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Science magazine

Published by Snehalata Das, 2022-02-17 05:23:49

Description: Reflective Realities


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The Wonderful World of Science Science generates solutions for everyday life and helps us to answer the great mysteries of the universe. It plays a key role in our lives as it largely contributes towards providing us with our basic needs of food, water, shelter. Medicines for our good heath as well as instruments to monitor our heath are a gift from science. Means of travel, entertainment and communication are a result of dedicated research and hard work of the scientists. Scientific literacy is a must as it equips us to face sustainable development challenges and major global challenges such as climate change, ocean heath, biodiversity loss and freshwater security. Hence, engagement with science and participation in various scientific activities assume immense importance as this helps us to make informed personal and professional choices. ‘Reflective Realities’ is an endeavor on our part to ignite interest, arouse curiosity and to know more about the magical and wonderful world of Science. Students of grade IX have put together various scientific informative articles, facts, write-ups, time lines, pictures and illustrations to take us on a bewitching journey and give us a glimpse into this wonderland. 2

INDEX Magnificent Galaxy --------------------------------------- 4 Mind & Body ----------------------------------------------- 11 Energy -------------------------------------------------------- 26 Future of Science ------------------------------------------- 41 Fact Corner -------------------------------------------------- 48 A Talk with scientists -------------------------------------- 49 India in 2030-------------------------------------------------- 50 Man on the Moon 3

“The Eagle has landed On the Moon” It was July 20, 1969, when 600 million people watched their television screens as small lunar module Eagle touched down on the moon. It was the first time humans had walked on any surface away from the Earth. The Mission Diary July16, 1969 Neil Armstrong Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin and Mike Collins blast off on Apollo 11 mission. 4

July 20, 1969 Buzz Aldrin stands on the surface of the moon after traveling for four days .Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin strap themselves into the Eagle and drop down onto the surface of moon. July 20, 02:56 GMT At 02:56 Greenwich Mean Time, Neil Armstrong steps out of the Eagle and puts his left foot down. 5

Dawn Of 24th July On July 20, 17:54 GMT astronauts begin their journey home. They landed in the Pacific. The three Astronauts arrive home four days later, in good health. - Om 6

The Mysteries of Space In the center of Black Hole A black hole is a region of Oldest thing in our Solar System is the Sun but the water we drink is older than the Sun which is in the form of ice in space. Places where Laws of space time where Physics might break down gravity is so strong that Below the Planck length nothing — no particles or Planck length is the smallest possible length between two even electromagnetic points it was proposed by a radiation such as light — Physicist named Max Planck. Planck Length can escape from it. =1.616255×10⁻³⁵ m. Above the Speed of Light. - Rugved The Speed of Light is 299,792,458 m / s. 7

Telescope • Infrared telescopes, using longer A telescope is an optical wavelengths than instrument using lenses, visible light curved mirrors, or a combination of both to • Submillimeter observe distant objects, or telescopes, various devices used to using microwave wavel observe distant objects by engths that are longer their emission, absorption, than those of infrared or reflection of light electromagnetic radiation. • Radio telescopes that Types of Telescopes use even longer wavelengths Telescopes may be classified by the • Telescopes are also wavelengths of light they classified into detect: Refracting, Reflecting and Catadioptric • X-ray telescopes, using Telescopes shorter wavelengths than ultraviolet light The First Telescope • Ultraviolet telescopes, The first Telescope was using shorter invented in 1608 in The wavelengths than Netherlands by The Dutch visible light Eyeglass maker, Hans Lippershey. • Optical telescopes, using visible light His telescope was a very basic Optical Telescope. 8

It consisted of a concave Telescope by Isaac eyepiece aligned with a Newton Convex Objective Lens. • Newton made the His telescope was capable of Newtonian Telescope magnifying an Object up to in 1668. It was a kind three times. of reflector Telescope. Telescope upgraded by • He used a Concave Galileo mirror for his primary mirror and a flat • Galileo also heard diagonal secondary about the famous mirror. Telescope and wanted to build his very own Discoveries variant, although he never saw one, he • Galileo found out that decided to build his the Moon’s surface own Telescope from wasn’t smooth; it was scratch. rough and patched. • He ended up with an • He also found the Four upgraded form which Moons of Jupiter and discovered Saturn’s • Could zoom up to 20 rings. He faintly saw times in 1609. The Milky Way Galaxy. • The Hubble Telescope, which was made in 1990, discovered two 9

Moons of Pluto, discovered that there is a central Black Hole in every large galaxy and helped determine the age of The Universe (13.8 Billion years). It also helped to draw a 3-D map of Dark Matter. - Pranjal 10


Endurance activity, accept an Endurance is defined as the unpleasant or difficult act of working very hard process or situation without without stopping, even in giving way or manage your the face of difficult emotions to deal with situations or pain. An difficult circumstances. example of endurance is what a marathon runner has The power of enduring to have to get through a something demands a lot of race. Endurance refers to strength, either physical, your body’s physical mental or emotional from capability to sustain an the individual. For instance, exercise for an extended a race or other sporting period. event that takes place over a long distance or otherwise It’s made up of two demands great physical components: cardiovascular stamina. If your neighbour endurance and muscular is drilling the walls of his endurance. Endurance is the house all day then it needs a amount of time you can lot of mental endurance to withstand doing a physical accept that noise without saying anything. If someone has dealt with a lot of stress then it needs a lot of emotional endurance 12

There are different types of at or near your maximal physical endurance which velocity. Another way to can be measured: look at speed endurance is the ability to minimize Aerobic endurance: deceleration after achieving During aerobic work, the maximal velocity, also body is working at a level known as top speed. that the body's intake can Strength endurance: meet the demands for Strength endurance is used oxygen and fuel. to develop the athlete's capacity to maintain their Anaerobic endurance: muscles' contractile force. During anaerobic work, All athletes need to build a involving maximum effort, basic level of strength the body is working so hard endurance. that the demands for oxygen and fuel exceed the supply It is importance to build rate and the muscles have to strength so that we can rely on the stored reserves endure physical activity of fuel. The muscles, being which is difficult. One of the starved of oxygen, take the ways to build it is through body into a state known as taekwondo. Taekwondo is oxygen debt and lactic starts an art as well as a sport. to accumulate in the muscles. 13 Speed endurance: Speed endurance is the quality of being able to maintain sprinting velocities

It builds strength as well as attention, determination and focus. In football, players have to have tremendous endurance because they have to run around a 100 meter field for one and a half hour or more, and in a match sometimes, a single player runs about 15 kilometres. Endurance is an important quality to have so that one can deal with various situations in a balanced manner. - Bilva 14

Impact of Covid-19 on our of restrictions so we were mental and physical health not even able to step out. The outbreak of Covid-19 The COVID cases were few has and is hugely affecting and the recovery rate was our lives. The first considerably good at the lockdown in India was beginning but the COVID announced in March 2020. cases increased and the This was the first time we death rate also increased. had to stay at home for a Many lost their family longer time. It was very members, some children lost exciting in the beginning. their parents and this has a Work from home and school very disturbing impact on from home had begun. people's minds. The fact that People loved how they we can’t meet our close could do their work from the ones or care for them when comfort of their homes. they are not well is Theatres were shut, TV extremely stressful. Isn’t it? shows stopped shooting, and telecasting was also stopped. Corona virus is disturbing In those days epics like The our lives by affecting our Ramayana and The mental and physical health. Mahabharata were Hypertension and obesity telecasted, the whole of are now so common. If India enjoyed it together. someone is tested positive We explored ourselves more for COVID, fever, cold, than we had ever before. We cough and respiratory developed new skills and problems makes his/her gave more time to our immune system weak. This hobbies. But there were a lot is why we need to consume 15

healthy food and avoid issues and are emotionally packaged or preserved very disturbed. As schools foodstuffs. It has also are online and work from greatly disturbed mental home continues, not peace. After all humans are meeting friends and teachers social animals and we were or colleagues also affects as locked up for so long, not we are somewhere missing being able to see new faces, out a social touch. meet our friends or relatives. Some people faced After the first wave, depression, anxiety and everything started with more such serious issues some restrictions but the and some of them took second came with a larger wrong steps playing with force and caused much more their own lives by destruction than the first developing wrong habits. In wave. Variant after variant, such cases it is advised to COVID is changing itself consult a psychiatrist or a and is continuously trying to psychologist and get help on attack our immune system time. Some people faced a making us weak. Now we mental breakdown having are said to be near to the no one to talk or share their third wave and the only problems with. Many of us thing we can do is protect got so addicted to ourselves and our loved technology that it is still ones. Now the schools, very difficult to get out of it. colleges, theatres, markets, Not only adults or teens but malls are opening. So, Let young children are also us try to avoid public facing severe psychological contact as much as possible, wear our mask properly, 16

maintain social distancing when in public place, make our immune system strong and maintain proper hygiene. Don’t panic but be aware. - Siya 17

“Your body hears It also helps determine how everything your mind we handle stress, relate to says” others, and make choices. Mental health is important at As we all know physical and every stage of life, from mental health are really childhood and adolescence important. Especially during through adulthood. this situation we have to keep fit and healthy by How can we take care of increasing our “immunity” our mental health? (to resist a particular infection or toxin) as to do • Do some things which any work we need to be fit make you feel relaxed and healthy. such as yoga, meditation or follow What if we don’t keep fit your hobbies and healthy? As I mentioned earlier, that • Medication to do any work we need to Psychotherapy, or be fit and healthy. talking therapies. If our immunity is compromised we will be • Getting the right more prone to diseases or amount of sleep. infections as we are weak to fight a particular disease or Physical health infection which sometimes can even lead to death. Physical health is when people are free from any Mental health kind of illness. It affects Mental health includes our how we do our work. It is emotional psychological, very important to take care and social well-being. It of our mental health. affects how we think, feel, and act. 18

Fact corner • Your brain isn’t fully formed until age 25 • You’re going to be taller in morning. • Our brain size has decreased by 10% since we were hunters and gathers • The human brain will grow three times its size in the first year of life it continues to grow until you are about age 18 • The brain weights about three pounds. - Sreehyma 19

Multitasking \"In my view, multitasking is ok. I don't practice it in my Performing several tasks at daily life, but surely it the same time is called increases efficiency and MULTITASKING. It has does not have any effect on many effects on a person. mental and physical health. The effects are both positive Multitasking is sometimes and negative. The positive important in our lives and it's good sometimes. But the effects include finishing up most important factor while the work fast, getting time multitasking is, presence of for ourselves to relax etc. mind.\" The negative effects are not being able to concentrate on - Views of Dr S.B. Pathan a single task properly, feeling confused on how to Multitasking, is an handle the tasks properly individual handling many and forgetting what our things. Practice and priority is. However, in our attention makes man perfect daily busy lives, sometimes, for multitasking. we need to multitask. Multitasking is all about tricks, concentration and For example, homemakers attention. It's difficult for a have to cook, clean, look person who has never done after their children and multitasking but not that perform many more tasks. difficult for an efficient person. 20

I feel gender matters as most Main factors in multitasking men are not habitual to are, mindfulness, vigilance, multitasking but, the men quick reflexes, who have to stay alone have concentration, making a to multitask daily. If the schedule and not being lazy. situation is such that, all the So, I feel multitasking is not responsibilities are on us, a myth but is actually we have to multitask. Age Multiple Intelligence. also matters in multitasking as we lose energy as one - Views of Rashi Melwani- ages. Hence we cannot work Counsellor more efficiently. Multitasking affects mental As a housewife, I have to health in some cases leading multitask daily. If I am to depression, stress etc. cooking anything new or special, we work happily but It affects physical health doing the same task every leading to decrease in day is tiring and stressful. weight and becoming underweight and also, we - Views of Sheela Kulkarni- eat less. It also leads to Homemaker hormonal imbalance. I prefer multitasking. When I started multitasking initially, I faced problems but now I can multitask. I feel a person cannot put his feet on two boats at a time. However, if he is trained, he can do so. 21

Actually, multitasking is So, in one case efficiency also beneficial as work is increases and in another it done fast and we get some decreases. I don't think age time for myself and if we or gender matters. The don 't multitask, the work important factors while will remain as it is for the multitasking is to focus and whole day and we will not to concentrate on the get time for myself. So, it's fraction of seconds while we both, good and tiring for switch from one task to us.\" another. However, I have stopped multitasking and do \"Multitasking can be in not support it as it has an various situations, such as, effect on physical health if we put on a song when we leaving us tired. But, if we are not able to concentrate multitask it surely improves on studies, and if we study concentration. If the person with the song it increases is not focused it is hard for our efficiency and him or her to multitask. concentration. But if, we are speaking to someone and 22 watching our phone it's a distraction because of which we can lose our concentration and it decrease our efficiency too.

How to stop young generation from multitasking- Self-inventory will reveal the impact of multitasking on their free time. By keeping a record of time spent on homework for a few days and analysing the outcome of the work they do with and without the multitasking activities, they’ll understand the high costs.\" - Views of Ms Baljinder Kaur- Counsellor -Siya Alandkar 23

Growth and fixed mindset personality. People who have the thoughts of Mindset- set of ideas, changing themselves into a opinions and beliefs that better person through hard shape how you make sense work observation and good of world and yourself. It is qualities from others are important to have a mindset known as having a growth by yourself and not by mindset. Growth mindset influence of other people. can lead to success as well as failures; growth mindset There are two types of main promotes learning from our mind-sets; growth mindset mistakes and using them as and fixed mindset. People steps to success. The having fixed mindset thoughts of changing believe the basic qualities yourself into a better person like intelligence or talent as in the influence of others their fixed traits. around you can lead to failures. The process of They spend their time changing yourself can be describing their thoughts more time consuming and instead of developing them. can cause distraction in your The benefit of having a life. People having growth fixed mindset is that you mindset can bear criticism won't have the thoughts of against them and use it to changing yourself or the better themselves but people world around you. People having fixed mindset cannot with fixed mindset think handle criticism. that their thoughts/ opinions are fixed, so they avoid hard 24 work, try to avoid mistakes and do not improve their

People with fixed mindset themselves through hard do not believe in changing work so they put much no matter how much effort effort and are more likely to: you put in and are more •believe that effort and likely to: practice can lead to mastery •view feedback as an •believe intelligence and opportunity to grow and talent to be static applies constructive criticism •avoids challenges to •see failures as temporary prevent the possibility of setbacks and persist in the failure achievement of goals •willingly embrace •sees intelligence and talent challenges and risks is fixed possible failure •see other people success as •view feedback as a a source of inspiration personal attack and ignores constructive criticism Mindset plays a very important role in our daily •gives up easily and views life as well as in the temporary setbacks as development of your permanent failures personality. People with growth mind set - Niharika believe in changing 25


What is energy? lifetimes—or even in many, many lifetimes. Scientists define energy as Should we conserve the ability to do work. energy? Modern civilization is Energy needs to be possible because people conserved not only to cut have learned how to change costs but also to preserve the energy from one form to resources for longer use. another and then use it to do work. People use energy to As of today, most of the walk and bicycle, to move energy is generated from cars along roads and boats coal powered power plants. through water, to cook food These plants do generate on stoves, to make ice in energy but also pollute the freezers, to light our homes environment by emitting and offices, to manufacture harmful gases in the products, and to send atmosphere. These toxic astronauts into space. There gases are just not only are two types of energy: harmful to the environment Renewable energy is energy but also cause serious health that is collected from concern to humans and renewable resources, which animals. are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as 27 sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Non-renewable energy comes from sources that will run out or will not be replenished in our

Every year millions of people die due to the presence of toxic substances in the air that we breathe. What is conservation of energy? Total amount of energy remains same however only transformation takes place. This is how we can define Law of Conservation of energy. When a system is isolated condition then it is mechanical properties don't change then it is in constant of motion state. - Suraj 28

Everything about a conclusion that energy is Quantum Physics simply a wave and wave is never in the solid state. But We are surrounded by here we are left in a objects and the whole world confusion that how can is pretty normal to us but world be solid if its very many times thing are very essence is not solid in state. different than they seem to If we go on with the idea be. that the base of the world is not solid, then we arrive at a Consider a simple object as conclusion that the solidity a rock. On observing it is an illusion. under a microscope and zooming in we may at first Quantum world is simply be able to see the rough the zoomed in world or we surface clearly. After a can say that- study of the while of zooming in we zoomed in world is quantum would be able to identify the mechanics. The world isn’t atoms, electrons, protons solid but our mind interprets and neutrons. Later we will it to be solid. This may be be able to see Quark (the the “maya” that is smallest particle ever mentioned in the ancient discovered). At the very last times. The interpreting of point we will be left with the mind leads to us only energy. This clearly believing in something states that the universe is which is not real. made of energy. But, what is energy? What state does it Rules of the Quantum world exist in? On thinking upon differ a lot from the real these questions we come to world in which we live. 29

If everything is made up of particle B rotates anti- electrons then the world is clockwise direction and simply a bunch of electrons. vice-versa. This shows that each particle is connected Now, let’s finally explore with each other. This also the mind-blowing facts of states that every object is quantum mechanics: - connected with each other if not in the real world, Quantum Entanglement then for sure in the quantum world that is on Quantum entanglement the very basic level. On simply means that when July 2019, a scientist had two particles come in unveiled the first ever contact with each other image proof of quantum they form a relationship in entanglement. This turned between them or they get the concept of quantum entangled with each other. entanglement from fiction For example, to reality. if two particles A and B come in physical contact Physical Duality with each other Imagine a very delicious respectively they get burger which can cause an entangled and if particle A overflow of saliva with its is in a lab and Particle B is mere sight and fragrance. 1000km apart their bond You have it right in front won’t break. The bond can of your mouth. Your taste be observed as- when buds getting impatient to particle A rotates in taste the burger. But all of clockwise direction then, a sudden, the burger 30

changes into a cabbage. Universe created by Fortunately, nothing like consciousness and this happens in the real world. But as we all are thoughts aware about now; on the quantum level the things Scientists support the idea change. The burger is a of consciousness being burger but even a cabbage important for the world. at the same time. The Now, bring wave duality cabbage got cut but it into the picture. This world wasn’t cut that fine for it to exists in the form of waves turn into particles. Every or its energy form when particle has a characteristic there is no observer. But, as which we call the “wave- soon as there is an observer particle duality”. the waves collapse into a solid matter and seem solid. Electron is a solid visible Take your school as an particle and even an example. When there is no invisible non-solid wave conscious observer around (energy) at the same time. then the school building exists in the wave form and Mahabharata says lord as soon as you reach your Krishna could be at two school and play the role of places at the same time. the conscious observer the Some researchers say that building again seems solid. this may be the quantum The turning of the waves physical duality. It’s a into a solid matter is all theory for people who relate because of our mind and quantum mechanics to thoughts, hence, it is said ancient times. 31

that thoughts are powerful Universe is simply a and can change the world as collection of random they hold the power to events and happenings. change the reality. In the real world, first we Time is not real theory take birth, we become a kid, complete studies, find Theoretical Physicist Carlo a job, marry, get old and Rovelli, in his book, The die but in the quantum Order of Time, said that world it happens a bit time doesn’t exist. differently, first we may Quantum level world can be marry, become a kid, explained without time. complete studies, take birth and find a job. It for In the real world the cause sure doesn’t make any and effect principal causes sense in the real world but the events to happen and the as mentioned before things world to go ahead as time are random in the quantum passes by in a linear way. world. But this is considered a 32 mere illusion in the quantum world. In the quantum world the things happen but not in a linear way. Cause and effect do not make sense. Things happen not in an order but randomly.

Multiple worlds and You don’t die but just quantum immorality simply jump from one world to the other. Multiple world hypotheses is the existence of multiple Future incidents affect the different worlds but just in past different versions and situations. In one universe According to the “Delayed we may be a superstar but in Choice Quantum eraser” one we may be a prisoner experiment future affects the and every possibility is a past. Future prediction is reality in one of the worlds. also in a way approved. This in a way explains dreams and astral travels Double slit experiment which are nothing else but a A gun is place on the left- travel to another world, to hand side and a board is another reality. placed 1 meter apart on the right-hand side. In between Hugh Everett created the them is placed a double slit. multiple world theory. He said in so many worlds of different possibilities, there must be a world where no one would die because this is also a possibility or an imagination and can be a reality. 33

The electrons are sent from the slit had to travel in through the double slit. The the electron form. In a way electrons on crossing the slit they had time travelled and turn into waves if they don’t changed their past. have any conscious observer observing them. The act of It is very normal that some electrons turning into waves people are poor and all from electrons is a people have negative demonstration of wave- thoughts about them but on particle duality. growing up when they turn out to be a billionaire their On playing with the negative thoughts change to electrons, we get to know positive thoughts. But it their reality. We first let the isn’t this mere thing but electrons pass through the your future action of double slit and stay on the turning into a billionaire other side of the slit with brings you into a new eyes closed. We let the reality in which the people electron pass the lit and who had negative thoughts before they reach the board, about you never had any we open our eyes only to negative thoughts about find the electron in particle you causing a “reality state. Here, the electrons shift”. were supposed to pass the slit and had even travelled 34 the path in the wave form but the future event of arise a sudden observer they had to change their past and

Unified Field Theory It is a type of consciousness that connects every particle in the universe that can be called “God”. This theory is the very important theory in whole science. We for sure cannot understand everything in this universe but this is the beauty of it and the more we dig into a thing the more interesting it gets this is what Quantum Mechanics teaches us. - Agrima 35

What are Fossil Fuels? Disadvantages of Fossil Coal, crude oil, and natural fuels: gas are all considered fossil fuels because they were • Carbon dioxide gas is formed from the fossilized, emitted on burning of buried remains of plants and fossil fuels. animals that lived millions of years ago. Because of • Fossil fuels are not green their origins, fossil fuels sources of energy. In have high carbon content. fact, they contain high amounts of carbon and Fuels Advantages of have been blamed for Fossil: being the main contributor to global • Used for running warming. vehicles. • One of the major reasons • Used for generating why fossil fuels are electricity. cheap is a history of government incentives. • LPG (Liquefied Coal, natural gas and petroleum gas) used for petroleum received $4.22 cooking. billion most in direct subsidies – solar got $1.13 billion. 36

How is electricity exposing buried resources. generated by water? Drilling methods help extract liquid or gaseous • First big dams are built, fossil fuels that can be which are used for storing forced to flow to the surface, water. such as conventional oil and natural gas. Both processes • After that, gates of the carry serious health and dams are opened, which environmental impacts. allow water to fall. • Then that water falls on turbines, which makes them move thus, electricity is generated. Extracting fossil fuels: Fuel from Plastic waste: Plastic is made from refined There are two main methods crude oil. Gasification for obtaining fossil fuels involves heating the waste from the ground: mining plastic with air or steam, to and drilling. Mining is used produce valuable industrial to extract solid fossil fuels, gas mixtures called such as coal, by digging, “synthesis gas”, or syngas. scraping, or otherwise 37

This can then be used to millions of years the produce diesel and petrol, or deposits end up in rock burned directly in boilers to and sediment where oil is generate electricity. trapped in small spaces. It can be extracted by large Types of Fossil Fuels: drilling platforms. Oil is the most widely used •There are three types of fossil fuel. Crude oil fossil fuels which are used consists of many different for energy provision; coal, organic compounds which oil and natural gas. are transformed to •Coal is a solid fossil fuel products in a refining formed over millions of process. It is applied in years by decay of land cars, jets, roads and roofs vegetation. When layers and many others. Oil are compacted and heated cannot be found over time, deposits are everywhere on earth and turned into coal. Coal is consequentially, there quite abundant compared have been wars on oil to the other two fossil supplies. A well-known fuels. Analysts sometimes example is the Gulf War predict that worldwide of 1991. coal use will increase as •Natural gas is a gaseous oil supplies become fossil fuel that is versatile, scarcer. abundant and relatively •Oil is a liquid fossil fuel clean compared to coal and that is formed from the oil. Like oil, it is formed remains of marine from the remains of marine microorganisms deposited microorganisms. on the sea floor. After 38

It is a relatively new type Place in Periodic Table: of energy source. Until 1999, more coal was used Hydrogen is found in the than natural gas. Natural first group and first period gas has now overtaken coal in the periodic table, i.e. it is in developed countries. the lightest and first element However, people are afraid on the periodic table. Since that like oil, natural gas the weight of hydrogen is supplies will run out. Some less than air, it rises in the scientists have even atmosphere. predicted this might very soon. Natural gas mainly How Hydrogen Is consists of methane (CH4). Converted into Fuels. It is highly compressed in The most common methods small volumes at large today are natural gas depths in the earth. Like reforming (a thermal oil, it is brought to the process), and electrolysis. surface by drilling. Natural Other methods include gas reserves are more solar-driven and biological evenly distributed around processes. Many automobile the globe than oil supplies. companies have started making the hydrogen cars. Hydrogen fuels The hydrogen tank is attached under the car. 39

How to conserve Fossil • Asking your local grocery fuels: store to replace plastic bags with recycled paper bags or Reduce your use of plastic: cardboard boxes. Even Unless it’s marked “biodegradable” plastic bags “compostable,” plastic is can end up in landfills, made from petroleum. It can where they don’t break linger in the environment for down properly. This makes hundreds of years and never them just as dangerous as break down completely, regular plastic. polluting the soil and groundwater. When plastics • Recycle what you can’t are not disposed of properly, reduce or reuse: Making they kill animals who new containers and paper mistake them for food. products uses more fossil fuels than recycling old You can help to prevent this ones. Some Examples are: from happening by: • Most recycling plants • Buying or making won’t recycle tissues, wax reusable bags. Leave a paper, or polystyrene. couple in your car/on your Unless they offer single- bike for shopping. Tuck a stream recycling, you’ll small one into your purse likely have to separate for unplanned trips to the paper, plastics, glass, and grocery store. metals. - Piyush and Rohan 40


Envi Green Plastic bags starch and vegetable oil Envi Green Biotech India derivatives. Private Ltd has come up with organic biodegradable The manufacturing method plastic bags which are made is also different from that of from starch. We may not plastics. They use many believe but it’s true. ingredients ranging from 12 to 14. It generally comes Ashwath Hegde, a from vegetable extracts Mangalore-born, is the man which are a major source of behind it. starch. Others such as Production: potato, tapioca, corn, banana, starch and The plastic looking carry flower oils also include. The bags come from natural process involves six steps and before processing the raw materials liquefied for the ease of processing. To prove its complete edibility they don’t use any artificial colours. Instead, they use 100% natural organic colour. If we will look at the manufacturing cost then we can see some difference. More cost is involved in making the product than plastic bags as it involves some high-cost raw materials. One EnviGreen Biodegradable Plastic Bags – Rs 3. 42

Some features of this bag Hegde himself ate the bag after dissolving it in water. Zero plastic content It is an environment- Dissolves in water friendly, organic product. Biodegradable We can also say it as a Free from toxic chemicals consumer-friendly product. Suitable for electrical wrapping - Rohan Anti-static Dust repellent Corrosion resistance Oil resistance. When discarded it takes 180 days to degrade naturally and if placed in a glass of normal water it dissolves in one day. In boiling water, it dissolves in 15 seconds. The best part of it is it has no impact on animals when ingested. Hence it does not need any second thought before throwing it out. To prove it edibility Ashwath 43

What are electric vehicles? BMW, Nissan, Chevrolet, Ford, Kia are the seven Electric vehicles unlike major manufacturers of petrol and diesel vehicles electric vehicles. use electricity for propulsion. Electric Benefits of Electric Vehicles: vehicles have a battery that is charged through an Cost-Effective: With the electricity supply. The advent of advanced electric energy is then technology and dedicated stored and used to power R&D, both the cost and the electric motor. maintenance of electric There are many types of vehicles have gone down. electric vehicles such as The government is electric cars, electric trucks, incentivizing the use of electric buses, electric Electric Vehicles by bikes, electric trains, providing subsidies and electric scooters etc. lower motor taxes on EVS. however, amongst all, manufacturing and putting Environment Friendly: the electric cars on road is the vision to make our Electric Vehicles are 100 mother Earth pollution-free per cent eco-friendly. They along with saving the do not emit toxic gases or precious petrol. smoke in the environment Tesla, Volkswagen, which leads to global 44

warming and helps to Accordingly, manufacturing reduce pollution. and using electric cars is not a big hurdle. Less Maintenance: Electric vehicles require less • While prominent maintenance than manufacturers such as conventional vehicles as Maruti Suzuki India, there are fewer fluids (like Hero Electric Vehicles, oil and transmission fluid) Mahindra and to change and fewer moving Mahindra are already parts. registered electric manufacturers in India, Reduction in Noise latest collaborations pollution: Electric vehicles such as Suzuki and are quieter to operate than Toyota, are planning to gasoline-powered vehicles, launch electric vehicles leading to reduction in noise in India. pollution. On the same lines India’s first EV Yes, India is ready: manufacturer Mahindra and Mahindra has • India has been forged a partnership manufacturing indigenously with Ford to develop and successfully using electric mobility Electric Locomotives that solutions that are pull train coaches with affordable for Indian thousands of tons of load. consumers. This has not only saved conventional fuel like coal, 45 diesel but has also saved the environment from getting polluted further.

Crypto Currency What Is Cryptocurrency? History of Cryptocurrency From the word itself you The story of these virtual can see that it has something coins begins with one to do with cryptography and person: the cryptographer currency. First, let’s define David Chaum. In 1983, the what normal currencies are. American developed a Currencies are a sort of cryptographic system “economic buffer”, they called eCash. Twelve years allow people to convert their later, he developed another efforts into something that system, DigiCash that used maintains its value and can cryptography to make be converted back into economic transactions goods or other services at a confidential. later point in time. However, the first time the Cryptocurrency is an idea or term alternative form of payment \"cryptocurrency\" was to cash, credit cards, and coined was in 1998. checks. The technology behind it allows you to send it directly to others without going through a 3rd party like a bank. 46

Uses of Cryptocurrency Types of Cryptocurrency • Bitcoin •Invest in early-stage • Dogecoin startups • Litecoin •Low cost money transfers • Ripple •Make private transactions • Stellar •As a mode of payment • Neo •Going green • Cardano •Education • Etehereum •Fund-raising • Polkadot •Gaming • Chainlink •Travel the world and • Binance Coin beyond. Buy a Tesla (or • Tether Rolls Royce) • Monera Advantages of Disadvantages of Cryptocurrency Cryptocurrency • Elimination of banking fees • Cybersecurity issues • Very low Transaction Fees • Can be used for illegal on International payments transaction • Easy payments through • Data loss can cause Mobile financial losses • Accessibility • Susceptible to hacks • Confidential Transactions • No refund or cancellation • Easier International Trade • Individual Ownership policy • Strong Security • Cryptocurrency is difficult • Faster account opening. • No Middle Man to understand and invest - Tejas Koli 47

Once every 15 years the rings of F Saturn seem to disappears. This is because Saturn A and Earth positions in such a C way that edges of the rings are T directly in line with sunlight. The rings shine only C when they reflect sunlight. O The great known spot on the Jupiter R is the oldest known cyclone. It N is a giant storm that is known to E have existed since at least the 17th R century when it was first seen. - Devank 48

Welcome to the world of Organic There was a time when is Let’s listen as some used to be relegated to the experts share some back shelves in a interesting inputs about supermarket. But not organic farming. anymore, as more and more people are becoming health My Audio.mp3 conscious, awareness about eating healthy has increased and so has the demand for organic products. Organic food is the product of a farming system which avoids the use of man-made fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators and live stock food additives. 49

Where do I see India in 2030? India would be able to cut crude oil consumption by Views, expectations and 156 million tonnes, worth aspirations of our future ₹3.5 lakh crore. citizens about development of our beloved country in The automobile ecosystem various fields. is changing rapidly with new business models and 1. AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY connected, autonomous, shared, and electric (CASE) The government aims to mobility trends. Sub trends have EV sales accounting and service markets related for 30% of private cars, 70% to these Mega Trends are for commercial vehicles and shaping the industry's future 80% for two- and three- and creating new business wheelers by 2030 as there is opportunities for original an immediate need to equipment manufacturers decarbonise the transport (OEM), suppliers, mobility sector, Union Minister Nitin participants, and start-ups. Gadkari said on Friday. By 2030, the automobile ecosystem can expect to see Mr Gadkari further said if major market consolidations electric vehicles expand to and partnerships. 40% in the two-wheeler and car segments and close to 50 100% for buses by 2030,

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