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Page |1 University Of Guyana Centre for Communication Studies DPC2109- Reporting and Writing Specialized Journalism (Science and Health) Lecturer - Rhonda Hamilton Date: 18th December 2021 Group members: Anika Felicien-1036529 Tamara Braithwaite-1031022 Tristan Jones-1036366 Malisa Chesney-Williams-1036205 Kerese Gonsalves-1035658

Page |2 Table of Contents 1. What is Health Science Journalism? _______________________________pg3 2. Preparing for an Interview_______________________________________pg4 3. Considerations when conducting Live and Broadcast Interviews_________pg5 4. Before, During and After the Interview_____________________________pg6 5. How to conduct a science interview________________________________pg7 6. Recommendations on how to improve Health and Science Journalism_____pg8 7. Print Media ___________________________________________________pg9 8. How to conduct a print media interview____________________________pg10 9. How to give a good interview ____________________________________pg11 10. References____________________________________ ______________pg12

Page |3 What is Health and Science Journalism? Science journalists report news and other information about science to the public. These journalists write informative and often entertaining summaries of relevant findings, consulting with expert scientists and researchers and conveying the information in ways that the non-specialist audiences can understand. The writer of these stories must be able to simplify complex ideas and jargon without losing accuracy. Health and science reporting opens the world of expert sources – scientists, psychologists, public health officials, turn and medical researchers. Tapping their expertise allows health and science journalists to provide facts and perspectives that other reporters miss. Angler, an experienced science and technology journalist, covers the main stages involved in getting an article written and published: . Choosing an idea . Structuring your pitch . Researching and interviewing . To write effectively for magazines . Newspaper and online publications

Page |4 Preparing for an interview Often results from proactive media work, such as the issuing of press releases or Communications work around events. Or they may come as a complete surprise and be linked To external news agendas that have no direct connection to your current activities. In most Cases, they will be last minute and urgent. The broadcast media work to tight deadlines and Interview requests almost always require an immediate response. The media come to you Because they are looking for expertise in a particular area or because of your association with A particular program or project. They will often return to you again and again once you Have delivered a successful interview because they favour ‘spokespersons’ who they know can deliver great interviews and are reliable and quick to respond.

Page |5 Considerations when Conducting live and edited broadcast interviews There are a few steps and considerations a journalist must take before and after conducting live and edited broadcast interviews. Most importantly to accomplish a successful interview you must first prepare. · It is important to research your interviewee to gain knowledge before the interview · What facts and information you might want to find out before the interview takes place? · How you might want to frame your key points? · Developing key messages, you should go into every single broadcast interview, whatever the media outlet or topic, with a set of pre-prepared key messages or points. Most interviews are short and most listeners or viewers are only giving part of their attention to the broadcast, so what you say needs to be extremely clear. · You also need to control the interview if you can. The success of an interview should be judged on whether or not you delivered your key points. In addition, Key messages should be brief and to the point Few in number it should also not be no more than 3 or 4 · Frame for your audience- Gear towards the context of the interview. Appearing live on television or radio makes many people nervous, particularly if they have had limited experience of this type of activity. But a little adrenalin and some preparation can be turned into a solid interview style. Live interviews can seem particularly daunting, but most people give their best performances when live. No doubt Broadcasting anything live has its challenges. There’s no stopping and no do-overs, which makes multitasking mandatory and quick thinking critical. You also never know exactly where your content might take you.

Page |6 Before the interview The producer must ensure that all necessary equipment is Set up correctly. “If you have two, you have one; if you have one, you have none.” Always have a backup of everything: computer, cords, cameras, etc. All devices should be charged and ready at all times. Also, it is important to always have a backup battery. (Live Streaming is a heavy drain on batteries). In addition, a studio always accepts makeup if offered: studio lights and cameras are not always flattering. For TV you may want to dress smartly but you must feel comfortable when choosing an outfit considering cultural sensitivities and avoid clothes that carry logos, pictures, or words. Before going live, check the location lighting ahead of time to be sure it’s ideal, and avoids backlighting your subject. During the interview You must first be courteous to make your interviewee feel comfortable because candidates will perform much more naturally when they feel at ease in a situation; it will be easier to build rapport and equally give a better impression. As a journalist remember the aim of the interview and ask questions to receive answers you want to hear but note Do not rush the question give the interviewee time to think. It is also important to listen attentively to your interviewee follow-up questions that may be a result of this, while doing this a journalist must take any notes of interest. After the interview. As the journalist, you should complement the interviewee for a job well done. Review all notes of interest and begin editing

Page |7 How to conduct a science interview? It’s nice to be nice – always remember, when asking someone for their time to conduct an interview, be clear about what you would like from them. The potential interviewee might get a lot of emails a day, therefore your email should be concise, direct, and simple. Make your purpose clear in the subject line of your email, state the deadline for when your task should be completed. State how long the interview can last. Get organized – Pick a convenient place with privacy and minimal background noise. Set a reminder of your date and time for the interview to be conducted. If possible, send a reminder email to the interviewee. Keep a record – Walk with your pen and notepad to take necessary notes. If you intend on using a recorder, asking for the interviewee’s permission first before doing so. Relax – During an interview, personal questions can be asked, and the interview can be very awkward. Therefore, it is best to start with small talks and ice breakers so awkward moments can be avoided. It’s not about you – It is always a good idea to prepare your questions before going to the interview. If you are a nervous talker, it is best to stick to questions that you have written down. Go with the flow – Interviewees sometimes go off-topic and share unexpected information. When this occurs, keep half of your attention on the questions you prepared but ensure that you are engaging with the unanticipated information. If you feel like the interviewee is straying away with unnecessary information, politely steer them back. Talk tough – During these types of interviews, difficult questions always come up. Rather than criticizing your interviewee, construct your question more respectably. Embrace Silence – Silence after your interviewee answers a question can be effective as asking another question since they will carry on talking and you will be surprised that you will have additional information without even asking.

Page |8 Recommendations on how to improve Health and Science Journalism: 1. Media houses should consider introducing senior science reporters and scientists as guest editors. 2. Giving science greater priority in newsroom workflow and editorial meetings, rather than – as typically happens – putting it last or leaving it off the agenda. 3. Mainstreaming science in editorial output rather than – or as well as – placing it in specialist verticals or pull-outs. 4. Creating databases of scientific experts, to serve as a resource for newsrooms that aren’t big enough or can’t afford a specialist science desk and to create better diversity in contributors. 5. Develop better analytics to measure the impact and reach of science stories and their potential to help drive revenue. 6. Create an in-house verification process for science stories. 7. Provide training for scientists, and journalists who need to cover science, to improve the quality and accuracy of coverage. 8. Encourage press officers to supply photos and video, and scientists and reporters to capture original images, rather than rely on overused and boring stock, images, and to explore the creation of a collaborative database of copyright-free science images. 9. To hold future roundtable events with scientists, journalists withhold and press officers to find ways of improving newsroom processes and the quality of coverage.

Page |9 Print Media What is print media? Print Media is one of the oldest and basic forms of mass communication. It includes newspaper weeklies, magazines, monthlies, and other forms of printed journals. Print media is a type of mass communication in which news and information are made and disseminated through printed publications. The effectiveness of print media can differ from business to business. But researchers know how to do better A very good example will be the ads of hypermarkets where a whole page or separate filler (rate list) is dedicated which is bound to catch the eye of the reader. Print media is cost-effective and highly engaging. What is the difference between print and broadcast media? The difference between print and broadcast journalism is one of the mediums of communication. Print journalism is printed and presented in written form and appears in newspapers and magazines. While it may include pictures, illustrations, or graphs, print journalism is intended to be read. Broadcast journalism is presented through video or audio on television, radio, or the internet. Broadcast journalism is intended to be heard and seen. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. Ethical considerations of using photos in print media The National Press Photographers Association (NPPA) code of ethics offers nine ethical standards to members journalists. The basic premises of the NPPA’S nine standards are: 1. Accurately represent subjects 2. Do not be manipulated by staged photos 3. Avoid bias and stereotyping in work; provide complete information and context 4. Show consideration for subjects 5. Avoid influencing the actions of the photographic subject 6. Editing should not give the wrong impression of the subjects in the photograph 7. Do not compensate persons involved in photographs or getting into a photograph 8. Do not accept gifts or other favours from those involved in a photo 9. Do not purposely interfere with the work of other journalists

P a g e | 10 How to conduct a print media interview? Before the interview Research: The only way to come up with good questions about your subject.  Contact the person you wish to interview: Ask when a good time would be to do the interview. Be polite say “please” and “thank you”. Try to set the interview up in person. If this isn’t possible, then set up a phone interview.  Read over your research and brainstorm a list of questions: The more specific your questions are, the better. And never ask questions that can be answered with a yes or no. Make your interviewee talk.  Come Prepared: walk with a notebook, pen, and a recording device (always ask permission before recording an interview).  Be on time: Arrive at your interviewee with plenty of time to spare if you have never been to the place where the interview is taking place, go early and scout it out. There is nothing more unprofessional than a reporter who is late. During the interview 1. Always take time to ask for an explanation about things you don’t understand 2. Always listen carefully to the answers. Each answer could lead to more questions or include a question that you haven’t asked a question to yet. 3. Don’t read through your questions one after the other like you can’t wait to finish. Conduct your interview like a conversation. One question should lead naturally into another. 4. Also take notes on how the person looked like, what they were wearing, where they sat, if the interview is in an office, make notes of what’s on the walls and desk. The objects people surround themselves with withhold important clues to their personalities. Ask about any object that interest you. You will find some good stories. 5. Be courteous to your subject 6. Look the person in the eyes when asking questions After Thank the interviewee for their time Circle or highlight quotations that you think will be good for your article.

P a g e | 11 How to give a good interview: 1. Use open questions – closed questions can provide yes or no answers. 2. Be mindful of your body language – Keep your arms uncrossed, make eye contact, smile but not continuously. 3. Break out of the norm – you could choose a different place for the interview besides the interviewee’s place of work. 4. Wrap up well – Ask the interviewee if they want to add anything other information after the interview.

P a g e | 12 References 10 recommendations for improving science and health journalism in the age of misinformation. (2019, June 14). QUEST. health-journalism-in-the-age-of-misinformation/ The ethics of science and health journalism: A Q&A with Gary Schwitzer. (2020, September 16). Wiley. and-health-journalism-a-q-a-with-gary-schwitzer Health journalism: Health reporting status and challenges. (2018, January). PubMed Central (PMC). Newmark J-School. (2021, July 12). Health and science reporting. journalism/subject-concentrations/health-science-reporting/ Science journalism news, research and analysis. (n.d.). The Conversation. Science journalism: An introduction. (2017, June 7). Routledge & CRC Press. Introduction/Angler/p/book/9781138945500 Talk to me! Top tips for conducting interviews with scientists. (2017, February 22). The Guardian. scientists-science-writing-prize What is science journalism? (2019, September 16). GCU. technology/what-science-journalism

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