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Home Explore Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid

Published by everysol.mumbai, 2018-04-27 03:15:22

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Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidIntroduction:The primary focus of first aid training is to provide you with the skills and knowledgenecessary, to minimise the effects of accidents or illnesses. First aiders provide aprimary response to emergencies within the community and may sometimes be firstand only person on the scene, resulting in the need to remain calm and be able tomake the right decisions in a situation dominated by emotional stress and anxiety.As a Homeopathic Doctor, we are learning this subject to understand the concept ofFirst aid (Immediate primary treatment / emergency Medicine) and about theHomeopathic remedies to be used for first-aid in the next chapter.Definition of First Aid:First Aid is the emergency care and treatment of a sick or injured person beforemore advanced medical assistance, in the form of the emergency medical services(EMS) arrives.History of First-aid:Early History and Warfare:Skills of what is now known as first aid have been recorded throughout history,especially in relation to warfare, where the care of both traumatic and medical casesis required in particularly large numbers. The bandaging of battle wounds is shownon Classical Greek pottery from circa 500 BCE, whilst the parable of the GoodSamaritan includes references to binding or dressing wounds. There are numerousreferences to first aid performed within the Roman army, with a system of first aidsupported by surgeons, field ambulances, and hospitals. Roman legions had thespecific role of capsarii, who were responsible for first aid such as bandaging, andare the forerunners of the modern combat medic. Further examples occur throughhistory, still mostly related to battle, with examples such as the Knights Hospitaller inthe 11th century CE, providing care to pilgrims and knights in the Holy Land.Formalization of life saving treatments:During the late 18th century, drowning as a cause of death was a major concernamongst the population. In 1767, a society for the preservation of life from accidentsin water was started in Amsterdam, and in 1773, physician William Hawes beganpublicizing the power of artificial respiration as means of resuscitation of those whoappeared drowned. This led to the formation, in 1774, of the Society for theRecovery of Persons Apparently Drowned, later the Royal Humane Society, who didmuch to promote resuscitation.Napoleon's surgeon, Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey, is credited with creating anambulance corps (the ambulance volantes), which included medical assistants,tasked to administer first aid in battle.In 1859 Jean-Henri Dunant witnessed the aftermath of the Battle of Solferino, andhis work led to the formation of the Red Cross, with a key stated aim of \"aid to sickand wounded soldiers in the field\". The Red Cross and Red Crescent are still thelargest provider of first aid worldwide. Page 1 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidIn 1870, Prussian military surgeon Friedrich von Esmarch introduced formalized first-aid to the military, and first coined the term \"erste hilfe\" (translating to 'first aid'),including training for soldiers in the Franco-Prussian War on care for woundedcomrades using pre-learnt bandaging and splinting skills, and making use of theEsmarch bandage which he designed. The bandage was issued as standard to thePrussian combatants, and also included aide-memoire pictures showing commonuses.In 1872, the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem in England changed its focus fromhospice care, and set out to start a system of practical medical help, starting withmaking a grant towards the establishment of the UK's first ambulance service. Thiswas followed by creating its own wheeled transport litter in 1875 (the St JohnAmbulance), and in 1877 established the St John Ambulance Association (theforerunner of modern-day St John Ambulance) \"to train men and women for thebenefit of the sick and wounded\".Also in the UK, Surgeon-Major Peter Shepherd had seen the advantages of vonEsmarch's new teaching of first aid, and introduced an equivalent programme for theBritish Army, and so being the first user of \"first aid for the injured\" in English,disseminating information through a series of lectures. Following this, in 1878,Shepherd and Colonel Francis Duncan took advantage of the newly charitable focusof St John, and established the concept of teaching first aid skills to civilians. Thefirst classes were conducted in the hall of the Presbyterian school in Woolwich (nearWoolwich barracks where Shepherd was based) using a comprehensive first aidcurriculum.First aid training began to spread through the British Empire through organisationssuch as St John, often starting, as in the UK, with high risk activities such as portsand railways.Aim of First-aid:The main aim of first aid can be summarised in four key points, sometimes known as'the four P's:  Preserve life and provide initial emergency care and treatment to sick or injured people  Protect the unconscious  Prevent a casualty’s condition from becoming worse  Promote the recovery of the casualty.Philosophy of First Aid:In the pre-hospital setting, the key contributors to survival and recovery from illnessand injury are prompt and effective maintenance of the body’s primary functions:  Airway  Breathing Page 2 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid  Circulation  Bleeding control (life threatening)Medical research data suggests that effective support of these basic functionsprovides the most significant contribution to positive outcomes for casualties in thepre-hospital setting.Exposure to Biological Hazards …. Health and Safety concern:First aiders may be exposed to biological substances such as blood-bornepathogens and communicable diseases, whilst dealing with a first aid incident.These may result from dealing with:  Trauma related injuries  ResuscitationThere are many different blood-borne pathogens that can be transmitted from apenetrating injury or mucous exposure, in particular, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis CVirus and Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV). Other diseases not found inhuman blood may be carried in fluids such as Saliva (e.g. Hepatitis A and theorganism that causes meningitis) or animal blood and fluid.Universal Precautions:First aiders should equip themselves with and use, personal protection equipment.This equipment is used to minimise infection from disease.Exposure sources:The following are common sources of exposure:  All human body fluids and secretions, especially any fluid with visible blood  Any other human material.Exposure routes:The following are typical means of exposure:  Punctures or cuts from sharp objects contaminated with blood / fluid  A spill of blood / fluid onto mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth and/or nose  A spill of blood / fluid onto skin that may or may not be intact  A laceration and contamination with blood/fluid from a bite.The expression ‘universal precautions’ refers to the risk management strategy usedto prevent the transmission of communicable disease, by reducing contact with bloodand other body substances. Page 3 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidDisposable Gloves CPR Face Shield CPR Pocket MaskUniversal precautions include:  Wearing appropriate protective equipment for the task  Treating all persons as if infectious  Washing following completion of task  Appropriate disposal of disposable protective items and/or equipment  Maintaining good hygiene practices before, during and after tasks involving contamination risk.Note: Universal Precautions are the most effective approach to protectingemergency first aiders in a biological substance exposure situation. If theseguidelines are followed, the risk of infection can be significantly minimised.Immediate action at scene following exposure:For an open wound  Encourage the wound to bleed, thoroughly wash with water for 15 minutes and dress  Do not attempt to use a caustic solution to clean the wound  Seek medical advice as soon as possible.For a splash to a mucous membrane  Flush splashes to nose, mouth or eyes thoroughly with water for 15 minutes  If the splash is in the mouth, spit out and thoroughly rinse out with water for 15 minutes  If the splash is in the eyes, irrigate with the eyes open for 15 minutes  Seek medical advice as soon as possible.For a splash to the skin  At the scene, wash thoroughly with soap and water  Seek medical advice as soon as possible if the exposure is medium / high risk. Page 4 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidThe primary Assessment of the casualty:The primary assessment is a systematic checklist designed to maximise safety andidentify / treat immediate life-threatening problems.The steps to be followed for an adult, child and Infant casualty are remembered bythe letters DRS ABCDD – DangerR – ResponseS – Send for HelpA – AirwayB – BreathingC – CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) + Control Major BleedingD – DefibrillationNote: CPR is continued until responsiveness or normal breathing returns.Why do you need to know this?It is very important that you understand the correct procedure to follow in order tooffer effective primary care. At the same time, it is necessary to protect yourself fromany harm. The Initial steps of resuscitation are:D - Danger!Before approaching any situation, you must assess the scene for any threat to: Yourself and anyone else assisting with the situation The casualty or casualties Bystanders near the scene.By rushing into the situation without properly assessing what has occurred, you arecompromising your safety. If you are injured while attempting to assist the casualty,you will be unable to help them. If the scene is not safe, remove the threat from thecasualty (or the casualty from the threat). If this cannot be achieved, go to a safeplace and wait for further assistance.Safety Note:Always remember to reassess the safety while treating the casualty. Bystandersshould be warned about any dangers and kept at a safe distance to ensure they donot become casualties. Once the scene is considered safe, bystanders can be askedto assist if needed.Remember to ELIMINATE, ISOLATE or MINIMISE hazards! Page 5 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidMoving a casualty?A rescuer should only move a collapsed or injured victim......... To ensure the safety of both rescuer and the victim Where extreme weather conditions or difficult terrain indicate that movement of the victim is essential To make possible the care of airway, breathing, and circulation (e.g. turning the unconscious breathing victim onto the side or turning a collapsed victim onto the back to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation effectively) To make possible the control of severe bleeding.All unconscious persons who are breathing normally must remain on their side(injuries permitting). It is reasonable to roll a face-down unresponsive victim into thesupine (back) position to assess airway and breathing and initiate resuscitation.Concern for protecting the neck should not hinder the evaluation process or life-saving proceduresWhen ready to move the victim: Avoid bending or twisting the victim's neck and back: remember, spinal injury can be aggravated by rough handling Try to have three or more people to assist in the support of the head and neck, the chest, the pelvis and limbs A single rescuer may need to drag the victim (either an ankle drag or arm- shoulder drag is acceptable) Make prompt arrangements for transport by ambulance to hospital.R – Response:Overview:Unconsciousness is a state of unresponsiveness, where the victim cannot beroused, is unaware of their surroundings and no purposeful response can beobtained.When checking a person’s response, you are assessing how well their brain isfunctioning. The brain requires a constant supply of oxygenated blood and glucoseto function. Interruption of this supply will cause loss of consciousness within a fewseconds and permanent brain damage in minutes. When the casualty’s brain is notfunctioning normally, they may not be able to look after their own airway. Theirprotective reflexes of coughing, swallowing, or gagging may not be working verywell.Causes of unconsciousness:The causes of unconsciousness can be classified into four broad groups: Blood oxygenation problems (heart attack) Blood circulation problems (trauma, blood loss) Metabolic problems (e.g. diabetes, overdose, alcohol) Central nervous system problems (e.g. head injury, stroke, tumour, epilepsy, spinal injury) Page 6 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidHow to check for responsiveness:Assess the collapsed victim's response to verbal and tactile stimuli (‘talk and touch’),ensuring that this does not cause or aggravate any injury. Give a simple commandsuch as, “open your eyes, squeeze my hand, let it go”. Then grasp and squeeze theshoulders firmly to elicit a response. Checking for responseThe four levels of responsiveness are:A - Alert: The casualty is alert and responsive. You can have a logical conversationwith them.V - Voice: Even if drowsy, the casualty is able to reply when you talk to them.P - Pain: The casualty is responsive to pain (e.g. nail-bed pressure).U - Unresponsive: The casualty is unresponsive to all stimuli.If the casualty is breathing normally but is unresponsive, place them (if possible) in astable side position (recovery position).Note: When possible, always approach the casualty from the direction of the head(for safety).S - Send for help: Activating the Emergency Medical Services (EMS)'Activating EMS' means choosing an Emergency Medical Service responseappropriate to the severity of the injury or illness and the situation encountered.Summoning help may be by using Emergency Contact Number of Local authorities,or other means e.g. radio, beacon etc.The level of help selected needs to be considered on an individual basis. Based onthe severity of the injury / instance, as a doctor you need to decide appropriatelocation to treat the patient. Page 7 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidIf you are in doubt as to which level of help is required, activate the EmergencyMedical Services (Ambulance) as a safeguard!A - Airway:OverviewWhen a victim is unconscious, all muscles are relaxed. If the victim is left lying on theback, the tongue, which is attached to the back of the jaw, falls against the back wallof the throat and blocks air from entering the lungs. Other soft tissues of the airwaymay worsen this obstruction. The mouth falls open but this tends to block, ratherthan open, the airway. The unconscious victim is further at risk because of beingunable to swallow or cough out foreign material in the airway. This may cause airwayobstruction, or laryngeal irritation and foreign material may enter the lungs. For thisreason the rescuer should not give an unconscious victim anything by mouth, andshould not attempt to induce vomiting.Key point:In an unconscious victim, care of the airway takes precedence over any injury,including the possibility of spinal injury. Airway management is high priority. It isimportant to check the airway before the breathing. If air cannot enter the lungs dueto some sort of blockage, the casualty will not survive for long.Airway management is required to provide an open airway when the victim:  Is unconscious;  Has an obstructed airway;  Needs rescue breathing.Airway obstruction:If during resuscitation the airway becomes compromised, the victim should bepromptly rolled onto their side to clear the airway. The victim should then bereassessed for responsiveness and normal breathing. Most airway problems arecaused by the tongue and/or vomit. These can often be resolved by simple airwaymanagement.Tongue:The muscle tone of the upper airway is directly related to the level ofresponsiveness: when sleeping, for example, minor degrees of reduced muscle tonemay lead to sufficient obstruction to cause snoring. When unresponsive, however,this obstruction can become complete and fatal.Vomit:Food remains in our stomach for hours, so most victims will have food in theirstomachs, and it is possible for this food to regurgitate up from the stomach into thelungs. This is called aspiration. The acidity of the stomach contents and the particlesize can block and damage the airway. Regurgitation is a passive process caused bya rise in stomach pressure overcoming the sphincter. It is usually caused by a fullgut, obesity (weight on the stomach), or air. Page 8 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidHow to check an Airway:Ensuring an airway is clear and open - Open the mouth and look for foreign objects Finger sweep (only if an object can be seen and can be removed with a sweep of a gloved finger) Perform a ‘Head-tilt, chin-lift’.Head-tilt and chin-lift:Adults and Children (A child is defined as one year to eight years of age).One hand is placed on the forehead or the top of the head. The other hand is used toprovide Chin Lift. The head is tilted backwards without placing your hand underthe neck. It is important to avoid excessive force, especially where neck injury issuspected. Make sure that you are wearing barrier gloves.Chin lift is commonly used in conjunction with Backward Head Tilt. The chin is heldup by the rescuer’s thumb and fingers in order to open the mouth and pull the tongueand soft tissues away from the back of the throat. One technique involves placing thethumb over the chin below the lip and supporting the tip of the jaw with the middlefinger and the index finger lying along the jaw line. Care is required to prevent thering finger from compressing the soft tissues of the neck. The jaw is held openslightly and pulled away from the chest. Head tilt / Chin liftFinger sweep:The finger sweep is used to clear the mouth of fluid and debris in the unresponsivecasualty. It should only be performed if you can see something to remove. It shouldalways be performed with a gloved hand with the casualty positioned on their side ina stable side position. Insert your first finger into the high into the side of thecasualty’s mouth and perform a single sweeping motion to the opposite side, flickingout vomit, blood, and debris.Infants: An infant is defined as younger than one year.The upper airway in infants is easily obstructed because of the narrow nasalpassages, the entrance to the windpipe (vocal cords) and the trachea (windpipe).The trachea is soft and pliable and may be distorted by excessive backward head tilt. Page 9 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidTherefore, in infants the head should be kept neutral and maximum head tilt shouldnot be used. The lower jaw should be supported at the point of the chin with themouth maintained open. There must be no pressure on the soft tissues of the neck.If these manoeuvres do not provide a clear airway, the head may be tilted backwardsvery slightly with a gentle movement. Neutral Alignment: Infant Airway PositionBreathing:Normal breathing is essential to maintaining life. Victims who are gasping orbreathing abnormally and are unresponsive require resuscitationCauses of absent or ineffective breathing:  Direct depression of/or damage to the breathing control centre of the brain  Upper airway obstruction  Paralysis or impairment of the nerves and/or muscles of breathing  Problems affecting the lungs  Drowning  SuffocationSigns of ineffective breathing may include:  Little or unusual chest movement  Weak or abnormal breath sounds (wheezing, etc)  Occasional gasps  Reduced responsiveness  Anxiety  Unusual skin colour (pallor)  Rapid or slow breathing  Unusual posture. Page 10 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidHow to check for breathing:The rescuer should -  LOOK for movement of the upper abdomen or lower chest  LISTEN for the escape of air from nose and mouth  FEEL for breath on the side of your face / movement of the chest and upper abdomen.  This should take you no longer than 10 seconds. Checking for breathingIf the unconscious victim is unresponsive and not breathing normally after the airwayhas been opened and cleared, the rescuer must immediately commence chestcompressions and then rescue breathing (CPR). Give 30 compressions and then twobreaths allowing about one second for each inspiration.Note: If unwilling or unable to perform ventilations, rescuers should continuecompression only CPR!Rescue breaths:Kneel beside the victim’s head. Maintain an open airway. Use resuscitation barrierdevise. Take a breath, open your mouth as widely as possible and place it over thevictim’s slightly open mouth. Whilst maintaining an open airway pinch the nostrils (orseal nostrils with rescuer’s cheek) and blow to inflate the victim’s lungs.Because the hand supporting the head comes forward some head tilt may be lostand the airway may be obstructed. Pulling upwards (with the hand on the chin) helpsto reduce this problem. For mouth to mouth ventilation, it is reasonable to give eachbreath in a short time (one second) with a volume to achieve chest rise regardless ofthe cause of collapse. Care should be taken not to over-inflate the chestLook for rise of the victim’s chest whilst inflating. If the chest does not rise, possiblecauses are:  Obstruction in the airway (inadequate head tilt, chin lift, tongue or foreign body);  Insufficient air being blown into the lungs;  Inadequate air seal around mouth and or nose. Page 11 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidIf the chest does not rise, ensure correct head tilt, adequate air seal and ventilation.Following inflation of the lungs, lift your mouth from the victim's mouth, turn yourhead towards the victim’s chest and listen and feel for air being exhaled from themouth and nose. Rescue breathing using universal precautionsMouth to nose:The mouth to nose method may be used where the rescuer chooses to, the victim’sjaws are tightly clenched, or when resuscitating infants and small children .Thetechnique for mouth to nose is the same as for mouth to mouth except for sealing theairway. Close the victim's mouth with the hand supporting the jaw and push the lipstogether with the thumb. Use a resuscitation barrier devise.Take a breath and place your widely opened mouth over the victim's nose (or mouthand nose in infants) and blow to inflate the victim's lungs. Lift your mouth from thevictim's nose and look for the fall of the chest; listen and feel for the escape of airfrom the nose and mouth. If the chest does not move, there is an obstruction, anineffective seal, or insufficient air being blown into the lungs.In mouth to nose resuscitation, a leak may occur if the rescuer’s mouth is not opensufficiently, or if the victim’s mouth is not sealed adequately. If this problem persists,use mouth to mouth resuscitation. It may be found that blockage of the noseprevents adequate inflation. If this occurs, mouth to mouth resuscitation should beused.C – Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)Effective CPR - 30 compressions followed by 2 BreathesCPR is a repetitive cycle of:1. Airway opening.2. Chest compressions3. Rescue breathing Page 12 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidExternal chest compression is the most effective way of artificially circulating blood.Chest compressions are accompanied by rescue breathing which provides oxygenthat the blood delivers around the body to its vital organs. This is the only way tokeep the heart and brain oxygenated until a defibrillator arrives.Recognition of the need for chest compressions:First aiders should use unresponsiveness and absence of normal breathing toidentify the need for resuscitation. Feeling for a pulse is unreliable and should not beperformed to confirm the need for resuscitation.When should CPR be performed?CPR should be performed on casualties who are not breathing or unresponsive andbreathing inadequately. Sometimes a casualty suffering a cardiac arrest mayoccasionally gasp, but this does not constitute breathing.When not to perform CPR:You should not perform CPR: When it is too dangerous to rescuers When there are obvious signs of death, for example rigor mortis When the casualty’s injuries are clearly too severe for survival.Complications:Broken ribs are not uncommon during CPR. If this occurs, check your hand positionand continue. You can reduce the chance of breaking ribs by placing your hands inthe correct position and by avoiding excessive force during compressions. Brokenribs will decrease the effectiveness of chest compressions in generating blood flow,but this cannot always be avoided.Reassessment:After every two minutes of CPR, reassess for signs of life (coughing, breathing, ormovement). This should take no longer than 10 seconds. If the casualty begins toshow signs of life during CPR, reassess the breathing immediately. If the casualty isbreathing, place them into the recovery position and monitor continuously.When to stop CPR:You must perform CPR uninterruptedly until one or more of the following happens: The casualty recovers responsiveness and is able to breathe on their own You are placed at significant risk You cannot continue due to exhaustion Advanced help arrives and takes over the care of the casualty.Compression only CPR:If Rescuers are unwilling or unable to do rescue breathing they should do chestcompressions only. If chest compressions only are given, they should be continuousat a rate of approximately 100 per minute. Page 13 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidLocating the site for chest compressions:There is insufficient evidence for or against a specific hand position for chestcompressions during CPR. For a victim receiving chest compressions, place yourhands on the lower half of the sternum. Rescuers should place the heel of their handin the centre of the chest with the other hand on top.Avoid compression beyond the lower limit of the sternum. Compression applied toohigh is ineffective and, if applied too low may cause regurgitation and/or damage tointernal organs.Method of compression:Children and Adults Two hand technique is used for performing chest compressions in adults One hand technique is used to perform chest compressions on children under 8 years old (Adult) 2 Handed CPR Page 14 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidInfantsIn infants the two finger technique should be used by lay rescuers to minimisetransfer time from compression to ventilation. Having obtained the compression pointthe rescuer places two fingers on this point and compresses the chest. Interruptionsto chest compressions must be minimised.Infants requiring chest compressions should be placed on their back on a firmsurface (e.g. table or floor) to optimize the effectiveness of compressions.Compressions should be rhythmic with equal time for compression and relaxation.The rescuer must avoid either rocking backwards and forwards, or using thumps orquick jabs. Rescuers should allow complete recoil of the chest after eachcompression. (Infant) 2 Finger CPRDepth of compression: The lower half of the sternum should be depressed approximately one third of the depth of the chest with each compression. This should equate to more than 5cm in adults, approximately 5cm in children and 4cm in infantsRate of chest compressions:Rescuers should perform chest compressions for all ages at a rate of approximately100 compressions per minute (almost two compressions per second). This doesnot imply that 100 compressions will be delivered each minute, since the number willbe reduced by interruptions for breaths given by rescue breathing.CPR quality:When performing compressions, if feasible, change rescuers at least every twominutes, to prevent rescuer fatigue and deterioration in chest compression quality(particularly depth). Changing rescuers performing chest compressions should bedone with minimal interruptions to the compressions. Page 15 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidD - Defibrillation:An Automated External Defibrillator (AED) if it's available and follow theinstructions given by AED.There are several brands of AED's available in NZ. They are all effective, but thereare differences in their design and operation. If you have regular access to an AED,it is important that you familiarise yourself with its operation.The heart is a muscle that pumps blood around the body. This function is achievedthrough a mechanical contraction of the heart initiated by a coordinated electricalstimulation from within the heart. When the rhythmic electrical activation of the heartbecomes abnormal, the heart muscle contraction can become less effective.Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a catastrophic rhythm disturbance where electricalactivation becomes uncoordinated. As a result, small parts of the heart musclecontract rapidly and the heart stops effectively pumping blood to the brain, leading toa cardiac arrest.Ventricular fibrillation is most commonly caused by a heart attack (a blocked arterywithin the heart), and is the leading cause of sudden death: people in VF loseresponsiveness within 5-10 seconds, and without appropriate treatment thiscondition is fatal. CPR will keep some blood flowing to the brain, but it will not correctthe ventricular fibrillation.The only thing that will reliably stop VF and allow restoration of the normalcoordinated electrical stimulation is a large electric shock. This procedure is calleddefibrillation. The chance that defibrillation will work is governed by time. For everyminute of delay in receiving a defibrillating shock, a person’s chance of surviving theevent decreases by about 10%.An AED is a device that has been designed in a way that a person with little or notraining can use it effectively and safely, to defibrillate a casualty within 60 seconds.To operate an AED: 1. Turn the device on (there will be a clearly marked On/Off button). 2. Once the device is turned on, the device will start charging and provide audible prompts. 3. Follow all the instructions given by the AED. Page 16 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidSafety considerations:Always keep in mind the following safety considerations:  Do not touch patient when shocking, make sure everyone is clear  Do not use the AED in flammable environments  Do not use the AED on casualties who are lying in water  Do not use the AED on casualties who are lying on metal surfaces.Indications for use:The AED should be used on all unresponsive casualties who are inadequatelybreathing or not breathing.Placement of pads:Follow the manufacturer’s directions for specific placement of pads on the casualty’sbody. 1. Using a razor (if provided), quickly remove excess hair to assist with adhesion of the pads. 2. Dry the chest of excessive moisture to assist with adhesion. Pad placement on an adultUsing an AED on children:There are specific child pads designed to reduce the size of the shock delivered tochildren aged 1 to 8, and they should always be used if available. If the AED doesnot have a paediatric mode or paediatric pads, then the standard adult AED andpads can be used. Ensure the pads do not touch each other on the child’s chest.This may require the one pad to be placed on the centre of the chest and the otherone on their back, slightly to one side. If child pads are not available, you can useadult pads placed in the front and back position. Page 17 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid Child Pad PlacementSafety Note: AEDs should not be used on infants less than one year old.Stable Side Position for casualty:Positioning an unconscious, breathing victim:With an unconscious victim, care of the airway takes precedence over any injury. If acasualty is to be left unattended or is vomiting – protection of the airway is moreimportant than protecting a neutral spine. In this case, turn them over, use the fingersweep if necessary and put them in the stable side position. All unconscious victimsmust be handled gently and every effort made to avoid any twisting or forwardmovement of the head and spine. Supporting the head / neckA stable side position is the single most effective method of providing andmaintaining a clear airway in the unresponsive, breathing casualty.The stable side position:  Allows the tongue to fall away from the back of the throat, enabling the casualty to maintain a clear airway  Facilitates drainage and reduces the risk of inhaling foreign material  Is suitable for any unresponsive, breathing casualty, who has to be left alone for any reason. Page 18 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidMany versions of the stable side position exist. When considering the specificposition to be used, the following principles should be observed:  The victim should be placed on their side with the head tilted, to allow free drainage of fluid  The position should be stable  Any pressure on the chest that impairs breathing should be avoided  It should be possible to turn the victim onto the side and return to the back easily and safely, having particular regard to the possibility of cervical spine injury  Good observation of and access to the airway should be possible  The position itself should not give rise to any injury to the victim  Rescuers should continuously assess for, and manage deterioration.Procedure: 1. Kneel beside the casualty and check the casualty’s pocket s for anything that could injure them during the procedure. 2. Roll the casualty toward you, pulling from the casualty’s hip and shoulder. 3. Once the casualty is on their side, tilt their head back to ensure an open airway. 4. Move the casualty’s uppermost knee to a position approximately 90° from their torso. 5. Move the casualty’s uppermost arm to a position approximately 90° from their torso. Adult / child stable side position Infant stable positionOnce in a stable side position, you need to continually monitor breathing and makesure that the airway is still clear and open. If a casualty is to be left unattended or isvomiting – protection of the airway is more important than protecting a neutral spine. Page 19 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidIn this case, turn them over, use the finger sweep if necessary and put them in astable side position.Bag Valve Mask (BVM) Resuscitator:A Bag Valve Mask Resuscitator is a manually operated air/oxygen delivery device,suited to casualties who are breathing inadequately or not breathing. It has areservoir bag attached that increases the delivery of oxygen (if fitted). Someorganisations have a BVM Resuscitator as part of their first aid equipment. Bag / Valve / Mask DeviceTechnique:  Ensure that the BVM is assembled correctly.  Make sure the casualty is positioned on their back.  If the casualty is responsive, explain what you are doing and reassure them.  Manually open the airway and maintain it open at all times.  Assess breathing, look, listen and feel.  Position yourself at head of the casualty, supporting their head with your thighs with the airway open  Place the facemask over the mouth and nose.  Press downward on the mask with your thumb positioned above where the bag meets the mask and your forefinger below. Make sure the air does not leak out around the facemask – ‘C grip’.  Position the remaining three fingers under the chin, so that you can lift the chin (chin-lift). Make sure the airway remains open.  Slowly compress the bag while applying downward pressure on the mask, forming a tight seal over the casualty’s face.  Check that the casualty’s chest rises and falls adequately.  If there is no chest movement, recheck the airway and mask application, and ensure that the airway is open. Page 20 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid  Continue with ventilations and attach oxygen if available. Ventilations should be given at the rate of either 10-12 breaths per minute (one breath every 5-6 seconds) or 2 ventilations after 30 chest compressions.Complications:Care must be taken to ensure that the airway is opened and that air does not escapearound the edge of the mask. If the chest fails to rise, recheck the equipment,reposition the airway using head-tilt / chin-lift and then consider the two persontechnique. Excessive pressure may cause stomach distension (ballooning) possiblycausing the casualty to vomit. If vomiting occurs, roll the casualty onto their side andclear the airway.Cardiac Arrest and the chain of Survival:Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart is no longer able to effectively pump bloodaround the body. If not treated, this will cause death within minutes. One of theconsequences of cardiac arrest is the disruption of the electrical activation of theheart. When this happens, the heart muscle can rapidly contract in an uncoordinatedfashion. This rhythm is called ventricular fibrillation (VF). While a heart attack isthe most common cause of cardiac arrest, it is not the only cause and the majority ofpeople who suffer a heart attack do not have cardiac arrest.Adult chain of survival:The key steps to surviving a cardiac arrest in adults are described as the adultchain of survival. There are five links in this chain and each one needs to occurpromptly to ensure survival.1. Early recognition by a bystander that a problem exists.2. Early call on emergency contact number to activate the Emergency MedicalServices (EMS).3. Early CPR to maintain artificial ventilation and circulation until the EMS arrives.4. Early defibrillation to deal with the heart’s electrical problems.5. Early advanced medical care.The survival rate for cardiac arrest is very low in most countries, including NewZealand. It is time-critical, with the chances of survival decreasing by about 10% forevery minute you have to wait for a defibrillator. Page 21 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidForeign Body Airway Obstruction (Choking)OverviewAirway obstruction may be partial or complete and may be present in the consciousor the unconscious victim. Some typical causes of airway obstruction may include,but are not limited to:  Relaxation of the airway muscles due to unconsciousness;  Inhaled foreign body;  Trauma to the airway;  Anaphylactic reaction leading to swelling of the airway.The symptoms and signs of obstruction will depend on the cause and severity of thecondition. Airway obstruction may be gradual or sudden in onset and may lead tocomplete obstruction within a few seconds. Consequently the victim should beobserved continually.In the conscious victim who has inhaled a foreign body, there may be extremeanxiety, agitation, gasping sounds, coughing or loss of voice. This may progress tothe universal choking sign (clutching the neck with the thumb and fingers). Universal Choking SignAirway obstruction:There are two types of airway obstruction:Partial: Breathing is laboured; Breathing may be noisy; Some escape of air can be felt from the mouth.Complete: There may be efforts at breathing; There is no sound of breathing; There is no escape of air from nose and/or mouth. Page 22 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidAirway obstruction may not be apparent in the non-breathing unconscious victim untilrescue breathing is attempted..Signs and symptoms:The indications that someone may be struggling with an obstruction are: Panic Grasping the throat Inability to speak Inability to breathe Colour of face (pallor) Inability to cough.Treatment for choking adults and childrenEffective Cough (Partial Airway Obstruction) A casualty with an effective cough should be given reassurance and encouragement to keep coughing to expel the foreign material. If the obstruction is not relieved the rescuer should call an ambulance.Ineffective Cough (Severe Airway Obstruction):Conscious Victim If the casualty is conscious, call an ambulance Perform up to five sharp, back blows with the heel of one hand in the middle of the back between the shoulder blades. Check to see if each back blow has relieved the airway obstruction. The aim is to relieve the obstruction with each blow rather than to give all five blows. Supporting the casualty / Delivering back blows Page 23 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid If back blows are unsuccessful the rescuer should perform up to five chest thrusts. Check to see if each chest thrust has relieved the airway obstruction. The aim is to relieve the obstruction with each chest thrust rather than to give all five chest thrusts. To perform chest thrusts, identify the same compression point as for CPR and give up to five chest thrusts. These are similar to chest compressions but sharper and delivered at a slower rate. Children and adults may be treated in the sitting or standing position. If the obstruction is still not relieved, continue alternating five back blows with five chest thrusts. Chest ThrustsUnconscious VictimThe finger sweep can be used in the unconscious victim with an obstructed airway ifsolid material is visible in the airway. Commence CPR immediately! Page 24 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidTreatment for choking infants (less than 1 year):The following procedure is for a choking infant: Check to see if the obstruction can be cleared using the finger sweep. Lay the infant in a lying face down position over your forearm, supporting the baby’s face and body with your arm. The infant’s body should be inclined downwards to utilise the effects of gravity. Deliver up to five blows between the infant’s shoulder blades. If the obstruction is still present, turn the infant onto their back, again with the body inclined. Deliver up to five chest thrusts between the infant’s nipples (breast bone) using two fingers. Repeat this process until the obstruction is cleared or the infant becomes unresponsive. Commence CPR if the infant becomes unresponsive.The Secondary Survey of Casualty:The secondary assessment/survey is a systematic and thorough head-to-toe check(down front and back) of the injured or ill casualty. It is performed after the primaryassessment to identify any significant injuries. In an injured casualty, this is achievedthrough a body sweep, in an attempt to identify any obvious injuries such asfractures or bleeding.The secondary assessment is also useful to obtain information for more advancedmedical assistance. Questioning techniques such as SAMPLE and PQRST and therecording of vital signs can provide further information that may assist in thetreatment of the casualty.The secondary assessment is also useful to obtain information for more advancedmedical personal when they arrive. The assessment should not take any longer than1–2 minutes. If the casualty is responsive, you need to talk to them and explain whatyou are doing. It should be undertaken only when the primary assessment has beencompleted and any issues resolved. You need to record your findings and passthem on to ambulance crew during the handover.Secondary assessment procedureThe procedure for the secondary assessment is as follows: Always wear gloves. Systematically checking for blood / fluids on gloves as you progress through the secondary survey. Central nervous system: Talk to the casualty and assess their level of responsiveness. Starting at the casualties head: Look and feel for any deformity and tenderness. Check for fluid leaking from ears and nose Neck: Look and feel for any deformity and tenderness. Consider MOI, and any neck or spinal injury Chest: Look and feel for any deformity and tenderness. Look for equal rise and fall of the chest, and for any obvious bruising. Back: Look and feel for any deformity and tenderness. Page 25 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid Abdomen and pelvis: Look and feel for any deformity and tenderness. Extremities (arms and legs): Look and feel for any deformities. Check for strength by asking the casualty to squeeze your hands or push your hands with their feet. Checking and recording of any vital signsInformation gathering:As part of the secondary assessment in medical related incident, this will involvequestioning and the recording of vital signs. Good questioning enables you to gatherinformation that may be useful for EMS staff.Note: This may be the last opportunity to obtain this information (if the casualtybecomes unresponsive).Managing a responsive casualty: Undertake the primary assessment Call for assistance (make sure ambulance is in route) Position the casualty in the most comfortable position for them, or stable side position if unresponsive and breathing normally Undertake the secondary assessment – PQRST and SAMPLE questioning. Encourage/ assist the casualty to administer their medicines (if required). Rest and reassureQuestioning:Types of questioning:There are two key questioning methods: PQRST and SAMPLE. It is good practice towrite notes so that the information can be relayed to ambulance staff.P - Promotes or alleviates-does anything make the pain better or worse?Q - Quality-can you describe what the pain feels like e.g. dull, sharp, crushing orthrobbing?R - Region/radiates-where is the pain? Does it go anywhere else?S - Severity-on a scale of 1-10, how would you rate the pain?T - Time-how long have you had the pain?S - Signs and symptomsA - Allergies-are you allergic to anything?M - Medications-are you on any medication, when and how long ago did you take it?P - Past history- do you have any medical conditions, has this happened before?L - Last meal-when did you last eat or drink?E - Events prior to incident. What happened, what were you doing?Vital signs:It is very important to have a clear understanding of the casualty’s vital signs and toknow what they mean, and what the possible consequence are to any change tothese vital signs. First aiders should check and record: Page 26 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid Respirations - how many times per minute the patient breathes, laboured or normal. Pulse - how many times the heart beats per minute, weak or strong, regular or irregular. Temperature -what is the temperature of the casualty? Pupils - the pupils can tell a lot about how the brain is functioning. Both pupils should be roughly equal in size and reactive to light.When a light is directed into the pupil, a normal functioning pupil should instantlyconstrict, and dilate again once the light is removed. Consider medical reasons forabnormal constriction and dilation or unequal pupil size.A normal pupil in a fit and healthy person ranges from 3.0mm to 6.5mmAny abnormal change in pupil size can occur as a result of: Medications Drugs Toxins (poisons) Head trauma StrokeVital signs – Ranges: Respirations Pulse Temperature Blood pressureAdult 12-20 rpm 60-80 bpm 37C 120/80 mmhgChild 20-30 rpm 60-100 bpm 37C 100/65 mmhgInfant 30-40 rpm 100-160 bpm 37C 95/65 mmhgExtended care in the outdoors – WRAPTW Warmth Insulate the casualty, remove wet clothing, protect fromR Rest the elementsA Assess again This, along with concern / empathy can help the casualty cope and have a positive effect on vital signsP Positioning Monitoring, recording and evaluating vital signs will helpT Treatment you to tell if the condition of the casualty is getting worse Lying flat? Semi-sitting? Legs raised? Stable side position? You can begin this when you know what the illness / injury is. Arranging evacuation will have to be considered Page 27 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidTrauma Management: 1. Fractures:Overview:Fractures in a pre-hospital environment rarely need splinting. The most importantfocus in fracture management is to effectively treat any associated external bleedingand to perform the primary survey. Significant blood loss can occur from fracturesand bleeding can be internal.Types of fractures:Open fractures These are fractures that have punctured the skin. The bone endmay have returned and not be visible, but this is still an open fracture. Common Types Of FractureClosed fractures These are fractures where the surrounding skin remains intact.Complicated fractures These are fractures that have caused damage to internalstructures, such as a punctured lung, or a fracture that involves significant bleeding.Signs and symptomsA casualty experiencing a fracture may experience one or more of the followingsigns and symptoms: Pain at the injury site Bleeding (internal or external) Open wounds with or without exposed bone ends Deformity Shortening or rotation of the limb Inability to move or stand The casualty reports hearing the bone break Page 28 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid Tenderness Swelling or irregularity Shock like signs and symptoms Crepitus (the sound of bones grinding) Discolouration Shortening of the limbManagementThe steps for the management of fractures are: Carry out primary assessment, DRS ABCD Seek medical attention (make sure EMS are en route). Control any external bleeding using direct pressure and elevation if possible. For a closed fracture, ice packs may be used to assist with pain relief and swelling. Minimise any unnecessary movement unless for safety reasons If the injured limb needs to be immobilised, make use of whatever you have got at hand to do so e.g. pillows, magazines, or dressings to support the limb. Check the circulation below the fracture site. Carry out secondary assessment Rest and reassure 2. Soft Tissue InjuryOverviewLigaments and tendons are soft tissues that connect muscle and bones together.They can be damaged as a result of forceful joint movements and/or externalpressure on the body. Sprains and strains can limit movement by causing pain andswelling in the area of injury. More serious underlying injuries can be present, forexample fractures or tendon ruptures.Treatment - RICED:ACC has specific guidelines on how to deal with sprains and strains. This issimplified with the acronym RICED.R - Rest: Stop the activityI - Ice: For up to 20 minC - Compression: To reduce the swellingE - ElevationD - Diagnose: Soft tissue injuries may be referred to a doctor in order to identify anypotential fracture/sSigns and symptoms:A casualty experiencing a soft tissue injury may display one or more of the followingsigns and symptoms:  Pain in the area of injury  Lack of, or limited movement Page 29 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid Inability to bear weight Swelling Tenderness BruisingManagement:The steps for the management of soft tissue injuries are:  Carry out primary assessment, DRS ABCD  Seek medical attention (make sure EMS are en route).  Remove constrictive clothing or jewellery.  Apply the RICED technique. 3. BleedingOverviewBleeding is one of the most rectifiable causes of death following trauma, thereforecontrolling external bleeding is a main priority when administering care in a pre-hospital environment.There are three main types of blood vessel:  Arteries  Veins  CapillariesTypes of bleeding:Arterial bleeding will be profuse and rapid because it is under pressure. It will bespurting as the heart beats, which will make it difficult to control and difficult for clotsto form. This bleeding will be bright red as arterial blood is comprised of highly Page 30 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidoxygenated red blood cells. Arterial bleeding is a significant and life-threateningblood loss.Venous bleeding is easier to control because the blood in the veins is under lesspressure, which assists with clotting. Because it carries less oxygen, venous blood isa much darker red. Dangerous levels of blood loss can occur from venous bleeding.Capillary bleeding is the most common and easiest to control, as capillaries areclosest to the surface of the skin. Blood tends to ooze rather than flow or spurt as thepressure in the capillaries is very low.Management:  Carry out primary assessment, DRS ABCD  Seek medical attention (make sure EMS are en route)  Make sure their isn't a foreign body in the wound before applying direct pressure  Apply direct pressure  Elevation  If unresponsive and breathing is adequate, place the casualty in the recovery position  Carry out secondary survey  Severe bleeding may lead to unconsciousness and may require life support (CPR)  Rest and reassureDirect pressure:Direct pressure is the main treatment used to manage bleeding:1. After checking for any foreign objects in the wound, apply firm pressure, directlyonto and into wound, using large sterile trauma dressings.2. If blood soaks through the initial dressing, apply further dressings as required. Application of direct pressure Page 31 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidElevation:Elevate the affected area above the level of the heart, if possible.Tourniquet: Example of a Improvised TourniquetAn improvised tourniquet is only to be used as last resort. Do not remove onceapplied. 4. ShockOverview:Shock is a medical emergency in which the organs and tissues of the body are notreceiving an adequate flow of blood. This deprives the organs and tissues of oxygen(carried in the blood) and allows the build-up of waste products. The most commoncause of shock you may encounter is caused by severe blood loss (Hypovolaemicshock). Shock can easily lead to death if the cause is not treated urgently.Five main types of shock:  Cardiogenic shock (problems associated with the heart's functioning)  Hypovolaemic shock (the total volume of blood available to circulate is low)  Anaphylactic shock (caused by a severe allergic reaction)  Septic shock (caused by overwhelming infection, usually by bacteria)  Neurogenic shock (caused by damage to the nervous system from a spinal cord injury or neurological disorder.Typical Causes of shock include:Loss of circulating blood volume, which can result from:  Severe bleeding  Major or multiple fractures  Major trauma  Severe burns or scalds  Severe diarrhoea and vomiting  Severe sweating and dehydration (heat stroke).  Heart disorders Page 32 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid  Anaphylactic reaction  Severe brain/spinal cord injurySigns and symptoms of shock:There are several indicators that a casualty is going into shock:  The body's non essential organs slow down  Rapid weak pulse  Pallor, cold, clammy, sweaty skin  Nausea or vomiting  Thirst  Altered level of responsivenessShock management:  Carry out primary assessment, DRS ABCD  Seek medical attention (make sure EMS are en route).  Minimise any movement to casualty  If bleeding is present attempt to manage by applying direct pressure and elevation.  Where possible have the patient lying down with their legs and feet raised (shock position) or if unresponsive and breathing is adequate, place the casualty in the recovery position  Keep the casualty warm but do not overheat  Undertake a secondary assessment.  Rest and reassure. 5. ConcussionConcussionThis is a temporary loss or altered level of consciousness occurring after a headinjury or impact to the skull area. Casualty’s who subsequently show a decline inconscious level may be suffering from a more serious brain injury, requiring urgentmedical attention.Mild concussion may involve no loss of consciousness (feeling \"dazed\") or a verybrief loss of consciousness (being \"knocked out\").Severe concussion may involve prolonged loss of consciousness with a delayedreturn to normality.Causes:Concussion can be caused by any significant blunt force trauma or jolt to the heade.g. falls, car accidents, or being struck on the head with an objectThe signs and symptoms of concussion are:  Loss of consciousness after any trauma to the head Page 33 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid  Temporary confusion  Confusion that lasts several minutes  Nausea  Inability to recall the incident  Blurred visionManagement:  Carry out primary assessment, DRS ABCD  Seek medical attention (make sure EMS are en route).  If unresponsive and breathing is adequate, place the casualty in a stable side position  When you move the casualty, immobilise the casualty by supporting the head and neck with both hands. This will minimise head, neck and spinal movement.  Carry out a secondary assessment, taking into consideration any neck or spinal injury  Rest and reassure 6. Head InjuryHead Injury is damage to living brain tissue caused by an external mechanical force.It is usually characterised by a period of unconsciousness lasting minutes, months orindefinitely. The resulting damage to the brain tissue impairs the individual's abilitiesboth physically and mentally. Other causes of head injuries are chemical exposureand alcohol related damage.There are some groups in the community who are more susceptible to head injurythan others:  Young male adults aged 17-25 make up 50% of known head injury victims, usually as the result of car accidents.  Pre-schoolers are the next most vulnerable with falls from play equipment, windows and down stairs.  The Elderly are also vulnerable to head injury mainly from falls in the home.Causes:About 170 New Zealanders are hospitalised with head injuries every week and manymore are concussed or have mild head injuries. These can be caused by:  Motor vehicle accidents  Assaults through blunt force trauma  Sporting accidents  Accidents at home  Industrial accident  Exposure to solvents  Exposure to drugs and alcohol Page 34 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidSigns and symptoms of head injuries are:  Skull deformity  Obvious signs of a head wound  Bleeding or straw coloured fluid discharge from ears, nose or mouth.  Slurred speech  Bruising around the edges of the eyes (raccoon eyes)and behind the ears  Unconsciousness, drowsiness or vagueness  Loss of memory  Agitation or irritability  Lack of coordination  Bleeding into the eyes  Changes in size or shape of pupils  Seizures.Management:  Carry out primary assessment, DRS ABCD  Seek medical attention (make sure EMS are en route).  If unresponsive and breathing is adequate, place the casualty in a stable side position  When you move the casualty, immobilise the casualty by supporting the head and neck with both hands. This will minimise head, neck and spinal movement.  Control any external bleeding.  If the casualty is bleeding from the ear, carefully position them with the bleeding ear down. However, if you find the casualty is bleeding from both ears, cover the ears with a sterile pad.  Undertake a secondary assessment.  Rest and reassure the casualty. 7. Spinal InjuryOverview:Spinal injuries are caused by traumatic forces on the body. The spine is a set ofvertebrae held together by a series of ligaments. The spinal cord passes through thecentre of the vertebrae, and its nerves transmit the signals to and from the brain thatcontrol muscle movement such as breathing, and monitor sensation such astemperature. The majority of spinal injuries involve the ligaments in the spine; thiswill cause pain but will not generally cause serious disability. More serious spinalinjuries occur when the vertebrae shift, causing damage to the spinal cord. This canresult in paralysis and, in severe cases, can cause death.Some common causes of spinal injuries include:  Motor vehicle crashes  Diving accidents  Head injuries  Falls when the casualty lands on their feet or head Page 35 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid Assaults Industrial accidentsSigns and symptoms:A casualty experiencing a spinal injury may display one or more of the followingsigns and symptoms:  Pain in the injured area  Numbness and tingling  Loss of feeling or weakness in parts of the body  Loss of feeling or sensation  Priapism in males (unwanted, uncontrolled erection)  Loss of bladder control.  Altered level of consciousness  Swelling or bruising over the injured area  Evidence of a woundConsider the Mechanism of Injury (MOI) if:  There's evidence of a head injury with an ongoing change in the person's level of consciousness  The person complains of severe pain in his or her neck or back  The person won't move his or her neck  An injury has exerted substantial force on the back or head  The person complains of weakness, numbness or paralysis or lacks control of his or her limbs, bladder or bowels  The neck or back is twisted or positioned oddly.Management:If you suspect someone has a spinal injury:  Keep the person still. Support head and neck to prevent movement. The goal of first aid for a suspected spinal injury is to keep the person in the same position as he or she was found  Carry out primary assessment, DRS ABCD  Seek medical attention (make sure EMS are en route).  If unresponsive and breathing is adequate, consider placing the casualty in the recovery position (see movement section below)  Undertake a secondary assessment.  Rest and reassureMovement of a casualty with suspected spinal injuries:If you absolutely must move the person because he or she is vomiting, choking onblood or in danger of further injury, you need at least one other person. With one ofyou at the head and another along the side of the injured person, work together tokeep the person's head, neck and back aligned while rolling the person onto oneside. Page 36 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid 8. Sucking Chest WoundA ‘sucking chest wound’ occurs when the chest wall is punctured by a penetratingobject.Air is then sucked into the chest cavity (Pneumothorax), which may cause the lung tocollapse. If air continues to enter the chest space faster than it can escape, then therising pressure can force the collapsed lung to press on the heart and other lungTreating a sucking chest wound requires two things:  Keeping air from going in  Letting extra air out.It can be difficult to identify when a penetrating wound to the chest is sucking air ornot, so it's best to assume any penetrating wound to the chest is a sucking chestwound.Note: a sucking chest wound is a life threatening critical incident and requiresimmediate medical attention. Sucking chest woundSigns and symptoms:  Obvious trauma to chest (gun shot or stabbing)  Pink frothy blood oozing out  Difficulty breathing  Unequal chest (one side looks different to the other)  Veins on the neck bulging (jugular vein distension) Page 37 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid  Blue lips, neck or fingers (cyanosis)  No lung sounds on one side  Severe shortness of breathManagement:  Carry out primary assessment, DRS ABCD  Seek medical attention (make sure EMS are en route).  If an object is present, leave the penetrating object in the chest, do not remove it. Removing the object can cause further damage to the chest or lung. Try and place roller bandages around knife or apply a donut style bandage.  Cover the sucking chest wound with an airtight seal. This is the most important thing you can do to save the life of the injured person.  Cover it with an occlusive dressing (one that doesn't allow air to pass through it). It can be a plastic bag, a glove, plastic wrap or aluminium foil folded several times, or any other material that won't allow air to pass  Tape to hold it in place along 3 sides leaving the bottom open. By doing this, you allow air to escape during exhalation, but it won't let air in during inhalation  Position patient in the recovery position with the injured side towards the ground so that the wound drains and does not build up.  Carry out secondary assessment  Do not give the victim anything to eat or drink, including water  Keep casualty warm  Rest and reassure 3 Side Dressing 9. BurnsBurns to the following areas (and sizes) must always be seen by a medicalprofessional:  Head  Neck  Eyes  Hands  Feet Page 38 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid  Joints  Groin  Burns exceeding the size of the casualty’s palmBurns to children under 5 and also the elderly must also be seen by a medicalprofessional.Recognition:  Severe pain (if Sperficial)  Hot to touch  Redness  Peeling, blistering  Watery fluid seeping from area  Swelling  Signs / symptoms of shockManagement (The 3 C's):COOL: Use tepid, flowing water for at least 20 minutes. Chemical burns up to an hour.CLEAR: Remove anything that may keep burning (that isn't sticking). Remove jewellery. Remove clothing that is contaminated by chemicals.COVER: Preferably with a non-adherent dressing. Cling-film is ideal (if available).How to identify and assess burns:S SIZE Size of area burnt: Patient’s Palm = 1% of body surface areaC CAUSE 1 of 3 causes: Thermal, Chemical, ElectricalA AGE Age of the patient: (Very young and very old always serious)L LOCATION Where is the burn? Critical areas: Face, Hands, Feet, GenitalD DEPTH Burn depth: Superficial, Partial Thickness, Full Thickness 10. DislocationDefinition:- When bone is no more in an anatomical position or the displacement ofone or more bone at a joint.Cause:-  Strong force acts directly or indirectly on a joint  Sudden muscular contraction Page 39 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidN.B:- Joints which are most frequently dislocated are shoulder, elbow, thumb, finger,JawSigns and symptoms  Pain, near the joint, victim can not move it, deformity abnormal appearance, swelling and brusy are usually presentFirst aid and manage:-  support and secure the part in most comfortable position  obtain medical aid at once  Do not attempt to replace the bones to normal positionNote: - The causes,  The signs and symptoms  First aid management, quite similar to fracture.NB. Do not delay to refer patient with fracture or dislocation since properinvestigation and management is done at hospital Page 40 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid 11. Strain And SprainStrainDefinition: over stretching of muscles due to over pulling of muscles.Causes:  Lack of pre- exercise before doing sport activity  Lifting of heavy loads  Lifting of heavy weight  The most common one is back strain.Signs and symptoms  Pain (sudden sharp pain at the site of the injury)  Stiffness of muscles  Difficulty in moving the affected partsManagement and First Aid  Place the victim in the most comfortable position  Cold compress during fracture phase Warm compress (physiotherapy)  Ant pain support and elevate the inured part or limb and give antipain  If not improved refer the victim  In case of back strain use a hard board under the bed or lay the victim down on a firm surfaceSprainDefinition: An injury which occurs at a joints when the ligaments and tissue aroundparticular joints are suddenly twisting or torn.  Sprain is more severe than strain  It usually happens or occurs at joint especially at ankle joint.  It might involve bone (broken)  Sprain is also tearing of ligamentsSigns and symptoms  Pain specially on movement  Swelling  Loss of movementTreatment:  Raise the limb  Put on a cold compress  Renew the compresses when they get warm and dry  Support the joint in most comfortable position with bandage  Bandage firmly with figure of eight bandage Page 41 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid  Refer for further treatment 12. DrowningDefinitionDeath caused by water reaching the lungs and either causing lung tissue damage orspasms of the air way that prevents the inhalation of air. Drawing can happen inmany different places, Lake, swamp and spring, rivers etc.First aid Management:  You should begin artificial respiration as soon as possible  Do not wait to get water out of the patient’s chest first  If you can not get air into his/her lungs, quickly turn the patient on his/her side, putting his head lower than the leg and push the body  Then give mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration.  If the condition of the victim is not improving refer the victim to the next health facility. Page 42 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid 13. Poison Definition: Any substance that, if taken in to the body in sufficient quantity, can cause temporary or permanent damage. Note: get the poisoned to the hospital or health centre immediately. The extent of danger depends upon: The amount and type of poison The age of the person Whether the person vomits Where the accident takes place There are different types of poisons:  Acids  Insecticides  Alkalis  Drugs given for allergy (antihistamines)  Aspirin over dose in children  sleeping pills (sedatives)  Iron  mercury  lead  paraffin, petrol (Gasoline)  LysolGeneral signs and symptoms  Nausea  Vomiting  Abdominal pain  Change in consciousness  Change in vital signs  Change in pupilsPoisons enter the body either accidentally or intentionally through  Ingestion (through the mouth)  Inhalation (by breathing in)  Absorption (through the skin) through contact with poisonous sprays, pesticide, and insecticides  Injection into the skin as the result of bites from some animal, insects, poisonous fish or by syringeSteps to treatment of poison:  Remove the poison from the body  Give the patient the antidote  Treat symptoms  Give comfort and confidence Page 43 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidHow to remove the poison from the body  Make the victim vomit it  Give plenty of tape water.  If it is a child give them syrup or water.  Repeat the procedure  Refer the victim if it is not improvingNB. Do not make patient vomit if the poison e.g. parafin or kerosene Do not make the patient vomit if unconscious For poisoning by acid, give alkali, anti acids 14. BitesA. Snake BiteSigns and symptoms  Disturbed vision  Feel nauseated or vomiting  One or two small puncture wounds with sharp pain and local swelling  Symptoms and sign of shock  Sweating and salivation in advanced stages of venom reactionFirst aid management  Lay the victim down and advise not to move  Calm the victim  Immobilized the affected part and keep it below the level of the heart  Wipe the wound of venom  Apply firm cord just above the bite  This must be removed in 15 minutes if you are sure that anti venoum has been injected and you can not get the victim to hospital in time. If there is no antivenoum do the following:  Tie a cord tightly around the limb just above the bite  Using a razor blade or a clean knife make a cut 1 cm deep  Suck the liquid which is coming out of the wound  Continue to suck and dispose for 5-10 minutes  Loosen the cord around the patients limb  Disinfect the wound  Refer to hospital for anti- venom injection. Page 44 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidB. Dog biteRabies is a sickness due to an infection from an animal usually a rabid dog, cat, fox,wolf, and bats. The infection grows in the animal’s nerves, may develop the disease,if the saliva enters a wound or scratch on a human being. Page 45 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidSigns and symptoms of a rabid dog.  has difficulty in swallowing  rarely bites  Is lethargic /lazy/  hides it self  does not want food, but swallows, pieces of wood stone etc  barks in unusual way and never stop barking  Saliva runs out of its mouthFirst aid management 1. Clean the wound with soap and water 2. Cover the wound with dressing ointment/powders 3. Find out if anyone knows the dog that bit the patient 4. If the dog known, ask its owner to watch the dog carefully for lodges and to let you know it shows any of the above sign and symptoms in that time - See, during that time, it begins to show any of the above signs and symptoms - get the dog Killed - Send the person to hospital or Health center immediately for antirabies vaccination 15. FitFit (convulsions)When someone has jerking movements and which cannot be controlled it is called fitor convulsion.Signs and symptoms:-  Uncontrolled jerking movements  Unconconscious to the environmentManagement:  Keep the air way clear and lie him on one side  Remove any clothes which is too tight  Keep from biting his tongue by putting tongue depressor in the mouth  Note vital signs and time of fit  Prevent from injury or sharp objective  Educate the victim and the family to go to health centre or a hospital for further investigation and management. Page 46 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aid 16. Eye, Ear and Nose InjuryInjury to the eyeSince the eyes are delicate, they can be affected easily therefore; immediate helpshould be given.Signs and symptoms  Pain inside the eye  Wound or cut around the eye ball  Different between the size of eye ball  Sight decreases  Inflammation and infectionManagement of the eye injury  Avery light covering be applied to an injured eyes  Do not apply pressure  Reassure the patient  If no improvement in few days, Refer the victim to the nearest health facilityForeign bodies in the eyes:A foreign can be; dust, ash, particles of sands, or small fly etc.Often you can remove foreign from the eyes by flooding it with taped boiled water.If it does not work:Instruct the patient not to rub his eyes, while the patient is looking up; gently drawthe lower lid down and out. If the foreign body is seen on the lower lid remove it withmoistened cotton wool or the corner of a clean hand kerchief,If it does not  Stand behind the patient  Carefully place a smooth match stick at the base lid and pull and turn it inside out over the math stick  Remove the often body with wisp of cotton woodNote: - Do not try to remove a foreign body from the eye ball - If an acid or alkali gets in to the eye, this can be very dangerous hence, flood the eye with running water for several minutes Page 47 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidProblems with ear:Bleeding from the ear:Bleeding from the ear may be due to broken (fractured) skull  Cover the ear with a clean material (sterile if available) dressing.  Do not plug the ear with wool  Do not put in drops  Refer the victim to the nearest health facilityForeign body in the ear:  Turn the patient’s head to the affected part of the ear so that the foreign body may drop out.  If it is an insect which is inside the ear, direct torch- light to the ear- the insect may follow the light and come out of the ear. If this does not succeed  Pour in taped boiled water, the insect may float out  If neither these treatment is successful refer the client to the next health facility.Bleeding from the Nose:  If the foreign body is either beans, peas, avoid putting water or any fluid  Get the patient to pinch the lower part of his nose firmly for 10 minutes, while breathing through his mouth  Loose tight clothing around his neck  Tell the patient not to blow his nose for several hours  If bleeding persists, refer the client to the next health facility. Fig. How to stop a nose bleed Page 48 of 49

Section 1 - Introduction to First-aidForeign body in the nose:In an adult, a foreign body may enter the nose by accident, but mostly common inchildren who insert a pea or a bean in to their noses.NB. - Do not attempt to remove it, refer to the next health facility. Fig. Foreign body in the nose Page 49 of 49

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