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Evolution of the SABAH Ethnic Traditional Costumes Volume 1 Evolusi Pakaian Tradisi Etnik SABAH Jilid 1 EDITED BY: JOANNA DATUK KITINGAN

Evolution of the SABAH Ethnic Traditional Costumes Volume 1 Compiled and edited By Joanna Datuk Kitingan & Salbiah Kindoyop, PhD Bluedale Publishing (M) Sdn. Bhd. (769278-W) No.31-2, Block F2, Level 2 Jalan PJU 1/42A, Dataran Prima, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Email: [email protected] (Publisher) 2022


Evolution of the SABAH Ethnic Traditional Costumes Volume 1 Published By Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Bluedale Publishing (M) Sdn. Bhd. (769278-W) Cataloguing-in-Publication Data No.31-2, Block F2, Level 2 Jalan PJU 1/42A, Dataran Prima, Evolution of the SABAH Ethnic Traditional Costume. 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Evolusi Pakaian Tradisi Etnik SABAH. Volume 1 = Jilid 1 / Tel: 03 - 7886 9219 Compiled and edited ByJoanna Datuk Kitingan, Website: Dr. Salbiah Kindoyop. Email: [email protected] ISBN 978-629-97371-0-0 (hardback) Copyright © 2022 by Bluedale Publishing (M) Sdn. Bhd., except where 1. Ethnic costume--Malaysia--Sabah. otherwise stated . 2. Clothing and dress--Malaysia--Sabah. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or I. Joanna Datuk Kitingan. transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, II. Salbiah Kindoyop, Dr. including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and 391.00959521 retrieval system,without written permission from the publisher. Editorial Committee ISBN 1. Joanna Datuk Kitingan 978-629-97371-0-0 2. Salbiah Kindoyop PhD 3. Angeline Boilis Printer 4. Philomena Engsun AL Design Marketing Sdn Bhd (1230093-D) 5. Rosalyn Gelunu PhD 25-3-1 Block G, Jalan 3/101C Cheras Business Centre Book Concept & Design Taman Cheras Mia Reena Bt Mohamed Shaharin 56100 Kuala Lumpur Editor & Publisher Joanna Datuk Kitingan Lyndon Yap Designed For Women’s Council of the Kadazan Dusun Cultural Association Sabah (KDCA) Mile 4 1/2 W.D.T, 39, Jalan Penampang, 89509 Penampang, Sabah.

MESSAGE YB Dato’ Sri Hajah Nancy Shukri Minister of Tourism, Arts and Culture As the world emerges from the COVID-19 pandemic of the past two years, many countries are opening up their borders to again welcome tourists. Malaysia is a major world tourist destination that straddles peninsular Southeast Asia and northern and western Borneo. Sabah, Malaysia’s northern most region located on Borneo Island, has been blessed with a unique natural environment that varies from majestic Mt. Kinabalu, the highest mountain in geographical Southeast Asia, to gem-blue seas and pristine beaches as well as fertile plains traversed by abundant rivers. Sabah’s lush environment supports a rich cultural diversity of over 58 ethnolinguistic groups, of whom around 35 are indigenous to the area. This book, Evolution of the Sabah Ethnic Traditional Costumes, Volume 1, documents the development of particular costumes crafted by women from selected indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah. It draws attention to the artistic creativity of indigenous women in producing and developing their costumes that symbolise Sabah’s distinctive material culture. As such, I anticipate that this book will be an important reference source for foreign tourists seeking to know more about Malaysia and her cultures, as well as for scholars, students and other Malaysians. I would like to congratulate the Women’s Council of the Kadazan Dusun Cultural Association (KDCA) for taking the initiative to undertake this project as people begin traveling to Malaysia again. I sincerely hope that there will be more books like this to help us all become aware of Malaysia’s rich cultures and may we all grow to appreciate Malaysia’s cultural importance in Asia. MALAYSIA, TRULY ASIA DATO’ SRI HAJAH NANCY SHUKRI Minister of Tourism, Arts and Culture, Malaysia viii

MESSAGE YANG BERBAHAGIA HUGUAN SIOU TAN SRI DATUK SERI PANGLIMA JOSEPH PAIRIN DATUK KITINGAN It gives me great pleasure to write a short message for this book which highlights the evolution and development of some of the traditional costumes worn by our indigenous peoples of Sabah. We have over 60 ethnic groups in Sabah, speaking around 58 languages and over 100 dialects. Of these ethnic groups, around 35 are indigenous to Sabah and most speak languages of the ancient Dusunic, Murutic and Paitanic Families of Austronesian Languages. Our indigenous peoples have inhabited northern Borneo for many millennia and have developed their own distinctive cultures in response to the local environment. Traditional costumes are part of the cultural heritage of our peoples. These costumes included clothing for daily wear, protective apparel for warriors, ceremonial costumes for special occasions such as weddings, and special ritual costumes for priestesses of the traditional religions. Over time, these costumes have changed and developed and today, as distinctive forms of material culture, they are markers of different ethnic identities. Men traditionally make various kinds of baskets and bark cloth, while women are experts in weaving textiles using traditional backstrap looms, and in making conical hats. Women are also renowned for doing traditional hand needle-weaving (often called linangkit) as seams to join separate cloth panels in clothing. ix

MESSAGE This book presents a small but important selection of some of our many indigenous costumes, decorative techniques and jewellery. I congratulate the KDCA Women’s Council for their efforts in compiling this publication. It is my hope that more books like this will be published, so that the diversity and beauty of Sabah’s material culture can be more greatly appreciated. May we always be united in the love of our cultures. MISOMPURU ID KOUBASANAN HUGUAN SIOU TAN SRI DATUK SERI PANGLIMA JOSEPH PAIRIN DATUK KITINGAN President, Kadazan Dusun Cultural Association (KDCA) x

CONTENTS Message from YB Dato’ Sri Hajah Nancy Shukri viii Minister of Tourism, Arts and Culture, Malaysia Message from Yang Berbahagia Huguan Siou Tan Sri Datuk Seri Panglima Joseph Pairin ix Datuk Kitingan President of the Kadazan Dusun Cultural Association (KDCA) xi xii - xiv Table of Contents List of Map and Figures xiv List of Tables xv - xviii Senarai Gambar Senarai Jadual xviii Preface xix Acknowledgements xx Introduction 1-5 by Joanna Datuk Kitingan 6-20 21-37 Chapter 1: The Evolution of Lotud Traditional Costumes by Salbiah Kindoyop, PhD and Humin Jusilin, PhD Chapter 2: The Evolution of the Costumes of Dusun Tindal of Kota Belud District by Salbiah Kindoyop, PhD Chapter 3: The Evolution of the Tahol Murut Women’s 38-51 Pinongkoloh Costume in terms of Motifs and Design of Attire by Shelly Ann Saiwat Chapter 4: Traditional Costumes of the Dusun Tanggara-Kuijou 52-64 of Membakut by Joselay bin Onong 65-81 165-171 Chapter 5: Developing The Traditional Ritual Costumes of 172-175 the Tatana of Kuala Penyu District by Rosaline Oliver Lidadun xi Contributors Index

LIST OF MAP AND FIGURES CHAPTER 1: 7 Figure 1.1: Suang Lotud traditional dress 8 Figure 1.2: Traditional Lotud women’s dress (i-iv) 8 Figure 1.3: Sukob and gonob decorative varieties 13 Figure 1.4: Lotud Men’s traditional dress 15 Figure 1.5: Structure of Lotud men’s traditional clothing 16 Figure 1.6: Motifs on sukob, binandus and kain mugah CHAPTER 2: 22 Figure 2.1: Sinipak Clothes 22 Figure 2.2: Rinagang clothes 23 Figure 2.3: Image of sinipak year 1938 23 Figure 2.4: Evolution of sinipak in 1990 24 Figure 2.5: The latest sinipak evolution 25 Figure 2.6: Female sinipak structure 28 Figure 2.7: Sinipak design 28 Figure 2.8: Gonob design 29 Figure 2.9: The use of sunduk on sinipak 29 Figure 2.10: Two views of sunduk worn with sinipak 30 Figure 2.11: Dusun Tindal women dressed in rinagang 31 Figure 2.12: Rinagang design 32 Figure 2.13: Rinagang structure 33 Figure 2.14: Ornamental variety of binidang 33 Figure 2.15: Gonob ornamental variety 34 Figure 2.16: A bride wearing a surunduk head cover with her rinagang 34 Figure 2.17: Image of sunduk on rinagang clothing CHAPTER 3: 38 Figure 3.1: Pinongkoloh costumes worn by Taholwomen Figure 3.2: Pinongkoloh design and accessories 39 40 Figure 3.3: Development of the sampayau in the 1920s from a tie top (i) to a simple embroidered blouse (Source: Author’s Collection, 2016) Figure 3.4: Dancers wearing shorter tapi(skirts) performing the magunatip 41 (Source: Author’s Collection) 41 Figure 3.5: Pinongkoloh costumes that have been transformed according to the current preference of the wearer (Source: Author’s Collection, 2016) Figure 3.6: Changes in beads and vusak (flower)pattern formation (Source: Au 43 thor’s Collection, 2016) Figure 3.7: Changes in beads and leaf pattern formations (Source: Author’s Collec 44 tion) xii

LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER 3: Figure 3.8: The evolutionary process of Tahol motifs (Source: Adapted 44 from Ismail Ibrahim, 2009) 45 Figure 3.9: Pinis or lapis motif 45 Figure 3.10: Pinis or lapis layered motif Sketch 46 Figure 3.11: Transformation of pinis or lapis motif 46 Figure 3.12: Transformation of pinis or lapis motif 47 Figure 3.13: Sketch of the sinusuh motif 47 Figure 3.14: The sinusuh motif 48 Figure 3.15: Evolution of the sinusuh motif 48 Figure 3.16: Another evolution of the sinusuh 48 Figure 3.17: The tinukang motif 49 Figure 3.18: Sketch of evolution of the tinukang motif 49 Figure 3.19: Evolution of the tinukang motif 50 Figure 3.20: Sketch of the vusak motif 50 Figure 3.21: Evolution of the vusak Motif 50 Figure 3.23: Evolution of the padi motifs CHAPTER 4: Figure 4.1: Seminar and Workshop on Refining Traditional Costumes of the Dusun of 53 Membakut, 13 March 2017 Figure 4.2: Complete set of sia ambung Figure 4.3: Complete set of sia pinukung 54 Figure 4.4: The sia inangkit ngakusai showing front and back 54 with inangkit needle-woven seams 54 Figure 4.5: Two scenes of paina dance performances with gong ensembles at 55 Membakut during the 1960’s 56 Figure 4.6: Two views of a bridal couple wearing sia pinukung and sia inangkit 58 ngakusai owned by Mdm. Lucian Mudim 60 Figure 4.7: Types, motifs and patterns of inangkit and embroidery on sia pinukung 61 Figure 4.8: The pinakung blouse of a set of sia pinakung owned by Mdm. 64 Nova Lloyd 64 Figure 4.9: Three heirloom silver coin belts and two brass coil belts worn with sia pinakung owned by Mdm. Nova Lloyd Figure 4.10: Puan Ku Ling @ Saudah Binti Amok Figure 4.11: Puan Kuimah Binti Jinau CHAPTER 5: 65 Figure 5.1: The women’s costume sira lambung 66 Figure 5.2: Engoh Nuritim is the owner of the original sira lambung 66 Figure 5.3: A selection of sira lambung of the past eras 66 Figure 5.4: The neck and front of the original sira lambung xiii

LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER 5: Figure 5.5:The original pirawis on a sira lambung from olden days. The colour of 67 the fabric used on the original blouse behind this pirawis is light blue. 68 Figure 5.6: An original kubamban button 68 Figure 5.7: A gonob (ordinary skirt) that has a pattern Figure 5.8: Sira lambung exhibition opening ceremony at St. Peter Bundu Church 69 Hall on January 31, 2006 Figure 5.9: The Sira Lambung Competition winners selected by the judges during 69 the Sira Lambung Exhibition on 31 January 2006. Figure 5.10: Tatana people wearing the new sira lambung in Paris 70 Figure 5.11: For the first time, participants in Sabah Fest 2012 wear the Tatana sira lambung 70 Figure 5.12: The new baju lambung 71 Figure 5.13: The new sira lambung 72 Figure 5.14: The neck, front and hem of the new sira lambung 72 Figure 5.15: Pirawis (unbuttoned and buttoned sleeve panel) 74 Figure 5.16: Pirawis on a new lambung blouse 74 Figure 5.17: New kubamban buttons 75 Figure 5.18: The new gonob with eight small bells 76 Figure 5.19: Koriing 76 Figure 5.20: A gonob decorated with sequins 76 Figure 5.21: Mr. Kamloi Tanim with the author 77 Figure 5.22: Sira dambia worn by men by wearing sigar and sandai. 78 Figure 5.23: Sigar 79 Figure 5.24: Sandai 79 Figure 5.25: A man wearing sira dambia showing the gold lace of the trousers Figure 5.26: Sira dambia worn by one of the bobolian during the mikajang 80 ceremony in the past Figure 5.27: The sira dambia is also worn when performing the bakanjar dance. 80 LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER 1: 10-12 Table 1.1: Design, Decoration and Symbolism in Lotud Women’s Clothing 17-18 Table 1.2: Design, Decoration and Symbolism in Lotud Men’s Clothing CHAPTER 2: 26-27 Table 2.1: Elements of women’s sinipak costumes and accessories CHAPTER 4: 57 Table 4.1: Motifs of Dusun Tanggara-Kuijou inangkit needle-weaving and 59 embroidery Table 4.2: Complete patterns of women’s sia pinukung costumes and accessories CHAPTER 5: 73 Table 5.1: Embroidery on the new Sira Lambung xiv

SENARAI PETA DAN GAMBAR BAB 1: 87 Gambar 1.1: Busana tradisional etnik Lotud 88 Gambar 1.2: Variasi gaya pakaian tradisional kaum wanita Lotud 93 Gambar 1.3: Struktur Pakaian Tradisional Wanita Lotud 93 Gambar 1.4: Ragam Hias Sukob dan Gonob 95 Gambar 1.5: Pakaian Tradisional kaum Lelaki Lotud 96 Gambar 1.6: Struktur Pakaian Tradisional Lelaki Lotud 99 Gambar 1.7: Motif pada sukob, binandus dan kain mugah 102 102 BAB 2: 103 Gambar 2.1: Pakaian sinipak 103 Gambar 2.2: Pakaian rinagang 104 Gambar 2.3: Imej sinipak pada tahun 1938 (Sumber: Evans, 2002) 105 Gambar 2.4: Evolusi sinipak tahun 1990 108 Gambar 2.5: Evolusi sinipak terkini 108 Gambar 2.6: Elemen sinipak wanita 109 Gambar 2.7: Reka bentuk sinipak 109 Gambar 2.8: Reka bentuk gonob 110 Gambar 2.9: Pemakaian sunduk pada sinipak 111 Gambar 2.10: Dua pandangan sunduk pada pakaian sinipak 112 Gambar 2.11: Wanita Dusun Tindal berpakaian rinagang (Sumber: 113 Evans, 2002) 113 Gambar 2.12: Reka bentuk rinagang 114 Gambar 2.13: Struktur rinagang 114 Gambar 2.14: Ragam hias binidang 118 Gambar 2.15: Ragam hias gonob 119 Gambar 2.16: Pemakaian surunduk pada rinagang oleh pengantin 121 perempuan 121 Gambar 2.17: Imej sunduk pada pakaian rinagang semasa pesta menuai BAB 3: Gambar 3.1: Busana pinongkoloh yang dipakai oleh etnik wanita Murut Tahol Gambar 3.2: Reka bentuk busana pinongkoloh dan perhiasan busana (Sumber: Koleksi Penulis, 2016) Gambar 3.3: Lakaran busana pinongkoloh pada tahun 1520-an (Sumber: Koleksi Penulis) Gambar 3.4: Busana pinongkoloh yang telah digubah mengikut kesesuaian si pemakai pada masa kini (Sumber: Koleksi Penulis, 2016) xv

SENARAI GAMBAR BAB 3: Gambar 3.5: Perubahan manik dan pembentukan corak vusak (bunga) 123 Sumber: Koleksi Penulis (2016) Gambar 3.6: Perubahan manik dan pembentukan corak daun Sumber: 123 Koleksi Penulis Gambar 3.7: Proses evolusi motif-motif masyarakat Murut Sumber: 124 Kajian Kerja Lapangan Penyelidik, 2016 (Diadaptasi daripada Ismail Ibrahim (2009) Gambar 3.8: Motif pinis atau lapis 125 Gambar 3.9: Lakaran motif pinis atau lapis (Sumber: Kajian Kerja Lapan 125 gan Penyelidik) Gambar 3.10: Transformasi motif pinis atau lapis (Sumber: Kajian Kerja 126 Lapangan Penyelidik) Gambar 3.11: Transformasi motif pinis atau lapis (Sumber: Kajian Kerja 126 Lapangan Penyelidik) Gambar 3.12: Lakaran motif sinusuh Gambar 3.13: Motif sinusuh 127 127 Gambar 3.14: Evolusi motif sinusuh 127 Gambar 3.15: Evolusi motif sinusuh Gambar 3.16: Motif tinukang 128 129 Gambar 3.18: Lakaran Motif Tinukang Sumber: Kajian Kerja Lapangan 129 Penyelidik, 2016 Gambar 3.19: Gambar Evolusi Motif Vusak (Sumber: Kajian Kerja Lapan 129 gan Penyelidik, 2016) Gambar 3.20: Lakaran motif padi Sumber: Kajian Kerja Lapangan Penyelidik, 2016 130 Gambar 3.21: Gambar evolusi motif padi (Sumber: Kajian Kerja Lapangan 130 Penyelidik, 2016) BAB 4: Gambar 4.1: Seminar dan Bengkel Pemurnian Pakaian Tradisi Dusun Membakut, 13 Mac 2017 133 Gambar 4.2: Set lengkap sia ambung 134 Gambar 4.3: Set lengkap sia pinukung 134 Gambar 4.4: Baju sia inangkit ngakusai, pandangan depan dan 134 pandangan belakang dengan jahitan inangkit tenunan jarum tangan xvi

BAB 4: Gambar 4.5: Dua pandangan persembahan tarian paina di Membakut 135 pada 1960an Gambar 4.6: Dua pandangan sia pinukung dan sia inangkit ngakusai yang 136 dimiliki oleh Mdm. Lucian Mudim dan dipakai oleh pasangan pengantin Gambar 4.7: Jenis, motif dan corak inangkit dan sulaman atas sia pinukung 138 Gambar 4.8: Blaus pinakung daripada set sia pinakung yang dimiliki oleh 140 Mdm. Nova Lloyd Gambar 4.9: Tiga tali pinggang syiling perak pusaka dan dua tali ping 141 gang gegelung tembaga dipakai dengan sia pinakung yang dimiliki oleh Puan Nova Lloyd Gambar 4.10: Puan Ku Ling @ Saudah Binti Amok Gambar 4.11: Puan Kuimah Binti Jinau 144 144 BAB 5: Gambar 5.1: Sira lambung asli wanita yang dipilih oleh jawatankuasa 147 untuk diketengahkan menjadi baju tradisi etnik Tatana di Kuala Penyu Gambar 5.2: Engoh Nuritim pemilik sira lambung asli Gambar 5.3: Koleksi sira lambung yang dipakai oleh ponyupi pada 148 zaman dahulu 148 Gambar 5.4: Bahagian leher dan hadapan sira lambung 148 Gambar 5.5: Pirawis yang asli pada sira lambung pada zaman dahulu. 149 Gambar 5.6: Butang kubamban asli 149 Gambar 5.7: Gonob (sarung biasa) yang mempunyai corak 150 Gambar 5.8: Majlis peragaan Sira Lambung di Dewan Gereja St.Peter Bundu 149 pada 31 Januari, 2006 Gambar 5.9: Pemenang Pertandingan Sira Lambung yang dipilih oleh hakim 151 semasa Pameran Sira Lambung pada 31 Januari 2006 Gambar 5.10: Ahli masyarakat Tatana memakai sira lambung baru di Paris 152 Gambar 5.11: Julung-julung kalinya peserta memakai sira lambung 152 pada Sabah Fest 2012. Gambar 5.12: Baju lambung baharu Gambar 5.13: Sira lambung baharu 153 154 Gambar 5.14: Bahagian leher, depan dan kelim pada blaus sira lambung 154 baharu xvii

SENARAI GAMBAR 156 BAB 5: 156 Gambar 5.15: Pirawis (bahagian tangan baju yang tidak dibutang dan yang 157 dibutangkan) 158 Gambar 5.16: Gambar pirawis untuk baju lambung yang baharu 158 Gambar 5.17: Butang kubamban yang baharu 158 Gambar 5.18: Gonob baru dengan lapan biji lonceng kecil 159 Gambar 5.19: Koriing 161 Gambar 5.20: Wanita Tatana memakai gonob baru yang dihias dengan labuci 161 Gambar 5.21: Encik Kamloi Tanim bersama penulis 161 Gambar 5.22: Sira dambia boleh dipakai oleh orang lelaki dengan 162 mengenakan sigar dan sandai 163 Gambar 5.23: Sigar 163 Gambar 5.24: Sandai Gambar 5.25: Seorang lelaki memakai sira dambia menunjukkan renda seluar Gambar 5.26: Sira dambia yang dipakai oleh salah seorang bobolian mengadakan ritual mikajang sewaktu ketika dulu Gambar 5.27: Sira dambia juga dipakai ketika mengadakan tarian bakanjar SENARAI JADUAL BAB 1: Jadual 1.1: Reka Bentuk, Ragam Hias dan Simbol dalam Pakaian Wanita Lotud 90-92 Jadual 1.2: Struktur pakaian dan perhiasan lelaki Lotud 97-98 106-107 BAB 2: 137 Jadual 2.1: Pola lengkap pakaian dan aksesori sinipak wanita 139 155 BAB 4: Jadual 4.1: Motif dalam inangkit tenunan jarum dan sulaman Dusun Tanggara- Kuijou di Membakut Jadual 4.2: Pola lengkap pakaian sia pinukung dan aksesori wanita BAB 5: Jadual 5.1: Sulaman pada Sira Lambung xviii

PREFACE Evolution of the SABAH Ethnic Traditional Costumes Volume 1 Sabah has a rich multicultural diversity. Based on recent research, Sabah has around 58 languages and over 100 dialect groups. These include ethnic groups that are indigenous only to northern Borneo, groups from other parts of Borneo Island, and also some from wider regional Southeast Asia. There are around 35 indigenous Austronesian ethnic groups in Sabah. These include groups who speak languages from the ancient Dusunic, Murutic and Paitanic Families of Austronesian languages, as well as some linguistic isolates and others who are not found outside of Sabah. Costumes are a distinctive part of the material culture of Sabah. They were traditionally produced from materials in the physical environment where the people live. They also reflect cultural changes over time, as well as the diffusion of techniques, newer materials and ideas as different communities have interacted through trade and local migration. This book exemplifies a range of different traditional costumes worn by people in Sabah, and illustrates some changes that have taken place over time. Authors were invited from the Kadazan Dusun Cultural Association (KDCA) and other cultural associations and organisations to contribute chapters. Since this book is bilingual in both English and Bahasa Malaysia to cater for local and international readers, it was decided to focus on costumes from just five communities for this initial volume while other chapters have been saved for future volumes. Nowadays, many older costumes are rarely seen, and even more modernised outfits are often worn only at weddings and also Kaamatan (Harvest Festivals), including events such as Unduk Ngadau beauty pageants and Sugandoi singing competitions. With the passing of time, younger generations may lose the knowledge of their cultural heritage reflected in their traditional costumes. Thus, the KDCA Women Council decided to embark on this project to document the traditional costumes of Sabah’s ethnic groups and produce a book for future generations. It is hoped that this book will inform and inspire all Malaysians and visitors to Malaysia to appreciate their cultural heritage. Tindarama Joanna Datuk Kitingan xix Chairperson, Women’s Council of the Kadazan Dusun Cultural Association cum Chief Editor, Evolution of the Sabah Ethnic Traditional Costumes

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The compilation of this first volume of Evolution of the Sabah Ethnic Traditional Costumes would not have been possible without the dedicated efforts of the authors of each chapter. I also want to acknowledge the hard work of my editorial team, including Dr. Salbiah Kindoyop, Dr. Rosalyn Gelunu, Madam Angeline Boilis, and Madam Philomena Engsun. Thanks also to Professor Dr. Jacqueline Pugh-Kitingan of the Borneo Institute for Indigenous Studies (BorIIS), Universiti Malaysia Sabah for reviewing each chapter to ensure the accuracy and quality of each write-up. Editorial committee Joanna Dr. Salbiah Angeline Philomena Dr. Rosalyn Datuk Kitingan Kindoyop Boilis Engsun Gelunu We want to thank Mr. Lyndon Yap, the CEO of Bluedale Publishing, and his team, especially Madam Chang Lee Ming, Mr. Kadir Liyahudin Bin Haleebath Rahman, Ms. Mia Reena Shaharin and Ms. Angela Annie Petrus for their efforts in working with the Women’s Council of the KDCA to make this book a success. Tindarama Joanna Datuk Kitingan Chairperson, Women’s Council of the Kadazan Dusun Cultural Association cum Chief Editor, Evolution of the Sabah Ethnic Traditional Costumes xx

INTRODUCTION Evolution of the SABAH Ethnic Traditional Costumes Volume 1 The term evolution connotes change over time. In terms of material culture, such as traditional costumes, change may occur through various processes. It may happen through lengthy historical interactions between diverse ethnic groups producing a diffusion of elements from different sources, or it may occur through cultural convergence or acculturation when a dominating though sometimes smaller group impacts an older widespread group. Change may occur due to individual invention or innovation within a culture, and this may also result from the introduction of new materials. In some cases, a particular ethnic group may make a collective decision to develop or create a new costume. In many cases, all of these processes of change may occur at different times. Sabah has around 58 ethnic groups of whom over 35 are indigenous (King & King, 1984 [1997]). There is not enough room here, however, to discuss all the costumes of each ethnic group and their evolution over time in one volume. This book, Evolution of the Sabah Ethnic Traditional Costumes,Volume 1 thus introduces the diversity of Sabah’s traditional costumes through the lenses of five cultures: the Lotud, the Dusun Tindal, the Tahol Murut, the Kuijau Dusun of Membakut, and the Tatana. The Lotud speak one of around ten languages from Sabah’s Dusunic Family of Languages. They have a total population of around 20,000 and inhabit Tuaran District and parts of Kiulu and Telipok on the western side of Sabah. Linguistically, Lotud has three dialects that correspond to their locations and are reflected in their traditional ritual culture. Lotud Sarayoh inhabit the inland hills around Tamparuli and beyond, and traditionally cultivate hill rice. Suang Lotud live on the plains around Tuaran Township and plant wet rice. Suang Olung live along the coast in the village of Olung and surrounding villages. The Lotud have a rich cultural heritage and over the centuries have had contacts with the ethnic Brunei, Iranun, west coast Bajau, and the Kadazan of Putatan and Papar (Lotud, Ethnologue 2021; Pugh-Kitingan & Judeth John Baptist 2009; Warren 2002:128-136). The Lotud have a variety of different costumes ranging from the elaborate outfits worn by bridal couples at their weddings, to the ceremonial manarapoh worn only by priestesses or tantagas during traditional rituals. Their costumes discussed in Chapter 1 show many elements that have been diffused from other cultures, yet they are distinctly Lotud in design and serve specific functions in their society. Some of the decorative techniques, such as hand needle- weaving or linangkit, have distinctly Lotud patterns. 1

INTRODUCTION Evolution of the SABAH Ethnic Traditional Costumes Volume 1 The Dusun Tindal (formerly known as Dusun Tempasuk) live along the Tempasuk River and further inland in Kota Belud District that was also historically called Tempasuk District. They speak a variant of the Central Dusun dialect of the Kadazan Dusun language. Some of their music and ceremonial costumes have been strongly influenced by the Iranun who live along the coast of Kota Belud District, and the west coast Bajau. They in turn have influenced the maritime Iranun and west coast Bajau in terms of wet rice agriculture and some social customs (Pugh-Kitingan 2004:185-198; Kadazan Dusun Ethnologue 2021). The Dusun Tindal sinipak with its open sleeves from the elbow, linangkit hand needle- weaving panels, decorative textiles and men’s headcloths appear to have been adopted from the sinipak, decorative techniques and woven textiles of the neighbouring Iranun through processes of cultural convergence. As shown in Chapter 2, the Dusun Tindal have adapted these elements to suit their own cultural patterns, using black textiles and beaded embroidery for their sinipak. Their older traditional rinagang costume has been maintained and developed through the use of beading, and today is worn as a fashion outfit by younger women. The Tahol Murut, also known as Tagal, Tagol and Sumambu in other Murutic languages, number around 20,000 speakers and live along major river systems in the Districts of Nabawan, southern Tenom, Sipitang and other parts of southern Sabah, and also in parts of Kalimantan and Lawas in Sarawak. Tahol is said to be the most widely spoken language of the Sabah’s Murutic Family of Languages that contains around twelve languages. They traditionally cultivate hill rice, and many live in villages composed of longhouses in which family groups occupy private apartments. They have a rich material and intangible cultural heritage (Harris 1991; Tahol, Ethnologue 2021). The development of the Tahol women’s elaborate pinongkoloh costume is discussed in Chapter 3. Over time, Tahol women have developed beaded embroidery as a decorative technique on their costumes. The chapter documents how the designs and colours of different embroidered motifs have evolved over time, due to the creativity of individual embroiderers and the introduction of commercially produced beads. 2

INTRODUCTION Evolution of the SABAH Ethnic Traditional Costumes Volume 1 The Kuijau Dusun speak another of Sabah’s ten Dusunic languages. Most traditionally live in Bingkor on the interior Keningau District, where they were often known as Kuruyou. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, some Kuijau migrated over the Crocker Range to settle near Membakut on the west coast (part of todays Beaufort District). Here, they have had extensive contacts with other peoples living on the west coast, including the Brunei, Kadayan, Kadazan Dusun, Tatana and others (Constant 2018; Kuijau, Ethnologue 2021).These cultural interactions have influenced the evolution of their costumes in Membakut. The Native Court of Membakut District held a seminar and workshops in 2017 to revive and refine the the original costumes of the Membakut Kuijau community. This has resulted in the promotion of their elaborate sia ambung and sia pinukung for women, and sia inangkit ngakusai for men. Chapter 4 shows that these costumes are decorated not only with embroidery, but also with extensive hand needle-weaving or linangkit that forms the seams on the costumes. The revival of the costumes has thus led to a revival of this distinctive linangkit needle-weaving. Speakers of the Tatana language number 10,000 with the total ethnic population estimated at around 22,000. They inhabit the northern and central parts of Kuala Penyu District, Membakut in Beaufort District and today also live on Labuan Island and elsewhere. The Tatana language was previously classified as a Dusunic language. Speakers of Murutic languages and some linguists, however, believe that Tatana is a Murutic language that has been strongly influenced by Bisaya, a neighbouring Dusunic language. Tatana culture shows some similarities with that of the Bisaya, and has also acquired elements of Chinese culture from close contacts with itinerant Chinese workers who came to Kuala Penyu and Membakut in the early 20th century (Ku 2019; Lobel 2013). The evolution of the Tatana costumes has been partially influenced by these contacts. 3

INTRODUCTION Evolution of the SABAH Ethnic Traditional Costumes Volume 1 Chapter 5 demonstrates how with the decline of older costumes, the Tatana people collectively decided to develop new ceremonial attire. They set up a committee and held a competition to choose the most suitable design. This was based on the traditional sira lambung costume of the female ritual specialist and the sira dambia costume of the male ritual specialist in Tatana society, but now can be worn by any Tatana person. These costumes were further developed through the use of beaded embroidery and sequins. Thus, the chapters in this book not only provide information about traditional costumes, but also show how costumes and decorative techniques have evolved over time. These changes have been caused by contacts with peoples of other cultures through neighbouring habitation, migration, and trade, through individual innovation and creativity, and through the introduction of new materials. Tindarama Joanna Datuk Kitingan Chairperson, Women’s Council of the Kadazan Dusun Cultural Association cum Chief Editor, Evolution of the Sabah Ethnic Traditional Costumes 4

INTRODUCTION Evolution of the SABAH Ethnic Traditional Costumes Volume 1 References Constant Vianney Cyril Chin. (2018). Changes in Traditional Wet Rice Cultivation Among the Kuruyou Dusun of Kg. LiauDarat, Keningau, Sabah. Borneo Research Bulletin, 49, 202- 220. Harris, A. S. (1991). The Tagal Murut. In S. G. Lingenfelter (ed.), Social Organization of Sabah Societies. Studies from six societies: Bonggi, Ida’an, Lotud, Makiang, Tagal, Timugon, pp. 39-62. Kota Kinabalu: Department of Sabah Museum and State Archives. King, J. K. and J. W.(eds.). (1984). Languages of Sabah: A survey report (Pacific Linguistics C-78). Reprinted 1997. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University. Ku C.M.A. (2019). Cultural Convergence in the Music and Oral Traditions of the Kadazan Dusun of Membakut. Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Faculty of Humanities, Arts and Heritage, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. Kadazan Dusun. (2021). Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Kuijau. (2021). Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Lobel, J. W. 2013. Southwest Sabah revisited. Oceanic Linguistics 52(1): 36-68. http:// Lotud. (2021). Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Pugh-Kitingan, J. (2004). Selected Papers on Music in Sabah. Kota Kinabalu: Kadazandusun Chair, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. Pugh-Kitingan, J. and Judeth John Baptist. (2009). Music for Cleansing the Universe: Drumming and gong ensemble music in the MamahuiPogunceremonies of the Lotud Dusun of Tuaran, Sabah, Malaysia. Borneo Research Bulletin. 40: 249-276. Tahol. (2021). Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Tatana. (2021). Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Warren, J.F. (2002). Iranun and Balangingi. Globalization, Maritime Raiding and the Birth of Ethnicity. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. 5

EVOLUTION OF THE SABAH ETHNIC The Evolution of Lotud TRADITIONAL COSTUMES VOLUME 1 Traditional Costumes by Salbiah Kindoyop, PhD & Humin Jusilin, PhD Universiti Malaysia Sabah CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Traditional costumes reflect cultural identities because clothing styles have been passed down since time immemorial. The heritage of the traditional styles of costumes and accessories worn among the Lotud of Tuaran District demonstrate the creative use of natural materials and human wisdom. The style and shape of the Lotud traditional attire can indicate social position and status. Certain ceremonies, such as rituals, dances, weddings, and Harvest Festival festivities, also involve wearing certain traditional costumes. Most of the Lotud live in Tuaran District on Sabah’s West Coast. Tuaran District is located approximately 34 kilometres from Kota Kinabalu, the capital of Sabah. It has an area of about 116,500 hectares and contains 212 village (Majlis Daerah Tuaran 2022). There are three dialect zones of villages among the Lotud (Pugh-Kitingan & Judeth 2009, 254). The Lotud dialect spoken on the plains around Tuaran Town is known as Suang Lotud, while that spoken in the hills further inland is Lotud Sarayoh, and the dialect around the village of Olung on the sea coast is called Suang Olung. The Lotud have a living traditional culture that has been passed down from generation to generation. Traditional dances, traditional costumes, and ceremonial rituals are still practised today. According to Owen and Daniel (1989, 11-12), the Lotud traditional attire is described in the sacred ritual poetry or rinait of the tantagas or priestesses. Lotud weavers and clothing designers used and adapted the rinait in visual form, resulting in costume patterns and various unique ornaments or decorations. The Lotud have three types of traditional costumes, distinguished according to their customary ceremonial functions. The first is the manarapoh, the ritual costume worn by the tantagas or priestesses of the traditional Lotud religion, that is costumes worn in ritual ceremonies such as for cleansing the universe, strengthening the rice spirits and placating supernatural powers (Edmonson & Judeth 2002; Pugh-Kitingan & Judeth 2009). Second, is the wedding dress worn in a traditional wedding ceremony. The sumayau dancer’s costume, on the other hand, is to attract blessings from supernatural powers, which are translated into performances and dress during wedding ceremonies and other family rituals. Lotud traditional dress is also classified into two categories: women’s costumes and men’s costumes. This traditional attire is often reserved for large customary rituals. Figure 1.1 (i ii, and iii) depict three customary contexts that necessitate the use of traditional costumes during ceremonies. 6

i) Manarapoh costumes worn by tantagas (priestesses) in ritual ceremonies THE EVOLUTION OF LOTUD TRADITIONAL COSTUMES ii) Wedding outfits iii) Costumes for dancing sumayau Figure 1.1: Lotud traditional costumes Figure 1.1 (i - iii), shows the three types of traditional dress of the Lotud. Figure 1.1 (i), is the manarapoh worn by the tantagas priestesses for rituals. Figure 1.1 (ii), shows the wedding outfits, and Figure 1.1 (iii) shows the outfits for dancing the sumayau. Basically, the costume designs for these three ceremonies are almost identical. However, the characteristics in terms of decoration of the shirt or sukob, accessories and the purpose of wearing it are different. For example, the manarapoh worn by tantagas are not decorated with beaded motifs, such as for sumayau dance costumes and wedding dresses. While tantagas and female sumayau dancers are obliged to wear siwot head decorations in a ceremony. Similarly, a bride wearing a wedding costume must also wear the gold sigar head band. CATEGORIES OF WOMEN’S TRADITIONAL COSTUMES The traditional Lotud woman’s costume has its own distinct design and decorative flair (Figure 1.2). The outfit consists of a black blouse and skirts with seams made from colourful hand needle-weaving or linangkit. The blouse is called sukob, whereas the skirt is named gonob. The sukob kopio blouse is long-sleeved, while the short-sleeved form is known simply as sukob in Lotud society. The skirt or gonob is short and falls to the knee. The Lotud gonob comes in two varieties: gonob sinugitan and gonob. In general, the skirt design is the same but the material used distinguishes gonob sinugitan from gonob. For example, gonob sinugitan is made of woven cloth while the normal gonob is made of black cotton or velvet cloth and decorated with linangkit needle- weaving motifs that form a seam between two separate pieces of cloth. 7

EVOLUTION OF THE SABAH ETHNIC Figure 1.2 (i - vi), shows different styles of Lotud women’s dress. Figure 1.2 (i - ii) are TRADITIONAL COSTUMES VOLUME 1 wedding outfits. Figure 1.2 (iii and iv) is for tantagas and elderly ladies. Figure 1.2 (v - vi) are for unmarried girls and (vi) is for sumayau dancing. Although these traditional women’s dress decorations are of similar designs, the style of wearing differs according to a woman’s age, marital and social status. i) ii) iii) iv) v) iv) Figure 1.2 Variations in Lotud women’s traditional dress styles The following, illustrated in Figure 1.3, are the patterns and ornaments of women’s customary costumes of the Lotud. 8 Figure 1.3: Structure of the Lotud woman’s traditional dress

a. Parts of Women’s Traditional Costumes THE EVOLUTION OF LOTUD TRADITIONAL 1. Sukob Kopio – long-sleeved black blouse. COSTUMES 2. Sukob – short-sleeved black blouse and specially designed to be fitted with gonob linangkit. 3. Gonob sinugitan – is a special ceremonial tubular skirt worn with sukob kopio. 4. Sandai – a type of sash measuring three meters long. This cloth is worn wrapped around the body or placed over the shoulder. 5. Kuluwu – a kind of sash sewn continuously at the end of the cloth with a seam of linangkit. It is worn crosswise on the right shoulder. Its other function is as a head covering or it can be placed on the right hand as a decoration. Kuluwu are usually worn by brides and married women, and are matched with sukob and gonob. 6. Haboi – a white cloth that serves as a binder to the skirt around the waist. b. Special Features 1. Linangkit – hand needle-weaving. 2. Siwot – headdress that is poked in the bun and is worn as a decoration for the bride. 3. Sigar – round headband made from a gold with red rattan edges. 4. Karoh – a long necklace made of an arrangement or strip of beads, glass, shells and cone- shaped pieces of wood. 5. Mandapun – a necklace worn on the neck and made of red cloth and adorned with gold pieces. 6. Lilimbo – decorative belts made of rattan. 7. Botungkat – a silver coin-belt. 8. Simpai – a silver bangle, usually worn above the elbow on the left arm. 9. Lasung – anklet made of silver. SYMBOLISM OF ELEMENTS IN A LOTUD WOMAN’S COSTUME Lotud women’s clothing has its own uniqueness because it contains a meaning that reveals the thoughts and philosophy of their lives as in Table 1.1. 9

EVOLUTION OF THE SABAH ETHNIC Table 1.1: TRADITIONAL COSTUMES VOLUME 1 Design, Decoration and Symbolism in Lotud Women’s Clothing i) Sigar • Sigar is a headdress worn like crown. • Sigar is worn ii) Siwot • Round in shape and decorated with gold strips. specifically for iii) Karoh • Using a red rattan wrap women as a • The gold strip is wrapped with bark and red symbol of the iv) Karoh kecil female gender. cloth. • Siwot is the decoration of the bride’s hair bun. • The position of • Siwot consists of four stalks of chicken feathers the siwot in rit- and tied with red cloth. uals is a symbol • Other materials used to make siwot are colorful of connection beads that form juntaian. Rattan pieces are used with supernatu- to tie siwot. ral powers. • Karoh is an important decoration hanging from • Karoh is a the neck. symbol in the • Karoh design features various sizes, colors, cone form of gifts shaped materials and beads. and wedding • Karoh is a gift of the mother-in-law’s inheritance accessories. to her son-in-law in the custom of marriage. • Karoh • Karoh becomes a symbol in the form of gifts and ownership wedding accessories. symbolizes the status of luxury and heritage. • The small karoh is a strip of beads as a necklace. • This karoh is smaller in size than regular karoh and uses limited bead material. • The beads used are red, blue, yellow and brown v) Sukob kopio • The shape of the sukob kopio costume resembles • Sukob kopio a kebaya and has a long sleeve. is a symbol of • The sides and sleeves are embroidered with red adult women’s thread called tinobugi. clothing and • The chest is decorated with floral and geometric translates to motifs that combine threads and beads. social status and • This sukob is worn by the elderly and Lotud wealth. female dancers. 10

vi) Sukob • Sukob is a short-sleeved black blouse. • Sukob usually refers to THE EVOLUTION OF LOTUD TRADITIONAL vii) Sandai • Sukob is decorated with beaded, thread the beauty of the clothes COSTUMES vii) Kuluwu of single women or and gold embroidery. young people. ix) Mandapun • This blouse is stiched with linangkit x) Lilimbo needle-weaving is often called sukob linangkit. • This type of sukob is worn by single women or teenagers. • Sandai is a long scarf or sash worn on the • Sandai as a symbol of body on the right side or hanging from membership or those the neck down the back when worn with who are good at danc- older woman’s costume. ing. • Sandai sinugitan is the result of hand • Describes the harmony embroidery that is a gift or gift in a dance and unification of the ceremony or crowd. Lotud community • Kuluwu is a sash worn crosswise on the • Kuluwu indicates right shoulder. luxury. • Kuluwu is also worn as a head covering • Kuluwu is also a symbol or decoration on the right hand. of the bride’s dress to • Kuluwu is decorated with the usual beads show marital status. based on black color and measuring between 6- 8 inches. • The patterns and motifs of linangkit are woven as the seam of the kuluwu. • These decorations are worn by brides or married women. • Mandapun is a decoration of the neck • Mandapun as a symbol and serves as a necklace. of luxury and its • The mandapun is made of red cloth link with the outside and decorated with copper pieces i.e., community, that is, featuring a combination of organic and the assimilation of geometric motifs. mandapun use among • Mandapun is worn specially by the bride. the Bajau and Dusun. • Red lilimbo is an accessory made of • Lilimbo is a status spiral-shaped rattan material. This symbol of single fine rattan circle is red. women. This red ac- cessory distinguishes • The bride wears a red lilimbo to the wearer from a signify her status before marriage. married woman. (Other colours indi- • The lilimbo design is decorated with cate marital status or beads and silver measuring one widowhood.) centimeter along a strip of white fabric called a loti. 11

EVOLUTION OF THE SABAH ETHNIC xi) Lasung • Lasung or anklets are made of iron strips or • Lasung is a symbol of TRADITIONAL COSTUMES VOLUME 1 silver rolls. femininity because • The design is simple without carving, this accessory is only however, the iron strips can create a rough worn by women. texture. xii) Botungkat • Botungkat is an ornament on the waist and • Botungkat symbolizes • serves as a gonob binder. the significant Botungkat is a silver coin belt. heritage of ancestral wealth with its xiii) Haboi • Haboi is a long white fabric sewn as a gonob • material being binder. made of money and genuine silver xiv) Gonob Sinugitan • Gonob sinugitan is a tubular skirt worn by • material. • the bride or by a high priestess. • Haboi as a symbol • The design of gonob sinugitan falls below of engagement in the knee. marriage customs. xv) Gonob Linangkit • Gonob sinugitan is made of a woven textile The color white is a with geometric motifs. symbol of purity. • Gonob sinugitan • Gonob linangkit is worn by dancers among • indicates the purity of • single women, as well as older married the bride. women. The color black refers This gonob is based on black and has a fash- to gonob sinugitan as ion design that is worn at knee level. an element facilitating Gonob linangkit is dominated by decorative contact with the motifs called linangkit seams on the skirt. supernatural. Linangkit is a seam hand woven with needle Gonob linangkit is and threads with various colors and pat- a symbol of Lotud terns. women’s handicrafts in the art of weaving and sewing. xvi) Simpai • Simpai is a bangle made of silver and worn • Simpai as a symbol of on the left arm for the bride luxury and a round • Women must wear a simpai above the left emblem referring to elbow. the unity of Lotud • Simpai measures between one to two inches society. and the surface has a rough texture. 12

Table 1.1 (i - xvi), shows the clothing and decoration of Lotud women. The women’s dress THE EVOLUTION OF LOTUD TRADITIONAL consists of sixteen sections which include dress, decoration, pattern design and decoration on the COSTUMES head, neck decoration, hand decoration, waist decoration and leg decoration. These clothes and ornaments have designs and motifs that have been produced by the Lotud community through transformation and adaptation from activities and customs in life. Table 1.1 explains that the designs, motifs and patterns on clothing become symbols that translate the social activities and thoughts of the Lotud community. VARIETY OF DECORATIONS AND MOTIFS OF SUKOB The Lotud wedding dress style is derived from simple designs like the kebaya. Figure 1.4 (i - iv), shows two types of blouse designs called sukob kopio and sukob linangkit. The gonob (skirt) also consists of two types, namely, gonob sinugitan and gonob linangkit. Each gonob is stitched using hand needle-weaving techniques. Gonob sinugitan and gonob linangkit are worn to the knee level and have a large waist size and need to be tied with a haboi (cloth belt). (i) Ornamental variety of sukob kopio (ii) Variety of sukob decorations (iii) Gonob Sinugitan motifs (iv) Motif varieties of gonob linangkit Figure 1.4: Sukob and gonob motif varieties Figure 1.4 (i - iv), shows the decorative patterns on women’s sukob and gonob that are dominated by various geometric motifs. The variety of decoration in traditional clothing has a special meaning as well as symbolizing the status of women in their social life. The manner and custom of wearing it has been inherited for a long time as a hereditary rule. This dress code must be observed to preserve its status so the wearer will not be ritually fined with a sogit (animal blood sacrifice as atonement for violation of customary law). 13

EVOLUTION OF THE SABAH ETHNIC For example, the long-sleeved kopio sukob is a sukob worn in ritual practice by the TRADITIONAL COSTUMES VOLUME 1 tantagas who are elderly women. In addition, the sukob kopio is worn by sumayau dancers as a symbol of placating the supernatural (practice of animism). Sukob with short sleeves are worn by single women, teenagers or newlyweds. This sukob is paired with gonob linangkit and gonob sinugitan to provide a more complete wedding dress. WOMEN’S TRADITIONAL CLOTHING AS A SYMBOL OF SOCIAL AND MARITAL STATUS Lotud women’s traditional costumes have a distinct decorative style and a specific purpose, indicating a woman’s social rank. In the framework of women’s traditional dress, four sorts of status can be symbolised: marital status, marriage rituals, and the role and place of women in society. The choice of lilimbo rotan colour, for example, indicates marital status. For example, the colour red is associated with single women’s attire, while the colour combination red and black is associated with the clothing of the elderly and married women. Widows wear plain uncoloured rattan in their lilimbo. Thus, the color of the rattan worn on the waist also indicates an elderly woman. In addition, the status of marriage can also be symbolized through the use of sukob and gonob, that is, single women wear sukob with short sleeves and gonob linangkit, while older women and those who have been married will wear long-sleeved sukob matched with gonob linangkit. Widows also wear this. According to wedding customs, the bride must wear a short-sleeved sukob paired with a gonob sinugitan to symbolize her chastity. Apart from that, the bride also needs to wear the kuluwu crosswise or used as a hood or headscarf as a symbol of luxury. Indeed, wedding dress designs are usually more special and luxurious compared to other dresses to explain their status. The dress of the elderly tantagas in religious ceremonies also symbolises their highest status because of their role as ritual practitioners. For example, a tantagas who lead a ritual ceremony must be fully clothed with her necklaces and have her ritual paraphernalia. The symbol of a woman’s position in society can also be seen through wearing the karoh pendant necklaces. Wealthy or important women are indicated through wearing the larger karoh or more karoh segments and strands, that is between six to eight forms. For ordinary women, on the other hand, the karoh is worn as jewellery and usually their karoh has only two to four segments. Therefore, the different dress among Lotud women can represent the symbols of marital status, marriage customs as well as the role and position of women in Lotud society. 14

CATEGORIES OF MEN’S TRADITIONAL COSTUMES THE EVOLUTION OF LOTUD TRADITIONAL The design of traditional clothing for Lotud men is more simple than for women’s clothing. COSTUMES The men’s costumes consist of a pair of black shirts and trousers decorated with colourful linangkit thread and needle-weaving as well as embroidery (Fig. 1.5). Men’s clothing also has a striped woven mugah (or moga) tubular skirt. Mugah cloth is produced by the Iranun (women) who have high weaving skills. Nowadays, the mugah textile has become part of the traditional dress of the Lotud people. The mugah is usually worn by male sumayau dancers and is paired with a shirt or sukob. Bridegrooms and customary practitioners, on the other hand, prefer to wear trousers or binandus rather than mugah. Men’s traditional costumes also include some ornaments to show aesthetic features that are full of meaning according to the beliefs of the Lotud community. i) ii) iii) Figure 1.5: Lotud Men’s Traditional Costumes Figure 1.5 (i, ii and iii), shows three types of traditional costumes worn by the men in Lotud society. Figure 1.5 (i and iii) includes the binandus version of the costume, while Figure 1.5 (ii) is the mugah version of the costume. Apart from the red striped mugah cloth, Lotud men’s traditional clothing is black. This colour dominance is the basis of the costume which is decorated with various motifs and patterns of brightly coloured needle-weaving and thread decorations using such as red and yellow. The dress is also adorned with various ornaments made of beaded material and gold thread. 15

EVOLUTION OF THE SABAH ETHNIC The following Figure 1.6 shows the patterns and ornaments of men’s costumes in the TRADITIONAL COSTUMES VOLUME 1 dress customs of the Lotud community. Figure 1.6: Structure of Lotud Men’s traditional costume with mugah a. Elements of Men’s Traditional Costumes 1. Sukob – a long-sleeved, black shirt with a beaded pattern on the sleeves and chest. 2. Mugah – long woven tubular skirt. 3. Binandus – black long pants with no patterns. 4. Sundi – a woven headcloth. 5. Haboi – a white cloth that serves as a binder to hold up the mugah. b. Ornaments 1. Karoh – a long necklace and made of strips of beads, shells and wood. 2. Bubu tulan – a belt made of silver with a large ornate clasp. 3. Botungkat – a silver coin-belt. 4. Supuh – spherical silver container, worn as a complement to the botungkat placed on the left waist. 5. Tatarapan – a silver dagger inserted in front of the waist. 6. Simpai – a silver bangle worn above each elbow. 16

Table 1.2: Symbolism of Elements in a Lotud Man’s Costume THE EVOLUTION OF LOTUD TRADITIONAL COSTUMES i) Sundi • Sundi worn as a headcloth is specially designed as a symbol of the heroism of a Lotud man. • Sundi uses a textile woven by Iranun women with various unique motifs. • The textile has many square and triangular motifs that form patterns. • The shape of the sundi folds as if protruding upwards as a symbol of his heroism. ii) Pirak • Pirak is an ornament designed like a flower bud, pinned to the front of iii) Karoh the sundi. • Pirak symbolizes the rank or wealth or luxury of men • The original pirak has a colour like golden silver. • The karoh is an important decoration in Lotud’s dress which is specially designed as a long necklace. • The karoh design features differences in size, colour and material used. • A karoh is the gift from the bride’s mother-in-law to her son as a symbol of inheritance. vi) Karoh kecil • A small karoh uses beaded material that is connected into the necklace. v) Sukob • A small karoh has a smaller size compared to ordinary karoh due to the predominance of bead material in its manufacture. • The beads used are red, blue, yellow and brown. • It is worn crosswise on the chest of the bridegroom. • A sukob shirt is short and collared and has slits on the left and right at the waist. • A sukob is decorated with colourful bead embroidery. The motifs on the sukob is called ukop such as on the end of the sleeves. • The motif decoration on the shirt covers the sleeves, side decoration (often linangkit seams) and chest. vi) Sandai Sinugitan • Sandai sinugitan is a long sash or sandai placed on a man’s shoulder. • Sandai sinugitan is a gift from the parents to the bride as a sign of blessing from the parents. vii) Tatarapan • Tatarapan is a kind of dagger made from silver • According to etiquette, it must be worn by the groom during the wedding ceremony. 17

EVOLUTION OF THE SABAH ETHNIC viii) Bubu Tulan • Bubu tulan is a type of belt made from silver. TRADITIONAL COSTUMES VOLUME 1 x) Supuh • Typically, bubu tulan clasps have a width of about three inches. xi) Botungkat • Bubu tulan are designed with hooks to facilitate tying at the waist. xii) Haboi • A supuh is an ornamental container that is hung on from a bubu tulan. xiii) Mugah • A supuh serves as a storage place for tobacco. • A supuh has a circular shape and and is decorated with radiating motif in xiv) Binandus the metal. xv) Simpai • Botungkat is an ornamental belt worn on a man’s waist. • A botungkat is worn between the bubu tulan and supuh. • A botungkat is made of silver coins to form a coin belt. • Haboi is a long white fabric sewn as a gonob binder. • Haboi as a symbol of engagement in marriage customs. The color white is a symbol of purity. • The mugah are usually woven with colourful threads to produce horizaontal patterns. • In former times mugah, as well as bubu tulan and supuh, were made by the Iranun and traded into the Lotud culture • The Lotud bridegroom wears a mugah tied with a haboi at the waist. • Binandus refer to Lotud men’s trousers. • Binandus are made from black cotton or velvet. • Usually binandus are undecorated. But nowadays, linangkit needle-woven seams and motifs adorn the sides and hems. • Binandus usually have a large waist section. Therefore, men use haboi to tie binandus. • Simpai is an arm bangle made from silver. • Simpai size is usually between one to two inches. Decorative motifs depicting fish scales dominate the surface on the simpai. • Lotud men wear simpai on their elbows as a symbol of identity, that is, as the status of a tree in Lotud society. Table 1.2 above shows the costume and adornments of Lotud men. There are fourteen parts which include garments and ornaments on the head, ornaments of the neck, ornaments of the hands, ornaments of the waist and ornaments of the feet. These clothes and ornaments have designs and motifs that have been produced by the Lotud community itself. 18

MEN’S CLOTHING DESIGN AND MOTIFS THE EVOLUTION OF LOTUD TRADITIONAL Bridegrooms wear costumes of a straightforward style, such as a long-sleeved shirt (sukob) COSTUMES without a collar. Binandus trousers and long mugah tubular skirts are two styles of lower body clothing. Trousers are black and long in length. Unlike shirts, binandus designs typically lack elaborate patterns or themes themes, apart from occasionally having a linangkit back panel. The waist of the pants is large and must be tightened with haboi. Mugah is a woven cloth made of red, black, and brown threads. The decorative structure of the pattern is displayed on the seams, edges, and ends of the wrist on the shirt or sukob. Motif ornamentation is achieved by embroidering and sewing directly onto the sukob. The motifs depicted include zigzag lines, crossing lines, round shapes, animal representations, and spiral shapes of flora known as ukop and tinobungi (Figure 1.7). (i) Traditional motifs (ii) Current motifs iii) Motifs on binandus iv) Motifs in mugah textiles Figure 1.7: Motifs on sukob, binandus and mugah Figure 1.7 (i - iv) shows the motifs seen on the Lotud men’s sukob, binandus, and mugah. Mugah cloth is more commonly seen at dancing celebrations. However, it is also worn throughout the wedding ceremony if the bridegroom so desires. Binandus are typically worn by male ritual practitioners who perform minor ceremonies or small-scale rice spirit ceremonies. 19

EVOLUTION OF THE SABAH ETHNIC CONCLUSION TRADITIONAL COSTUMES VOLUME 1 Traditional costumes in Lotud society are part of the heritage of which the people are proud. Lotud women’s traditional attire is unique and beautiful, as evidenced by its style, patterns, and accessories. Clothing has an indirect function as a marker of status and way of life among the Lotud. As a result, these traditional costumes should be documented as part of the nation’s heritage. Furthermore, the costumes can be recognised by other groups, ensuring that they are not lost for future generations. REFERENCES Edmundson, A. & Judeth John Baptist. (2002). Continuing Transformations: The Manarapoh Attire of the Lotud Dusun. Sarawak Museum Journal, 107(78), 194-207. Owen, S.K. & Daniel, S.S. (1989). Pesta Kaamatan. Kota Kinabalu: Arkib Negeri Sabah. Majlis Daerah Tuaran. (2022). Pugh-Kitingan, J. & Judeth John Bapatist. (2009). Music for Cleansing the Universe—Drum ming and Gong Ensemble Music in the Mamahui Pogun Ceremonies of the Lotud Du sun of Tuaran, Sabah. Borneo Research Bulletin, 40, 249-276. The Lotud. (1997). In Rita Lasimbang & Moo-Tan, S. (eds.), An Introduction to the Traditional Costumes of Sabah, pp.33-44. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications in associa tion with Department of Sabah Museum. INFORMANTS Poulina Sarabun, 46 tahun, Kampung Tagas Tuaran. Ketua Pertubuhan Kebudayaan Daerah Tuaran (Warisan Budaya Lotud), 30 Mei 2014. Sibah Bolong, 79 tahun, Kampung Raganan Tuaran. Tantagas expert in molukas dan bambarayon (semangat padi), 13 Mei 2014. Tooi Intingan, 56 tahun, Kampung Panjut Tuaran. Keeper of Pakaian Tradisional Masyarakat Lotud, 30 Mei 2014. Maurice Haawang, 52 tahun, Kampung Panjut Tuaran. Village Head, Kampung Panjut Tuaran. Ehau Elit, 65 tahun, Kampung Tagas Tuaran. Keeper of Lotud traditional costumes. 20

The Evolution of the Costumes THE EVOLUTION OF COSTUMES OF DUSUN of Dusun Tindal of Kota Belud TINDAL OF KOTA BELUD DISTRICT District by Salbiah Kindoyop, PhD Universiti Malaysia Sabah CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION Clothing can reflect a society’s cultural identity, which can be defined by the use of their traditional costumes. This also applies to Sabah’s societies. Every costume worn by Sabah’s various ethnic groups has a distinct meaning and function. Furthermore, the designs and accessories of the costumes that have been produced express the values of beauty and ethics of the society that supports them. Thus, this study will determine the development of designs and accessories of traditional costumes for Dusun Tindal women in the district of Kota Belud, Sabah. The Dusun Tindal ethnic group lives in the Kota Belud District on Sabah’s West Coast. The district is 1385.6 square kilometres in size and is located at the foot of Mount Kinabalu. Kota Belud Township is around 77 kilometres from Kota Kinabalu. This District is also bounded by three other Districts: Kota Marudu in the north, Ranau in the east, and Tuaran in the west. According to the Department of Statistics Malaysia (2010) population and housing census, the Dusun Tindal ethnic group has the greatest population in the District of Kota Belud, with 38,097 individuals, followed by the Bajau with 31,506 people. The Iranun in Kota Belud District are thought to number around 20,000 (Pandikar Amin 2011, 23; Smith 2011, 1). The Dusun Tindal display a variety of traditional cultural heritage that is still practiced today, such as traditional clothing, traditional dances and traditional handicrafts. Traditional dress is the most visible heritage among Dusun Tindal. According to informant Madam Soulin Salidap (50 years), the Dusun Tindal ethnicity is known through the uniqueness of the traditional costumes worn during harvest festivals and social events. There are two types of traditional clothing in the ethnic heritage of Dusun Tindal called sinipak and rinagang. Sinipak is worn by the people who live on the plains while rinagang predominates among the Dusun Tindal who live in hilly areas further inland. 21

EVOLUTION OF THE SABAH ETHNIC The sinipak costume is made of black material with red patterns (Figure 2.1). TRADITIONAL COSTUMES VOLUME 1 According to informant Ading bin Pahau (57 years), this clothing has changed over time to include ornaments, linangkit needle-weaving, and beaded embroidery to make it more appealing. The size of the embroidery of the cloth motif was changed, that is, the geometric motif was embroidered with a smaller size on the hems of the sinipak fabric. The design of sinipak garments has become more complex with the use of more comfortable textiles and the inclusion of motif embroidery on sinipak fabrics. Figure 2.1: Sinipak costume The rinagang is the traditional costume of the Dusun Tindal women who reside in the hills of Kota Belud. The rinagang traditional attire is likewise unique in terms of style and ornamentation (Figure 2.2). It includes a sleeveless blouse (binidang), a skirt (gonob), and a hood (sunduk or surunduk). Other ornaments include chains of beads (karoh), red rattan hoops around the bodice (rinagang), and beaded embroidery (sinimpana). Figure 2.2: Rinagang costume 22

THE EVOLUTION OF THE SINIPAK COSTUME THE EVOLUTION OF COSTUMES OF DUSUN Through linangkit hand needle-weaving and its surrounding beaded embroidery that TINDAL OF KOTA BELUD DISTRICT forms motifs and decorative patterns, the sinipak costume has its own originality and beauty. The hand needle-weaving and embroidering abilities of the Dusun Tindal make the sinipak one of Sabah’s most well-known garments. Since the price or worth of sinipak is very high, this talent enables the makers of sinipak costumes to earn a profitable living. The processes of making sinipak are quite complicated and involve expensive materials and implements. As a result, buying this traditional attire is out of reach for many people. This garment producer, on the other hand, usually has a huge collection and offers rental services. I.H.N. Evans photographed a bridegroom’s sinipak outfit in 1938. Gintuak from Kadamaian is pictured in Figure 2.3 with his bride from Toburon. Gintuak was a Dusun Tindal native, while his wife was a Tobilung Dusun native. (The Tobilung speak a different Dusunic language and live in the northern part of Kota Belud and the southern part of Kota Marudu Districts.) The bridegroom wore a sinipak shirt with accessories such as a sigar (headcloth), tinggot (belt), and lolopot (woven headcloths draped over his shoulders and across the body). Betawi buttons adorned the front and sleeves of his sinipak. Figure 2.3: Image of a bridegroom’s sinipak from the year 1938 (Source: Evans, 2002) Sinipak attire has evolved over time, particularly with the incorporation of accessories. The original sinipak design was black with red textiles. Costume styles from this period were enhanced with elegant accessories and beaded embroidery to make them more attractive as a result of the passage of time (Figure 2.4). Figure 2.4: Evolution of sinipak in 1990 23

EVOLUTION OF THE SABAH ETHNIC Sinipak costume textiles are becoming more complex and creative in terms of beaded TRADITIONAL COSTUMES VOLUME 1 embroidery and use of materials. Due to a lack of materials, however, the fabric has been changed from textiles woven from banana fibre pisang lanut (Musa textilis) in the olden days (Rita & Moo-Tan, 1997, 25), to velvet and more readily accessible black fabrics. The front and sleeves are decorated with beaded embroidery and betawi buttons. Linangkit hand needle- weaving of the sipak motif is also found on the sleeves before they split at the elbows. The usage of accessories is the same, however most of the materials used today are not original (Figure 2.5). Figure 2.5: The latest sinipak evolution Figures 2.3 to 2.5 show the evolution of sinipak costumes worn by brides and bridegrooms in different eras. All three photographs represent the modifications or evolution that have occurred in the usage of materials, designs, and accessories. The incorporation of beaded embroidery and linangkit motifs are the most noticeable modifications. The new or revised designs, however, keep to the original overall forms and have become the identity of the traditional Dusun Tindal costume. 24

VARIETIES OF WOMEN’S SINIPAK DECORATIONS THE EVOLUTION OF COSTUMES OF DUSUN Sinipak decorations highlight the identity and originality of the costume, allowing it to TINDAL OF KOTA BELUD DISTRICT be recognised from the traditional attire of other ethnic groups. Women wear ornaments or accessories with their sinipak more than men. These two outfits, on the other hand, are matched in the usage of the same basic design, colour, decorative patterns, linangkit and beaded embroidered motifs. According to informant Madam Siap Binti Guladi (80years), wearing sinipak costumes during customary ceremonies and social events is part of Dusun Tindal culture. During wedding ceremonies, the bride and groom, as well as the dancers and family members, must all wear sinipak. The bridal costumes are usually more complete than the others. This dress culture attempts to offer a distinctive bridal image while also bringing life to the wedding event. Figure 2.6: Elements in women’s sinipak There are eleven elements in sinipak clothing and accessories for women (Figure 2.6, Table 2.1). These include lolopot, kuapu, sinipak, saring pirok, solindang, tinggot, baratina, babagas, gonob, and lungkaki. These clothes and accessories have evolved significantly, particularly in terms of linangkit motifs and embroidery designs and the materials used in their creation. 25

EVOLUTION OF THE SABAH ETHNIC Table 2.1: TRADITIONAL COSTUMES VOLUME 1 Elements of women’s sinipak costumes and accessories i) Sinipak Long-sleeved black blouse. The sleeves are open from the elbows and have three ii) Gonob layers of brightly coloured lining, namely red, yellow and green. The seam above iii) Lolopot each of the open sleeve section consists of iv) Solindang a wide panel of linangkit surrounded by v) Sunduk gold lace. Gold betawi buttons decorate vi) Kuapu the bodice and along the open sleeves. vii) Baratina Black knee-length skirt embroidered with red, yellow, white and green threads. Embroidery patterns form zig zag motifs at the edges of the seams that are formed with linangkit. The cut gold lace is also stitched on the gonob seams vertically and horizontally on the front. The cloth is folded obliquely over the chest and tied at the waist. This textile is made by Iranun women, weaving with red, yellow, green and blue coloured threads producing geometric patterns. Black shawl embroidered with gold beads in geometric motifs. Long black head cloth embroidered with red and yellow threads and beads ar- ranged horizontally and vertically, and with linangkit for seams. The silver tobacco container is spherical in shape. Usually, two or four kuapu pods are worn under the neck. The carvings on the kuapu are patterned with organic shapes such as flora. Belts made of iron or zinc coloured like silver, and arranged in chains. 26

viii) Tinggot A silver coin belt (Hong Kong dollars with THE EVOLUTION OF COSTUMES OF DUSUN ix) Saring Pirok a picture of the Dutch Queen Wilheminia TINDAL OF KOTA BELUD DISTRICT x) Babagas Guilders). Worn under the baratina. The xi) Lungkaki number of belts depends on the wealth of the wearer. Bangles made of silver that have geometric shaped carvings such as triangles and circles. An arrangement of round-shaped beads embroidered in a 6-inch-wide chain around the hips. The beads are very heavy and this requires the wearer to walk and sit more carefully Engraved silver anklets with geometric shapes that are very similar to those on the saring pirok. Table 2.1, summarises the complete pattern of clothing and accessories for Dusun Tindal women. The sinipak costume is based on a blouse called sinipak and a skirt or gonob. Accessories such as lolopot, kuapu, saring pirok, solindang, tinggot, baratina, babagas and lungkaki are jewellery that complement women’s sinipak attire. 27

EVOLUTION OF THE SABAH ETHNIC SINIPAK DESIGN AND SYMBOLISM TRADITIONAL COSTUMES VOLUME 1 The sinipak has the same pattern and motifs for women and men. The sinipak is dominated by colourful lace fabrics arranged in layers in the open sleeves. The betawi buttons on the chest and sides of the sleeves are a distinguishing feature of the sinipak. On the chest and back of the sinipak, silver-colored beads are embroidered in a triangular motif. The wide linangkit needle-woven upper seams on both sleeves of sinipak symbolizes a person’s marital and social status by using bright hand-knotted colours. The more colourful the linangkit motif, the greater the social status of the wearer in terms of age and marital state. Figure 2.7: Sinipak design For women’s costumes, the sinipak is matched with a gonob which today is made of the same black fabric as the blouse. The knee-length gonob is embroidered with red, yellow, and silver threads and beads. A string of small silver bells or giring is also stitched to the hem of the gonob, producing sounds that indicate that the wearer has an important status as a woman. In former times, giring were stitched to the hems of a bride’s costume and also to the ceremonial dress of a Dusun Tindal bobolian or priestess. Figure 2.8: Gonob design The sinipak attire of Dusun Tindal has meaning and significance in the life of their society. Each object associated with their life is turned into motifs in the linangkit needle- weaving and also embroidery. Bright tones are also influenced by the use of colour in Iranun and possibly Bajau ethnic art work. According to informant Madam Siap Binti Gulad, the Dusun Tindal sinipak outfit was originally black and embroidered with betawi buttons and gold lace. The use of the Iranun term sinipak (Bajau badu sampit) for the costume, however, and the sleeve design with a slit as well as three layers of brilliantly coloured cloth indicates Iranun influence. The usage of vivid colours that are comparable to the colour themes of both Iranun and Bajau ethnic costumes is most likely due to processes of diffusion and cultural interaction between the three societies in the Tempasuk area (today’s Kota Belud District) for hundreds of years. 28

SUNDUK IN WOMEN’S SINIPAK COSTUMES THE EVOLUTION OF COSTUMES OF DUSUN TINDAL OF KOTA BELUD DISTRICT Sinipak costumes are recognized by the uniqueness and beauty of their design and accessories. The sunduk or long headcloth is one of the accessories used in sinipak attire. For Dusun Tindal women, wearing sunduk is a practice with a specific significance and belief in their life. This practice has also been passed down via generations since time immemorial. Wearing sunduk is part of wearing both of their traditional costumes known as sinipak and rinagang. Figure 2.9 shows a bride and groom wearing sinipak costumes while performing the mongigol dance. The sinipak attire has a unique style and accessories. The bride’s sunduk is one of the accessories worn with sinipak. The sunduk enhances the beauty of the bride by highlighting her face, and also enlivens the wedding ceremony. Figure 2.9: The use of sunduk with sinipak Figure 2.10 shows two views of the wearing of sunduk with sinipak outfits. The sunduk is made from black cloth that has been stitched with red and yellow threads and beads that have been positioned horizontally and vertically to make a geometric pattern. The use of sunduk as a headpiece here also enhances the wearer’s face. Figure 2.10: Two views of sunduk worn with sinipak 29

EVOLUTION OF THE SABAH ETHNIC THE EVOLUTION OF THE RINAGANG COSTUME TRADITIONAL COSTUMES VOLUME 1 The term rinagang or rinagangan comes from the Dusun language, where aragang or ragang signifies red. Rinagang means ’reddened,’ referring to the colour of the reddened rattan (tuai) worn around the chest. The length of rattan has been twisted into a loop and is used by Dusun Tindal women as a fabric binder (binidang). According to the informant Tarini aka Beneh Binti Kandi (80 years), the Dusun Tindal traditional attire, rinagang, was so-named by other Dusun people who came to the Dusun Tindal settlement region for trade. They referred to Dusun Tindal ladies as aragang, or red, implying unmarried women. This was because Dusun women in other Districts such as Ranau and Tambunan who were engaged, often wore a red rattan belt around their waists as a sign of their betrothed status. Among the Dusun Tindal ethnic group, wearing rinagang is also a sign of a woman’s beauty. As a result, rinagang became a name for the traditional Dusun Tindal costume that is used until today. Figure 2.11 shows two images of Dusun Tindal women wearing rinagang outfits, by John Whitehead (1893). The rinagang garments in the illustrations have simple designs without beaded embroidery. Red rattan coils were used to bind the fabric across the chest. Silver coin belts were worn to tighten the skirts or gonob at the waist. Beaded embellishments are not currently used in rinagang dress designs, even today. Figure 2.11: Dusun Tindal women dressed in Rinagang (Source: Whitehead 1893) Costumes in the 1950s, however, were designed to cover the back. Although, the rinagang design is simple and uncovered around the neck, this traditional attire has become the main dress of Dusun Tindal women while doing their daily activities. These clothes are also worn while doing work on the farm but they will wear the head covering called surunduk for protection from sunlight and rain. 30

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