Important Announcement
PubHTML5 Scheduled Server Maintenance on (GMT) Sunday, June 26th, 2:00 am - 8:00 am.
PubHTML5 site will be inoperative during the times indicated!

Home Explore Health Science Flipbook

Health Science Flipbook

Published by Mia Hootsell, 2020-09-19 19:21:29

Description: Health Science Flipbook


Read the Text Version

H ealth Science Flipbook Mia Hootsell 1B Mr. Pickett

Table of Contents PAGE 3. Integumentary system 8. Respiratory System NUMBERS 4. Musculoskeletal system 9. Digestive System 5. Nervous system 10. Urinary System 6. Special Senses 11. Reproductive System 7. Cardiovascular System 2

derm/o, dermat/o= Integumentary System Integumentary skin System kerat/o= hair Function: act as a barrier to protect the body from the outside world. It also Diagram xer/o= dry skin functions to retain body fluids, protect against disease, eliminate waste products, xanth/o= yellow and regulate body temperature. 3 erythr/o= red pedicu/o=louse, lice Vocab: epidermis-outermost of the three layers that make up the skin, dermis-The onych/o= inner layer of the two main layers of the skin, keratinization-cells producing large toenail/fingernail amounts of a protein called keratin, stratum basale- deepest layer of the five myc/o= fungus layers of the epidermis, callus-a thickened and hardened part of the skin or soft pil/o= hair tissue, melanin-black pigment occurring in the skin, melanocyte-mature lip/o= fat melanin-forming cell, lunula- the white area at the base of a fingernail, rhytid/o=wrinkle albinism-rare group of genetic disorders that cause the skin, hair, or eyes to have albin/o= white little or no color, sebum-yellowish, oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands that are found on nearly every surface of the body Diseases/Disorders: eczema- an itchy inflammation of the skin, acne- a skin condition that occurs when hair follicles plug with oil and dead skin cells, alopecia areata- sudden hair loss that starts with one or more circular bald patches that may overlap, skin cancer- the abnormal growth of skin cells Healthcare careers: dermatologist-a medical practitioner qualified to diagnose and treat skin disorders, plastic surgeon- a medical practitioner who performs surgery to reconstruct or repair parts of the body by the transfer of tissue.

myo/o= muscle Musculoskeletal System Musculoskeletal myel/o= bone System Diagram marrow/spinal cord Function: provides support to the body, enabling it to stand erect and to move. The system oste/o= bone protects inner organs, produces red blood cells, and provides for the storage of minerals. 4 cost/o= ribs crani/o= cranium Vocab: acromion- outer end of the scapula, bursa- fluid-filled sac or saclike cavity, -pexy= fixation, calcium-mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones,, cartilage-elastic tissue that usually surgical composes most of the skeleton of vertebrate embryos, disc- soft pad positioned in between chondr/o= cartilage each of the vertebrae of the spine, osseous tissue-major structural and supportive arthr/o= joint connective, meniscus- partly divides a joint cavity., medullary cavity-central cavity of bone -plegia= shafts where bone marrow is stored, pronation- up or down orientation of your hand, arm, paralysis/stroke or foot, subluxation-defined as a partial or incomplete dislocation kinesi/o= movement Diseases/Disorders: rheumatoid arthritis-a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints, fibromyalgia-widespread muscle pain and tenderness, carpal tunnel syndrome-a numbness and tingling in the hand and arm caused by a pinched nerve in the wrist, tendonitis-a condition in which the tissue connecting muscle to bone becomes inflamed Healthcare careers: orthopedic surgeon- prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the bones, joints, ligaments, tendons and muscles, rheumatologist- deals with the treatment of musculoskeletal disease and systemic autoimmune conditions

neur/o= nerve, nerve Nervous System Nervous System Diagram tissue encephal/o= brain Function: The nervous system is involved in receiving information about the environment myel/o= spinal cord or around us (sensation) and generating responses to that information (motor responses). bone marrow The nervous system can be divided into regions that are responsible for sensation ambul/o= walking (sensory functions) and for the response (motor functions). -esthesia= sensation mening/o= Vocab: Central Nervous System-consists of the brain and spinal cord, Peripheral Nervous membrane/meninges System-nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord, impulses-wave of excitation psych/o= mind transmitted through tissues, cell body-compact area of a nerve cell, dendrites-various concuss/o= shaken branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that conducts impulses, axon-various together branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that conducts impulses, voluntary-done in accordance with the conscious will of the individual, involuntary-done other than in accordance with the conscious will of the individual, spinal medulla- part of the spinal cord that is lodged deep within the vertebral canal, cerebrum-largest part of the brain Diseases/Disorders: Alzheimer’s disease- A progressive disease that destroys memory and other important mental functions, Bell’s palsy-Sudden weakness in the muscles on one half of the face, Multiple sclerosis-A disease in which the immune system eats away at the protective covering of nerves. Neurofibromatosis-A condition that causes tumors to form in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Healthcare careers: Neuroscientist- an expert in neuroscience (nerves), Psychiatrist-medical practitioner specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness 5

irid/o= iris Special Senses Special Senses Diagram -cusis= hearing problem Function: to detect environmental stimuli and transduce their energy into electrical impulses. 6 -opia= defects in These are then conveyed along sensory neurons to the central nervous system, where they are vision integrated and processed, and a response is produced. ot/o= ear tympan/o= eardrum Vocab: receptors-specialized cell or group of nerve endings that responds to sensory stimuli, ophthalm/o= eye canthus-meeting of the upper and lower eyelids at either side of the eye, tarsal glands-along -metry= process of the rims of the eyelid inside the tarsal plate, conjunctiva- tissue that lines the inside of the measuring eyelids and covers the sclera, lacrimal apparatus- physiological system containing the orbital structures for tear production and drainage, nasolacrimal duct-carries tears from the lacrimal sac of the eye into the nasal cavity, fibrous tunic-composed of the sclera and the cornea, cornea-the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, sclera-the white outer layer of the eyeball, choroid-dense network of blood vessels and pigmented stroma between the retina and the sclera Diseases/Disorders: blindness- lack of vision. It may also refer to a loss of vision that cannot be corrected with glasses or contact lenses, cataracts - clouding area over the front part of the eye, deafness- hearing impairment, or hearing loss is a partial or total inability to hear, glaucoma- condition in which the normal fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises as a result of the fluid not being able to drain properly. Healthcare careers: otolaryngologists- specialist in study of diseases of the ear and throat, opthamologists-specialist in the study and treatment of disorders and diseases of the eye

cardi/o= heart Cardiovascular System angi/o= blood or lymph vessels Function: transport of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients, clotting of open wounds, and regulation of hem/o, hemat/o= blood body temperature. It also helps to maintain blood flow to all parts of the body, to allow it to survive. Veins brady-= slow deliver used blood from the body back to the heart tachy-= rapid -emia= blood condition Vocab: capillaries-tiny blood vessels connecting arteries to veins, endothelium-tissue which forms a single leuk/o= white layer of cells lining various organs and cavities of the body, artery- muscular-walled tubes, heart erythr/o= red murmur-unusual sound heard between heartbeats, aorta- main artery of the body, supplying oxygenated arteri/o= artery blood , atrium-heart chamber that receives blood, diastole-period of relaxation of the heart muscle, electrocardiogram-records the electrical signal from your heart, endocardium-innermost layer of the heart, Cardiovascular System Diagram septum- separates the heart into two sides Diseases/Disorders: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)-Damage or disease in the heart's major blood vessels. Myocardial Infarction (heart attack) -A blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle. Arrhythmia-Improper beating of the heart, whether irregular, too fast, or too slow. Cardiomyopathy-An acquired or hereditary disease of the heart muscle by making it hard for the heart to deliver blood to the body, and can lead to heart failure. Healthcare careers: cardiologist-a doctor who specializes in the study or treatment of heart diseases and heart abnormalities., cardiothoracic surgeon- medical doctor who specializes in surgical procedures of the heart, lungs, esophagus, and other organs in the chest 7

Respiratory System bronch/o= trachea Function: This system helps your body absorb oxygen from the air so your organs can work. It Respiratory System cyan/o= blue also cleans waste gases, such as carbon dioxide, from your blood Diagram laryng/o= larynx -oxia= oxygen Vocab: esophagus-connects the throat to the stomach, carbon dioxide-A gas which is the 8 -oxy= containing byproduct of cellular metabolism, mucus-viscid slippery secretion, cilia-hairlike organelles, oxygen diaphragm-muscular and membranous structure that separates the thoracic and abdominal -pleur/o= rib/side cavities , oral cavity-mouth, epiglottis-thin plate of flexible cartilage in front of the glottis, pnuem/o= lungs-breathing organs located with the chest, alveoli ventilation-volume of air entering and breathing leaving the alveoli per minute, septum- the thin cartilage that divides the left and right pulmon/o= lungs chambers, nasal cavity-space in the nose thorac/o= chest trache/o= trachea Diseases/Disorders:Asthma- A condition in which a person's airways become inflamed, narrow and swell, and produce extra mucus, which makes it difficult to breathe. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)- A group of lung diseases that block airflow and make it difficult to breathe. Emphysema- The air sacs in the lungs become damaged and stretched. This results in a chronic cough and difficulty breathing. Smoking is the most common cause, but emphysema can also be genetic, Pneumonia- Infection that inflames air sacs in one or both lungs, which may fill with fluid. Healthcare careers: pulmonologist- physician who specializes in the respiratory system, thoracic surgeon- surgeon who operates in the chest cavity

Digestive System Function: The digestive system is responsible for taking whole foods and turning them into energy and Digestive System Diagram nutrients to allow the body to function, grow, and repair itself cholecyst/o= gallbladder Vocab: duodenum-first part of the small intestine, gallbladder-stores bile and is a small sac-shaped enter/o= small organ beneath the liver, pancreas-large gland behind the stomach which secretes digestive enzymes, intestine jejunum- part of the small intestine between the duodenum and ileum, ileum-third portion of the small col/o, colon/o= intestine, sigmoid colon-S-shaped last part of the large intestine, leading into the rectum, liver-a large large intestine lobed organ in the abdomen involved in many metabolic processes, peristalsis-involuntary constriction hepat/o= liver and relaxation of the muscles, intestines-lower part of the alimentary canal, epiglottis-flap of cartilage at gastr/o= the root of the tongue, abdomen-part of the body of a vertebrate containing the digestive organs stomach or/o= mouth Diseases/Disorders: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)- A digestive disease in which stomach -pepsia= acid or bile irritates the food pipe lining. Gallstones- A hardened deposit within the fluid in the digestion gallbladder, a small organ under the liver. Celiac Disease-An immune reaction to eating gluten, a protein chol/e= bile/gall found in wheat, barley, and rye. Crohn's Disease-A chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the proct/o= rectum lining of the digestive tract. Healthcare careers: gastroenterologist-practitioner qualified to diagnose and treat disorders of the stomach and intestines, proctologist-physician who deals with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the colon, rectum, and anus. 9

-cele= swelling, hernia Urinary System -lysis= breakdown cyst/o= bladder, sac, cyst Function: The urinary system's function is to filter blood and create urine as a waste by-product. The organs nephr/o= kidney of the urinary system include the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder and urethra. The body takes ren/o= denoting kidneys nutrients from food and converts them to energy. -uria= presence in urine -pexy= surgical fixation Vocab: glomerulus- where waste products are filtered from the blood, hilum- recessed central fissure where -ectasis= cleansing of its vessels, nerves and ureter pass, filtration-movement of fluid and solutes particles suspended/floating in bowels the fluid, erythropoietin- substance that is naturally produced by the kidneys to make RBC, meatus-is the pyel/o= renal pelvis opening of the urethra, medulla-inner region of an organ or tissue, reabsorption-nephron removes water and solutes from the tubular fluid (pre-urine) and returns them to the circulating blood, renal pelvis-enlarged Urinary System Diagram upper end of the ureter, renin-a proteolytic enzyme of the blood that is produced and secreted, urea-nitrogen-containing substance normally cleared from the blood by the kidney into the urine, uric acid- almost insoluble compound which is a breakdown product of nitrogenous metabolism Diseases/Disorders: Bladder infections - (cystitis) An infection in any part of the urinary system, the kidneys, bladder, or urethra. Benign prostatic hyperplasia- Age-associated prostate gland enlargement that can cause urination difficulty. Incontinence- Loss of bladder control, varying from a slight loss of urine after sneezing, coughing, or laughing to complete inability to control urination. Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)- A small, hard deposit that forms in the kidneys and is often painful when passed. Healthcare careers: urologist-a doctor who specializes in the study or treatment of the function and disorders of the urinary system, nephrologist-study the kidneys and any diseases that affect them 10

cervic/o= cervix/neck Reproductive System Male Reproductive System salping/o= fallopian Female Reproductive System tube Function: The reproductive system has four functions: To produce egg and sperm cells. To ov/o= egg transport and sustain these cells. To nurture the developing offspring. orchid/o= testicle oophor/o= ovary Vocab: amenorrhea- absence of menstruation , areola-dark-colored skin on the breast that men/o= surrounds the nipple, circumcision- surgical procedure to remove the foreskin, menes/menstruation cryptorchidism-testicle that hasn't moved into its proper position, estrogen, endometrium- A mamm/o= breast female steroid hormone that is produced by the ovaries, fimbriae-fingerlike projection at the gynec/o= end of the fallopian tube, gamete- sex cell, fundus-is connected to the fallopian tubes. It is woman/female within the uterus that the fetus develops during gestation, hymen-thin, fleshy tissue that's colp/o= vagina located at the opening of your vagina, oogenesis- growth process in which the primary egg cell prostat/o= prostate becomes a mature ovum. gland Diseases/Disorders:Endometriosis-A disorder in which tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside the uterus. Uterine Fibroids- Non-cancerous growths in the uterus that can develop during a woman's childbearing years. Testicular cancer- Cancer in the male organs that make male hormones and sperm (testicles). HIV/AIDS- HIV causes AIDS and interferes with the body's ability to fight infections. Healthcare careers: gynecologist-a physician who specializes in treating diseases of the female reproductive organs, urologist-a doctor who specializes in the study or treatment of the function and disorders of the urinary system. 11

Like this book? You can publish your book online for free in a few minutes!
Create your own flipbook