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June issue -12

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BOUNDLESS achievements and advocacy June 22'

Director Notes Dear Readers, We would like to conclude this term of Boundless by publishing the June issue, titled “Achievements and Advocacy”. We found it relevant to explore this theme through this issue of the newspaper as current world affairs explore the necessity and significance of advocacy quite frequently. It is pertinent to examine how different communities and individuals advocate for their rights and beliefs so others may find the ability to do so within themselves. Additionally, it is important to recognize the achievements and successes of advocates and individuals that were able to accomplish their goals. This issue features numerous excellently written pieces pertaining to the aforementioned theme. Through this issue, we hope to inspire students to raise their voices for issues they are passionate about and continue to pursue their interests. Please pay special attention to Dua Azhar’s insightful article about the LGBTQ+ community and gender rights. As always, the end product was definitely worth the time and work put in by the entire team this month. As this term comes to a close, we would like to thank each and every one of the members of the Boundless team. From the writers and subeditors to the creative and executive teams, each individual contributes an important piece to the puzzle that is the final issue of the newspaper. We would like to commend our entire team for their dedication hard work. We cannot wait to continue working with them and the new additions to our team next term. As the Boundless team continues to grow and develop, we are extremely grateful for our readers’ support. To our readers, we hope you enjoy reading this issue as much as we enjoyed producing it! Stay tuned for more issues to come next term and multiple openings in our team! Editors-in-Chief, Anum Azhar, Manahil Fatima & Sereen Yusuf

Dear Readers, I am beyond excited to present to you the last Boundless issue of this term, \"Achievements & Advocacy\". This term’s team has worked exceptionally hard to produce 3 excellent issues which were created with an enormous amount of effort and passion. This issue in particular is so important to the team as it discusses some of the most pressing issues in today’s world and highlights some of the most outstanding achievements in history. Despite this issue being created during the exam season when everyone is already under tremendous stress, the Boundless team was able to continue working as hard as they did during the production of the previous issues and make this issue a success. The entire Boundless directorate was able to overcome all struggles during the creation of this issue, no matter the extent of the problem. For me, this issue is a very special one, as every column has such fascinating reads that will surely have something for you all to enjoy and will teach you something new. The article topics range from how to be a mental health advocate to Pakistani sports heroes. My must-read for this issue is Rukhe Zainab Rizvi’s article on the Batch of 22’s university placements as you will get the opportunity to get some vital tips on the college application process and learn from their experiences. It was an honor to be part of the Boundless directorate for this term and being part of such an incredible community over the past six months. We hope you enjoy reading this issue and will be back to read our next issues in the following term! News Editor, Salena Akbar

Dear Readers, Welcome to the “Achievements and Advocacy” issue of Boundless! We at Boundless are once again proud to announce the launch of our latest issue. After months of dedication, perseverance and hard work, we've finally created, what we believe to be, our best issue yet - once again. Thanks to our writers, subeditors and the creative and executive teams, each term we continue to improve Boundless through your ideas and suggestions, and for that we’d like to thank you all. We really hope you enjoy reading this issue just as much as we enjoyed producing it! In this month’s issue we explore some of the greatest achievements throughout history, whether it be the suffrage movement or our DP2s graduating school! From the delight that is the Word Search to the complementary colors used for the pages, each page is crafted with care, patience and love. We hope that reading this brings you as much joy as the creation of this newspaper brought us. The opportunity to work with young, aspiring artists was truly eye opening. The publishing process ran efficiently and our team was able to effectively counter any obstacles that we encountered. The writing and editing process also became more smooth-running this issue as we continue to learn from past experiences and apply these lessons into this labour of love! While we personally think every article is a page turner, you’ll have to see for yourself! Happy reading! Publishing Directors Emaan Shams & Kabir Khan

Arts & Music Art in Journalism In summary, art gives meaning to our lives and helps us understand our world. It is an essential By Maryam Hashmi part of our culture because it allows for a deeper understanding of our emotions; it increases our self- Art journalism is a branch of journalism concerned awareness, and also allows us to be open to new with the reporting and discussion of the arts, ideas and experiences. As a result, art influences including, but not limited to, the visual arts, film, society by changing opinions, instilling values and literature, music, theater, and architecture. It can translating experiences across space and time. form narratives, cultural agendas, and inspire Research has shown art affects the fundamental curiosity. In a nutshell, the difference between sense of self and arts are often considered to be the journalists and artists is that art does this explicitly repository of a society's collective memory. and intentionally, while journalism tries to take a more objective approach. What do art journalists do? Art journalists write articles covering a wide range of art subjects. They interview well-known stage, television & film personalities, directors, musical artists, and other entertainment artists. They attend all kinds of concerts, performances such as stage and movie productions, painting, and sculpture. They accompany other teams, thus, sending reports to their editor by fax, telephone, or telex. Journalists and artists in many ways play similar Recent Achievements in Music roles. They are both supposed to be telling us the truth about our society even if it’s the truth we By Muhammad Siddiqui don’t want to hear. While journalism in its most traditional sense may focus on factual reportage, The Grammy nominations for this year’s rap there has always been an artfulness to the craft, category were strong, with rap legends like Nas and from how reporters order their material to Kanye West, as well as J. Cole. Tyler, The Creator, narrative storytelling techniques. however, eventually ended up winning the award, for his 7th album Call Me If You Get Lost. Art journalism has been one method of discussing and engaging the public with the arts for over a Tyler won a grammy for his last album IGOR in century. Now, art journalism has an extended 2019, which was met with much controversy by reach due to the impact of developing technology, many, including Tyler himself. IGOR was intended such as social media. Art journalism is sometimes to be a breakup album with catchy choruses, wacky referred to as cultural journalism because art synth sounds, and disco and soul-inspired journalists often cover cultural events with artistic production, which didn’t make it a rap album at all. aspects. Their reports provide insight into the Tyler, himself, though, grateful for his award, did background of these events and often include have something to say about his achievement: “I’m reviews and reflections on the exhibit. half-and-half on it, On one side I’m very grateful that what I made could just be acknowledged in a Let us figure out the value of art journalism. world like this, [but] it sucks that whenever we–and Though it may be interesting or even entertaining, I mean guys that look like me–do anything that’s the foremost value of news is to empower the genre-bending they always put it in a rap or urban informed. The purpose of journalism is to provide category, and I don’t like that ‘urban’ word–it’s just citizens with the information they need to make the a politically correct way to say the n-word to me”. best possible decisions about their lives, their communities, their societies, and their This time, however, Tyler’s rap nomination was governments. Art journalists support the art world. completely justified. His 7th album, Call Me If You They act as a sort of amplifier for music — exposing Get Lost, is completely a rap album. With the Old artists to new audiences, provoking thought over Dirty Bastard inspired album cover, and the DJ creative works, and shining a critical spotlight Drama intro on each track, this is undoubtedly an through reviews on arts to push it to always become more.

homage to rap and hip hop in general, with features like animals, plants, the sun, and the sky but with from hip-hop legends like Lil Wayne, and extreme precision and accuracy so it looked instrumentals that either completely rip off or photographic; practically real. In today’s world, it’s callback to previous hip hop songs. (Track 8, anti-photoshop. Even when portraits portrayed Manifesto, uses a popular rap sample, first used, in people ,their individual personalities were depicted Street's Disciple, while Track 5, Lumberjack uses the rather than using any beautification techniques. same instrumental, as 2 Cups of Blood, an RZA produced track). Florence and northern Italy were the home of the Italian Renaissance. The most famous Renaissance Despite these callbacks, however, Tyler still artist from here is Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519). manages to make this album his own. Whether, it’s Although he was a civil engineer, he believed in the bragging about things that are specific to only him, supremacy of painting as the best depiction of the like putting a bike on a Rolls Royce, getting Frank natural world. He is famous for painting the Mona Ocean on his album to talk about how he likes a Lisa and the Last Supper. specific shade of green on the Ai Wei Wei bowl (which costs $400,000), selling out Madison Square In the Last Supper, Da Vinci uses real-life people that Garden, or his own custom made perfume, Tyler he came across to paint the faces of the disciples. The always stays true to himself, and the things he likes. Mona Lisa, which he painted between 1503-1506 was the 24-year-old wife of a prominent merchant in And that goes for his production too, where, even Florence. He kept this painting with him for the rest on songs where the main beat is made up of just a of his life and is the most viewed work of art. It is on sample, he’ll still manage to show off his musical display at the Museé de Louvre in Paris. The Mona prowess in the intro or outro of the songs, like, on Lisa portrays a woman who is young, calm, and Massa, which has an elaborate intro and outro composed. The mystery of her smile is the talk in made up of a harpsichord, and several layers of artistic circles today. She is staring directly at the strings and flutes, which eventually leads in the viewer which was unusual for the time as she main beat, which is a sample of ‘If It's In You To Do exudes confidence. Wrong, by The Impressions’ or on Lemonhead, which has an elaborate outro consisting of a Frank Michelangelo was famous for painting the ceiling of Ocean feature, a harpsichord, and multiple layers the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. The most famous and harmonies of Tyler’s own vocals. part was “The Creation of Adam.” The ceiling fresco uses Renaissance techniques to show the detailing in Overall, over the course of his past 7 albums, Tyler the facial expressions of the prophets painted. has cemented himself, as one of the most diverse, artists and producers of his generation, with the Raphael (1483-1520) was another Renaissance ability to make the dark horrorcore beats found on master in Florence. He was famous for his paintings his second album, Goblin, jazz-inspired beats, like of the Virgin Mary and Baby Jesus. He studied the on Flower Boy, genre-bending pop and soul music work of both Leonardo and Michelangelo to achieve like on Igor, and traditional rap and trap beats like the simple but grand physical shapes of the figures on Call Me If You get lost. in his paintings. His paintings used clear and concise colors and are uncomplicated in nature so that the The Achievements of the Renaissance character's personality stands out. After Florence, he moved on to Rome. By Adn Ahmad “Renaissance” is the French word for “rebirth”. Regarding the period, it is the rebirth of ideals from the Roman and Greek civilizations. The Greek and Roman civilizations were before the Christian era which was contrary to the general “age of faith” of the Middle Ages. The renaissance shed light on the philosophers, historians, poets, mathematicians, physicians, architects, and of course artists. Renaissance scholars wanted to understand the world in a scientific and intellectual way rather than simply in a religious one. It was the rediscovery of classical philosophy, literature, and art. Renaissance art begins in northern Europe. Renaissance artists first painted subjects in nature

Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci have also Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci have also accomplished marble sculptors. Their work can be accomplished marble sculptors. Their work can be seen today in Florence, most notably the statue of seen today in Florence, most notably the statue of David by Leonardo, and the Pieta in Rome by David by Leonardo, and the Pieta in Rome by Michelangelo. Da Vinci used the drawing of the ideal Michelangelo. Da Vinci used the drawing of the ideal human male body called the Vitruvian Man to depict human male body called the Vitruvian Man to depict the symmetrical nature of the human body. It is one the symmetrical nature of the human body. It is one of his most famous drawings to date, inspired by of his most famous drawings to date, inspired by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio 1BCE, who wrote a book on Marcus Vitruvius Pollio 1BCE, who wrote a book on Architecture called De. Architecture. This complete David by Leonardo, and the Pieta in Rome by manual on architecture was used to build Michelangelo. Da Vinci used the drawing of the ideal Renaissance churches, palaces, and country villas, human male body called the Vitruvian Man to depict which used columns, balustrades, and rotund the symmetrical nature of the human body. It is one hemispheric domes. of his most famous drawings to date, inspired by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio 1BCE, who wrote a book on In the Last Supper, Da Vinci uses real-life people that Architecture called De. Architecture. This complete he came across to paint the faces of the disciples. The manual on architecture was used to build Mona Lisa, which he painted between 1503-1506 was Renaissance churches, palaces, and country villas, the 24-year-old wife of a prominent merchant in which used columns, balustrades, and rotund Florence. He kept this painting with him for the rest hemispheric domes. of his life and is the most viewed work of art. It is on display at the Museé de Louvre in Paris. The Mona Renaissance Art thus had a profound influence Lisa portrays a woman who is young, calm, and throughout time as it shed light on the discoveries of composed. The mystery of her smile is the talk in simple mathematical truths which were buried by artistic circles today. She is staring directly at the religious movements. Sculptures, buildings, art, viewer which was unusual for the time as she poetry, and writing had more research and depth exudes confidence. and became free of dogma as there was now another point of view. Humanism gave rise to the Michelangelo was famous for painting the ceiling of Renaissance movement which used human emotion, the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. The most famous expression and thought, and complete physical part was “The Creation of Adam.” The ceiling fresco features in books, speeches, painting, and uses Renaissance techniques to show the detailing in architecture. Through the Renaissance, human the facial expressions of the prophets painted. beings became important. Raphael (1483-1520) was another Renaissance From the 16th century onwards, science, art, and master in Florence. He was famous for his paintings knowledge all grew as it was encouraged to inquire of the Virgin Mary and Baby Jesus. He studied the and explore. Human beings were seen as noble and work of both Leonardo and Michelangelo to achieve important, and curiosity and difference were the simple but grand physical shapes of the figures welcomed. Instead of one-sided rigid views, human in his paintings. His paintings used clear and concise emotions and nature were welcomed as a means to colors and are uncomplicated in nature so that the explain the mystery of life. All this helped develop character's personality stands out. After Florence, he new forms of art and expression, Renaissance moved on to Rome. thinking made space for all that is human and natural. It is expansive in nature. Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci have also accomplished marble sculptors. Their work can be seen today in Florence, most notably the statue of David by Leonardo, and the Pieta in Rome by

Business Melanie Perkins: the self-made CEO of help from venture capitalists in hopes of securing financial assistance not only for Fusion Books but Canva also for the company that it would eventually become (Canva). However, the hunt for investors By Nyle Kamran proved to be difficult. Perkins herself stated that she was turned down by over 100 investors in Perth Melanie Perkins is the co-founder and CEO of the alone. The entrepreneur couple then journeyed to design software maker, Canva, which was valued by Silicon Valley, where they struck gold when a former private investors at $40 billion (September 2021). At Google executive came into the fold. Cameron Adams the age of 35, she is one of the youngest female CEOs joined the team to help Perkins secure funds that of a software business worth over $1 billion, and has seemed elusive for the past several years. After two been ranked Australia's second-wealthiest woman. rounds of initial seed funding, the company was formally launched in 2013. Perkins was named CEO Melanie Perkins was born in the city of Perth in 1987 of Canva, Obrecht was named COO, and Adams was to parents of multicultural descent; her father being named CPO. of Malaysian, Filipino, and Sri Lankan heritage while her mother is of Australian descent. By The company grew quickly, with 600,000 users profession, her father was an engineer and her signing up in less than a year after its start. Shortly mother was a teacher. Perkins had shown an after, Canva opened operations in Beijing and entrepreneurial spirit from a very early age. She set Manila, as well as other cities throughout Australia. up her first business at the age of 14 and sold her With the development of Canva, CEO Melanie Perkins handmade scarves in markets around Perth. She also came into the limelight. Canva still had a limited also aspired to be a professional skater, waking up at presence in the United States, but Perkins became a 4:30 am for daily training. She attended Sacred popular figure in Silicon Valley. She was included in Heart College for most of her childhood before Forbes 30 under 30 as well as the Forbes top under enrolling at the University of Western Australia for 30 of the decade. Perkins is also an advocate for a her college education. Perkins studied more diverse and inclusive workplace (Canva's communication, psychology, and commerce at the workforce is 41% women, well above the industry University of Western Australia. She also taught average of 28%). students basic computer design as a part of her major. After raising $60 million in June 2020 and raising Canva's valuation to $6 billion, Perkins became She saw her students struggling to use Adobe Australia's third wealthiest woman with a net worth Photoshop and other complex design platforms and of $1.3 billion. In the following year, Canva’s was thus encouraged to create a simpler and more valuation skyrocketed. With more than 55 million efficient graphic design platform. Perkins then monthly active users, Canva achieved a 130% year- dropped out of college at the age of 19 to pursue a over-year rise in annual revenue, while remaining career in business. Perkins co-founded Fusion Books profitable. As of today, Melanie Perkins’ net worth is with her future husband Cliff Obrecht in 2007. $6.5 billion. With Canva's success story, Perkins Fusion Books is a platform that allows students to finally realized her dream of building a graphic design their school yearbook with drag-and-drop design platform that can be used by people with tools that include an array of design templates such limited design skills. Similar to Fusion Books, Canva as photos, illustrations, and fonts. Initially, she uses drag-and-drop features to allow users to create planned to work on the original idea, but due to numerous designs, including social media graphics, limited resources, she had to switch to another idea. presentations, posters, documents, and other visual Nonetheless, Fusion Books still turned out to be a success. Perkins began developing Fusion Books at her mother's house, and her parents helped in the printing process for the yearbooks. Meanwhile, Obrecht called various colleges and universities in order to acquire new customers for the company. Within a few years, Fusion Books grew into Australia's largest yearbook company and later expanded to France and New Zealand. Despite Fusion Books’ strong performance, funds were thinning. This led both Perkins and Obrecht to seek

content. The Canva app has proven to be a great From a young age, Yang accompanied her father to alternative to Adobe's popular design tools work and attended meetings with him which allowed Photoshop and Illustrator. Although Adobe still her to gain valuable hands-on experience on how her dominates the global market share, Canva is not far father was running his empire. In 2003 she behind with over 55 million active users in 190 graduated from Ohio State University, and in 2005 countries. The company operates on a freemium her father transferred his stake in the company to business model, giving users access to 40,000 Canva her name making her a majority shareholder, templates for a regular subscription fee ($119.40 for owning 57% of shares in the company. He announced annual payments or $12.95 per month). this before its public offering at the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. This made her the youngest billionaire in According to Perkins, “we want Canva to be the China at that time. place you can go to by default, and so we’ve made it free to use.” Aside from seeing her company grow She faced a lot of resentment when her father rapidly in terms of financial numbers, she also finds announced her as the successor of his company and great when receiving positive feedback from users, the veterans did not appreciate her swift rise to the saying “stories we hear from the community is what top. When her father was getting medical treatment makes all of the work worth it.” Obrecht also aired in the US, she fired all those who were blocking her similar sentiments, citing that the Canva platform path to success and rewarded those who stood by her can massively aid “underprivileged people and gives thus building a strong team that she could lead. In them the chance to break the cycle.” As Melanie 2018 her company saw what was termed the golden Perkins continues to lead Canva to greater heights, it hours of 2018. In the first 4 days of trading in shouldn’t remove the fact that the founder went January, her wealth increased by a grand $2 billion through numerous struggles to get to where she is and the company saw a rise in profits of $6.1 billion, today. And at the young age of 35, everyone agrees just behind Jeff Bezos who earned $6.6 billion in the that she is just getting started. same duration. Yang Huiyan also chairs Bright Scholars Education Holdings which is China's largest Yang Huang: the Richest Woman in bilingual chain of schools and is also listed on the Asia New York Stock exchange. She has enjoyed the title of the richest woman in China for 6 years in a row, a By Moosa Sadiq huge feat at just the age of 40, and has made Country Garden Holdings the largest property developer in When one thinks of the word ‘billionaire’ one China surpassing Evergrande Group in 2017. pictures personalities like Elon Musk, Bill Gates, and Jack Ma and I was pleasantly surprised when I began Although she did not work as hard as her father did researching Asia's richest woman Yang Huang that to earn what she did in life, Yang Huiyan put a lot of there was little information available about her on effort into building the empire she has today to the internet. Yang Huiyan's wealth, according to sustain her title as the richest woman in China. We Forbes stands at a whopping $20 billion today. can only wait and see what other milestones this hard-working and ambitious woman will achieve in She was born in Sandhu, China in 1981 making her the coming years. 40 years old. Her father, Yang Guoqiang is also a media-shy personality, and the current chairman of one of the biggest real estate developers in China, Country Garden Holdings. He was the son of a farmer and had to help his father work in the field and was even a bricklayer at some point. It was his good grades and hard work that earned him a scholarship which allowed him to complete his education. In 1997 he laid the foundation of Country Garden Holdings, which he later handed over to Yang in 2007.

Apple: the Largest Electronics Great customer service Company in the World Focusing on the design and functionality Easy to use By Maryam Kamran Simultaneously developing new products Apple has been around for over three decades, and in He always believed that the key to success was “don't that time, it has left a mark on the world of sell products, sell dreams”. Although Apple is one of technology. The company’s line of products has the biggest tech companies it has big rivals and included everything from personal computers to competition like Samsung, Amazon, Google, smartwatches. Through his article, you will be able to Windows, etc. find out why Apple is one of the biggest companies in electronics worldwide, and why their brand is so But what separates Apple from the competition? recognizable all over the world. Apple's product code is high in security. Unlike other companies or apps, their code is really hard Before we talk about Apple let's talk about the man to crack making it difficult for the average virus that started it all Steve Jobs. Steve Jobs was an maker to get by. American inventor, designer, and entrepreneur who Steve Jobs once said, “Design is not just what it went down in history as the co-founder of Apple. looks like and feels like. Design is how it works”. Steve was born in San Fransico California in 1955. As This proves that Apple is is dedicated to having a a child, he always preferred doing stuff alone as he practical design not just for aesthetics but for was competitive. Even as a toddler he was curious function. and active. His father was a mechanic so he often Apple may have over-priced products but that is spent his time in the garage while his father was both a pro and a con as it may not be affordable working on cars and when his father would go to the to most while on the other hand, Apple products junkyard looking for metal scraps and Steve used to are high quality with the latest technology go along with him. During high school, he met his incorporated into them as they slowly start going future business partner Wozniak who was 5 years green! older than him. Some of Apple’s future goals include: When Steve was 21, he and Wozniak founded the Creating new computer chips Apple computer company. At first, they worked in Adding 20,000 new jobs to the company Steve's bedroom then they started working in the Establishing a new North Carolina Campus Job’s family workshop. Two years later, he earned Expanding US operations over a million dollars, and by the time he was 25 he Advanced Manufacturing was making $250 million There are so many things 100% recycled material products that we use in daily life that wouldn't have been without Steve Jobs like iPhones, iPods, and Macs, and Apple's great success is beyond just its products but he even contributed to the making of Pixar's toy goes way back to its memorable creator, Steve Jobs, story! The greatest part of his story is that it wasn't who started the success of Apple. Apple will most the money that drove him, it was his passion and likely continue developing great products with even love for electronics. Sadly he passed away in 2011 but more mind-blowing products. The great experience he will always be remembered by the present and of users, the sleek design, and the easy-to-use future generations to come. products make it so that there is no doubt why Apple is used globally. Although it may have its cons, it has Steve Jobs developed a range of strategies that developed far more than other major technology ultimately made Apple as successful as it is today. companies. These strategies include: “If you don't love it you’re going to fail”. - Steve Jobs

Lifestyle & Culture LGBTQ and Gender Rights point for the movement. However in recent times with the use of social media etc. members of the ByDuaAzhar LGBTQ+ community have been better accepted into society despite federal and governmental acts Millions of people around the world face failing to do so. discrimination and inequality because of who they are, how they appear, their sexual orientation and Pakistan on the other hand still has a very large who they love. Sexual orientation and gender stigma around the idea and was one of the 14 states identity are important components of our identities that voted against the UN resolution that was that should never be discriminated against or opposing LGBTQ+ discrimination. According to the abused. The LGBTQ+ community includes, but is not President of the Neengar Society, their organization limited to, lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and offered emergency medical, shelter, and transgender people. These people have differing psychological help to 145 LGBTQ individuals aspects compared to the norm that we as society between January and November 2014, including 50 have set which leads to many unjust actions such as from Karachi, 10 from Lahore, and two from torture, killings, and even executions as some even Islamabad. He claimed that family members had go as far as censorship, medical abuses, abused and threatened to kill LGBTQ+ people in discrimination in health, jobs and housing, domestic every case, but that no one was ready to file a police violence, child abuse, and denial of family rights report for fear of being arrested because of their and recognition. sexuality. Pakistani society has also highly stigmatized the idea of sexual orientation with most In order to prevent discrimination against millions kids having limited idea as to what it is, almost no of people and organization, people have stood up to school giving sex-education and the general raise awareness for their rights, hold pride marches patriarchal society unwilling to change their back- and revoke unjust laws under which people dated mindsets. belonging to the LGBTQ+ society are unequally treated. While homosexuality has existed for As it can be seen, the international community and centuries the talk about its awareness and rights generally under-developed countries like Pakistan started around 1924 when the first documented gay need to play their part in de-stigmatizing the rights organization; The Society for Human Rights community. There is nothing wrong with having a was founded by Henry Gerber in Chicago. After this different sexual orientation and it is when we as many organizations emerged and this led to Illinois society are more inclusive that legislators and becoming the first state to decriminalize homo- lawmakers will help the society on a larger level. It sexuality. Soon after the first US televised is important for us to carry out a series of steps in documentary about homosexuality aired in order to help the society which include listening to California. As police raided the stonewall, protests the community; especially its youth, being a role and demonstrations began and this later became to model for kindness and inclusion, taking action at a be known as the push for the gay civil rights smaller communal level to create safe spaces, movement. In 1970 New York City residents showing people that they can be authentic, staying marched through the streets to commemorate the informed and supporting organizations that are one-year anniversary of the Stonewall riots. In 1973 helping people who are a part of the LGBTQ+ Maryland became the first state to ban same-sex community. marriage. This was followed by both ups and downs which included Kathy Kozachenko becoming the first openly LGBTQ+ American to be in public office and the first federal gay rights bill being introduced, however, it was never brought in for consideration in the judiciary committee. In 1979 the first national march on lesbian and gay rights took place which drew an estimated of 75,000 to 125,000 individuals. This was followed by Wisconsin becoming the first state to outlaw discrimination based on sexual orientation. In 1996 President Clinton signed the Defense of Marriage Act which banned federal recognition of same-sex marriage which was a low

Spreading Awareness Arooj Aftab: First Pakistani Woman to Win a Grammy BySafooraKhan By Ranya Nargis If one were to think about it, there are many issues that must be tackled in today’s world. Some small, Dressed in a sequinned blouse and aubergine others big, but each deserve action or at least overcoat with a gold rose to signify the Grammy’s recognition. This is where the idea of spreading Award ceremony, Arooj Aftab looked every bit the awareness comes from. An action which has the rising star the world is coming to realize she is. She purpose of making people conscious of and rarely wears makeup and is hardly known to dress understand certain issues. Spreading awareness is up in the high fashion of the day. In fact, a post she an integral part of change in human history and its uploaded on her Instagram showcasing her remnants can be traced far back in history. Though Grammy look had the caption: “I don’t know guys, I the idea of getting people to listen may seem tiring, think makeup might be overrated.” there is a high chance that you have spread awareness unknowingly as well as the fact that Her best friend from school, Amal Khantas, there's many ways to do so. described the historic moment of a Pakistani musician winning the Grammy award in these Let's take a look at the history of spreading words, “Arooj Aftab just won a Grammy, laughed awareness. The idea fully took form in the 1980’s to her usual Arooj laugh on the Grammy stage, broke describe a widely held belief about science my heart into a million happy pieces, and raised communication. As most of the public were her hand to the sky with a 6lb 24K gold Grammy skeptical about it, companies decided to spread award in her hand.” awareness since they believed that the lack of awareness caused this issue. Now this idea has Arooj’s path to success was neither easy nor bloomed in today's world with campaigns such as simple. Yet she persevered against a patriarchal those on social media. An example could be the no- society, grief, and a sheer lack of musical makeup selfie trend, which was a way to spread opportunities. Those who know her, define her awareness about self love and that taking pictures most endearing quality as fearlessness. Once when without make up doesn’t make one less beautiful. she and Abida Perveen were scheduled to play at Other such awareness campaigns include the Sufi Music Festival in New York, Arooj went ‘’ and ‘Water is life.’ knocking on her hotel door uninvited and coaxed her into an impromptu singing session with her. We then move onto the different ways one can spread awareness. Let's take a look at three. The This same spirit of fearlessness led to Arooj first way is to wear the message. For example those applying to Boston’s Berklee School Of Music, who want to spread awareness about LGBTQ+ leaving Pakistan right after her A-Levels and rights will wear the pride flag and those promoting making her first single Hallelujah at the age of 18. feminism will wear quotes and feminist icons. The After graduating from Berklee where she learned second way is to talk about it with anyone willing music production and engineering, she moved to to listen. Such friends and families, to where New York City where she has been living and certain school curriculums have subjects will performing for more than a decade. spread awareness about certain issues that they are aware of. This could be by creating posts on Having grown up in Saudi Arabia and then their social media ccounts or make posters to give Pakistan, Arooj Aftab knew at an early age that she around. The last way is to hold campaigns. could never flourish in this society. She also knew Examples of this can be found in our own school from very early on that music was her life. A school such as the ice cream drive which donated money friend said about her: “Arooj’s journey began when to Deaf Reach or the bake sale that donated to we were in school. Her first guitar was a blue- refugees. All of these campaigns spread awareness colored acoustic and she carried it with her about the issue at hand. everywhere. She would play it, compose songs and perform at events but also just be practicing by In conclusion, though spreading awareness may herself.” seem tedious and energy consuming, it is an integral part of human history as one must be Arooj’s music underwent a major transformation informed before they create change. There are also when she lost both her brother and a close friend multiple ways to do so, which are quite simple. In in 2018. Her music began shifting from the high- the end one must never stay quiet in the face of energy dance music she had previously been issues and advocate for change, as that is the only working on to more soulful, lyrical, and we as a society will develop. emotionally charged. The album she released this

time is titled Vulture Price and her Grammy- talking about and explain why the issue is winning song Mohabbat is from this album. bad/good. Keep it simple and stick to one type of issue. The more specific your goals are, the more In an interview with Pitchfork, Arooj Aftab you can create a social media advocacy strategy remembers her decision to move to the United that results in the right people sharing your news States. “I was really sad and confused. I wanted to with the content you create. Once you develop study music and I didn’t know how. Berklee your voice, you must stick to it because people College seemed really expensive and far away, following you will be attracted to what you put out and no one understood. My dad was talking and they identify you using that voice. about how some people think that they want to do music but actually just really like music.” Step 2: Be thoughtful and careful about what you say because what you put out on the internet stays How Arooj Aftab has become the first and so far there forever and also be curious and aware. You only Pakistani musician to win a Grammy award need to be ‘woke’ about what is going on globally is beautifully summed up in Amal Khan’s words. and know its significance. To become an advocate, “I have never met anybody in my life with so you need to research what other advocates are much self-belief, confidence, and willpower. She saying about your issue and cover anything that always had faith in the power of her own abilities they might have missed. You also need to see what and the depth of her own music. She also people are saying against your topic so you can practiced constantly, sacrificed at every turn for clear up any misinformation or misunderstandings her passion, and never ever gave up.” people might have about your issue. Social Media in Advocacy Step 3: Write clearly and simply. Remember – your message has to be loud and clear. You must make By Rania Adnan Khan your message to the point and easy to understand. If you are using graphics, you should make titles Social advocacy is when someone connects to the catchy and understandable and it is the same case public using different ways of communication to if you want to use videos. Any message that is not raise awareness about a cause. In this era, the full of mistakes or typos and grammatical errors is most effective way to communicate is through very pleasing for the eyes and ears. social media. We can scroll through different social media apps for hours but never think about Step 4: The next step is to promote your social the influence we can make with our online media activity amongst your friends, family and presence. Why not use social media to raise others. Social media is generally all about making awareness for an important issue? And well, how connections but is not just about online can we do this? connections. You also have to make person-to- person connections to promote your online cause, Step 1: Firstly, make sure that you have a strong and when you promote your social media activity voice online and have said things like this amongst your peers, they can view and understand beforehand too. So start now to start building a your point. Another good thing is that they can voice for yourself. The longer and stronger social share with their friends and family and so on, and media presence you have, the better. This will that will circulate this information further to help show that you are serious about what you’re spread the word about your cause. talking about and really understand the issue. You should be passionate about what you’re Step 5: You need to look at and understand the general demographics of your followers and the type of followers you are aiming at. If you take time to understand the people you are trying to reach, communication automatically becomes easier.

You will create information and messages by commercially. Humans exploit their natural keeping your audience in mind. You will have to resources because we assume they cost us figure out what your audience likes and post nothing, which isn’t the case. We shouldn’t make things related to that while further talking about decisions based on their short term economic your cause. This will keep your audience engaged benefits. Rather we should keep in mind the long and interested in looking at more of your posts. term impacts of these decisions on our world. Over the last 2 centuries, humans have been the Overall, this may seem like a lot of work and take reason for the cause of mass extinctions of some time but that is what advocacy is all about. If organisms because humans have a large impact you want to be a good advocate and raise on the environment. Human activity is causing awareness, then you will have to start small and pollution, deforestation, habitat loss and make the effort to climb up. The journey may take extinction of species which together lead to time, but it is definitely worth it if you really climate change. Pollution throughout the world is believe in your cause! so bad that 2.4 billion people don’t have access to clean water sources which is the cause of many TNS Go Green: Flora and Fauna water-borne diseases such as typhoid. Air pollution has gotten better in some countries like By Rania Asif, Aleen Hassan and Aleena Khan the US, but it is still the root cause of acid rain, which results in water and soil becoming more Humans over the years have impacted the acidic and therefore killing wildlife. Climate environment in many ways: deforestation, change results in earth's temperatures rising but burning fossil fuels, industrialization, poaching, most ecosystems are not prepared for this rapid etc. In return these changes have provoked rise in temperature, which can lead to their climate change. Climate change can have negative destruction. It also leads to weather patterns effects on human activity. We need to make sure changing and more severe climatic disasters. that we live a sustainable lifestyle in order to Hurricanes will be more intense in frequency and have a prosperous future, and right now all signs size, and there will be more chronic heatwaves, are pointing to human activity destroying the which can result in droughts. As stated in planet completely. In order for us to conserve our international data, around 18 million acres are cut planet, we need to work together to resolve down each year due to humans being in need of climate change. Now what exactly is land in order to make way for new developments. conservation? Conservation is the process of Trees are the largest suppliers of oxygen, protecting Earth’s natural resources for current therefore deforestation has very negative impacts and future generations. The ecosystem consists of on both humanity and wildlife. Deforestation also many different organisms such as plants, animals, results in more greenhouse gases in the and micro-organisms. Among all of these flora and atmosphere which are also resulting in climate fauna are perhaps the most important. change. Flora and fauna have a huge impact on the So what can we do to help? Well, for starters, take environment, as well as our existence. Flora and action. Get together a friendly neighbourhood fauna create an ecological balance which is rally and spread awareness about climate change, crucial for humans. The flora creates oxygen and how we as a society are doing very little to which is then consumed by the fauna for change our world. We should encourage each respiratory purposes, and releases carbon dioxide other to change our lifestyles, organise events that which is taken in by the flora. Forests, rivers, will mitigate the effects of climate change such as oceans, and soil provide us with what we need to annual trash pick-ups and keep it clean to help survive. They provide us with the air we breathe, reduce the overall pollution rate in your city. the food we eat, the water we drink and use to Picking up trash not only protects the irrigate our crops. Pakistan has an agriculture- environment, it also saves the lives of many based economy which means most of our animals around you. Plastic bags and bottles can population relies on cash-cropping. Cash-cropping easily trap and harm animals, particularly is a practice where crops are grown to sell aquatic organisms. Changing energy sources to renewable resources such as solar energy is also a great step to shift towards sustainability. Not only does solar energy produce clean energy, it is also environmentally friendly. It helps combat greenhouse gas emissions and reduces electricity costs in the long-run. Planting trees and donating is also a great help.

Mental Health & Awareness How Can Advocacy Help Those With Advocacy encourages neither stigmatization or normalization: only understanding and support. Mental Illness? This is exactly what people with mental illness need. They need a hand to reach out and tell them By Nuriyah Bilal that they’re going to be helped and cared for – they should not be treated as if they’re garbage or as if In today’s world, mental illness is more common their needs don’t matter. than one might assume. It doesn’t always present itself in real life the way it has been portrayed in How far has mental health come in the media. Mental illness encompasses depression, Pakistan? anxiety, eating disorders, insomnia, addiction, substance abuse, PTSD, and more. As most of us By Fatima Akber probably know or have known someone who struggles with one of these, we’ve all likely had this Pakistan is home to around 200 million people, yet question go through our minds: how can we help it has the poorest mental health indicators, and them? many in the country suffer from mental illnesses. Additionally, Pakistan also has very few physiatrists It’s actually much simpler than one might think. who are properly trained. Many therapy sessions One of the best ways people can easily help those and physiatrists facilities are very expensive. Since with mental illness is to spread awareness – in the Covid-19 pandemic, access to mental health other words, advocate. Even if you don’t know facilities further declined as many people started anyone who struggles with mental health issues, loosing their jobs and required better facilities as spreading awareness doesn’t just help your loved their loved ones passed away away from this virus. ones. It helps everyone who is struggling to feel seen, heard, and understood. You can spread As of 2022, cases of mental health have somewhat awareness with a simple Instagram story, as you’ve improved in Pakistan but at least 36% of Pakistan's probably seen many people do. This actually population suffers from depression and other reaches a lot more people than you might think. depressive disorders/anxiety and more than 30 We’ve all seen Instagram posts or TikToks about million Pakistanis suffer from mental illnesses, the how to help or deal with mental illness; by sharing majority being women. How do poverty and other even just a few of these, we’re helping people little events impact mental health, how is it better than in by little as we are increasing awareness about these previous years and what solutions are there? issues. Firstly, poverty impacts one's life in many ways. Mental illness is heavily stigmatized, especially in With the struggle to earn and manage your family, the society we live in. This has a terrible effect on one may go into depression and suffer from those with it because they feel ashamed and disorders that are incurable with the situation they defective as compared to those of us who don’t. are in. Sometimes, one may end up harming Advocating for those with mental illness not only themselves or committing suicide from the pressure helps more people to understand it and lessens they face. In other situations such as an event society’s ignorance towards the topic, but it also where a person goes through severe trauma, people helps those who struggle to feel as if they are seen; have high likeness of developing disorders and that their wellbeing matters just as much as illnesses. Furthermore, we have high illiteracy rates “normal people.” Advocates can help people with and few educators or psychologists, and high mental illness understand their rights and speak up corruption rates. Pakistan is doing better than it for themselves. Due to society’s negative perspective on the matter, many people who are having issues below the surface refuse to express it because of the fear of being alienated, ostracized, and thought of as abnormal or deficient. This should not be the case at all; however, mental illness should not be normalized either. In the instance where it is normalized, people may feel reluctant to admit that they are struggling because “it’s normal, everybody feels like this, I’m not special.” This kind of thinking is equally as harmful as the former.

was during the beginning of the pandemic as most 4) To develop better infrastructure and centers for people are now vaccinated and are finding ways to treatment. earn online to prevent the depression caused by poverty. Although mental health has come a long way in Pakistan with increased awareness about the issue, The people that are the most impacted by trauma, better facilities and lower rates of people illness, and anxiety in Pakistan are women. 66% of experiencing severe mental health issues, more Pakistani women are currently face depression, needs to be done. Through these possible solutions, suffer from trauma, or suffer from other mental not only can we ensure a bright sustainable future, illnesses. This may be due to the pressure that but a future where poverty doesn't exist and women face in their everyday lives as being treated citizens can afford food, clean and sanitary water, a as subordinate to men, have extremely high shelter and can educate their children, provide chances of facing sexual violence, being forced to therapy sessions for their children to avoid mental not complete their education, and being forced to illness and disorders, depression and anxiety from take care of their household and get married. striking them and to avoid them from going through the problems which other Pakistanis Through access to new medication, and the suffered from in the past. To ensure Pakistan isn’t development of centers to deal with depression and known as a country where depression is common affordable therapy services, fewer Pakistanis are but rather a country of peace and good health and being diagnosed with mental disorders and well-being. illnesses. Still, Pakistan is home to many people with severe mental illness which is comprised How to be a Mental Health Advocate mainly of women and children who have faces extreme trauma. Pakistan is known as a depressed By Mydah Azhar country. The UN SDGs and the UNDP aim to improve the quality of life of all and improve access Perspectives toward mental health have changed in to healthcare which includes improving access to recent years, but there’s still a lot of work to be mental health facilities. In fact, the 3rd SDG is done. Mental health advocates are an essential part focused on providing good health and well-being to of this work. The good news is anyone can be one. all. But the real question is how can we ensure a Maybe you’re a teen who wants to raise awareness sustainable future in Pakistan through good health about anxiety and depression in your school. Or and wellbeing? perhaps you have personal knowledge of a mental health condition and want to speak out about your Possible solutions include: needs and those of people living similar 1) Getting help from NGOs created by experiences. Regardless of your age and intergovernmental organizations such as the UN, background, there are many ways to be a mental where access to treatment is affordable and easily health advocate. accessible. An advocate, in general, is someone who supports 2) Spreading awareness through blogs, social media and speaks up on behalf of a specific cause or group platforms, and posters. 3) Educating people about mental health issues. For example, if experiencing symptoms, they should know how and where to get treatment from.

and speaks up on behalf of a specific cause or group Stay focused and take care of your mental of people. A mental health advocate focuses on health: Realize that you can’t do everything. Self- mental health topics. A mental health advocate care is also an important part of advocacy work. becomes aware of an issue or need and then speaks You can't help others if you’re experiencing about it to others, so they, too, become aware or burnout, for example. It can be difficult to gain knowledge. advocate for others if you don’t advocate for yourself first. Advocate efforts may include: Educating people at school, work, or community Here are some ways you can advocate for yourself: about a specific topic Understand your own mental health condition. Speaking on behalf of groups or organizations Share your diagnosis: Letting others know about that practice activism your condition and your needs can help them Speaking on behalf of those who cannot. widen their perspective on the topic. Researching on a topic and sharing your Have a plan of action: Develop clear goals for findings yourself and outline steps to achieve them. Lobbying to influence public policy Ask for help: Get support from friends, family, Developing a strategy to amplify an issue and co-workers. Reach out to others with similar circumstances who may be able to provide you A mental health advocate is a person who shows up with insight. in a public way. These ways may include: Reach out to organizations: Local organizations that work with your mental health condition can blogging provide you with information and help you Posting on social media learn to advocate for yourself. Volunteering at information booths Develop a blog or website: Talk about your Showing up for awareness events such as walks experiences, your needs and concerns, and how you feel others can support you and others with There are numerous unique ways to be a mental similar experiences. health advocate. You can find your own way to be a spokesperson for a cause close to your heart. You Mental health advocates have played one of the can be an advocate for yourself and others. You most important roles in changing the way people may not be comfortable going to in-person events, think about mental illnesses. Without mental health for example. But developing a blog or engaging in advocates, we would likely still be talking about online conversations may feel natural. There are mental health conditions in whispers. At some many ways to be a mental health advocate for point, an advocate spoke publicly about depression, others: You don’t need to live with a mental health schizophrenia, or domestic violence. That provided condition to advocate for others. However, it’s much-needed visibility to these issues, and that may important to educate yourself before trying to do so. have started a change. But even today, as we speak more freely about mental health, many people still Here are some ideas to consider for how to face stigma and barriers to treatment.“Only advocate for others living with mental health increased awareness and addressing can help conditions: increase access to treatment,” says Cidambi. By increasing awareness, advocates help lower these Educate yourself: read about the topic to ensure barriers, including the lack of insurance coverage that you’re sharing accurate information online for mental health services. On an individual level, and in person. advocates who openly talk about their experiences Be present: Go to events that aim to raise with mental health conditions can help people feel awareness about or money for mental health less alone and encourage them to seek treatment. problems. Actively promote these events and speak on their behalf. They may also encourage others who don’t live with Volunteer: Give your time to local mental health these conditions to become more aware and organizations working to raise awareness about empathetic. This is why advocacy is also vital on a mental health conditions and improve access to community-wide level. Mental health advocacy mental health services. helps us all be more tolerant, inclusive, empathetic, Reach out to local lawmakers: Voice your desire and active in supporting those who live with mental and support for better access to mental health illness. treatment, particularly for underserved communities. Work for an advocacy organization: You may consider a related career path and make advocacy work your job.

Politics & History Top Unrecognized Inventions by Salim al Hassani the editor of ‘1001 Inventions’ a Muslims book celebrating the forgotten history of 1,000 years of Muslim heritage. The first such center was the By Daud Azfar Ahmed ibn Tulun hospital, founded in 872 in Cairo provided free care to anyone who needed it. Abu Al Almost two billion Muslims inhabit the earth today Qasim Al Zahrawi is referred to as ‘the father of with 50 countries having Muslim majority modern surgery.’ In the year 1000, he published a populations. These countries reside predominantly 1,500-page encyclopedia of surgery which would go in the Middle East, South and South-East Asia as well on to be used as a medical reference in Europe for as North and West Africa and sadly the vast the next 500 years. majority of these nations are poverty-stricken and have extremely weak and fragile economies. This Influential Human Rights Activists in and other factors have led to an unfortunate Pakistan Western stereotype that Muslims are backward, uneducated, and even reject science. By Ibad Karim The reality is far from this, and in fact, it is Muslims Pakistan! Pakistan is a country known for its and their critical inventions that have shaped the violation of human rights. Whether it is by the modern world we live in. Most of these inventions government, law enforcement, or even citizens. But occurred during the Islamic Golden Age, a period there are some people who are trying to resolve this from the 6th-14th century where there was issue in the country by advocating and using their economic and scientific flourishing in the history of voices. Some of the most influential human rights Islam while European nations were declining. In the activists in this country include Mr. Syed Muhammad Moroccan city of Fez, where Fatima al-Fihri founded Zafar, Asma Jahangir, and Hina Jillani who have the Al-Qarawiyyin mosque and university using the done a lot to benefit this country. money from her inheritance. This mosque became a center of Islamic learning and studying and is Starting with Mr. Syed Muhammad Zafar, Mr. Zafar recognized as the oldest existing university in the is one of the most famous human rights activists in world. Today, the concept of going to a university is Pakistan. He is a notable attorney, lawmaker, and one that is considered almost essential for having a senator and has also served as the Minister of Law successful professional career and the fact that a and Justice of Pakistan from 1965 to 66. He played a Muslim woman is credited with the invention helps significant role in the 1958 martial law period in illuminate the status of women in Islam and the Pakistani history and again in driving corrections to importance of educating women in Islam is and how the constitution of Pakistan 1962, which from the this narrative is diametrical to how Western media start did not have adequate insurance for portray the status of women in the religion. fundamental human rights. He founded the Human Rights Society of Pakistan in 1976 which was a Despite how major the first invention seems, in today’s world it struggles to compare with the impact this second one has. Al Khwarizmi, a Muslim mathematician, and astronomer invented Al Jabr, or algebra, one of the most important mathematical principles, and also invented algorithms. In fact, algorithms are just a Latinized version of Khwarizmi’s name. This means that modern technology, laptops, phones, and video game consoles all work based on the invention of Khwarizmi, a Muslim. The fact that this very article can be written and reaches you digitally is because of this invention which really sheds a light on how impactful it has been on our world. On the health side, Muslims are credited with two major inventions, surgery and hospitals. \"Hospitals as we know them today, with wards and teaching centers, come from 9th century Egypt,\" explains

continuation of the work S.M. Zafar did during his Racism in the form of slavery prevailed in the US political career. until the US civil war occurred in 1861. This happened because the Northern US states wanted to Moving on to Ms. Asma Jahangir. Born in 1952, she abolish slavery whereas the Southern US states was a famous Pakistani human rights lawyer and wanted to retain their system of slavery as they had a social activist who helped establish and also chaired massive war that killed over 620,000 people. By the the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan. She end of the war, slavery was abolished in the US received her early education was at the Convent of however, racism was still a pressing issue in the Jesus and Mary, then received her BA from country. Kinnaird and her LLB from Punjab University. Jahangir was a resolute pundit of the Hudood These shootings and acts of police brutality against Ordinance, and obscenity laws set by General Zia’s George Floyd, George Zimmerman, and Trayvon Islamization program. She was the beneficiary of a Martin are what ignited this movement. After these few honors which include the 2014 Right Livelihood shootings, new posts on social media platforms Award for “safeguarding, securing and advancing started getting posted with the hashtag human rights in Pakistan.” Asma Jahangir filled in #BlackLivesMatter. The inhumane and cruel actions as the United Nations Special Rapporteur on against African-Americans were bought to the Freedom of Religion from August 2004 to July 2010 attention of the general public through social media. and in 2016, she was named the United Nations In fact, racism and views towards racism went on to Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human highly influence US elections in 2020 as many black Rights in Iran. Unfortunately, she passed away in voters chose to support Biden as he disregarded 2018 but her legacy is being continued by her sister racism. Police brutality was a significant part of this Hina Jilani. movement which put the US police under a great deal of pressure and questioning. Hina Jilani, as mentioned above, is the sister of the famous human rights activist Asma Jahangir. Born The amount of sheer racism in the US was exposed in 1953, she is an advocate of the Supreme Court of through this movement as the US has been placed Pakistan and a social activist for human rights. She number 69 on the world’s index for most racist is also a member of The Elders founded by Nelson countries which are out of the 197 countries globally. Mandela. Jilani is known for her mastery of the The Black Lives Matter (BLM) Movement is a fundamental human rights examinations. She is decentralized political movement that had the end also associated with the United Nations Human goal to end the horrors of discrimination, racism, and Rights Council, the Carter Center, and the UN inequality faced by ethnic African-Americans in the Conference on Women. These are three of the many US. When massive groups of people come together human rights activists in Pakistan. Although not under one cause, protests occur which can be very many people know about them, they have played a barbaric as people come together, a protest starts, fundamental role in advocating for human rights in and it can be very uncivilized, and it can ruin any Pakistan and attempting to bring a change in our city's local economy. country. You can find information on this movement The Impact of The BLM movement on everywhere including posters, videos, and current day USA infographics on any social media platform. There are only a few new policies created as a consequence of By Abdullah Akber the movement but a lot of new amendments in a lot of countries' constitutions. In the US, the 13th Racism. One of the most controversial topics in the Amendment was made by Abraham Lincoln was still history of the US. It has existed since the beginning alive was made so that racism was ended in the US of US history and after centuries is reaching its on paper but there was no enforcement of this law decline. Many people often relate the modern-day which led to racism flourishing in the US. BLM with George Floyd’s murder on 2020 May 25th, or people could also relate it to the shooting of Now with all of this in play, you can probably tell George Zimmerman and Trayvon Martin during a that racism has detrimental impacts in the US but 17-month gap in 2013. However, Racism has a much this could be changed if the US president makes deeper heritage. Starting in the late 1800s, where major changes in policies, I’m sure not only America African-Americans were bought to the US as slaves, but other countries would also flourish with equality. which was primarily due to the transatlantic slave trade.

Achievements in Women's Rights Many more things were accomplished by the second wave of feminism. Women now have many more During the 20th Century options and opportunities in terms of education and work. Women worked as electricians, plumbers, By Ishba Shams machine operators, and other \"non-traditional\" jobs. Others followed careers that most women could only The women's rights movement, also known as the dream of before them, such as engineers, architects, women's liberation movement, was predominantly and doctors, to name a few. The change in cultural based in the United States and sought equal rights mores — most fundamentally in the family structure and opportunities for women in the 1960s and and marriage — is one of the major triumphs of the 1970s. It was part of the \"second wave\" of feminism women's liberation movement, and one that may be and is recognized as such. While the first wave of difficult to recognize today. Two-thirds of all children feminism in the 19th and early 20th centuries were raised in the \"conventional nuclear family\" in focused on women's legal rights, particularly the the early 1960s, with the father as the earner and the ability to vote, the second wave of feminism in the mother and father as a married pair. That design is women's rights movement addressed all aspects of no longer the most prevalent today. women's lives, including politics, work, and family. The second wave of feminism in the 20th century Women's lives in industrialized countries changed transformed the professional and domestic considerably in the aftermath of WWII. Household landscape, proving a plethora of opportunities for technology made housework easier, life women everywhere. Title IX of the Higher Education expectancies soared, and the rise of the service Act, passed in 1972, prohibited sex discrimination in sector created thousands of occupations that were any educational program receiving federal funds, not physically demanding. Despite these forcing all-male schools to open their doors to economical changes, cultural attitudes (particularly women and athletic programs to sponsor and fund toward women's work) and legal precedents female sports teams. continued to maintain disparities. The reaction of women to Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique, The achievements in women’s rights during the published in 1963, was the first public indication second wave of feminism or the 20th century have that change was on the way. The problem that \"laid completely changed the status of women in today’s buried, unspoken\" in the psyche of the suburban world as women were able to do things they had housewife, according to Friedan, is complete never dreamt of doing prior to the movement, yet boredom and lack of fulfillment. Initially, women there are still much more to achieve to reach inspired by Friedan's book teamed up with complete gender equality in our world. government officials and labor organizations to press the federal government for equal pay and protection from discrimination in the workplace. They had come to the conclusion that courteous requests were insufficient by June 1966. They'd need their own national pressure group, like the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), but for women. The National Organization for Women (NOW) was founded as a result of this. Women later gained access to jobs in every sector of the US economy with the help of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (1965), and companies with extensive records of discrimination were compelled to present timelines for increasing the proportion of women in their workforces. Divorce laws were liberalized, businesses were prohibited from terminating pregnant women, and college and university women's studies programs were established. Women also began to run and win political office in record numbers. Title IX of the Higher Education Act, passed in 1972, prohibited sex discrimination in any educational program receiving federal funds, forcing all-male schools to open their doors to women and athletic programs to sponsor and fund female sports teams.

School Affairs PYP Project Exhibition intelligent idea to work on a sanctuary-building project to grasp a better understanding of solutions By Abdullah Akber to animal endangerment. Many zoos, especially in Pakistan, are ill-treating their animals, torturing Project-based learning (PBL), is a student-centered pedagogy that involves a dynamic classroom them with the uncomfortable and poor living approach that allows students to acquire a deeper standards in combination with the scorching heat knowledge through active exploration of real- of our country. So after reflecting on the world problems. This educational system allows mistreatment of animals in our country, they came students to inquire, stay curious, and learn about up with the following driving question: How can real-world concepts. The system originates from we, as Grade 3 students, plan a sanctuary for the 1960s, when it was introduced by two scholars, endangered species? As a class of species Robyn Tamblyn and Howard Barrows, at the conversationalists, they researched and found McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. This solutions to the problems with current animal system is not only used by schools and other sanctuaries. They then presented numerous ways educational centers, but by numerous to create the best sanctuary designed particularly organizations, scientists, and more. A report from for endangered animals. the CDC states that if adults continue to boost the imagination of children about real-world concepts, Grade 4B/4W: Community Photojournalist it is expected for those children to be inspired to Grade 4B and 4W’s topic is based on meditate on much better ideas, to further photojournalists who they have defined as 'a implement them to bring about change and benefit person who take photos of events, like news the real world. Primary years students are still in events.' Grade 4 went around Lahore interviewing their youth as their creativity continues to flourish, many people about recent events and captured allowing them to grasp many ideas some adults photos of those events. They used that knowledge would not be able to understand themselves. In the to create a photographic essay. They later shared it PBL system, the presentation of these creative with community members. ideas is the final step. These presentation skills prove to be useful, boosting these young minds' Grade 4O: Matter Matters self-esteem, confidence, and public speaking skills. As implied by the catchy title, 4O students showed With the basis of PBL covered, I’d like to indulge in how matter, everything around us, actually has an the innovative project presentations of our own impact on our everyday lives. They portrayed this PYP students this year. through a cookbook by describing the different properties of matter through baking cookies. Their Grade 2: Stories To Life driving question was: How can we design a This was a very interesting topic, as books are one cookbook to show why matter matters while of the most important aspects in educating one's preparing food? This provided the perfect challenge own mind, aiding the growth of knowledge. We on how to represent the value of matter while read books almost every day and books contribute preparing food. heavily to one's own literacy. Their driving questions were: How can we tell stories while Grade 5: Passing The Torch keeping the audience engaged? How can we make At first, this topic is perplexing, but really it's a stories come to life? One of the major ideas these metaphor for communicating the fact that we have little masterminds have thought of is how knowledge that should be passed down to others storytelling is much more diverse than just reading who might not share the same privileges as the a story. They have described it as giving the students at our school. Grade 5 worked on methods audience’s mind a better understanding of what is to teach the underprivileged such as making lesson occurring and helping them grasp a visualization plans based on our curriculum. They created stalls of the scenario. showcasing their work through detailed presentations. Grade 3: Building a Sanctuary to Save the Endangered This wraps up all of the PYP presentations this This project is not only beneficial in terms of year. I hope you enjoyed reading what each scientific knowledge, but it's important for the presentation was about. The PYP students did an environment as it can conserve many endangered excellent job at executing their presentations and species. Many animals are on the brink of helping others learn about their topics! extinction due to human causes so it is an

TNS Go Green Plant Drive change, small actions to preserve our environment definitely make a difference if we all implement By Rania Asif, Aleen Hassan, Aleena Khan them in our lives. All members of the Go Green society were very pleased with the success of the On Thursday, the 14th of April 2022, the TNS Go plantation as well as the experience overall. But, Green Society went to the Botanical Gardens in this is just our first step toward reducing the Jallo Park in order to conduct a plant drive with impacts of climate change in our country. We look members of their society. In total, we planted 50 forward to the many collaborative and exciting trees with the help of the gardeners and our staff, activities that the TNS Go Green society will be and under the supervision of Ms. Faseeha Khawaja, conducting in the future to benefit our and Sir Nauman. Not only was this a fun environment! experience for the members of the society, it was also an educational one. As it is widely known, Batch of '22 University Placements trees are vital to vegetation on Earth as they are the main source of oxygen. Without trees, all life By Rukhe Zainab Rizvi would cease to exist. But, did you know that trees provide a range of other environmental services on After going through the process of diagnostics, Earth such as helping improve air quality, exams, projects, internships, TOK, EE, CAS and conserving water, preserving soil, and supporting college applications, the batch of 22 have grown to wildlife? become various individuals capable of setting The plant drive was a lot more successful than themselves in the right direction for the real world. anticipated, mostly thanks to our pre-planning. We We decided to interview some incredible students photographed many moments of us planting trees from DP2, Emaan Kasuri (EK), Shahmeer Khan (SK) alongside the staff at the gardens who were and Fajr Khan (FK), to inform us about their college extremely hospitable. We would like to thank Ms. application process and their DP experience. Faseeha and Sir Nauman for their wonderful company and chaperoning. We planted potted Tell us a bit about yourself and your background. plants in the ground, poured soil back over them, What subjects and areas of study interest you? What and watered them with the help of the staff at the hobbies do you engage in? plantation site. To end off this excellent experience, we explored the beautiful botanical gardens and EK - A DP2 student that has an interest in social particularly enjoyed exploring the fascinating and sciences. In the last few years I engaged in activities serene butterfly gardens related to arts. This trip made us reflect on both our future and SK - A DP2 student that has lived in 5 different the future of the Earth. I think it's safe to say that countries in Asia over a span of 14 years. I have growing up is a challenge for everyone. With always had an interest in economics due to the college applications coming closer, the stress various places I have lived in, how all their continues to grow but when my friend presented economics differ and develop over the years thus me with the opportunity to join the Go Green pushing him to study economics in DP. Society which would help the environment and additionally make my college applications FK - Joined TNS in 2020 for DP. Was born in stronger, I immediately jumped at the opportunity Pakistan and grew up in Amsterdam, Netherlands to join. Even though I might have started with from when I was 2 years old till 16 years old. My other academic intentions, over the course I began interests lie in health equity, gender equality, to appreciate the joy of giving back to the activism, creative writing, poetry, reading and environment and the importance of work the horseback riding. society is doing. How did you choose your DP subjects in regard to the Through this once-in-a-lifetime experience, I subject you planned to study in college? Were you realized how precious nature really is and how certain of your area of interest going into DP? crucial the preservation of our planet and its systems are. For humanity to thrive and survive, EK - Initially, I was clueless about what subjects to we must understand and be aware of the dawning pick as I had no idea what I wanted to do in the terror of climate change. Before this experience, I future. Despite this, I have always had an interest in had often thought: What's the point of going out and social sciences. planting one tree? What is that going to do? The truth is, that even the smallest action makes a SK - I was always certain on choosing economics as difference. When it comes to working towards a subject that I wanted to pursue in university. In order to keep my options open though, I kept a range of diverse subjects.

FK - I found it difficult choosing subjects due to Some of my other activities included being the availability in TNS. I planned to study Dutch Deputy Head Girl and Head Girl of TNS as well as Language and Literature and had studied Spanish being a member of the NY Academy of The sciences but now I had to adjust to studying French. I for another vaccine project. decided to take all the 3 sciences. My final subject list: Bio HL, Chemistry HL, English Language and Did you build your extracurricular and activities Literature HL, Math Analysis SL, Physics SL and profile in accordance with your area of interest for French Ab Initio. I had to take math analysis as a lot college? of universities in Netherlands did not recognize math analysis and it also looked challenging. I also EK - Yes, I focused my extracurriculars around recommend taking English Language and education and the arts. Literature as an HL subject as workload is not too much and it is an enjoyable subject. SK - Yes, the one activity was directly related to my major, economics, which was an internship at a Please describe some of the extracurriculars you microfinance bank. This allowed me to gain real-life participated in or led. What skills did you acquire experience on what I wanted to pursue. The other while doing so? activities I did that were related to my interests were hiking and an academic quiz team from his EK - My extracurriculars are focused around previous school. I believe it is really important to education and the arts. My art-related focus on physical activities as well. extracurriculars included hosting a curating an exhibition, co-founding Biscuit Digest (a magazine), FK - Yes, I did and they were primarily related to co-founding the TNS Art Society as well as health equity advocacy, gender equality and gender illustrating & distributing pamphlets to raise activism. awareness about Covid-19 in schools across Gujranwala and Lahore. My education-related How did you effectively balance academics and extracurriculars included two research internships, extracurriculars? How important is time- volunteering at government schools in Gujranwala management in the college application process? Did and working with SOS. you have an after-school routine/study schedule? SK - I organized a repainting and uplifting project EK - The most difficult part for college applications for a school in Sharakot slum. This included him for me was managing my extra curricular activities persuading a paint manufacturing company to with my academics. One thing I did to balance both fund it for their CSR program as well as getting was to work on each thing a little bit every day painters on board from Punjab University. In the (while also taking one full day a week to rest and process, I learnt how to be in charge, run a project not do anything at all). For example, for math, I and interact with different communities. Another would do past papers 2-3 times a week (each paper activity I engaged was teaching English to students was 1.5 hours long). This way, I wasn’t spending a at a local school which was a challenge to me as I huge chunk of my time on only one task, but was was not used to speaking in Urdu and it was still getting a lot done. important to do so for this activity. This activity helped me get out of my comfort zone and try new SK - By keeping an holistic approach, I was able to things. balance my extracurricular with my academics. Developing time management skills has not only FK - I co-founded Girl Up Pakistan with Anya Khan. helped me with the DP, college applications but is It is a part of the UN Girl Up campaign which also needed in other aspects of my life so I kept a focuses on achieving gender equality and gender specific strict routine and religiously followed my activism. Health equity advocacy is also something calendar. I am extremely passionate about and began campaigning for getting the covid-19 vaccines last FK - Time management was really difficult for me summer. I wrote a letter for the President of as it was everyone’s first time going through the Amsterdam regarding the lack of vaccines in process and everyone made mistakes. I decided to immigrant countries and after she replied back, focus a lot more on college applications and put a Fajr was directed to the Dutch Public Health lot of effort for giving the SAT but it was Department where she visited the headquarters particularly difficult for my batch as the SAT was and interned there as a vaccine ambassador. I continuously canceled. I think that dedication to the worked with the department and arranged a college application process is vital and you need to webinar with them for vaccine misinformation and be consistent with your studies and you should try was photographed for their billboard campaigns. using tools such as time tables and schedules. I

would organize my day by doing SAT prep for an Netherlands early as it increases your chances to hour and then doing biology and chemistry work. I get into these schools and helps get done with the also decided to use my summer to write my college process earlier. I only applied to 3 schools as I got essays as the process requires a lot of time and into Harvard early on and the other 2 universities critical thinking. were still waiting for interviews. I also applied for financial aid which also greatly affected my How did you develop your college list? Which factors applications as well. In total, I applied to 8-9 did you take into consideration and how did you universities. determine the best fits for you? What is some advice you’d like to give to students EK - Before creating my college list, I needed to who will be going through the application process in determine whether I wanted to apply to liberal arts the future? colleges or research universities. I decided that liberal arts colleges would be the ideal fit for me EK - Put mental health first as the college because of their small class sizes, holistic and application process is extremely stressful and it can interdisciplinary learning, student to teacher ratios, be easy to overburden yourself. and community-like feel. Then, I began creating my list by looking at different reach schools that I’d like SK - My first piece of advice is that if you're to attend. The majors offered and the location were applying to the US, you should apply in the Early two of the most important aspects I had to consider Decision/Action window because it prepares you when making my college list. I wanted to spend the and increases your chances of getting in. Secondly, next four years in a small college town with easy take the SAT as early as possible and avoid taking it access to a city, which is why my list included in DP2 as you will have a lot to worry about colleges such as Swarthmore and Wellesley. I also already. Lastly, never forget who you are as a took other factors into account, such as what the person. The universities you may or may not get communities are like, the visual arts resources into do not validate who you are. If you do not get available, and so on. After deciding on my reach into your dream university that does not mean you schools, I added some match and safety schools (I haven't accomplished anything. ended up with about 15 colleges on my list). FK - Don't just apply to 3-4 universities that you SK - I decided to keep a balance of safety, reach and might not get into, instead you should have a target schools on my college list since I think it is balance of colleges. You should also always have important to picture yourself in each school before back ups but make sure to not apply to too many putting it into the list as any of them could end up colleges as it can get very overwhelming. When being your final choice. applying for colleges, just think about what is best for you, and make sure you don't compare yourself. FK - I applied to universities in the US and Make your mental health a priority and talk to your teachers and coordinators.

Science and Technology Artificial Intelligence and Scientific molecule and target the properties needed. They would then go through iterative cycles of synthesis, Discovery characterization, and testing until they reach a satisfactory compound. Even with supercomputers at By Sabaoon Huma their disposal, the process is long and hard, not least because of the large number of chemical compounds 'The urgency of science has never been greater,” to consider. according to Dario Gil, director of IBM Research. Gil was referring to the race to develop a vaccine for Accelerated discovery has cut that process to more Covid-19, but this urgency is not going anywhere, like one year and $1 million. The accelerated considering problems such as climate change, future discovery workflow has four stages. First, an AI pandemics, food shortages, and energy security. called Deep Search “reads” all the existing scientific What is needed to solve these problems, is the literature about PAGs. Using Deep Search typically acceleration of the rate of discovery. The solution speeds up the process by a thousand times, as the AI will lie in a combination of artificial intelligence can ingest and process about 20 pages per second, (AI), quantum computing, high-performance per processing core. Human readers of technical computing (HPC), and hybrid cloud technologies. literature, on the other hand, typically need between Using these technologies, we can effectively change one and two minutes per page. The second step is to the process of how we operate discovery. We can enrich the data with AI-powered simulations. accelerate and supercharge the traditional scientific Another AI simulates the experimental parameters of method. Gil’s example was material science, which the known PAGs, 2-40x faster than for regular has relied on serendipity throughout history. Think simulations. For some properties, the available data of Teflon, when searching for a new refrigerant. was so scattered or noisy, and unreliable that it was Vaseline and Graphene were similar surprises. almost useless. This information is fed into the third When not discovered by accident, useful new type of AI, called a generative model. Generative AIs materials have typically been discovered by trial are used today to generate fake profile images for and error, which is extremely expensive and can social media profiles, long essay texts take years, even with the latest HPC-based modeling indistinguishable from human-written prose, and simulation of complex molecules. computer code, and now molecules. The final step in the process is to test the results in an AI-driven lab, This is where AI comes in. AI is enabling which according to Gil, achieves the synthesis a unprecedented levels of speed and automation at a hundred times faster than traditional methods. There large scale, helping us solve more complex is some human involvement at this stage; an expert problems. It is AI that can help us usher in this new selects the best candidates for experimental era of accelerated discovery. It can help us validation, though the chemical synthesis which supercharge the scientific method to turn it from a produces real-life chemicals is done by machines. At linear process into a closed loop. In this closed loop, IBM’s RoboRXN laboratory in Zurich, an incredible Gil envisions the use of AI to refine the existing combination of AI, automation, and cloud knowledge base. This information is fed to a technologies has learned synthetic organic chemistry generative AI model, which can suggest candidates and can apply it remotely with robots. IBM for new molecules that fill the gaps. Then, AI- discovered its first new PAG material using this powered robots can generate the candidate accelerated discovery molecules, based on data and examples of past process in November. chemical reactions. Gil called this loop “accelerated discovery,” and stressed that this is not in the The new material brings with it the promise of a distant future, this is something that is most world of many, many more accelerated discoveries to definitely happening now. PAG discovery is an come. As well as solving human problems like additional example based on the accelerated pandemics and climate change, IBM’s vision is that discovery of a more sustainable photoresist accelerated discovery will define the most innovative material. Photoresists are vital to the semiconductor businesses of tomorrow. Companies whose core manufacturing process; chemically amplified business is scientific discovery will benefit, including photoresists use chemicals called photoacid life sciences, chemicals, and materials companies. generators (PAGs). Using the traditional process, Another huge share of today’s big businesses relies discovering a new PAG would likely take 10 years on scientific discovery, including automakers, and cost at least $10 million. Scientists would search technology companies, healthcare, and utilities. published literature and use what they could find, Many more are driven by information and discovery, along with their existing knowledge, to design a

that is, they gain a competitive advantage using data benzylpenicillin acid). Due to this discovery, experimentation and learning. They will seek the Fleming and his colleagues won the Nobel Prize in platforms, tools and technologies that will allow 1945. them to accelerate the discovery process that gives them their competitive advantage. The impact of this development on the war effort was astounding as governments were able to However, all of this requires a serious investment in recognize how revolutionary penicillin was at that science. The Covid-19 vaccine was developed in 14 time. In fact, 10 days after the attack on Pearl months. If discovery had proceeded the traditional Harbor, producing penicillin became the military's way, the vaccine would not have become available top priority, second to only the Manhattan Project. until 2033. To address the biggest challenges, we Pharmaceutical companies began increasing need to discover faster. We need to unleash the production using a process called deep-tank power of accelerated discovery and we need to do it fermentation to extract the compound from fungi. It with purpose, not just digital innovations for digital is estimated that around 100,000 men benefited products and services, but also by directing our from the drug in the European theater of the war digital prowess to improve our physical world. from D-day to the German surrender in 1945. The Discovery of Penicillin How Has the Invention of the Telephone Changed Our Lives? By Shahmir Jamal By Ayla Danish Prior to World War 2, even the smallest scratch or a blister could kill you, as could almost any bacterial A telephone is a system used for transmitting voices infection. This led to life expectancies being very over a distance through the use of wire or radio. It low, around 47 years old. This would change when converts acoustic vibrations into electrical signals. around 100 years ago, one of the most profound and The telephone has made it possible for one person to important medical discoveries took place when talk to another while sitting miles away. The Scottish physician Sir Alexander Fleming, who was telephone has also made it possible for people to investigating the properties of infectious bacteria, communicate with each other in a more efficient stumbled upon the life-saving drug, Pencillin while manner. This type of technology has made many investigating a petri dish that was accidentally left lives easier, especially for businessmen and women. out of the incubator. Fleming realized that there was an area completely devoid of bacteria inside the Let’s look at it nowadays. As a consequence of the petri dish in an area around a colony of mold - a Coronavirus, nobody was allowed to leave their connection that would later lead to a life-saving houses for a year. Some went bankrupt, but others medication. survived and prospered as a result of this technology. This invention has made an incredible Penicillin comes from the word Penicillium, the impact on society. This impact is clearly evident name of the genus from which the host fungi when observing the speed of communication. originates, and its main use was to protect the host However, this technology also has its downsides. mold from incoming bacterial threats that could consume its resources or directly hard the mold With the new technology, people were able to itself. Penicillin functions by releasing a compound communicate very easily and quickly. This new that disrupts cell wall synthesis in most types of technology has not only changed how individuals bacteria. Bacterial cell walls are made of a layer of speak as a whole, but how people talk to each other. lipids that are constantly under pressure due to This technology has created an informal way of surrounding water flowing in (due to osmosis). communicating but also, created an opportunity for Bacterial cells then create a mesh-like layer above it more conversations to occur. Earlier, there was a to withstand this pressure. Penicillin disrupts the house landline that you could not do much on except production of this layer, leading to the eventual death of the bacterial cell. As I mentioned prior, up until World War 2 contracting virtually any bacterial infection would lead to a person's eventual death, especially on the battlefield, where wounds were susceptible to infection. Fleming's discovery changed this outlook entirely, as, after a decade of cooperation between scientists, they were able to isolate the main

call someone, which came at a price. But now numerous ways in which the telephone makes life technology is more advanced, and there are newer easier such as while driving a car, you can call a models of phones such as the iPhone, Samsung, and person and talk to them instead of messaging them. Android. Via these devices, we have access to You are able to organize different things, you can various apps with different features. We use these create many memories with people and save them, apps in our everyday life. These apps include you can make online transactions through bank apps Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, and Twitter. These or websites, and you can even shop online. There are are just some social media examples. To many helpful applications that have been developed communicate we use Whatsapp, messages, and as a result of this invention, which even have the facetime. We are also able to download games such power to monitor heartbeat, blood pressure, and as Temple Run and Subway Surfers. sugar. They can also monitor how many steps you have taken in one day or how many calories you According to the World Bank, three-quarters of have burnt. Instead of sending emails or letters, you people all around the globe have access to a mobile can simply call people and talk to them with one phone. Whether it’s a Nokia, a Samsung, or an click. iPhone; everyone is carrying a phone. Through the use of this technology, everyone is aware of what is In conclusion, this telephone has made a big happening in their society and what is happening difference in our lives. It has opened new and related to their local governance. There are improved ways of communication and efficiency worldwide.

Sports Boys In Green Limited Over Achievements: In T20I cricket, the Pakistani team had an By Mujtaba Qureshi unforgettable season, breaking a number of major performance and personal records. Additionally, Throughout the years, the Pakistan Cricket team has the squad played six one-day internationals (ODIs) captivated the hearts of millions of cricket fans with during the calendar year, including a three-match outstanding performances in both red-ball and series against England and a three-match series white-ball cricket. Pakistan was one of the best- against South Africa. They won their second-ever performing teams in world cricket in 2021, breaking series against the South Africans in the rainbow numerous records. The squad competed admirably nation, despite being whitewashed by England in Test and T20I cricket, but only participated in six inthe ODI series. Pakistan also performed One-Day International matches throughout the excellently in the 2021 T20 World Cup. In their first calendar year. The Pakistani team toured England, encounter, they defeated arch-rivals India by 10 the West Indies, South Africa, Zimbabwe, and wickets, setting the tone for the championship. This Bangladesh and played home series against South was Pakistan's first World Cup triumph over India, Africa and the West Indies. The boys in green also as well as Pakistan's first 10-wicket victory and competed in the 2021 T20 World Cup, where they India's first 10-wicket loss in a T20I. blew away the competition at every turn before losing in the semi-finals to the eventual champions, ODI & T20I Achievements: Australia. Let's take a glance at the Pakistan Cricket 1. They won 20 out of 29 T20I matches, making Team's accomplishments in 2021 under one of the them the team with the most T20I victories in 2021. most loved captains, Babar Azam. 2. The first team to win 20 T20I matches in a calendar year. Test Achievements 3. Whitewashed Bangladesh and West Indies in In test cricket, Pakistan had quite a tremendous their T20I series. season. They played nine matches altogether, two at 4. Won the ODI series against South Africa in South home against South Africa and seven on the road Africa, their second win in history. against New Zealand, the West Indies, Zimbabwe, 5. Beat India for the first time in a world cup. and Bangladesh. Pakistan won 7 of their 9 Test 6. Registered 10-wicket victory over India, first 10- matches in the calendar year, losing only one to New wicket win for Pakistan and first 10-wicket defeat Zealand and one to the West Indies in an otherwise for India in T20Is. outstanding test cricket season. These are some of 7. Rizwan became the first batter to score 2,000 T20 the team’s main highlights of the 2021 test season: runs in a year. 1. Highest win percentage in test cricket in 2021 8. Rizwan and Babar finished as the global highest 2. Whitewashed (winning all matches in a series) and second-highest run-scorers in T20s and T20Is. South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Bangladesh. 9. Rizwan and Babar put on 6-century partnerships 3. Shaheen Shah Afridi (47) and Hasan Ali (41) took in T20Is, which was the greatest amount of the second and third- highest number of wickets in partnerships globally. test cricket in 2021. 10. Rizwan and Babar put on 4 150+ run 4. Shaheen ranked as the number 4 best bowler in partnerships in T20Is, which was the greatest the world for test cricket in 2021. amount of partnerships globally. 6. Babar Azam was the fifth best batsmen in 2021 in 11. Babar Azam ranked as the number one batsmen the world for test cricket in 2021. in both ODIs and T20Is. 12. Rizwan took 22 catches in T20Is, which was the most catches by a keeper in the world. 13. Babar took 16 catches in T20Is, which was the most catches by a fielder in the world. 14. Pakistan scored a total of 4,020 runs in T20Is, which was the greatest amount of runs in the world. 15. Struck 347 boundaries, which was the greatest amount of boundaries scored in the world/

Women's Sports in Pakistan TNS Beaconhouse is proud to have one of its sports faculty members, Ms. Maryam Butt as a member of By Yahyaa Khan that team. We hope that the students at TNS will be inspired by women like Ms. Maryam to pursue Female Pakistani athletes did not have it easy sports like baseball at international levels and learn entering the male dominated sports industry of more about the sport from her. The Pakistani Pakistan, no matter the sport. Female athletes have Women’s Baseball team ranks 12th in the world had to work much harder than their male with 100 points and have surpassed the men's counterparts to get the same attention and baseball team’s ranking of 26 with 299 points. With opportunities as them. Cricket, although being the a rank of number 5 in Asia, the Women's Baseball most popular sport in Pakistan, had no female team does not get the attention it deserves. There involvement until 1997. After facing a lot of are little to no facilities in Pakistan to play baseball. religious and societal opposition, the Pakistan Women's Cricket team was formed in 1997. For the On the other hand, lower ranked countries such as first few years the team toured various cricketing India provide a lot more opportunities to aspiring countries such as New Zealand, Australia, India, Sri players which result in a large pool of players. Lanka and Ireland but was unable to win any Imagine what a team Pakistan could produce if matches. The team was finally able to break their proper opportunities and facilities were provided loosing streak in their first match against the to athletes for training. Although the first captain Netherlands in 2000. and founder of our women’s cricket team, Shazia Khan's dream of a female cricket team came true Female Pakistani athletes did not have it easy over 2 decades ago, our sports board needs to entering the male dominated sports industry of provide more training opportunities to young girls Pakistan, no matter the sport. They have had to who are passionate about pursuing sports. work much harder than their male counterparts to Women's sports have come a long way in the 21st get the same attention and opportunities as them. century and female athletes are being socially Cricket, although being the most popular sport in accepted and encouraged in the media as well. But, Pakistan, had no female involvement until 1997. female athletes should be trained equally as well as male athletes and should be provided with the After facing a lot of religious and societal same opportunities as male athletes. The women's opposition, the Pakistan Women's Cricket team was cricket coach Shahid Mehmood who himself has formed in 1997. For the first few years the team played cricket internationally has a dream for his toured various cricketing countries such as New daughter to play cricket for Pakistan one day. Let's Zealand, Australia, India, Sri Lanka and Ireland but hope more girls can have the opportunities to play was unable to win any matches. The team was and excel in these sports and bring glory to their finally able to break their loosing streak in their country. first match against the Netherlands in 2000. Four Cricket World Cups later, the Pakistani Women's Pakistani Sport Heroes Cricket team is finally winning against competitive teams such as Bangladesh, Zimbabwe and New By Naayl Sharjeel Zealand in the World Cup qualifiers and warm-up matches. Since 2018, the Pakistani Women's Cricket There are many great sportsmen in Pakistan, but team has played 150 ODI matches against 13 teams. there are some legends with qualities that simply The team has been able to win 44 of the 150 cannot be surpassed. I will be discussing the top matches which is a great achievement considering three sporting legends of Pakistan who have played the initial lack of opportunities and training different sports which go to show how much talent provided to them. It is only recently that female our country actually has, and not just in one sport, cricketers have started receiving better but in many sports. remuneration and greater recognition locally and internationally. Baseball on the other hand, is a fairly new sport for both males and females in Pakistan. The men’s baseball team made their debut at the Asian Tournament in 2003. In 2016, the women's baseball team made their debut in South Korea, finishing 7th overall. The latest international baseball tournament that Pakistan played was against Malaysia where Pakistan won 3-0 in a 3 day fixture organized by the Pakistan Baseball Federation.

The first is Imran Khan, a recent ex – prime streak, it is incomparable. The legacy he left behind minister of Pakistan and one of the best bowlers. As him will be remembered for all times to come. a bowler, he took 362 wickets in Test cricket only, and a total of almost 500 wickets, which is The last, but certainly not least, is the famous hockey extremely impressive. He is actually the first player, Sohail Abbas. Pakistan has excelled in hockey Pakistani and world’s fourth bowler to do so. Imran due to Sohail Abbas’ performances and legacy. Sohail Khan was the only captain who led Pakistan to an Abbas is a former professional field hockey player outstanding world cup victory in 1992 and the fame who played as a full-back. Regarded as one of the led him to becoming a global superstar. This makes greatest players of all time, he is the highest goal him one of cricket's greatest players from Pakistan scorer in international field hockey with 348 and arguably one of the best cricket players international goals. Sohail Abbas started his globally. His greatest achievements include being professional career in Pakistan and played the 3rd best bowler in test cricket of all time along professional hockey in Malaysia, Netherlands, with putting Pakistan on the world map with their Germany and India in his career most notably for 1992 world cup victory. Today, he is literally Dutch side HC Rotterdam. After representing synonymous with the word “cricket”, and that is Pakistan at junior levels, Abbas made his what makes him a true legend. international debut in the Test series against India in February 1998. He scored his first senior The second legend, an extraordinary man, named international goal in the second match of the series Jahangir Khan. He is a former #1 squash player in in a 2–1 win. Abbas has 315 caps for Pakistan, in the world. He won the World Open six times, which he scored 348 goals including 21 hat-tricks among them five consecutive titles, and the British which is an international record. He has represented Open 10 consecutive times. He entered the World Pakistan at the 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2010 FIH Hockey Amateur Individual Championship at the age of 15 World Cups and the 2000, 2004 and 2012 Summer and become the youngest ever winner of that Olympics being the top scorer for Pakistan at both event. He was also the winner of the 8th Asian the World Cups and Olympics. This list of Award for Outstanding Achievement in Sport. This achievements is not only incredible, but unmatched legend not only conquered the world but then held worldwide. Sohail Abbas deserves to be hailed! on to his empire for an unprecedented five years and eight months, during which he won 555 These legends have exquisite talent and skill which consecutive matches without a single defeat. This goes to show that if you put in a lot of hard work and unbelievable record is one of the hardest records in determination you can accomplish anything. These the world to break, no one has even gotten close to legends have dedicated their entire lives to beating this record in any type of sport. To give you representing our country globally and have made us an example, the longest tennis winning streak is 46. all proud of what they have achieved. If you compare this to Jahangir Khan’s 555 squash


Credits -Editors in Chief- Anum Azhar Manahil Fatima Sereen Yusuf -Executive Directors- Emaan Shams Kabir Khan Salena Akbar

-Creative Team- Amaan Ahmad Sabrina Qureshi Aswah Ali Harris Qazaffi -Marketing Team- Asma Abid Ayaan Zaidi Zara Ahad Zara Azam

-Sub-Editors- Anya Kasuri Momina Rizvi Sophiya Iftikhar Shehrezade Naveed Amal Mahmud Alisha Amjad

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