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Home Explore 2018 Forklift Manual-V9918

2018 Forklift Manual-V9918

Published by steve drake, 2019-06-06 11:26:11

Description: 2018 Forklift Manual-V9918


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Forklift & Electric Pallet Jack Operator Training Safety Manual OSHA Powered Industrial Truck Training Program Copyright 2005 - 2019 Forklift University, Inc. FU9.9.18

Table of Contents Forklift Operator Training Guide Chapter 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OSHA Accident Summaries OSHA Overview Company Policies Types of Lifts Chapter 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Forklifts and Cars, Similar and different Data Plates Attachments Pre-Shift Inspections Safety Equipment Tire Safety Chapter 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Driving Precautions Traveling Rules Ramps and Grades Pedestrians Aisles and Overheads Placing Loads in Racks and Bins Chapter 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Forklift and Pallet Jack Stability The Center of Gravity The Load Center Indoor and Outdoor Surfaces Cold Storage Safety Chapter 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Trucks, Trailers and Loading Docks Parking Safety and Rules Fueling Overview Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Overview of Site Requirements Overview of Employer Responsibilities Driver Site & Equipment Evaluation Form 2

Forklift Operator Training Guide Chapter 1 OSHA Accident Summaries OSHA Overview Company Policies Types of Lifts Forklifts have become commonplace in the warehouse, construction, manufacturing, and many other industries from the one-man shop to the largest operation. It is all about moving materials, from one place to another quickly and efficiently. However, forklifts can also be a dangerous piece of equipment if it is not handled with care and respect. Because of this, OSHA (Occupational Safety & Health Administration) began to require forklift operators to be certified in 1998. The training process is outlined in the OSHA Regulations 1919.178 for powered industrial trucks (forklifts) however; basically anyone that operates a forklift must complete a formal training course as well as receive a practical evaluation on the equipment they will be operating at the site. This manual and the associated course satisfy the formal training course portion but it is only a single part of this requirement. Operators are encouraged to use the information and safety training presented here as well as site specific training and evaluations to ensure a safe and efficient working environment. 3

Forklift Operator Training Guide Accident Summaries Forklift Tip over: While an Employee was operating a forklift, the forklift tipped over while the operator was making a turn at excessive speed. No seat belt was installed and when the employee fell from the seat and the rollover bar crushed him. Forklift Tip over: The victim/operator drove a forklift down a ramp rapidly and appeared to be attempting to make a sharp left turn. The forklift overturned; apparently the employee was unaccustomed to the quickness and sharp turning radius of the forklift. The victim was not wearing the provided seatbelt. The operator was thrown from the seat and his head was caught under the overhead guard. He was crushed and killed in the accident. Person Falls while standing on a Pallet: The victim was found pinned between the mast and the frame of the forklift. Prior to the accident the forklift operator raised the person approximately 6 feet high while they were standing on a wooden pallet not secured to the frame of the forklift. The operator left the forklift unattended while the person was on the pallet pouring spice into a mixing tank. Fall from a Forklift Platform (Pallet): The employee was in the process of pulling orders from the top shelf of the storage racks in the warehouse area of the grocery store. He was on the raised forks on a wooden pallet, neither he nor the pallet were secured to the forks. The forklift operator was moving along the aisle next to the racks when he hit something with the tire next to the shelf and the forklift stopped suddenly. The employee on the pallet was standing on the front edge of the pallet facing towards the back of the lift. The sudden stop threw him and he fell to the concrete floor hitting his head. The pallet and most of the products remained on the forklift, but he victim died from head injuries. LAS VEGAS, NV: Man crushed under five-ton machine in Vegas industrial accident A 21-year-old forklift driver is dead after the five-ton machine tipped over and crushed him overnight. North Las Vegas police and OSHA are investigating how the accident happened at a lumberyard near I-215 and Range Road. Authorities say speed might've been a factor. It looks like the driver was turning the forklift with the lift raised, but not carrying anything, when it tipped. 4

Forklift Operator Training Guide Reported Loading Dock Accidents Due to the sensitive nature of these stories, the names of victims and companies have been removed Trailer Floor Failure: Cold weather, combined with the weight of a forklift and load caused the floor of this trailer to separate from the sides with the forklift still inside the trailer. The Dok-Lok restraint helped prevent the trailer from pushing away from the loading dock when the accident occurred. Landing Gear Collapse: The leg on the driver's side of the landing gear of a spotted trailer at a paper converting plant in Kentucky collapsed. The leg rolled inward, causing the trailer to tip sideways. The sides of the trailer buckled as shown in this photo. The vehicle restraint held the trailer, keeping it from toppling over into the trailer spotted at the dock position next to it Early Departure: While loading a trailer an employee was backing out of the trailer at the same time the truck driver began to pull away from the dock. As he pulled away from the dock, approximately 4 - 5 feet he heard someone screaming to stop. As depicted here, the forklift was wedged between the dock plate and the back of the trailer. The forklift driver unbuckled his seat belt and was able to jump off the forklift without injury, but he was very shaken up. Early Departure: A service crew employee was unloading a trailer containing roll banding materials. The employee had made a trip into the trailer and was beginning to enter the trailer again when the truck driver pulled away from the dock. The front wheels of the forklift were practically off of the dock and the employee had his foot firmly on the brake. When the forklift operator released his foot from the brake the forklift fell forward off of the dock landing on the mast as shown in this photo. The forklift operator was wearing his seat belt keeping him from being injured by being thrown into the mast or other support structure. 5

Forklift Operator Training Guide Early Departure: A truck driver pulled away from this facility in Tennessee, as the forklift driver was attempting to enter the trailer. The forklift driver, who had his seat belt on, was shaken up as the forklift drove off of the loading dock, but fortunately was not hurt. \"Dallas man dies in forklift accident\": A 25-year-old mad died Thursday night after a forklift fell on him at a Dallas company...He drove a forklift off of a loading dock at about 10:p.m. He was pronounced dead at the scene, officials say. \"Teen summer worker killed in forklift accident\": A teenager working a summer job was killed Thursday when he lost control of a forklift he was riding at a warehouse in College Park...The 16-year-old was standing on the machine when the forklift \"suddenly went backward, crashing open a closed loading bay door and dropped four feet to the ground. The victim fell off and the fork lift landed on top of him,\" said the Police Captain. Man killed in warehouse “forklift mishap\": A man...was killed when a forklift crashed on top of him at a warehouse, police said Wednesday. He was killed instantly. He rode the forklift off the loading dock bay and tried to jump from it as it was tilting. He landed on the ground and the forklift toppled on him, a truck driver who witnessed the accident told police. \"Team work saves life of factory employee\": As the forklift driver was loading the truck, its driver assumed the operation was complete, climbed into his cab and pulled away from the dock. As he did so, the forklift driver was backing out of the truck, police said. \"The whole forklift just dropped off the back and crushed the guy,\" the officer said. Rescuers were able to slide the victim out from under the forklift; allowing EMTs to start CPR and get him to the hospital...The man lived \"The Reporter\" (Montgomery, PA): A forklift operator injured a pedestrian in the warehouse. While driving with a load raised and without a spotter the operator ran into the worker and broke his leg. \"Rockford Register Star\": A woman was killed when the forklift she was driving fell nearly five feet from the edge of a loading dock. The woman died instantly after sustaining crushing chest injuries 6

Forklift Operator Training Guide \"Durant Daily Democrat\": A forklift operator was killed when the unit he was driving flipped on top of him. According to police and fire department reports, the operator was backing the forklift when its rear wheels went off of the dock, causing the unit to overturn. The victim was taken to a local hospital, where he died. \"Dayton man dies as result of accident at business\": A 47-year-old man was operating a tow motor lift in the bed of a semi-trailer...As the truck driver was pulling away from the dock, the tow motor unit fell from the trailer bed to the ground...The lift operator was able to get himself off the ground, and enter the facility, where he was treated by medical personnel. Approximately 16 hours later he died as a result of the injuries he suffered. OSHA report: A 67-year-old maintenance worker died from multiple crushing injuries received when he was pinned by a forklift that ran off a loading dock and overturned onto him...The worker was crushed beneath the forklift's overhead guard. \"Man killed in freak forklift accident\": A 37-year-old man died from multiple injuries Friday after he became trapped under a falling forklift when it fell off an elevated truck loading dock onto the cement below. He was pronounced dead on arrival, police said. \"Forklift falls on, kills worker\": A 47-year-old employee was killed yesterday when a forklift fell on top of him...He was operating the forklift around 3:30 p.m. when it plunged off a dock at the company...The forklift fell across the man's hips. Early Departure: A truck driver felt that he hadn't backed the trailer straight enough against the dock, so he decided to pull out and back in again. Unaware that the truck was already being unloaded, he pulled away from the dock. The forklift driver was just backing out of the trailer at the time. The forklift and driver fell off the trailer into the position shown in this picture. Thankfully, the forklift driver was not seriously injured. 7

Forklift Operator Training Guide National OSHA The Occupational Safety and Health Administration is an organization that is dedicated to a safe working environment. Forklifts, Forklift Safety and Forklift training or operator certifications are regulated under the OSHA Guideline 1910.178. But ASME standards, state OSHA regulations and company policy. With this training you will receive a copy of the OSHA guidelines for forklifts, this course is based on these guidelines. Regardless of guidelines, regulations or rules all operators should only perform forklift tasks in the safest manner and if they have any concerns about the task, the equipment or the working environment they should inform their supervisor immediately. Your state may have variations to the national guidelines, below are some for California, for your state please consult your local OSHA office. CalOSHA State Variations to National Guidelines: • Manlift baskets MUST have a 7’ protective screen between the person in the lift and the chains of the forklift. • Forklift Guidelines must be posted in the facility in a similar manner to hourly wage and human resources postings. The following states do not have any variance: Nevada, Texas, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Oklahoma Canada guidelines vary by Province For more information on OSHA, forklift safety, additional operator training, or your forklift license renewal please contact: Forklift University: National OSHA: Cal OSHA: 8

Forklift Operator Training Guide OSHA Requirements There are a total of 19 pages of the OSHA Guidelines for Powered Industrial Trucks. Below are only excerpts of the regulations, you should go to www.OSHA.Gov to get the full regulations. 9

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Forklift Operator Training Guide Company or Site Policies Many companies have special rules in addition to the OSHA guidelines, it is important to follow these rules as well as the OSHA rules when operating your forklift. You can also find rules and instructions on operating your forklift in the owner’s manual. Operator manuals are mandatory on each forklift. If this training is being done at your current job site please take the time to review some of your company rules, hazards and safety procedures related to forklift operations at your site. You can take notes on some of them below. Site Safety Items to remember: 1. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 3. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 5. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ With a new job, on your first day you should clarify your company policies with your supervisor. Even if you are already forklift certified, as a new employee you should be aware of the safety requirements of your employer as well as any job or facility hazards and the PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) requirements of the facility. Your employer must also perform an operator evaluation on the equipment you will be using at the facility. There is an operator authorization form at the end of this manual. . 17

Forklift Operator Training Guide Forklift Classifications: Overview of Equipment Class I Forklifts Class I Forklifts are electric motor rider trucks. These forklifts extract their power from an electric motor, and the operator is intended to ride along with the forklift while it operates. Several sub-types of Class I forklifts exist. Counterbalanced forklifts have a rear weight, which offsets the weight of their load to protect from overturning. These forklifts can be designed for the operator to sit or stand while they operate the machine. Electric motor forklifts also subdivide based upon their tire configurations; some have three tires, two in the front and one in the back, and others have cushion tires or pneumatic tires. Class II Forklifts Class II forklifts are electric motor trucks as well, but these electric motor forklifts are designed to fit in smaller spaces than Class I forklifts. Forklifts like these are also known as “narrow aisle” forklifts. These types of forklifts can come with a wide variety of features designed for different applications. For instance, some narrow aisle forklifts will come with a side-loader, meaning its teeth sit at a perpendicular angle to the forklifts front, while a reach-type outrigger can extend outwards from the machine. Class III Forklifts Class III forklifts are mostly hand trucks, although they sometimes have seats for the operator. However, most of these models are operated by a handle at their rear. Sometimes, though, this handle is located at the middle of the forklift. These are also commonly called pallet jacks. Class IV Forklifts Class IV forklifts are internal combustion engine trucks, so named for their propulsion system, which is an internal combustion engine just like those used in an automobile. These forklifts can come counterbalanced, and usually have sit-down operation consoles. Class V Forklifts Class V forklifts are also internal combustion trucks just like class IV, but they have pneumatic tires. Like class IV trucks, they are usually counterbalanced and have sit-down operator consoles. Class VI Forklifts Class VI forklifts are not actually forklifts, but tractors. They can use either internal combustion engines or electric motors. Class VII Forklifts Class VII forklifts are designed for use in rough terrain, such as construction sites or undeveloped natural terrain. This class covers a wide variety of forklift types, as long as they have the capability of navigating uneven ground. 18

Forklift Operator Training Guide Below are some more descriptions of forklift equipment; these are more common trade names rather than the OSHA classification. Sit Down Rider Internal Combustion Engine These are generally counterbalanced forklifts. The definition of counterbalanced is, weight added to the rear of the forklift to offset the weight of the load carried by the forklift. The type of tires can be cushion/solid or pneumatic/air filled. Gasoline, LPG, or diesel engines power these forklifts. This type of forklift is intended for use indoors and outdoors, on smooth floors and improved surfaces. These forklifts are front wheel drive and rear wheel steer. Sit Down Rider Electric These are generally counterbalanced forklifts. The definition of counterbalanced is, weight added to the rear of the forklift to offset the weight of the load carried by the forklift. Because of the extreme weight of industrial batteries, the battery is placed towards the rear of the forklift and used as the counterweight. The types of tires are typically cushion/solid, although some electric forklifts use pneumatic/air filled tires. Battery driven electric motors power these forklifts, these types of forklifts are intended for use predominately indoors and have limited outdoor applications, on smooth floors and improved surfaces. These forklifts are front wheel drive and rear wheel steer. Motorized Hand/Rider Pallet Jacks or Walkie Riders These pedestrian operated machines offer the option of walk behind or a stand up riding platform for operation. A control arm operates steering, braking, acceleration, lifting and lowering. A battery-powered electric driven motor operates the drive/steer tire and rotates, via the control arm, allowing for a 90-degree turn in either direction. They are intended for use on smooth, flat floors. 19

Walkie Stackers Forklift Operator Training Guide Walkie Stackers operate similar to motorized pallet jacks, steering, braking, acceleration, are on the control arm. These units have a mast like a forklift with lifting heights as high as 15 feet. Lift and tilt controls are generally located on the body of the unit. These units can be straddle or counterbalance design. Stand up Counter Balanced Electric These are generally counterbalanced forklifts. The definition of counterbalanced is, weight added to the rear of the forklift to offset the weight of the load carried by the forklift. Because of the extreme weight of industrial batteries, the battery is placed towards the rear of the forklift and used as the counterweight. The types of tires are typically cushion/solid, although some electric forklifts use pneumatic/air filled tires. Battery driven electric motors power these forklifts. These types of forklifts are intended for use predominately indoors and have limited outdoor applications, on smooth floors and improved surfaces. These forklifts are front wheel drive and rear wheel steer. Order Pickers This type of lift has a platform for the operator and the goods are packed on the pallet while the lift is raised. When using this type of lift, it is mandatory that the operator use approved fall prevention, which includes a full body harness. 20

Forklift Operator Training Guide Boom, Telehandler, Rough Terrain lifts Used mostly in construction sites, this forklift uses an arm to lift and extend the forks and load to the desired drop off point. These forklifts have additional indicators for arm angle and tilt. They typically use pneumatic tires and can steer in different modes. These lifts also use a stability triangle like warehouse lifts. Other Types of Lifts that require OSHA Training Aerial Lifts, such as scissor lifts, boom lifts and bucket trucks are pieces of equipment used at job sites you may work on. To operate these lifts you will need specific training and authorization from your company. Boom Lifts Boom lifts are aerial lifts that use a mechanical arm to lift people and materials safely to great heights. This type of lift uses a counter balance just like a forklift to keep it from tipping over. This lift can be used to work on lights, piping, painting a building and thousands of other functions that require precise lifting. Scissor Lifts A Scissor lift is designed to go straight up and right back down without the arm extension of an aerial boom lift. It is called a scissor lift because of the “scissor” type function that raises and lowers the operator platform. Both lifts may require a full body harness depending on company policy and usage. 21

Forklift Operator Training Guide Chapter 2 Forklifts vs Automobile Data Plates Attachments Pre-Shift Inspections Safety Equipment Tire Safety Driving a forklift requires an understanding of the important parts of the lift, not just getting in the seat and driving. This chapter will review similarities and differences between forklifts and automobiles, the data plate which is a vital part of the lift, as well as how to do a pre-shift inspection and identify safety items that could present safety hazards while using the lift. 22

Forklift Operator Training Guide Forklift vs Car Similar but VERY Different There are many differences between a forklift and an automobile. Although many forklifts appear to be similar to autos in the way they are driven, the characteristics of a forklift are far different. Here is a list of the similarities and differences. Similarities • Steering wheels, Seats, Seat belts • Acceleration and Brake pedals· Wheels and tires • Engines (Internal combustion forklifts)· Horns • Foot Break, Gas peddle and Parking brakes • Head lights, tail lights and turn signals (optional on some forklifts) Differences • Forklifts steer with their rear wheels • Forklifts are typically much heavier than an automobile; a five thousand pound capacity forklift can weigh as much as ten thousand pounds without a load. • The center of gravity is much higher on a forklift and moves as you pick up a load, making it much easier to tip over. • Four wheel-counterbalanced forklifts have only three points of stability. • The majority of forklifts do not have springs or shock absorbers. • Counterbalanced forklifts carry their load outside the wheel base • Forklifts turn much sharper than automobiles. • Forklifts are designed to travel equally, both backwards and forward. • Forklifts are counterweighted to offset the load they carry. • Forklifts have a lifting mast and can raise their load. • Stand up type forklifts have very little similarities with an automobile. • Forklift can add attachments to change operational functions 23

Forklift Operator Training Guide Attachments There are many different types of attachments used on forklifts. Most common are side shifters, carton clamps, carpet poles and fork extensions. It is important that an operator be trained for the specific use of the attachment they will be operating, and when using an attachment for the first time, be sure a supervisor instructs them first. Attachments go on the mast with and sometimes in place of the forks. By adding an attachment to the mast, you add weight to the front of the forklift from the attachment and this reduces your lifting capacity by the weight of the attachment. Many attachments are longer than the standard 24” load center and this can reduce the capacity as well. It is very important that when there is an attachment used on your forklift, it is listed on the data plate and any reduction in capacity be noted. 24

Forklift Operator Training Guide Forklift Data Plate The data plate on each forklift contains all the basic capabilities and limitations of that forklift. Review the information found on each of the forklift data plates at your facility. The important parts of the data plate you should make sure you are familiar with on the equipment you are driving are: • The model and Serial numbers • The type of truck • The Attachments should be listed • The capacity rating or total amount this forklift can lift. • The load center or center of the load • The lifting height of the mast • The overall forklift weight • The battery weight if it is an electric forklift Of course all forklift manufacturers make their data plates differently. They will all have the same basic information on them. As an operator it is very important to understand all the information given on the data plate. A data plate must have all the proper information listed. It must be legible and not painted over or removed. Note that any attachments or mast change added after the purchase of the forklift are, in fact, listed on the data plate. If your forklift data plate is missing, illegible or does not have the proper information on it, report it to your supervisor immediately. 25

Forklift Operator Training Guide Maintenance and Inspections Frequent and thorough inspections will help keep forklifts in safe and efficient operating condition. They will also help prevent breakdowns and costly delays. Operators must carefully inspect any forklift prior to use. This inspection may be visual or written but it is mandatory. Refer to your company policy for specific inspection rules at your location. In addition, a good operator will inspect their lift after their shift as well. For facilities that run in 24 hour shifts an inspection at the end of their shift is required. If they notice any problem during the shift, they must be sure to report it. The Inspection Sheet provides a convenient reminder of items that must be checked. It also provides the necessary information for scheduling maintenance. You must not assume everything is okay. You must check the forklift before you operate it and you should mark down any needed work but Operators are to make no repairs or changes unless authorized! Any malfunction must be reported to a supervisor and/or the maintenance department. Never leave an unsafe vehicle for the next driver. Some things like low oil or water, or a frayed fan belt may not be immediately hazardous, but they may cause real trouble if not corrected. If brakes, steering or hoist mechanisms are defective, a serious accident is more likely to occur. If any part of the forklift suddenly overheats or gives off any sparks or flames, it must be removed from service. If the vehicle is in need of repair and not operational, the vehicle should be taken out of service, tag it out! 26

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Forklift Operator Training Guide Forklift Safety Equipment Overview The safety equipment on the forklift is designed to protect the operator from danger while performing designated job duties. Some of the equipment also provides warnings to other individuals in the area that there are potential hazards. This equipment is to be checked as a part of the inspection process and must be maintained in good working condition at all times. Note: Your forklift may not be equipped with all of the safety devices mentioned below, but what you do have must be maintained. The available safety equipment must be used at all times when operating a forklift. If any safety equipment is damaged or inoperable the forklift must be taken out of service. Disconnecting or altering your available safety equipment may result in an OSHA fine. Occupant Restraints The occupant restraints are designed to keep the operator in the seat and to help prevent any injuries that could result if a mishap occurs. You must wear the safety belt whenever you are operating the forklift. Flashing Lights Flashing lights or strobes are optional equipment on a forklift. They are designed to alert anyone around of the forklift's presence. If the forklift has flashing lights, these must be kept in good working order. Horn All forklifts must be equipped with a working horn. The horn is used as a warning device. The operator of a forklift must know where to locate the horn. They must test it to see if it is in good working condition before putting the forklift into operation. 28

Forklift Operator Training Guide Overhead Guard The overhead guard is standard equipment from the manufacturer and must be included on the forklift. The overhead guard is not meant for roll over protection it is only intended to offer protection from the impact of small packages, boxes, and bagged material representative of the job application. The guard will not withstand the impact of a falling capacity load. Backup Alarm The alarm is designed as a warning signal that the forklift is moving in reverse. This is to alert other forklift drivers as well as pedestrians of a potential hazard. This alarm does not relieve the forklift driver of the responsibility of looking in the direction of travel when backing. If your forklift is equipped with a backup alarm, it must be kept in operable condition. Parking Brake The parking brake is a safety device used to prevent the forklift from moving. It should be used whenever the operator leaves the vehicle. Personal Protective Equipment OSHA 1910.132 The employer shall assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitates the use of personal protective equipment. Most employers will provide PPE’s for their employees; find out what your employer provides and what is your responsibility. Examples of protective equipment that might be required are safety glasses, respirator, hardhat, etc? 29

Forklift Operator Training Guide Tires Cushion and Pneumatic Tires are the most common type of tire used on forklifts; the cushion tire is made of solid rubber and designed primarily for indoor use on smooth surfaces. The Pneumatic tire is an air filled tire and designed for better traction on outdoor or rough surfaces. There are pneumatic tires that are filled with foam or even solid and designed to resist punctures. When inspecting any tire, check for cracks, deep cuts, punctures and excessive wear. And if it is air filled make sure the pressure is correct to maintain proper stability. You should make sure that no lug nuts are missing and that the wear is not below the wear indicator for the tire. Unsafe tires are a common reason for preventable forklift accidents. Slick tires can be difficult to recognize when they are ready to be replaced since there is no tread like a car tire, however, when the rubber is worn down to the lettering this can be used as your wear indicator and new tires should be put on the lift for proper safety. Worn tires can also cause the base of the mast to hit the ground when traveling over uneven surfaces causing the lift to stop abruptly or get stuck while traveling. 30

Forklift Operator Training Guide Chapter 3 Driving Precautions Traveling Rules Ramps and Grades Pedestrians Aisles and Overheads Placing Loads in Racks and Bins Once you understand the basic components of the lift you will need to understand the “rules of the road” for operating a forklift. In this chapter we review safety rules, loading and unloading loads, and safety rules when working around pedestrians. Forklifts seem to operate in a similar manner to automobiles, but driving on ramps, grades and in narrow aisles require additional training and safety precautions. 31

Forklift Operator Training Guide Driving Precautions • Be alert and look in the direction of travel. • Be sure you have plenty of operating room so you don't have to make panic stops or sudden turns. • If the load obstructs your view, travel backwards. • Take it easy on turns and stops. The centrifugal force may move the center of gravity outside the stability triangle and cause the forklift to tip or the load to shift. • Horseplay and stunt driving such as deliberately bumping or scaring someone by coming too close or using the forks for an unauthorized purpose are prohibited. • Operators must wear seat belts at all times when operating a forklift. In the event of a tip over operators must stay in their seat and brace them selves, lean in the opposite direction of the fall, staying within the confines of the overhead guard. • The operator must keep arms, hands and feet inside the forklift and away from the hoist mechanism. • Never use your forklift to push or tow. • Always approach your drop off spot slowly • Make slow turns and brake smoothly • Watch the swing of the forklift • It is good practice to look all around the forklift before moving it in any direction. • You should never operate your forklift with wet or greasy hands, and shoes should be dry also. • Electric pallet jacks and walkie stackers should be careful around pedestrians’ feet. This is the most common accident of these lifts. Stay in seat accident video 32

Forklift Operator Training Guide Traveling Rules • Do not pass other forklifts traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots, or other dangerous locations. • Slow down on wet and slippery surfaces and avoid running over objects in the operating area. • If there are things in your path take the time to get out and pick them up. • Slow down and sound the horn at cross aisles and other locations where vision is obstructed. • If the load being carried obstructs the forward view (loads higher than the steering wheel), the driver must travel with the load trailing behind. • Never travel with the load in a raised position. • Operate your lift at a walking speed, about 5-6 MPH. • Keep about 3 forklift lengths behind other forklifts. • Always allow ample time and space for safe stopping. • Do not pass in blind spots or other dangerous areas. • Emergency vehicles have the right of way. • Forks must be low as possible when traveling except when entering or leaving a ramp. On those occasions, raise the fork only enough to be sure you have clearance. • Whether your forklift is loaded or empty, always raise or lower the forks to not more than 6 inches from the floor before traveling. • Electric Pallet Jacks should be driven with the load behind. Operators should walk to the side of the pallet jack handle while traveling. 33

Forklift Operator Training Guide Ramp Safety Ramps require special driving care. Not only is the load and forklift more likely to be less stable, but also the stopping distance is increased. • Drive slowly down ramps and inclines and allow an extra margin of stopping distance. Be sure that the load does not tip and fall. • On ramps, you should drive loaded forklifts with the load upgrade. This means that you drive a loaded forklift forward up a ramp and in reverse down a ramp. • You should avoid turning on ramps. Drive straight up and straight down. • If driving backwards because of a large load with poor forward visibility, it is still important to keep the load upgrade on a ramp. A spotter will be required when traveling up a ramp because of your lack of visibility. • Electric and Manual Pallet jacks should travel on ramps in the opposite direction. This means that the load should be downhill with the operator above the load while going up or down a ramp. This will prevent the load from falling on the operator in the event of a tip over. Turning on a Grade • Generally you should not turn the forklift when on a grade. However, if you must turn on a slight grade you can do it if you go slowly and use caution. Turning on a grade can cause the center of gravity to move out of the stability triangle and the forklift will tip over. Always slow down when making a turn, even with an empty forklift. 34

Forklift Operator Training Guide Rules for Operators Over one third of all forklift accidents involve pedestrians. The following suggestions may help you in setting up company policies regarding pedestrians. • Never permit anyone to walk or stand under forks or elevated loads. • No riders are allowed. • People should not be lifted on the forks or pallets. To lift someone, they must be in an approved man lift basket, wear a full body harness, not move the lift while the person is in the basket and the operator must stay in the operators seat while they are raised. • Do not drive up to anyone standing in front of a bench or other fixed object. Pedestrians always have the right of way! Aisles must be kept as clear as possible and loads must not be deposited in them except for transfer to production or other areas. Aisles are not meant to be storage areas. Narrow aisles are generally defined as aisles that are 9' or less in width. The close environment of a narrow aisle increases the possibility of injury to forklift operators, pedestrians, and damage to pallet racks, product, and the facility. The following are some of the common hazards in a narrow aisle. • Keep pedestrians out of these aisles while a forklift is operating. • Visibility is limited when entering or exiting a narrow aisle. Always slow down, use your horn, and proceed with caution. • Stacking product in the aisles can reduce access to important safety equipment such as fire extinguishers, hoses, and emergency exits. • Product extending into the aisle will further reduce the aisle size, making safe operation difficult. • Limited space in narrow aisles restricts the maneuverability of the forklifts. Use Narrow Aisle Forklifts when possible. • Be cautious of the forklifts rear end swing when entering, exiting or placing loads. • Be cautious not to knock other loads into the next aisle, possibly injuring another operators or pedestrian. 35

Forklift Operator Training Guide Rules for Pedestrians Pedestrians, who have any contact with forklifts at all, no matter how often, should know and understand forklift operations. They should be familiar with the usual tasks that are performed on a daily basis. Pedestrians should also understand the company rules for walking within the forklift area and adhering to warning devices. This information should be published and made available to all employees. Blue light safety is becoming commonplace, use and be aware of the blue light if your facility uses one. • Hitching rides is not allowed. • Never stand or pass under the elevated portions of the forklift, whether it is loaded or unloaded. • Do not interfere with an operator who operating a forklift. • Be cautious of forklift rear end swing • Never assume that a forklift operator can see or hear you. Aisles Keep to the right in aisles, but don't get too close to people along or objects extending into aisles. Slow down, sound your horn, and proceed with caution at all blind intersections and make sure you have plenty of stopping distance. 36

Forklift Operator Training Guide Low Overheads Low overheads can be found in almost every facility. Hitting low overheads can cause serious injury to the operator as well as costly damage to the equipment, product and facility. Operators need to be made aware of any of these dangerous areas. These areas may need to be marked using signs, safety tape, or bright colored paint. Operators should take special care in scanning the load from front to back, many times the backrest is higher than the load and can strike overhead items like sprinklers or air ducts before the load. A list of common indoor obstructions follows: • Mechanical systems such as steam pipes and HVAC equipment • Sprinkler heads • Lighting and electrical conduit Ductwork • Overhead conveyors • Roof supports • Doorways • Bridge Cranes • Mezzanines • Trees • Building overhangs • Guide wires • Canopies • Power lines Power lines can be extra dangerous, contact can cause death! 37

Forklift Operator Training Guide Placing Loads in Racks and Bins Placing product in bins, racks, and on machines for production requires practice and an understanding of standard procedures. Operators may be working in narrow aisles and need to use 90-degree turns to operate in these tight spaces. To load pallets into racking you should follow these operational rules: • Line up with the drop off point • Make sure you don't hit racks or stock • Make sure the forklift is square to the bin • Completely stop before you raise the load. • You can use the gas pedal to increase the speed the load is raised • Make sure your foot is on the “inching pedal” also called the clutch brake to prevent the lift from moving as you press the gas. • Line the load up about 2-4 inches higher than the drop off point • When the load is at the correct height; o Inch forward until the load is about half way over the drop off o Tilt the mast forward till level o Continue forward until the load is in proper position • Lower the forks enough to release the pressure on the pallet and back the forklift until the forks are clear. • Honk, and begin to back up slowly • Look behind your lift and also back at the load to make sure you are released from the load and not going to pull it off the racks. • Once clear of the racks, lower the forks all the way before continuing. • NEVER TURN WHILE THE LOAD OR FORKS ARE RAISED • The same procedure is used in reverse sequence when picking up a load. • Always be aware of the position of your fork tips. • Be sure you have your forks under at least 2 thirds (2/3) of your load for stability. Full load is best! • Always inspect your pallets and remove damaged pallets from production. 38

Forklift Operator Training Guide Chapter 4 Forklift and Pallet Jack Stability The Center of Gravity The Load Center Indoors and Outdoors Surfaces Cold Storage Safety Understanding that a forklift can tip over much easier than a car is vital to the safe operation of the lift. In this chapter we discuss how the stability triangle affects how an operator can drive a lift. Also covered is how to work with loads, their capacity and what to do when you have loads that are not standard or are longer than normal. 39

Forklift Operator Training Guide Lateral and Dynamic Stability Lateral stability of a forklift can be effected by slope of the surface, the height of the load and the characteristics the load (weight, size and placement). The addition of Dynamic forces such as starting, stopping, turning, lifting and lowering, increases the possibility of pushing the center of gravity outside the stability triangle. Handling Loads • Never exceed the forklifts rated capacity. • Never add weight to the counter weight of the forklift. Overloading is unsafe because the load and the forklift are less stable. It causes increased maintenance or failure of vital forklift parts. • Carry the load centered, tilted back against the fork carriage. • Be sure you have clearance to move it safely through aisles and doors and under overhead obstructions, such as piping, sprinklers, and duct work. • Be cautious not to knock other loads into the next aisle, possibly injuring another operators or pedestrian. Handling Unsafe Loads The composition of the load should be such, that it can be handled safely while being carried on the forklift. Loose or unstable loads may fall and cause product damage or injury. You should report any load that looks unsafe or likely to cause damage. Long or Odd Shaped Loads Keep odd-shaped, wide, and long loads close to the forklift. Always travel slowly when carrying such loads. If visibility is impaired due to a large load you are carrying, travel in reverse. 40

Forklift Operator Training Guide The Stability of a Forklift The stability of a forklift is most commonly referred to as the “Stability Triangle”. This is because a forklift is designed like a backwards tricycle. If you look under a four-wheel forklift, you will see the three-point suspension like the one shown here. Point A of the triangle is at the center of the steering axle and points B and C are at the outside points of the axle where the tires are. Center of Gravity On the Stability Triangle drawing, the dot indicates where the center of gravity is located on a forklift that is not in operation. If the center of gravity were to move outside of the triangle when carrying a load, then the forklift would tip over. The center of gravity shifts toward the base of the triangle when a load is added. It also shifts when traveling and stacking. If the center of gravity shifts to one side because of traveling on uneven ground or carrying an uneven load, the forklift could tip laterally. If the forklift makes too fast a turn, the center of gravity moves outside of the triangle, causing the forklift to tip over. Electric Pallet Jack Stability Pallet Jacks, Walkie Stackers and other lifting equipment use the same principles as a standard forklift. While the pallet jack is lower to the ground you can still tip over and drop your load if you do not pay attention to the stability triangle. 41

Forklift Operator Training Guide The Load Center (the center of the load) The forklift's load center and capacity is printed on the data plate. The overall capacity of a forklift is a function of load center and the weight being carried. The load center is the distance from the face of the forks to the center of your load. The standard industry pallet is 48\" long, therefore, most warehouse forklifts have a 24\" load center. When the center of a capacity load exceeds a forklift's printed load center, this creates a dangerous situation and should not be attempted. For example, a 4,500-pound capacity forklift based on a 24\" load center carrying a 4,500 pound, 48\" long load is within the safe operation guidelines. However, if the same forklift is carrying a 5,000 pound, 60\" load it has a 30\" load center. This exceeds the 24\" load center of the forklift. This will cause the forklift to tip forward. (See drawings A and B) • A quick way to estimate the new load capacity when you have a longer than standard load, is to reduce your capacity by 100 pounds for every inch difference in the load center from the standard 24”. Most small sit down forklifts only show a single capacity on the data plate. This capacity is the amount the lift can raise fully extended as long as the mast is vertical and the load is no longer than the load center listed on the data plate. The above calculation is to help you to determine an approximate capacity when the data plate does not provide the information. Stand up Lifts may have a capacity for the height the load is lifted as well; refer to the data plate for more accurate information. 42

Forklift Operator Training Guide Closed Environments Some forklifts produce a buildup of carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust. Proper ventilation is required in any area where forklifts are used. Steps should be taken to ensure the safety of not only the operator but also anyone working in these areas. For closed environments utilize electric lifts or other lifts specially designed for the environment. The OSHA Guidelines outline different types of lifts based on fuel types. Refer to OSHA 192.178 to determine the proper lift and fuel type for your company’s applications. Indoor Surfaces Indoor surfaces are usually concrete or asphalt and tend to be smooth. Forklifts used in this area are generally cushioned or solid tire forklifts. The smoothness of the surface can pose a hazard. Traction is easily lost when there are foreign substances on the floor such as dust or spilled products. It is imperative that floors be kept clean. Severe cracks, holes and/or seams in the floor can cause loads to shift and become unstable. All surfaces where forklifts are operated should be well maintained and any potential forklift operating hazards should be immediately repaired. While driving a forklift into or out of a building be aware of potential hazards. There is the possibility of a drastic change in light. Operator must slow down to allow their eyes to adjust to the light change. There are many doors that have pedestrian traffic; pedestrians may not realize that you cannot see them as you enter the dark warehouse. Always honk your horn as you enter or exit a door or building. 43

Outdoor Surfaces Forklift Operator Training Guide There are a wide variety of outdoor surfaces. Pneumatic forklift tires are designed for outdoor surfaces; cushioned tires on forklifts can be used outdoors if the surface is hard and smooth such as concrete and asphalt. Most warehouse forklifts should be used only on a solid improved surface, for rough surfaces utilize the proper lift equipment for the terrain. Inclement weather such as snow, sleet, fog and rain can also pose a severe traction hazard. Extreme caution should be used under these circumstances. Some additional potential hazards that you may encounter in outdoor forklift use follow: • Rail Road Tracks should be crossed at an angle to reduce the possibility of the tires getting lodged in between the rails or the load bouncing loose as you travel over the uneven surface. This also holds true for rolling gates, and uneven ground near warehouse doors where asphalt and cement come together. • Speed humps should be avoided but if you must drive over them, drive over straight and not at an angle. Drive tires can lose contact and spin on speed humps. Large speed humps can also be higher than the clearance of your lift, make sure you can drive over a speed hump before you attempt this maneuver. Slippery/Wet Surfaces Wet or slippery areas affect starting, stopping, and maneuverability of the forklift. Wet or slippery areas should be avoided and cleaned up if possible, however when encountering wet and slippery areas, operators should slow down and use extreme caution. Never drive through oil or lubricant spills. 44

Forklift Operator Training Guide Cold Storage Cold storage areas produce their own set of inherent hazards. Coolers or refrigerated areas differ from freezers. Coolers or refrigerated areas will tend to have wet and slippery floors. Slippery floors effect traction and increase braking distance. Plastic strip doors are often used in cooler applications; this type of door can be hard to see-through because of condensation and scratches from heavy use. Forklifts should always sound the horn and back slowly through these doorways to avoid other forklifts and pedestrians. Extreme cold, often sub zero temperatures makes operating a forklift in a freezer difficult for the operator and the forklift. Operators wear insulated clothing and gloves, which can restrict movement and may make it difficult to properly operate the controls of the forklift. Extreme cold can irritate eyes and make an operator in a hurry to complete their tasks and exit the freezer. Being in a hurry can easily lead to mishaps or accidents. Forklifts should be specifically designed for use in freezers; these are typically electric forklifts with insulation and heaters built into them, to keep the internal components warm and free of condensation. The operating area inside a freezer is usually very limited, allowing little space to maneuver the forklift. Use caution when entering and exiting a freezer this can cause condensation to freeze making loads slippery and hard to handle. Build-ups of ice can often occur in the doorway of freezers from condensation dripping off the forklift as it enters and then freezing on the floor. This will cause a serious traction hazard and should be checked and cleaned up often. 45

Forklift Operator Training Guide Chapter 5 Trucks, Trailers and Loading Docks Parking Safety and Rules Fueling Overview Loading Docks and working around trucks and trailers present some of the most dangerous situations a forklift operator can encounter. This chapter reviews safe operations a forklift driver should be aware of when working around these areas. As a reminder, all trucks and trailers MUST be chalked before the operator drives into the trailer. There are no exceptions to this rule and operators that do not follow this safety procedure are at great risk of falling between the truck and the dock. 46

Forklift Operator Training Guide Truck Trailers and Freight Cars • Before forklifts enter freight cars, trucks, and trailers, the flooring should be checked for breaks or weaknesses. • Check the trailer capacity • Sliding tandems on trailers should be slid to the rear to support the tail of trailers as much as possible. • A forklift should not be used to open or close freight car doors. • When exiting a trailer, operators must stop and look both ways to ensure a clear path • It is a good practice to disconnect the airlines from the tractor to the trailer. This will prevent early departures. Chocking Be sure that brakes are set and that chocks are placed against the truck, trailer or freight car wheels to prevent movements while you are loading or unloading. Snow, rain and ice reduce the effectiveness of the chocks. “Dok-Loks” may also be used but operators should be aware of the warning lights and that not all trailers can use the auto lock device. In these cases, chocks are required. *It is the responsibility of the forklift operator (NOT THE TRUCKER) to make sure that the trailers they drive on are chocked. In the case of trailers without the tractor attached, it is important to place a nose stand under the front of the trailer to avoid the possibility of the landing gear failing or the trailer upending. 47

Forklift Operator Training Guide Loading Docks A carelessly driven forklift can slip off the edge or into recessed areas with tragic results. Remember that forklifts have a wide rear-end swing. Keep a safe distance from the edge of docks and ramps. With open dock doors weather can also be a hazard. Rain or snow will make dock areas very slippery; keep doors closed to avoid these conditions. If keeping the doors closed is impossible, use extreme caution and drive slowly. Docks are usually areas of high pedestrian and forklift traffic. A slow travel speed for forklifts should be the rule in these areas. Dock boards and Bridge plates All dock boards and bridge plates have rated capacities. Be sure to verify the weight of the forklift and the load does not exceed the capacity of the dock board or bridge plate. All dock boards and bridge plates should be properly secured before they are driven over. Dock boards or bridge plates should be driven over carefully and slowly. Use extreme caution when dock boards or bridge plates are exposed to weather. Rain, snow and ice will greatly affect the traction of the forklift. Elevators Elevators like dock boards and bridge plates have rated capacities too. Before you drive onto an elevator you should check the weight and the capacity of the elevator and then follow these rules: • Drive straight in and straight out, never turn around in an elevator. • Once parked in the elevator, you should set your brake, put the forklift in neutral and turn off the engine. 48

Forklift Operator Training Guide Parking or Leaving a Forklift Unattended When you park your forklift or you are going to be more than 25 feet away from or cannot see your forklift from your destination: • Lower the forks to the ground • Put the controls in neutral • Set the parking brakes • Chock the wheels if it's on an incline • Shut off the power • Take steps to prevent unauthorized access • Be sure it does not block a fire door, fire exit, fire equipment or access to a switch box, sprinkler valve, and/or first aid or emergency equipment. Proper Parking Procedures Operators should park the lift in the company designated parking location or in an area that is out of the way from pedestrian traffic. When parked the forks should be all the way to the ground and tilted forward so they do not stick up and cause a trip hazard. The parking break must be engaged; the gears in neutral and many companies require the propane be turned off at the tank. Electric lifts may require charging, so check the battery gage and plug it in if there is 5% or less of the battery charge left. (Your forklift battery company may have different specs on charging, always follow these) 49

Forklift Operator Training Guide Fueling Overview • Follow specific instructions for refueling engines. • Refuel only in designated areas or at a remote, fire-safe location. • Before refueling, shut engine and lights off. Do not turn them on during refueling. • Smoking is hazardous and prohibited in any area where a forklift is being refueled. Keep the forklifts away from excessive heat. • Refueling should be done well away from welding, open flames and sparks. • If you detect a fuel leak, don't start the forklift. Pull it outdoors. Try to avoid spillage, but if there is any, wash it away. • Do not fill an empty propane tank unless you have been trained and certified by the propane company. Check company administrative procedures for refueling, who does it, when, where, how, etc. Propane Forklift Electric (battery powered) Forklift 50

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