Both of them were talking about the studio having a strong opinion on the ideal market being younger men specifically because of Megan and that’s the male gaze element played in. For example, Diablo “got a memorable email from a marketing person at the studio once. [She] had sent him an articulate defense for the film [taking account of how it should be marketed]. [She] asked him what specifically are you thinking and he wrote back Megan Fox Hot. Those three words” The marketing was based on the concept of the male gaze yet the story shows what the male gaze is not.

The Pandemic and the Mental Health The main reason children are suffering from of Children mental health issues is because not only did our lives change in an instant but we are also Ranya Nargis subliminally imbibing the worries and anxiety of our parents who have suffered from job losses, The biggest problem with mental health issues is that depression, anxiety as a result of the pandemic. they aren’t visible to the eye. Unlike obesity or anorexia or a physical disability which is visible to the naked eye, Where Do Stereotypes Stem From? mental health issues are invisible. Mydah Azhar I never realized how drastically the pandemic has affected my life and mental health until I went to my A stereotype is an over-generalized, widely accepted friends house after over a year and it felt weird and opinion, notion, image or idea about a person, place, unfamiliar, I felt as if I had forgotten how to socialize, or thing. To put it lightly, it’s a common how to talk, how to play and how to connect. It all felt ‘misconception’ associated with traits of individuals surreal. I spoke to my mother about this later and she or groups. According to Simply Psychology, we use smiled and nodded. She told me that this is a symptom of stereotypes to simplify our social world and reduce the social isolation we have all suffered during the the amount of processing we have to do when pandemic. Tears pricked my eyelashes as I stared at her. meeting a new person by categorizing them under a Though I squeezed my eyes shut and tried hard not to let ‘preconceived marker’ of similar attributes, the tears out, I just could not stop the water works. features, or attitudes that we observe. Stereotyping These rapid and frequent crying spells are just one of people is a type of prejudice because what is on the the many changes that have taken place in my life outside is a small part of who a person is. during the pandemic. Stereotypes might be used as reasons to discriminate against another person, or sometimes Mental health is a real casualty of the pandemic. While for a humorous effect in many television programs. we all seem to be doing “ok”, we are actually struggling. According to Gallup, the next global pandemic is a Stereotypes shape our perceptions of ourselves and mental health crisis and we don’t need to wait for it, it’s those around us. When you define a person solely by already here. A Gallup poll reveals that anger, stress, the stereotype automatically attached to them, you worry and sadness have globally been on the rise and are don’t see the person’s individuality beyond their here to stay. All these symptoms have reached record ‘label’ nor allow them to be individuals by their own highs in 2020. right. In doing this, you rob them of other aspects of their identity and self. It may not be intentional or In my own grade 4 class at TNS, I feel like everyone is non-deliberate at most times, however it creates suffering from feelings of sadness. Since most of us are paths of self-doubt and identity turbulence. between the ages of 8 to 9 years, it’s hard to exactly define what we are suffering from but one thing is for A very common example is one associated with body sure: most of us feel sad most of the time. types. Regardless of your body size, they are often attached with generalizations that implies The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention something is ‘wrong’ with how you consume food. reported that 41.5% of US adults suffered from anxiety This potentially leads to development of eating and/or depression in 2021. Globally, 7 out of 10 adults disorders and/or heightened self-consciousness have suffered or are suffering from a mental health when in truth, lots of factors contribute to the state disorder. of body mass, and not just dietary habits. I have often wondered why there isn’t much research Essentially, identity is a social construct produced into the mental health of children. It goes to show how from interactions and experiences with others. But the mental health of children is drastically ignored and when fed with the narrative that you’ll only amount neglected. to your stereotype, your individual development is stunted in the long run. What’s more, you could even There is a lot that can be done to improve the mental develop multiple identities over time, some of them health of children but these steps can only be taken once reflecting your ‘true self’ and others reflecting how we understand and recognise the massive damage being society wants to perceive you. How do you figure out done to our generation as a result of the pandemic. For which ones to keep and which ones to discard? children, what can help us greatly is easy access to That’s when it turns into a crisis. mental health services such as the availability of psychologists in school and counseling services in easy reach.

Stereotypes are formed as a result of social learning, Examples of implicit stereotypes might include: The which is information that people learn from their belief that one's racial group is intellectually, parents and peers. For example, if children are told physically, or morally superior to other racial groups. growing up that boys are more athletic than girls, they may grow up to believe that this is true. They have These stereotypes often manifest as unconscious formed a stereotype about the traits of boys and girls biases when people act according to the opinions they based on socialization. Another element of may not even be aware that they are holding. Implicit socialization that can lead to the formation of stereotypes can impact behavior on many levels. stereotypes is personality theory, which suggests that Virtually everyone has some level of implicit someone's personal experiences can lead them to form stereotype, simply because human brains find it generalized beliefs. For example, someone who is easier to generalize than to continually break down bitten by a dog as a child might grow up to believe that expectations and assumptions. dogs are dangerous, even if statistical evidence suggests that most dogs are not dangerous to people. An explicit stereotype is a stereotype that someone is Emotional and intense experiences can be much more aware of and actively believes. Unlike implicit effective at influencing people's beliefs than evidence stereotypes, which people might realize are untrue and statistics; that is just how human brains typically when confronted about them directly, explicit work. stereotypes are beliefs that people incorporate Another theory for how stereotypes form is called deliberately into their world views. Anything that can motivational theory. This theory argues that people be an implicit stereotype can also be an explicit will develop stereotypes about their competitors to stereotype, but explicit stereotypes are things that increase their own confidence levels. For example, people will actively discuss and even act upon someone who is about to compete in a race against ten consciously. Examples of potential explicit other people might convince themselves that the other stereotypes include: The belief that there is a set way competitors probably have not trained as hard as they that gender roles should be followed, which is actively have and that they are therefore unlikely to do as well taught to one's children.Explicit stereotypes can be in the race. These kinds of stereotypes can have an damaging, especially when they are acted upon to evolutionary advantage, boosting confidence during impinge on the rights of certain groups. challenging experiences and potentially improving one's chances of success. However, like other stereotypes, they are not based on real evidence. Just as things that someone is told while growing up can influence the creation of stereotypes, so too can one's environment. According to social identity theory, people typically believe that their own in-group (which may be racial, religious, national, cultural, familial, and more) is heterogeneous, while the out- group is homogenous, with similarities between members of the group amplified and differences ignored. Someone who grows up in a region where the vast majority of people belong to one cultural or ethnic group may develop stronger stereotypes about other groups due to limited interactions with members of those groups and therefore less opportunity to see the nuance and diversity within other groups of people. There are different types of stereotypes that serve different purposes. They can be broadly divided into two types: implicit and explicit stereotypes. These stereotypes impact people in different ways and can be more or less challenging to identify and dismantle. Implicit stereotypes are stereotypes that people hold without really thinking about them. They can be difficult to identify, and if they are identified, people may not even recognize them as stereotypes at first.

ARTS & MUSIC Artistic Stereotypes Stereotypes in Architecture: I stopped typing for a moment, closed my eyes, and Maryam Hashmi relaxed. I eased up further when I began to visualize different tall structures of the world such as the The other day at my friend's party, I was wearing one of Eiffel Tower, Burj Khalifa, CN Tower, etc. It was so my favorite dresses soothing to visit them all in a blink of an eye! that had a lot of blue in it. A boy came to me and spoke in Why are architects obsessed with constructing tall sheer anger. He spoke less and sprayed more which was and pointy structures? Not another stereotype, or is significantly unpleasant. His tone and words were it? Even if it is true, they have every right to show harsh! He shook me and said, \"Blue is for boys, not for their talent. Plus, does the public love it? Don't we go girls!\" there in huge numbers, enjoy the view and take pictures? Let us give them credit for their creativity! I could not comprehend what happened in the spur of the moment. My smile suddenly turned to tears as I As I was fuming over a bursting variety of stereotypes failed to remain composed. I rushed to my mom and told related to art and architecture, another one her everything that had happened. She responded, \"Let appeared thanks to Google: \"Architects take all the it go, it's just a stereotype.\" At first, I thought she was credit from engineers.\" Architects and engineers both trying to calm down the situation by referring to the work hand in hand together. Without architects, we song from the movie Frozen, \"Let it go\" but the word can't plan how to make monuments, buildings, \"stereotype\" did not make any sense. houses, and even cities! Similarly, without engineers, we can't build them. So one provides the blueprint, I was eager to find out what “stereotype” meant. Once I and the other executes it. got home, I ran into my room, opened my laptop, and started to search for it. It turns out that a stereotype is Once my article was completed, it was time to hand it just a fixed idea that people have about a thing or a in. I was excited but nervous too. I knew it would be group that may often be true or only partly true. great! Do you know what was even more exciting? A few days The next day, when I was on my way to school, I was later, I found out that I had to write an article related to wearing a blue shirt and blue jeans. While I was stereotypes in arts and architecture. Was it just a walking, I saw the same boy who bullied me for coincidence or was it lady luck smiling at me? Did it wearing a blue dress at my friend's party. This time I matter? Not anymore, as I had to take my understanding was not scared. Instead, I saw this as an opportunity to the next level. to get even with him. I began to walk slowly and allowed him to catch up to me. When he came close, Stereotypes in Arts: he stopped and began to look at the \"blues\" I was Some people believe that art isn’t important at all, but wearing. Before he could say a word, I quickly said, how is that true? With art, you can express your (without spitting at him of course) \"Blue is for feelings, communicate information, and create everyone and you can't judge me on the color of the awareness for important issues. For example, there is a clothing I wear.\" With that, I left him speechless and specific type of art we use known as calligraphy. happily skipped to school! Calligraphy is a unique way of writing. We use calligraphy to make colorful paintings and Quranic ayahs that not only beautify our houses but enlighten them with faith and divine blessings. We can now rip off the \"art is not important\" page and throw it out of the window! Aha! I just found another one called \"The starving artist.\" This is a common stereotype often used to imply that artists do not make money, or that if artists choose to pursue their passion, they will be broke. That's pretty harsh because every human has a right to choose his/her career. In my opinion, loving and enjoying one's profession is more important than making money. At the same time I believe that if we stay true to our profession and do not run after money, the money will automatically come to us.

The Contentious Position Of Art In The Significance of Art in Promotional Pakistan Media Muhammad Siddiqui Adn Ahmad Art has and will always be a major aspect of the culture It has been said that a picture is worth a thousand of any country. However, here in Pakistan, the stance words. So, in a world full of constrained character of art is a lot more controversial than in other limits, budget limits societal biases, and stereotypes, countries, due to the threat of backlash or censorship advertising is a powerful tool to convey promotional when covering sensitive (usually political) topics or messaging. themes. The goal of advertising is to persuade consumers A somewhat recent example of this is the incident at psychologically or emotionally using stereotypes the Karachi Biennale, when an exhibit titled ‘The formed by society. Advertisements normally appear in Killing Fields of Karachi’, depicted a series of violent newspapers, magazines, the radio, television, etc., and raids led by former senior superintendent of police in are all there to persuade you to purchase their product Karachi, Rao Anwar, who carried out a series of so you fit into the stereotype. Thus, society will accept extrajudicial killings against suspected criminals you and that is the goal. without any trial or evidence who described the work as “vandalism”. The question arises; Is it fair for the media to showcase certain societal stereotypes to appeal to their audience? An even more extreme example of this could be what happened to Ijaz ul Hasan, an artist, and activist who The use of the female body as art in the media in opposed Zia al Haq’s martial law. He was held captive Pakistan is a popular example of advertisers promoting in Lahore Fort, and blindfolded, tortured, and placed in societal stereotypes. For example, local advertisements solitary confinement, due to his politically charged and use women in fairness creams, tea, biscuits, clothes and anti-authoritarian art. fabric and packaged milk to persuade people to buy their products. Our visual space is constantly It’s for reasons like these, that most artists, instead, bombarded. Advertisers use stereotypes of perfect decide to self censor their work. Artists do this by females; fair, thin, pretty, homemakers. Thus, one is depicting topics that are either apolitical or only convinced that there is no other way to look, feel, eat or display their work to certain groups of people in behave. The alternative is to be judged or criticized. private settings which usually consists of highly educated upper-class individuals. The trend globally has changed and is breaking taboos and stereotypes. Socio-Political movements such as Creating exclusively apolitical art leads to a highly Black Lives Matter, #Metoo, feminism, plus-size models, sanitized perception of Pakistan, a point of view that human trafficking, and refugee issues in Europe have often doesn’t hold true to most people’s true perception highlighted the need to change our language and of the country. While self-censoring your art to private perception of who we are as a society. No one is the events, essentially guards your art, limiting the artist's same. Sticking to old stereotypes doesn’t necessarily sell perception and ideology to a very small part of the products anymore because the world is changing population. constantly. They leave a bad taste in one’s mouth. For example, the name of a certain local fairness cream has Either way, the effect of this is undeniable, as Ijaz ul changed. The females used in the advertisement come Hassan once said “One of the reasons democracy is so from diverse backgrounds and are non-traditional. fragile in Pakistan is because we do not build up They are seen partaking in sports and outdoor institutions such as the arts, which are essential for activities, rather than simply shopping, cooking and democracy. I wanted to create a culture of resistance. looking pretty. Art and poetry can express a form of not surrendering and present the ‘other’ view.” By censoring ourselves In order to break the vicious cycle of sameness, society artistically, or by censoring artists through authority needs to recognize inherent differences and shed the we are limiting our own freedom of speech, and halting stereotypes that hurt and stifle growth and our own development as a culture and society. By being individuality. Society can be more productive if it silent and not acting in our own interests we are redundant stereotypes. So, if the goal is to sell products, reaffirming our country’s own flawed ideas, and advertisement companies need to look beyond these worsening its state. stereotypes and adopt the new ones arising from these socio-political movements. This is why art in promotional media is significant as art expresses what society is thinking and feeling.

CREDITS - EDITORS IN CHIEF - Anum Azhar Manahil Fatima Sereen Yusuf - EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS - Salena Akbar Emaan Shams Kabir Khan

- CREATIVE TEAM - Aswah Ali Sabrina Qureshi Nuriyah Bilal - MARKETING TEAM - Asma Ali Zara Ahad Ali Zaidi Rvasiya Nval

- SUBEDITORS - Sophiya Iftikhar Anya Kasuri Amal Mahmood Shehrezade Naveed Momina Rizvi Alisha Amjad

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