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Microsoft Education | Transforming Education

Published by Supoet Srinutapong, 2018-08-02 21:26:50

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Empowering every student onthe planet to achieve more

ContributorsManaging Editor: Sean TierneyExecutive Editor: Anthony SalcitoEditor: Dof DickinsonWriters: Imogen Dall, Dof Dickinson,Rodney Payne, Sean TierneyResearch Assistant: Eliza MarksExpert Contributors: Bruce Dixon, Joan Cole Duffell,Dr Fiona Forbes, John Hattie, Dr Kirsti Lonka,Prakash Nair, Amit Pawar, Dr Gary StagerDesigner: Troy SmithAssistant Designers: Sionen Adijans, Gayna MurphyProof Reader: Trish ArnottFirst published by Microsoft 2018National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication data: Microsoft, Transforming EducationISBN: 978-1-64316-564-6

ForewordEmpowering every student on theplanet to achieve more.Anthony Salcito, Vice President,Worldwide Education, MicrosoftWe are in an exciting time of change. After nearly three decades, we now have the research, evidence and experience to understand how to achieveAs schools and education systems around the world the ambitious change needed in our to transform and improve learning outcomes, wemust recognize that the most important changes have Our aim is to candidly examine both the failures andalready taken place. successes of the past and to recommend best practice so that school leaders and educators are inspired toOur students, their view of their world and the way embrace digital transformation, confident that theirthey learn, create and share have changed. And efforts will be successful, safe and empowering.the workplace and skills needed to fuel growth haschanged. With such tremendous cultural change comes This guide acknowledges that while students should bea pivotal moment in education - an opportunity to at the heart of the transformation journey, the carefulembrace the immense potential technology presents. and deliberate empowerment of leaders and educators is what will build the cultural capital our world needs.Over the past few decades, technology has beenintroduced into classrooms with great intention. But Because despite all the technological advances of thewith great intention must also come thoughtful modern age, empowering great educators to designplanning, understanding and evaluation that best and support the learning experience using technology,supports educators and accelerates learning. remains the highest goal.With motivated school leaders, technology can At Microsoft, we aim to empower every person andtransform curriculum and better prepare students for every organization on the planet to achieve more.the new world of work. Digital transformation must bea people-centric journey; with a sharp focus on helping This guide is a contribution toward that vision.students unleash their talent, celebrating the criticaland growing role educators play and preparing schoolleaders to harness possibility.3 Welcome

The growing role of education as the engineof economic change makes thework happening to transformour schools and classroomsfundamental to global progress.For me it starts with mindset. Weneed to first inspire students toembrace a limitless future and tosee their learning as purposefulto what they can make and do.”Anthony Salcito, Vice President,Worldwide Education, Microsoft. Welcome 4

How to usethis guideThis guide brings together Section Onebest practice from decades Transformation: why it’s criticalof experience working incountries across the globe, using This section considers how the impact of the Fourthcontemporary education research Industrial Revolution demands a change in schools andto provide a practical resource for teaching practice. It shows how emerging technologies,educational leaders. Each section including analytics and artificial intelligence, deliverdeals with an essential aspect of far greater understanding of student capabilities andholistic education transformation support new approaches to teaching and learning.and how we can navigate thechange affecting our systems, Section Twoschools and classrooms. Education transformation: strategies This section looks at the practical considerations you will make when researching and designing a strategy for the digital transformation of education in a country, district, department or school. The chapters use academic evidence to work through the key challenges you can expect to encounter.5 Welcome

Many leaders ask, “Does technology improve learning?” A much better question is “When, and under what circumstances does technology improve learning?” Sean Tierney, Microsoft.Section Three Red flags and green flagsFuture-ready learning skills Many chapters conclude with a section for reflection.This section provides academic evidence and practical This includes red flags—things to watch out for andguidance as to how technology can be used to avoid—as well as a summary of the key conceptssupport and encourage the development of key covered in the chapter. These provide a shortcut to bestfuture-ready learning skills in students. These include: practice recommendations, enabling you to flip forwardSTEM, problem solving, collaboration, creativity, to quickly avoid common pitfalls and emulate success.communication, social and emotional skills, and The powerful questions are designed to help you thinkentrepreneurship. outside the square, challenge the status quo and open the debate.Section FourPractical templates and guides Expert viewsThis section is action and solutions focused. It provides Throughout this guide we feature insights froma suite of helpful templates that you can use to support leading educationalists who provide updates onyour Digital Transformation Program including: a device academic research into different aspects of the digitalselection checklist, tips for keeping kids safe online, and transformation of education. These highlights equip youa cloud and Internet acceptable use policy for students with key facts and evidence-based opinions to use andand staff. share with your education community. Welcome 6

Contents 7 Contents

Section One 08 Digital Transformation and Why it’s Critical 10 16Welcome to the Fourth Industrial Revolution 20A Proven Approach to Transformation 22What Could a Transformed School Look Like? 24A New Disruptor: Cloud Computing Technology to Enable Transformation Section Two 30 Transformation Programs 32 48Transformation Programs: Critical Steps to Success 58Using Data Analytics to Optimize Transformation 78Teaching and Leadership 122Devices, Curriculum and Assessment 146Physical Learning Spaces Creating an Inclusive Classroom Section Three 164Future-Ready Skills The Importance of Future-Ready Skills 166Problem Solving 172Future-Ready Learning Design for Problem Solving 182Collaboration 184Creativity 194Communication 202Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) 212Social and Emotional Skills 218Entrepreneurship 234 Section Four 238 Practical Templates and Guides 240 248Phasing your Transformation 250Digital Transformation Journey Map for Institutions 251Checklist: Choosing Student Devices 252Checklist: Choosing Devices for Deep Learning 253Keeping Your Child Safe Online: Parental policy guidelines 254Sample Internet Acceptable Use Policy: Staying safe online guidelines for students 256Assistive Technology for Vision Impairment 257Assistive Technology for Hearing Impairment 258Assistive Technology for Mobility/Dexterity Impairment Assistive Technology for Learning Impairment Contents 8

Section Digital Transformation and Why it’s Critical 9 Section One

1 As the world changes, so does the future of our students. We cannot sit back and let them enter a drastically shifting employment market without transforming the pedagogy, culture and approach to technology that is a legacy of the previous century. This section of the book examines digital transformation of learning and how you can plan for it. W elcome to the Fourth Industrial Revolution A Proven Approach to Transformation W hat Could a Transformed School Look Like? A New Disruptor: Cloud Computing T echnology to Enable Transformation They need to know how to learn because we don’t know what it is they’re going to need to learn.” Professor Glenys Thompson, Deputy Principal, the Australian Science and Mathematics School. Digital Transformation 10

Welcome to the Fourth Industrial Revolution11 Section One

Digital transformation is an indisputable force revolutionizing ourindustries, reinventing our products, redefining our services andreshaping the way we work. The impact is so dramatic that KlausSchwab, founder of the World Economic Forum, has dubbed itthe fourth industrial revolution. Our students will enter this verydifferent world. So how do we prepare them for it?New ways of working mean new Digital skills are now vital for allopportunities for teaching On top of critical thinking and problem solving,Today’s students need real-world skills to thrive in the digital skills that were once the province ofthe not-too-distant future. Qualities like critical thinking, computer science students are now crucial acrosscollaboration, creative problem solving, self-awareness, the entire spectrum of education. It’s increasinglyself-management, responsible decision-making, difficult to imagine how your students will succeedand the ability to construct complex solutions. without digital facility, be they looking to pursueThis is true regardless of subject area. Complex careers in healthcare or banking, academia or theskills are as important for artistic, service and performing arts. For education systems, this requires ahuman-oriented professions as they are for more deliberate effort to create conditions where learners canscientific, technological or industrial employment. demonstrate and develop these capabilities.Coming SoonTechnology we’ll see by 2025 30 percent of corporate audits will  Governments will replace the be performed by AI. census with Big Data sources. More than 10 percent of all cars  More journeys will occur via car on US roads will be driverless. sharing than by private cars. The first government taxes will be collected  10 percent of reading glasses will via Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) be connected to the Internet. – also known as blockchains. The Australian Stock Exchange has already moved to DLT.  50 percent of Internet traffic will be from home appliances and devices. One trillion sensors will be connected to the Internet.  3D printed cars will hit the roads. We’ll see the first robotic pharmacists  We’ll see the first 3D printed liver and other service roles. transplants. Implantable cell phones will  1 in 10 people will be wearing clothes be commercially available. connected to the Internet.(Source: Deep Shift Technology Tipping Points and Societal Impact, World Economic Forum report (2015) Digital Transformation 12

Labor economists agree: Technology intelligence, which are likely to have profound, lastingrequirements are increasing for all jobs impacts on the nature of work, life and education. It’s easy to be worried by this, but it’s better to beToday, one in two jobs worldwide require technology inspired. If we can equip our students with technologicalskills. But in fewer than ten years, we estimate three in fluency, high-level knowledge skills and an agile mindsetfour jobs will require deep and specific technical skills. that embraces innovation, creativity and 'marketBut what does this mean for our students? The OECD disruption,' they will be ready to face almost anything.Deputy Director for Education, Andreas Schleicher, hasstated that the future world economy will no longer The key is focusing on student centricitypay for what people know, but what they can do withwhat they know. In other words, students now need to Daniel Pink—futurist and author of the bestsellerdevelop skills in an environment that focuses less on A Whole New Mind—believes success in theknowledge transference and more on knowledge use. 21st century depends on having a purpose, a senseIn a world where students have instantaneous, unlimited of self-efficacy, a growth mindset, and the right toolsaccess to knowledge, it is time to refocus our curriculum, or access to those tools.1 To achieve this, Pink argues,policy, management, and legislation to embrace this the role of the school is to help students identify theirskills shift. purpose, learn how to pursue that purpose, and experience achieving self-defined goals.With new skills come new opportunitiesfor students to thrive For learning transformation, student centricity should be the core of your ‘disruption.’ This makes it possibleWe’ve seen the rise of Silicon Valley, start-up culture to move successfully from a traditional model basedand virtual working. We now live in a world where on mastery of a curriculum, to a model of learning thatthe largest taxi company owns no cars (Uber), the is about giving students the practical experience tolargest movie provider owns no cinemas (Netflix), achieve their personal potential. The Canadian provinceand the largest social media network creates no content of British Columbia put it perfectly in their vision(Facebook). For today’s businesses, agility is everything statement, when they redefined a school asand only the bravest innovators rise to the top. We’re “a place to discover and find one’s dignity,also anticipating robotics, automation and artificial purpose and future options.” Rosy Future: Daniel Pink’s vision for student-centric educationPurpose: Schools help individual students identify and pursuetheir unique purpose.Self Efficacy: Schools help students develop motivation,self-sufficiency, self-awareness and self-management.Growth Mindset: Schools help students move from simplyabsorbing knowledge to constantly applying, improving andinnovating that knowledge.Digital Tools: Schools equip students with the right platform,software, devices and tools to succeed in a digital economy.13 Section One

Every economy in the world depends on aworkforce that is equipped for our rapidly changingworld. The World Economic Forum states “Education isour deepest source of hope—we must plant the seedsnow for a better future tomorrow.”Today the pace of change presents education problem solvers capable of re-imagining productssystems with a real challenge. No country wants to and services in line with technological turning out students with skills and qualifications And they’ll need to be skilled entrepreneurs, with thefor jobs that may no longer exist. So our focus has technological skills to bring their ideas to fruition fast.shifted to equipping young people with future-readyskills for jobs that are yet to be invented or To ensure that today’s youth have these skills and arewhich are unlikely to be automated. employable in the workforce of the future, the 2016 World Economic Forum observed: “The educationTo try to get to grips with the magnitude of what system will need to adapt to prepare individualsthis will entail, the McKinsey Global Institute2 for the changing labor market. At the same time,looked at the fastest growing professions recent IT advances offer new and potentially moreand analysed the skills they demand. widely accessible ways to access education.”Their research found that they will require more This guide looks at how we can use technology tocognitive, social and emotional skills. In simple terms build and equip education systems so that theyour students will need the resilience to navigate an can advance the teaching of future-ready skills.increasingly dynamic world. They’ll need to be creative They need to know how to learn because we don’t know what it is they’re going to need to learn.” Professor Glenys Thompson, Deputy Principal, the Australian Science and Mathematics School. Digital Transformation 14

Net impact of automationon occupations 2016-2030Occupation % change Net change Number of jobs in (millions) 2010 ( millions)Technology Professionals(Software developers, etc.) 25 to 30% 0.8 to 1.0 3.9 to 4.0Care Providers 20 to 30% 3.0 to 5.0 19.2 to 21.1(Doctors, nurses, childcare workers, etc.) -5 to 35% 0.4 to 2.7 7.4 to 10.5Builders(Architects, construction workers, etc.)Managers and Executives 5 to 15% 0.5 to 1.1 7.9 to 8.6Professionals 5 to 10% 0.8 to 1.7 16.6 to 17.5(Engineers, lawyers, scientists, finance specialists) 0.3 to 0.8 9.9 to 10.4 0.1 to 0.2 2.1 to 2.2Educators 3 to 9% 0.4 to 1.0 12.5 to 13.9(Teachers, education support workers, etc.) 0.9 to -0.4 26.8 to 27.3 5.4 to -4.6 17.8 to 18.6Creatives 6 to 8% 7.4 to -6.6 17.9 to 18.6(Artists, designers, entertainers, media, etc.)Jobs in Unpredictable Environments -3 to 8%(Specialized mechanics, emergency response)Customer Interaction -3 to 1%(Personal care, food service, sales, etc.) -23 to -20% -30 to -25%Office Support(Computer support, clerks,administrative assistants)Jobs in Predictable Environments(Production, transport, equipment operators)Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, McKinsey Global Institution Analysis15 Section One

Key Trends1 Soft skills come into sharp focus Social and emotional competencies become fundamental for navigating learning, working and living.2 Voice, choice and agency Young people want the skills, tools and opportunity to explore and solve significant problems, choosing and using the people, tools, places and spaces to achieve their goals.3 Technology becomes more human Current and emerging tools amplify the characteristics that make us human including creativity, empathy and collaboration. New interfaces support continuous learning feedback, gesture, mixed reality, voice and touch. Digital transformation 16

A Proven Approach to Transformation Transforming an entire education institution is an exciting and critically important opportunity. But it’s also fraught with stumbling blocks. That’s why we developed the Microsoft Education Transformation Framework—a research- and experience-driven way to fast-track success.17 Section One

The Education We also distilled the key findings and made themTransformation available to school leaders everywhere.Framework The result is an Education Transformation FrameworkEnsure success with global best practice grounded in the latest research into effective policy, leadership and pedagogy transformation. You canMicrosoft worked with 130 leading policy makers and quickly see what global leaders are recommendingacademics to evaluate studies of schools, school districts and tap into their best practice and experiences, withand countries where learning transformation initiatives links to go deeper if required. Examples of what hashave made dramatic improvements. worked and what hasn’t can help you avoid repeating the same mistakes.By recording and analyzing their evidence and researchdata and working in consultation with academics, Recognizing that school contexts vary, and thatexperts and policy makers, we’ve identified what works change can be ‘whole school’ or ‘incremental,’ theand what doesn’t. The most successful transformation framework is open and non-prescriptive, providingprojects globally share the same approach—one that’s a flexible starting point. It is underpinned by a suiteholistic, methodical and systematic. of executive summaries, white papers and provoking questions, all designed to stimulate conversations, and provide guidance for managing the critical aspects of change. Visit Leadership Modern Teaching & Policy & Learning Vision for Inclusion & Educator Curriculum & Change Accessibility & Leader Assessment Development Strategic Partnerships & Personalized Immersive Planning & Quality Local Capacity Learning & Experiences Well-being Assurance Building Intelligent TechnologyEnvironments BlueprintPurpose Driven, Facilities Operations & IT Devices for Accessible Management Management LearningLearning SpacesSustainable & Smart, Integrated Collaborative Data Driven Responsible Security Learning Platform Insight Design Digital Transformation 18

To inspire discussion, we’vesummarized the ten componentsof The Education TransformationFramework here. To learn more,download executive summaries,white papers and resources Leadership Modern Teaching and Policy and LearningVision for Change Educator and leader developmentIt’s about developing a clear, succinct vision to drive It’s about professional learning that’s more inspiringchange. By creating a rationale that’s shared by leaders than traditional trading. By participating in an activeand other stakeholders, you can create the momentum community of practice that shares ideas, successfulfor long-term impact. strategies and content, educators motivate each other to grow and adapt.Strategic planning and quality assuranceIt’s about taking a program management approach. Personalized learning and wellbeingStart with an effective plan to achieve multiple It’s about new approaches and tools. These helpworkstreams. Include quality assurance metrics and educators unlock students’ sense of purpose and inspireestablish a strong governance model. them to achieve more. At the same time, students develop important 21st century competencies.Partnerships and local capacityIt’s about partnering with public and private Immersive experiencesorganizations in a long-term strategy. Partners can help It’s about taking students vividly outside their ownbuild capacity, whether through digitizing administration experience. What if they could go virtually into aand management or upgrading staff skills. volcano or walk around a living cell in 3D? Or even build their own medieval village or sub-Saharan ecosystem?Inclusion and Accessibility Curriculum and assessmentIt’s about supporting social inclusion through making It’s about creating multifaceted learning content fortechnology more accessible, both through customized students—and evaluating them on competencies,interfaces and tools for students with special needs and not content recall. And it’s about linking them toby embedding supports in teacher training. the community for education, employment and entrepreneurship.19 Section One

Intelligent Technology Environments BlueprintPurpose-driven, accessible learning spaces Operations and ITIt’s about matching physical learning spaces and It’s about creating an agile, flexible and responsivefurniture with learning goals to provide flexible learning operations and IT environment. Your aim is to put inchoices. One strategy is to build learning labs and place a platform and applications that serve the needsstudios next to common, quiet, and collaborative of every learner, teacher and administrator across yourspaces. A low-fi approach is to split existing spaces into educational system or institution.specialized zones. Collaborative learning platformSustainable and responsible design It’s about enabling the next-level collaboration centralIt’s about creating healthy, thriving environments with to modern teaching and learning. The right platformplenty of fresh air, light and natural views to keep brings together people, learning content and insights.learners alert, positive and engaged while reducing This can make the difference between success andcosts and environmental footprint. failure for teachers and students.Smart integrated security Data-driven insightIt’s about using intelligent safety systems to proactively It’s about using evidence-based decision making tomake schools safer and reduce bullying and other transform student learning and your education system.threats. Such systems can track people and assets, There’s no need to turn everyone into data scientistsalerting the school community to safety issues. They can —simply offer easy-to-use tools so they can gaugealso control access to school facilities dynamically, aiding progress and improve.emergency response. Devices for learningFacilities Management It’s about choosing devices that offer superior valueIt’s about using the Internet of Things (IoT), the cloud and and support for learning. Powerful devices can rundata analytics to manage complex school environments real-world software, preparing students for life beyondmore efficiently. Connect digital whiteboards, school, and enable rich 3D learning experiences notcomputers, vehicle fleets, lighting, climate control, available on simple web content and apps.parking, security and more to improve visibility of assetswhile using automation and analytics to save cost. Digital Transformation 20

What Could a TransformedSchool Look Like?Here are some of the visionary outcomes you can aimfor when developing your transformation roadmap.The ideas on page 20-25 were developed in partnership with Catholic EducationWestern Australia’s (CEWA) LEADing Lights program. Microsoft would like toacknowledge this collaboration with their digital transformation team.Learn more at leaders Teachers Accelerate continuous improvement U nderstand more about their students, in student and teacher performance, and the support or guidance they need. health, wellbeing and achievement— across a class, a school or the C an augment their lessons with experts entire system—thanks to real-time from anywhere in the world. information and analytics. Provide powerful feedback and guidance, C onnect and collaborate with freed from the traditional, repetitive the wider school community methods usually required to do this. using convenient new social communications. O pen up new pedagogical opportunities, with tools to understand and refine impact. Improve rankings and graduation rates, and reduce drop-out rates. Support their own ongoing professional development with access to training and peer networking.21 Section One

Students Parents A re more engaged, included, R eceive detailed, easy-to-understand empowered and supported. information of their children’s needs, performance and wellbeing. R eceive powerful digital tools and learning Can support their child’s learning with direct resources for personalized learning. access to information, teachers and staff, e-learning resources, and services. C an learn, study and interact with a keyboard, pen, touch, voice and other Technology Leaders natural interfaces. and IT Managers A re able to co-create, co-author, Can simplify processes with intelligent, communicate and collaborate with automated procedures. classmates, mentors and teachers. Minimize costs through simple, pay-per-use cloud models. C an explore ideas and concepts more O ptimize existing investments by deeply, with “anywhere, anytime” access connecting them to a single, unified system. to coursework, apps and feedback. Improve the ROI on all investments. Can decide their own learning pathways, work at their own pace and pursue topics that engage them within the core curriculum. Engage in virtual excursions, conversations or collaborations with experts from anywhere on Earth. Develop essential skills for employability. School Welcome back students and teachers. Digital Transformation 22

A New Disruptor: Cloud Computing23 Section One

One way to refocus your digital technology on human Transformation:needs is to move to the cloud. Schools around the What does it look like?world are making this move—and it may not be whyyou originally thought. The cost benefits are well known: • Visibility across the entireSchools can use the cloud to sidestep hefty capital system and other schools.investment, IT management overheads and technologyobsolescence. But the real benefit is access to the • Clear understanding of where toheavy computing power they will need to deliver truly allocate resources or support.personalized learning. • Smart asset management.Cloud computing allows schools to cheaply rent aholistic, unified platform that caters to changing student, • Courses that can be sharedteacher and staff needs. On a technical level, that’s a across campuses.single offering with best-in-class data models, industry-standard core systems and cloud services, optimized • Digital, automated payroll.specifically for education.The advantage of this approach is the flexibility to addnew technologies and capabilities when required, or toscale capacity up and down with the demands of theschool year. In this way, schools can continually innovateand advance over time, without breaking the budget.Visibility across the systemAnalytics can consolidate most data Administrationacross education systems into a single of Schoolscomprehensive data model that deliversend-to-end analytics and reporting. This Cloud/ School Apps/ensures consistent high-integrity data Insight Applications/that is up to date and provides simple, System &elegant user interfaces for more accurate community Toolsdata input that are integrated with thefamiliar tools teachers use every day. Portfolios, PerformanceThis enables schools to simplify analytics Student Wellbeingand take advantage of new, precisemodeling that can reveal:• Comparisons of the use of technology with student performance.• Effects of interventions on learning outcomes.• Efficiency of school budgets.• Clusters of learning improvement. Digital Transformation 24

Technology to EnableTransformationEach school operates differently, with variations in how it uses itsapplications and systems. These systems have often been “bolted on”over time, resulting in inconsistent, fragmented data and experiences.System before transformationUser Experience School Administration• Fragmented systems with multiple access • Data is stored in systems that points that create inefficiency. don’t connect to each other.• L imited visibility of student • Complicated maintenance progress and outcomes. with multiple licensing fees. Principals and Administration Teachers, Students and Parents Discrete system Disparate systems andservices with multiple sign ons Learning Management Student Timetable Mail server Curriculummanagement solutions content System delivery systems platformProductivity File server Marksbook Intranet software25 Section One

System after transformationThe integration of multiple systems and data into a single, intelligent platformpaves the way to better educational outcomes and streamlined processes.User Experience School Administration• Simplified single access to software and tools. • F ully integrated - removing manual synchronization. • Reduced long-term licensing costs.• New learning tools and insights with purpose-built interactivity, enabling reporting and analytics.Principals Administration Teachers Students Parents Your portalAdministration of Schools Office 365 Administration Analytics Forms Stream Attendance Assessment Feedback Class Notebook Sway TeamsStudent Wellbeing and Reporting OneNote Delve Calendar Parent Engagement OneDrive Minecraft Academic Reports Planner Education Edition School Finance Timetable Curriculum Yammer Imagine Academy Marksbook Outlook Intune Planning Windows 10 S Security Digital Transformation 26

Red Flags Though it is inspiring to focus on best practice, it’s useful to also be aware of the common stumbling blocks in a digital transformation project. Keeping an eye out for red flags can help your team identify problems earlier and work quickly to correct your trajectory.Data security and privacy protection is essential  Lack of Data Security  Lack of Information Privacy It’s exciting to consider the potential features of Much like data security, it’s important to ensure cloud-based apps, such as Office 365. But what your user’s right to privacy when they input a lot of schools do not consider, unfortunately, personal information, such as names, addresses is the data protection they provide. Legislation and social security numbers. surrounding data protection is an important consideration, not just to ensure your technology The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), is compliant, but for the safety and security of is due to take effect by May 2018. Developed by your students, and staff. the European Union, this law will affect all systems and institutions globally if they have one or According to this Masaryk University Journal more students or employees from the European of Law and Technology article, “The [user] Union. This will impose new rules on companies, contract for Microsoft Office 365 was found to government agencies, non-profits, and other be compliant with data protection law.” However, organizations that offer goods and services to “The contract for other major providers suffers people in the European Union (EU), or that collect from several deficiencies that may cause a breach and analyze data tied to EU citizens. The GDPR of data protection law.”3 The study found that applies no matter where you are located. advertising-based providers were data harvesting through school-issued technology. A syncing Microsoft has extensive expertise in protecting feature set to ‘default’ was providing advertisers data, championing privacy, and complying with with access to students’ passwords, search history, complex regulations. We currently comply with browsing history and more.4 both the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield and the EU Model Clauses. In other words, though we offer free access to our software through a school email account, Microsoft does not mine student emails or student work for data, nor do we capture data for the purpose of targeting advertising to student accounts.27 Section One

Policy Recommendations Evidence and Further The Microsoft publication, ‘A Cloud for Reading Global Good,’ makes the following key recommendations:5 Explore the topics mentioned in this section  School systems should establish clear, with some recommended enforceable privacy frameworks that further reading. include strong privacy protections while enabling schools, teachers and students Bloem, J. to take advantage of the benefits of cloud Doorn, M.V., Duivestein, S., Excoffier, D., computing that are dependent upon data. Maas, R. and Ommeren, E.V. (2014) The Fourth Industrial Revolution—Things to Tighten the  Privacy frameworks should provide Link between IT and OT. Sogeti VINT2014. meaningful autonomy for individuals Pink, D. H. and require organizational accountability (2006). A whole new mind: Why right-brainers for strong privacy protections and will rule the future. Penguin. fair data use. Siemens, G. & Long, P. (2011). Penetrating the fog:  Privacy frameworks should build on Analytics in learning and education. long-standing privacy principles. Chief EDUCAUSE review, 46(5), 30. among these is that people should have Microsoft. reasonable choice over whether personal (2014). Education Transformation Framework data is collected and how it is used. Overview: Transformation Framework.  Privacy frameworks should not be so TranDsifgoirtmalaTtriaonnsfporromgaratimons 28 restrictive that they prevent school systems, schools, teachers and students from using data analytics to draw insights in an ethical manner.

Critical Concepts This chapter explored some provocative, early-stage thoughts that can help you find the right pathway to your own digital transformation.Essential steps to success  The Fourth Industrial Revolution is here  Transformation begins with Ensure students are provided with opportunities a strong foundation to demonstrate and develop the digital skills they Be ambitious about what technology will make need to thrive in future economies. possible on your transformation journey. Failures of the past are guideposts for the future, not  We cannot carry on in the same way indications of what is and is not possible. All of the research and statistics show that today’s  Let other schools and youth are entering a vastly different world and systems inspire you must be prepared for it. By researching the incredible achievements  Humanity should drive change of other schools and school systems, you can Even the best technology in the world will fall visualize the perfect transformation for your school or system and develop a roadmap to short if students, teachers and staff don’t feel that get there. it understands, supports or enables their ideas.  Use the Microsoft Education Transformation Framework If you’re finding the challenge a little too momentous, this resource offers a flexible, proven way to move forward.29 Section One

Choose technology that Powerful supports your vision Questions Explore the tools that can support Challenge your your desired outcomes and build deeper assumptions by asking the learning relationships, in an affordable, following five questions: safe and secure way. 1. What’s our state of play?  Look out for red flags Are we at technology ground zero, or are we contending with several incoherent Go into your transformation with your eyes technologies? What’s working? What’s not? open, ready to anticipate some of the common stumbling blocks others have encountered. 2. How could we use analytics to get a clearer vision of our situation? 3. What human needs should drive our transformation? What are the common complaints, desires and ideas? How can we enable change? 4. What are other school systems doing? How can we emulate thier success and avoid the common pitfalls? 5. Where do we want to be? What does success look like—for the entire school system, individual schools, teachers and students? Digital Transformation 30

Section Transformation Programs 31 Section Two

2 Whether it’s brought in by students or introduced by schools, technology typically lands in our classrooms before we can fully evaluate its impact. Change is so rapid and so profound that we often continue to apply age-old learning constructs to modern technology. As a result, many programs are poorly implemented, or expensive failures. In general, expectations for what technology makes possible have lowered, when in fact its potential to positively affect education has increased. This section reflects on the successes and failures of the past and provides best practice guidelines. Transformation Programs: Critical Steps to Success U sing Data Analytics to Optimize Transformation Teaching and Leadership D evices, Curriculum and Assessment Physical Learning Spaces C reating an Inclusive Classroom For decades now we have been burdened with a plague of low expectations.” Anytime Anywhere Learning Foundation. Transformation programs 32

Transformation Programs: Critical Steps to Success Transformation is about more than technology. The goal is to enable a complete re-imagining of learning, anytime, anywhere, and to be ruthless in studying and adjusting when and how technology makes things better.” Bruce Dixon, Co-founder, Anytime Anywhere Learning Foundation.33 Section Two

The OpportunityTechnology can make learning far more engaging, rewarding andequitable, equipping students with the skills and knowledge tobecome confident, happy, contributing participants to our world.There are now simple affordable ways to revolutionize teachingand learning. Getting it right means infinitely better opportunitiesand experiences for our students, and a more efficient, effectiveand rewarding work experience for our teachers and staff.The first large-scale transformation in K-12 was a However, the disappointments of these programs areone-to-one learning program, which launched as often slower to register, can run more deeply or are lessearly as 1991 in Victoria, Australia. Since then, similar likely to be considered. They are also where the real valuetransformations have become commonplace across the of hindsight can be realized. Struggling to see this, someworld, with real momentum building in the last decade. schools phase out their programs entirely, citing rising costs,12 low take-up,13 or little noticeable improvementThe successes of transformation programs tend to in student performance.14 Others blame the technologypresent themselves quickly. Dozens of researchers itself, misunderstand the reasons for failure, or ultimatelyreport increased scores on standardized tests,6 better find themselves unwilling to contend with the magnitudestudent engagement7 and attentiveness, as well as of change required.improved literacy,8 collaboration9 and problem-solvingskills10 for students as young as the fourth grade.11 How can things go so wrong, or so right? In this chapter, we take an unflinching look at the enormous challenge of planning a transformation program and how to use the right policy recommendations to get it right.What’s what? One-to-One Learning Bring your own device Laboratories or carts The provision of one fully Students bring any device to Providing a “class set” of laptopsfunctional laptop or tablet for every school. This can be disruptive or tablets to support learning student. Properly managed, this is because schools have to support works well in lower grades if multiple brands and teachers most effective and proven model have to teach to the lowest students spend less time working for transformation. with technology, but can limit common denominator. learning in higher grades. Transformation programs 34

The ChallengeFor every step forward, there is a complexity or risk that needs to beunderstood, and mitigated. These range from online predators, data miningand student profiling to potentially opening a doorway to inappropriatecontent for students. Less apparent are the risks of implementingtechnology that undermines learning, creates distraction, fragmentsattention, or creates a “hyperlinked” mindset at the expense of focus. Questions are often the answer Of course, most of us couldn’t possibly solve the enormous challenge of developing a school systemAlbert Einstein once famously said, “If I had an transformation in just five minutes, but approaching thehour to solve a problem and my life depended problem from the right angle saves hours—if not weekson the solution, I would spend the first 55 minutes or months—of valuable time.determining the proper question to ask; for once I knowthe proper question, I could solve the problem in lessthan five minutes.”Five essentialquestionsStart with a simple framework of fivemaddeningly simple questions. These can helpyou open debate on the important issues andevaluate the potential impact of change.1. What’s our strategic goal?2. How will we achieve it? Who do we want to emulate and what do we want to avoid?3. Who could help us?4. How will we manage change?5. How will we stay on track and measure success?35 Section Two

Policy RecommendationsThe best foresight is hindsight. Drawing on the wealth ofresearch, policy documents and real-life implementationexperience available is the best way to ensure successful,holistic change. The Microsoft Education TransformationFramework ties these elements together, with tools, templatesand activities to help your institution achieve the best. Build a powerful, shared vision “They are first and foremost concerned with learning, not laptops or other devices.”Looking at the huge challenge of a digitaltransformation, it can be easy to think it hinges All too often, new technology proves irrelevant toon implementing the right technology in the right way. teachers, either because schools are unable to executeBut while critical, this is one of the last steps on the list a structured implementation, policies are not congruenton page 46. with technology use, or the culture of the school is not supportive of technology adoption.15“The most successful initiatives all have one maincharacteristic in common,” says Bruce Dixon, co-founderof the Anytime Anywhere Learning Foundation. Digital transformation of education is asmuch about cultural changeas it is about technology.”Mr. Sunil Hettiarachchi,Secretary Ministry of Education, Sri Lanka. Transformation programs 36

So, what’s the answer? Start with investing in the The first thingdevelopment of a strong, shared vision. A vision people typically thinkdocument is an expression of a desired end state. about is devices. But digital transformation is aboutA device ratio of one to one isn’t an adequate more than the technology.description of the desired state, it is only one In fact, the Anytimemechanism to realize this. Instead, the vision expresses Anywhere Learningwhat this technology will make possible in the context of Foundation estimates thatthe learner, the school, the system and the community. less than 10 percent of the work required to makeTo get a more concrete idea about what this means, one-to-one successfulan example of a vision statement can be found in the involves a device.”state-wide vision for learning in Victoria, Australia:“All teachers and students have access to contemporary Bruce Dixon, Co-founder,technology and world-class digital content with which Anytime Anywhere Learning create, communicate and collaborate locally andglobally. Student learning is engaging, personalizedand authentic to enable them to become confidentand creative individuals and active and informedcitizens of the 21st century.”37 Section Two

What does a successful vision look like?Two typical schools below provide a useful comparisonof how an ill-considered and well-considered technologyprogram can be justified and explained. On the surface theclaims from School A look promising, but they are unlikelyto deliver successful outcomes, according to best practice.School AIll-considered, shallow vision School B WthAaellykl ’olilnubtroekaeidnnsyghacaglavesedsrdoweoivtmhice,asap.npds. Well-considered, directive vision WBeagasrewwmililllowbveeinigmghotelerxestsbuaopnotdkoscdtuaortretiac. bulluetms. acllOoonwucrsestpcthuotesdummeldnotntors’teatdhsdokienbwekpiigmtlhygo,oearurentqddtueetecoeshptdniloyoo.nlTtoshe,gictnyho.gnesoxtlpholegoyyreTetaocihnetersgtrahareteecgltaievsceshrnonPooDmlo.goyn how critiinWcfaoelrlamitreeartamiocoynvmfirnoogmdaewcl ooannytfearcmocmpeostsreianxrtgybaosnooduksrpctaeorss.aing into uOsweuarteytscehathncahotelocrgsanyarsteraafcenolsyaf,ocehrtmehdicleaoalnlryn,hiaonngwd. tionTechstnduoidgloeitngatlyssitcsormeriaeetsae,saaunmredadaznbiniymghavotidwioenmoss.u, ch eTmecpcohognwnoeiltorivsgeuysloistaomdfoeothnacrsutouhsurelegedlshesoaboruynnthintfohignweijsopihtureoirndncceepresyr.saosodefuslcedtasirs,ncarinnedgtio—mnoiatrreydWeevilceitethstahtusedcyeolinnktnes,ebacrstiinvloigtnya.gnays ourerWssetteaourdscipnehcenrantesntadhas,aelaovtsetholetehfaoetriunmdticeneovgtimoceeexuspsntewdhreaetstrv,saattraoleuneedpn.rtsohuvereen Transformation programs 38

Research the proven Consider a public-private components of change educational partnership (PPEP)With a vision and a framework in place, it’s importantto reinforce your digital transformation with research. Public-Private Educational Partnerships (PPEPs) areThere’s no doubt that every situation is different, so contractual relationships between governments andit’s useful to hunt around for case studies and articles private sector entities that enable you to collaboratepublished about schools from similar circumstances with a specialist in a specific area. This could be toto your own. Incorporate meaningful research into help you with digital transformation planning andthe execution of your vision—and be very critical of any management, professional support services, device“evidence” that cites engagement as the major benefit. funding, management or technology deployment and maintenance. These PPEP elements can provide Be keenly aware of what the increased choice that comes with taking advantage meaningful student engagement of specialized private sector expertise and skills. A review actually is, and how to measure it of the role of public-private partnerships in educationEngagement is more than excitement or increased put forward the following arguments in favor:17attention. These are just a few examples of behavioralengagement.16 In other words, just because students • Competitive quality: By having the privateare highly engaged with a device does not necessarily sector compete for the contract.mean they are engaged with learning. True engagementrequires emotional engagement and cognitive • Flexibility: PPEP contracts can often beengagement, as well as behavioral engagement. more flexible than most public sector,These can be measured using the most appropriate government-managed arrangements.combination of student self-questionnaires, teacherreports and observational data. • Service level agreements: The government’s competitive bidding process allows for definingBy understanding the proven components of specific requirements for the quality of educationalchange and tempering your enthusiasm with risk services to be, you can ensure student safety andwellbeing is front and center. • Reduced risk: PPEP contracts inherently are predicated on risk-sharing between government Plan your and the private sector. funding strategiesConsider the various funding options that are available Core funding principlesto you, and plan for a sustainable initiative that addressesthe critical issues of equity. You have the chance to either • Funding should ensure all studentsaddress or entrench a learning divide for your students. can participate.Almost every public system in the world offers “freeeducation”. This often creates reluctance to ask for a • Funding should be structured to ensure itcontribution to technology. However, global evidence can be sustained indefinitely.reveals that one of the biggest mistakes a schoolsystem can make is to provide free technology to • Device funding must be supported by astudents. When families contribute they take ownership, commitment to professional development.there is less loss or damage, devices are better cared forand there is less downtime. • Everyone who benefits should make some contribution.39 Section Two • When students / families contribute you experience: -- Increased ownership. -- Less loss / damage. -- Better maintenance. -- Less downtime. Source: AALF

Get your entire community Recognizing this lack of equitable access, the school behind the project later decided to purchase laptops for the remaining students, but then failed to implement a systemSometimes referred to as “buy in,” getting everyone to maintain them. “A room that used to be for thein your community to believe in your digital yearbook club became an on-site repair shop fortransformation is a complicated task that can the 80 to 100 machines that broke each month.”spark success or spell doom. In a study of digital As costs spiraled, the school eventually decided totransformations across the United States, Canada shut down its program in 2007. Oddly enough,and the United Kingdom, Fullan found that one of parents then complained about the program closing.the most fundamental roadblocks to reform is whenteachers and staff do not have a clear sense of the It’s worth noting that Liverpool High was in areasons for change, what it is and how to proceed.18 lower-income catchment area, in which one in four students qualified for a free or reduced-cost lunch.New York’s Liverpool High initially proposed that Costs were undeniably a huge barrier to success inevery 10th, 11th and 12th grade student be required this region—especially in the early 2000s, whento lease a laptop. Unfortunately, they failed to effectively devices were priced as a luxury and there wascommunicate their vision, leading to complaints from no option to lease network infrastructure.parents. Things went from bad to worse, when theschool decided to then make the technology But with successful digital transformation programsprogram voluntary. regularly rolled out in similar or less well-off schools around the world, it’s worth investigating how structuralBecause only half the students signed up, “the school and emotional changes could have made a difference.set up two tracks of classes—laptop and non-laptop— Bringing parents and the wider community into thethat resulted in scheduling conflicts and complaints that planning stages can go a long way toward buildingthose without laptops had been shut out of advanced a successful program that works for everyone.classes, though school officials denied that,” reportedWinnie Hu for The New York Times.19 A good vision isn’t about technology. It’s about intent. A device ratio of one-to-one isn’t the goal of a technology transformation, but merely one of many components that make it work.” Bruce Dixon, Co-founder, Anytime Anywhere Learning Foundation. Transformation programs 40

Always give teachers the technology firstOne of the fastest ways to predict the success of a Measure successtechnology program is whether or not teachers are Many schools use Business Intelligence (BI)given technology first with a structured program to software to connect data systems, such as recordshelp them use it for ‘personal benefit’. of attendance, grades, demographics and staff information. This enables you to see if yourPersonal benefit means teachers have a reason to use change program is translating into betterthe technology because it makes their life easier and student outcomes.more productive, or they can design more interestinglearning activities, have more fun, or become For example, after Tacoma Public Schools inmore connected. Washington State connected their data systems together, they were able to identify the students atUntil the teachers have a meaningful purpose to use risk of dropping out, provide extra support to thosetechnology to improve their own lives, they are far students and ultimately boost graduation rates fromless likely to embrace transformation. 55 percent to 78 percent. With a national average of 81 percent, this was a huge leap forward, all thanks to data insights.41 Section Two

Make sure that student data is securePrepare for General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)In May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation Microsoft has extensive expertise in protecting data,(GDPR) took effect in Europe, with global impact. The and championing privacy, and is committed to GDPRGDPR imposes new rules on companies, government compliance across our cloud services.agencies, non-profits and other organizations that offergoods and services to people in the European Union Education leaders globally must ensure they are provided(EU) or that collect and analyze data tied to EU residents. with robust GDPR-related assurances in ANY contractualIt includes rules related to personal privacy, controls and agreements with cloud providers before embarking on anotifications, transparent policies and IT and training. cloud-based digital transformation journey. To learn more, and for useful tools and resources to ensure you are GDPR ready, visit: and Access Management (IDAM) is one of the most criticaland often overlooked foundations for a successful transformationIDAM describes the management of individual In many cases people cope with this proliferationusers, their authentication, authorization, and privileges of multiple digital identities by using idiosyncraticwithin or across system and enterprise boundaries methods to manage their online entrances andwith the goal of increasing security and productivity access to resources.while decreasing cost, downtime and repetitive tasks.Systems that get identity and access management These coping mechanisms range from a low-techright are far more likely to successfully undergo robust, approach of sticking computer monitors withfuture-ready transformation. sticky-note reminders of sign on information to the more sophisticated solution of password managerAny IDAM strategy needs to start with a strong software, which stores and organizes an individual’sprotected single identity. Institutions and education many user names and passwords in one who’re moving in part, or fully to the cloud Some users resort to the “forgot user ID and password”need to be very careful to build a consistent, secure, option on the many sites they visit to reset theirscalable identity solution. As you move to the cloud, passwords and start fresh, with yet anotherthe identity becomes your control plane, safeguarding password to manage.your core assets on the premises and in the cloud. Increasingly the trend in many schools, colleges andMost breaches can be traced back to compromised universities is to enable students, educators and staffcredentials. The more people rely on cloud services and to use a single sign-on ID to access appropriate onlineonline resources, the more difficult it is to efficiently and educational resources within their institutions—as welleffectively manage the identity. Typically, each cloud as at external sites/services.service has its own unique user names and passwords. Transformation programs 42

7 Principles for Embrace new possibilitiesLearning OECD 2010 for 21st century educatorsTo help schools re-imagine Once a strong vision is in place, it’s time to lookteaching and learning, the at practical applications in the classroom. To trulyOrganization of Economic unleash the power of technology, schools need toCooperation and look at redefining curricula and how they get taught.Development (OECD) has laid In other words, it’s time to completely re-imaginedown seven useful principles. teaching and learning for the 21st century.1. Learners should be at the center of “A focus on facts and recall, on drill and practice, what happens in the classroom with does not leverage the value of the computer,” activities focused on their cognition, argue Professor Norris and Professor Soloway, learning process and growth. from the University of Texas and University of Michigan respectively. “Having students investigate2. Learning is a social practice and can’t and collaborate in order to develop a deep, happen alone. Structured, collaborative integrated understanding of underlying processes group work can be good for all learners. needs to be the focus of a one-to-one computing It pushes students in different ways. classroom.”20 Learning transformation requires a major conceptual shift. It is a movement away3. Emotions are an integral part of learning. from viewing computing as a separate subject, Students understand ideas better when or an appealing gadget that can hook in student we connect emotions, motivation and interest, to a whole new idea of the classroom as a cognition. Positive beliefs are key. digital space, of the curriculum as a measure of what matters, and of the role of teachers and learners.4. Learners are different and innovative learning environments reflect the various Future-ready learning is a mindset that empowers experiences and prior knowledge that each students to become co-authors of their learning student brings to class. and tailor activities to meet their needs, abilities and interests. This requires a big change in the way5. Assessment should be for learning, teachers function in the classroom, moving from what not of learning. Assessments are important, Deakin Crick terms “learning as script” to “learning but only to gauge how to structure the next as design.”21 In fact, in a seminal analysis of over 800 lesson for maximum effectiveness. studies relating to student achievement, John Hattie found that teacher skills account for about 30 percent6. Students need to be stretched, but not of the variance in student achievement.22 too much. Students need to experience both academic success and the challenge Dr Emma Bartle agrees, advising, “Teachers need to of discovery. be willing and able to shift their pedagogy to a student centered approach—their ability to do7. Learning needs to be connected across this is a critical element of a personalized learning disciplines and reach out into the real world. environment.”23 Learning can’t be meaningful if students don’t understand why the knowledge will be useful to them.43 Section Two

It’s all down to your approach. Technology,by itself, is not going to closethe achievement gap betweenthe rich and the poor, a gapthat threatens so many of ourminority students. But whentechnology is used correctly,we have seen powerful results.”Superintendent Alberto M. Carvalho,Miami-Dade Schools, USA. Transformation programs 44

The Pygmalion Effect Effect—means that when teachers expect more from their students, they perform better. This is reaffirmed by Set high expectations Hattie’s research, which found the factor with the highest with clear parameters impact on student outcomes was the teacher’s own estimation of student achievement.24Setting high, clear expectations helps orient everyaspect of a digital transformation. For staff, this The reverse is also the case. If teachers and staff expectinvolves dialogue with stakeholders. less by giving students limited technology, students will understand this low expectation and achieve less.For teachers, setting expectations helps themunderstand their students and tailor learningexperiences that keep them engaged. The effectof teacher expectations—also known as the PygmalionFirst applied in education in a now-famous 1968 Providing childrenstudy by Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson, underpoweredthe Pygmalion Effect revealed that if teachers or compromisedwere led to expect more from students, those technology devices canstudents performed better. This effect includes be a powerful physicalgender and racial stereotyping. expression of low expectations.”Recently, the study inspired the Teacher ExpectationProject by researcher Christine Rubie-Davies, who Sean Tierney, Microsoft.used video-taping to show teachers how unconsciousfeedback, such as winces, shrugs and frowns, canhugely discourage students.25 Rubie-Davies also foundthat students treated to higher expectations performedbetter, and, on average, completed coursework threemonths faster than the control group.26 Influence Our Actions Impact (toward others) Our Beliefs Others’ Beliefs (about ourselves) Pygmalion Effect (about us) Reinforce (self-fulfilling prophecy) Cause45 Section Two Others’ Actions (toward us)

Set up a change Andersson’s study found that the root of the problem management program was the lack of school practice guidelines when it comesWhen planning your transformation, don’t neglect to distractions like social media. She recommendsa change delivery strategy to inspire, skill and equip shifting the responsibility school-wide by implementingstakeholders for success. policy. Andersson also suggests updating teaching practice, to avoid the dangerous pitfall of simplyThe most commonly cited reason for project failure blaming weaker students for their lack of self-control,is the people. When students, teachers, school which would serve only to widen the gap betweenadministrators and parents are not properly informed higher- and lower-achieving students. Anderssonand prepared they have trouble implementing change. notes, “One of the responsibilities of the adult world isInitiatives with excellent change management teams to protect children from challenges they cannot handle.”are six times more likely to meet objectivesthan those with poor change management. This brings us to the third way to empower teachers, which is through managing the addictive nature ofActivities might include parent information nights, newer technologies. In his book, Digital Cocaine,posters, notices, or articles in the school newsletters. Brad Huddleston found that, neurologically, thereYou can also hold staff introductory and professional is no difference in addiction between playing an hourdevelopment days to provide basic technology skills of video games and half a line of cocaine.and a wider appreciation of system-wide goals,reinforced by continual support through online Managing this level of risk requires a coordinatedcourses, communities of interest and recognition effort between teachers, parents and students.of success. Teachers need to be educating students on appropriate use, while parents need to ensure this is upheld at Empower teachers to home. Students, meanwhile, deserve to be respected, manage today’s students with a full and frank discussion of the dangers ofSuccessful programs hinge on empowering accessing inappropriate content and how this canteachers in five ways: deeply affect their thoughts, relationships, actions and future prospects.1. Making change relevant, specific and useful. Many schools have developed contracts providing2. Setting high expectations of teachers and students. a clear set of rules on the use of technology covering:3. Enabling teachers to adapt and grow through • Security. development opportunities. • Cyberbullying.4. Supporting teachers with enforceable school policy that sets clear guidelines on student technology use. • Texts and calls.5. Coordinating with parents to manage technology • Internet access. use at home. • App installation.For an in-depth look at the role of teaching andleadership in your digital transformation, • Taking photos and videos.flip forward to page 58. • Use of tablet/smartphones in school.For a look into technology guidelines, a usefulstarting point is the work of Annika Andersson, Assistant • Responsibility over damage and repairs.Professor in Informatics at Sweden’s Örebro University.She interviewed a range of teachers in digital schools, See page 253 for tips to help parents protectone of whom commented, “It takes a lot of time from their children at home.the lessons just having to tell the students to close thecomputers… or tell them to leave Facebook.” Transformation programs 46

Technology transformation in 21 stepsBe deliberate in your approach and follow a Tierney from Microsoft, created this 21-step process.proven framework. To help schools avoid common It was developed by combing through 30 years oftransformation pitfalls and fast-track success, successful technology transformations, and refiningthe Anytime Anywhere Learning Foundation, in these strategies into simple steps, whichcollaboration with Education Queensland and Sean are then divided into four clear phases.Phase 1 Phase 3Make a compelling case for change Engage and prepare your community1. Understand the context of your institution. 8. Build a change culture.2. Build a powerful shared vision. 9. Implement professional learning strategies.3. Clarify goals, expectations, and policy priorities. 10. Ensure equity and sustainability4. Liaise with parents and community. (funding strategies).Phase 2 11. Build understanding (communicationResearch best practice strategies) and policies.5. Explore contemporary learning examples. Phase 46. Embrace new possibilities for Implement your plan 21st century educators.7. Begin creating future learning environments. 12. Conduct a readiness assessment. 13. Consider implementation options Too many attempted transformation programs begin and project plan. at step 20, usually because 14. Select devices for teachers, applications, it’s the most visible, politically saleable step. Retrofitting the apps, and core tools. previous 19 steps is far more 15. Plan your infrastructure for scale. complicated, and far less likely 16. Prepare the budget. to positively affect learning. 17. Establish critical partnerships. 18. Select student devices. 19. Clarify essential policies for effective use. 20. Deploy devices. 21. Review.47 Section Two

More than lip service?What does the term “learningtransformation” mean to you? And does itmean the same thing to your colleagues?Bruce Dixon, COE,, providesthis thought-provoking commentary.Think for a minute. How differently do you and Where we sought student access to powerful personalyour colleagues define and interpret words such as computing, they limited the reach of student devicesachievement or success in an educational context? and “dumbed down” the possibilities.A lack of shared language is the cause of many Where we wanted students to explore big ideas,flawed educational initiatives. Terms like innovation powerful concepts and deeper thinking, theyor transformation have come to mean so many limited how much students would be able to do bythings to so many people, they end up meaning compromising power and functionality in their devices.nothing to anyone. Where we wanted to break down walls for breakthroughTake the term “1-to-1” for example. Back in the early thinking, they built barriers to contain any deviation‘90s when students were given access to their own fully from compliance to legacy curriculum.functional laptop, it was widely referred to as a “laptopprogram,” At the time I was annoyed that the focus was It’s not what our kids deserve, and it’s certainly noton the hardware, so in 1992, I coined the phrase 1-to-1. what Seymour Papert and other pioneers had in mindI wanted to reflect the personal ownership a child had of when they had a vision for students to have their owna portable computer. And the fact that this would allow “imagination machine.”them to have agency to learning what they want, whenthey want, with whomever they want, which today at It’s time we stopped compromising our young people’, we believe is the most important and future. It’s time we set priorities that weren’t built arounddisruptive development in education... ever! 20th century practice, and it’s surely time we decided that every child, not just some, should benefit from theSince then, I have had the satisfaction of seeing millions power, the possibilities and the opportunity a child canof young people empowered by 1-to-1 access. They’ve have when they have 1-to-1 access to their own fullybeen able to take control of their own learning, co- functional, mobile computer.create their curriculum with their teachers, and explorepowerful ideas that were impossible before. Bruce Dixon is the co-founder and President of the Anytime AnywhereBut then, they were the lucky ones. Learning Foundation. He consults to institutions and technology companies on 1:1 teaching and technology inI have sadly also seen this vision for learner enablement education. In 1997, he was awarded by the Smithsoniantrivialized, minimized and bastardized by poorly Institute for his work in pioneering ubiquitous accessinformed policy and education leaders who have to technology and, in 2006, he was named as one ofdisabled the very power that we sought to provide. the ‘20 People to Watch’ by the National School BoardsIt’s the result of poor decision-making and political Association of America. Bruce’s work was also referencedexpediency, which seems to be aligned with ensuring in Bill Gate’s latest book, Business at the Speed ofstudents are handed shiny new technology, usually Thought.referred to as a ‘device.’ Transformation programs 48

Using Data Analytics to Optimize Transformation Successful transformation is grounded in data insights. When your school system can accurately measure performance, learning outcomes and the effectiveness of budget choices, you can set a clear path to optimize the entire system.49 Section Two

As life and learning become increasingly digitized and ‘datafied,’students leave detailed traces of theiractions and outcomes at school in an arrayof apps, devices and databases. Whenschools can consolidate data from all ofthese sources, analytics can providepowerful predictions and recommendationsthat guide teachers and school leaders.“Cathy Cavanaugh, Head of Learning and Research,Catholic Education, Western Australia author and education commentator.Once you have accessible, usable data, you can report Data problems often arise duringaccurately, demonstrate that you are spending tax poor transformation attemptsdollars effectively, measure the impact of new initiativesand comply with new sustainable development There are four main phases most schools will gomonitoring requirements in line with the UN Sustainable through in approaching transformation, and eachDevelopment Goals agenda. Equally important, with of them has potential stumbling blocks that arethe capabilities that now exist you can obtain granular worth identifying as soon as possible:analytics at an individual student level. This holisticunderstanding of schools, classes and students is the 1. Limited scope: If the technology was onlyfoundation for personalized learning. implemented in computer labs, or was distributed unevenly around the school, then success was Your data is only as good as severely limited by low scope. This kind of rollout is your ability to use it often heavily dependent on charismatic “pioneers”— those special teachers who created magic that wasOften school systems have cobbled together different hard to scale.IT systems over time. School leaders and teachers haveto jump between interfaces to access different sources 2. Bold mandates with soft impact: This occursof information. And it’s impossible to obtain a holistic when a large-scale deployment focuses only onunderstanding of students, classes or schools. technology or digitization, typically through a one-off device procurement. Implementing devices withoutThis makes it difficult to understand, measure or an overarching vision that ushers in new processes,predict factors like school performance, technology new understanding and new culture at every level isusage or the overall efficacy of an investment, (unfortunately) doomed to fail.intervention or resourcing. 3. Scaling back: Schools or systems that wereHowever, if you take the time to consolidate all of unsuccessful in phase one and two often scale backyour data and implement analytics, you can transform their technology investments so they “just work.”your system with improved results, teaching anddecision-making. 4. Outcome-based projects: The rise of data drives a new mindset for holistic, measurable transformation. Transformation programs 50

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