News | Views | Features June 2017 Issue Two | iottechnews.comFor the IoT professional p17 An eight page blockchain supplementExploring the smartcity of Shanghai Kevin Ashton – who coined the term Internet of Things – on the potential of the world’s most populous cityBuilding sustainable The rise, risks and Aiming for a revolution Transportation, bigtransport systems resolutions of in oil and gas data, and the Internetwithout borders healthcare and IoT of Things
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3 / IoTnewsEditors Editor's note JAMES BOURNE The smart home may be where many people Speaking to this publication for our first issue [email protected] first dip their toes into the Internet of Things, towards the back end of last year, Maciej Kranz, but it’s the smart city and the wider world of vice president of the corporate technology RYAN DAWS industry which stands to benefit most. group at Cisco, discussed the importance [email protected] of collaboration when it came to the IoT. Industry 4.0, the fourth industrial revolution, Organisations who stick to the outdated model COLM HEBBLETHWAITE call it what you will; the Industrial IoT (IIoT) of ‘one company doing it all’ will lose out. [email protected] market is set to hit $195 billion by 2022, according to MarketsandMarkets. Yet Accenture This perspective has informed our outlook warns in a recent research note that automotive when we went to the drawing board to put ideas and industrial equipment manufacturers in together for this second issue. From oil and gas particular risk losing market share by not making companies, to transport and logistics firms, necessary investments in digital technologies. there are many great partnerships and stories waiting to be heard, and how long-standing, Not only that, a report from the Business important industries are in the process of Performance Innovation Network found gaps being transformed. between organisations’ goals and the skills available to them, with more than half of As Ford, one of the companies showcased, executives at large enterprises expecting IIoT puts it, the data remains the same, it’s just the to have a significant or major impact on their things we can do with it have changed. Hopefully industry within three years. this edition will give a greater perspective on the breadth of use cases for connected technologies The time to act is clearly sooner – and how your organisation could also benefit. rather than later. James Bourne, EditorContentsIN THIS ISSUE... News 22 How enterprises should connect blockchain and AIp10 Internet of Things case study – 04the smart city of Shanghai 06 MaaS promises to build 24 Q&A - Sally Eaves, Teamp20 On the cutting edge: Three 10 sustainable transport systems Blockchaincompanies taking blockchain forward without borders 26 Aiming for a revolution inp26 Aiming for a revolution in Internet of Things case study – oil and gasoil and gas the smart city of Shanghai 14 MobileIron VP IoT Santhosh Nair: 30 Assessing a data-driven evolution 16 On security, productivity, and the in healthcare future of healthcare 31 The rise, risks, resolutions of A legal perspective: Europe aims healthcare and IoT for a human-centred IoT 18 BLOCKCHAIN SPECIAL: 32 Transportation, the Internet of From Bitcoin to boardrooms Things, and legitimising big data News 34 Beyond smart homes: The IoT 38 from the sensor to the application 19 via the cloud 20 On the cutting edge: Three Q&A – Oleg Logvinov, president companies taking blockchain and CEO, IoTecha forward
4 / IoTnews IoT News — The latest news and research around the Internet of Things» IIoT technologies will ‘radically change’ the way industrial companies operate New research from Accenture has found that many dependent on digital technologies, such as products as aindustrial companies are still lagging behind in adoption of service and product lifecycle management.digital technologies – and are at risk of losing market share ifthey fail to do so. Similarly, a vast majority from automotive, manufacturing and supply, and industrial equipment companies (95%) According to the survey, two-thirds of respondents said they believe it is either critical or important to evolve businessare experiencing digital disruption while half of automotive models to support a product as a service strategy; while oncompanies and 60% of industrial equipment companies the other hand, only 10% of automotive companies and 18%acknowledged that they are not yet comprehensively of the industrial equipment companies believe they are wellinvesting in this area as part of their overall business strategy. prepared for this evolution. An overwhelming majority (94%) of industrial companies The findings come from the Accenture Technologysurveyed accept that digital technologies and the Industrial Vision 2017 report, which saw the consulting firm surveyInternet of things (IIoT) will radically change the way they 102 automotive executives and 562 industrial equipmentneed to operate if they are to succeed. They also confessed executives around the world.that they lack capabilities in many areas that are increasingly» Linux Foundation aims to solve IoT interoperability with EdgeX Foundry project The IoTremains a segregated mess, but the Linux Foundation \"One of the key factors holding back IoT designs in theis hoping to bring some unification to the landscape with the enterprise is that there are too many choices to safely andlaunch of its new EdgeX Foundry project. easily implement a system that will provide a return on investment in a reasonable timeframe,\" said Mike Krell, lead Linux, as an open source platform, has long been expected IoT analyst at Moor Insights & Strategy. \"EdgeX Foundryto play a pivotal role in the IoT and bringing devices together. will fundamentally change the market dynamic by allowingThe non-profit consortium dedicated to fostering its growth, enterprise IoT applications to choose from a myriad of best-the Linux Foundation, is well-respected and has been pivotal in-class software, hardware and services providers based onin helping to shape and promote it. their specific needs.\" The consortium’s latest project, EdgeX Foundry, aims to Founding members include Canonical, VMware andhelp guide Linux development in the era of the IoT. Its main ZingBox, with industry affiliate members including the Cloudgoal is to create a common framework for IoT computing Foundry Foundation and EnOcean Alliance.and build a community of companies who offer plug-and-play components for developers working on IoT edgecomputing projects.
5 / IoTnews» China, Japan and South Korea are leading smart city initiatives in Asia, says research Governments in China, Japan and South Korea are leading BAIC, BYD, Geely, and Tesla are some of the key EV vendorsthe deployment of citizen-centric smart city initiatives in cited in the report.Asia, according to ABI Research. ABI adds that all three countries lead multi-applications The analyst firm predicts that smart meter installations smart card deployments that enable cashless payment forin China will grow at a CAGR of 21% to reach 349 million transportation, parking fees, and toll road fees.units by 2020, through vendors like Echelon, Huawei, HolleyMetering, Itron, Landis+Gyr, and Sensus. Japan has also launched a smart catastrophe management programme that included an Emergency Warning System China is also planning to put five million electric vehicles developed by NEC to detect and issue a warning that alerts(EVs) on the road by 2020, while Japan and South Korea both the government and citizens of upcoming naturalare targeting one million and 200,000 EVs, respectively. catastrophes and identify high-risk areas to promote quicker response times and resource dispatches.» Manufacturers are starting to feel the benefit of the IoT More than two thirds of manufacturers say they plan to according to the report, by 72% and 69% respectively, fromembed smart devices or intelligence into their products, application of the IoT to plants and processes. There was anaccording to research from the MPI Group. increase in implementation of IoT with 50% of manufacturers now using it in production activities and 68% having plans to The study, titled ‘Manufacturers Around the World Are embed smart devices or intelligence into products.Now Profiting from the IoT (Are You?)’ and featuring 374respondents, focused on the production of smart devices and Profitability from sales of IoT-enabled products such asthe implementation of embedded intelligence within plants, embedded intelligence also contributed to profitability toprocesses, and products of manufacturers around the world. 65% of manufacturers, the research added. Investing in the IoT has been a great contributor inincreasing productivity and profitability of companies» Users mostly satisfied with Apple CarPlay and Android Auto, new research affirms A new report from Strategy Analytics has revealed that The report also noted the importance of continuoususers are overall satisfied with in-vehicle infotainment updating to ‘only work to enhance their value assystems Apple Car Play and Android Auto, although adding embedded systems age’.a note of caution around integration affecting the overalluser experience. “The time will come when OEMs must decide whether to implement embedded systems or use mirroring solutions,” The report, titled ‘Consumers Largely Satisfied with said Kevin Nolan, VP user experience innovation practice atApple CarPlay and Android Auto’, surveyed new vehicle Strategy. “From our research, providing both will not produceowners in the US and found CarPlay was easy to use given optimal results.”its similarity to an Apple smartphone interface, while bothproducts were said to have relatively simple and consistentinterfaces overall.
6 / IoTnewsMaaS promises to buildsustainable transport systemswithout bordersTravelSpirit is leading the charge when it comes to linking transportation systemswith the world’s first open source platform for ‘mobility as a service’ (MaaS). JeremyDalton, TravelSpirit CTO, gives his thoughts on how MaaS will help to build thefuture of sustainable transport Words: Ryan Daws “It seems every time I come to then you can be a lot more productive “What we need is a service whichLondon there’s a MaaS forum and there, and that’s why people are can be universal and acceptable;there’s increasing interest all around shifting towards mobility services.” that is more collected and cohesive,”the world,” says Jeremy Dalton, CTO comments Dalton. “MaaS enablesof TravelSpirit. “We’ll see it evolve one A typical journey today could involve the shift from ownership in a morelocality at a time and – while that might catching a bus to a train station, a train integrated and efficient way.”work fairly well – fundamentally we’re from one city to another, and then antrying to create a standard architecture Uber onwards to a final destination. If For an example of this in practice, allto unlock this mobility for people to a bus makes the customer late for their your future journeys could be coveredmove around the world freely with the train, they may be ineligible for a refund. under a single monthly fee. Oneflexibility we’re used to with our own Most travellers will also not book their company based in Helsinki, Finlandvehicle ownership.” Uber from the destination train station called Whim boasts it’s the world’s first until they arrive in case of a delay. The MaaS (mobility as a service) operator. The main goal of the IoT is to connect whole process is needlessly inefficient. A user can pay a set fee each monthseparate ‘things’ for the sake of to receive a number of ‘Whim points’improving their efficiency. Ride sharing Arguably, never has which can be used across an increasingis on the increase, companies such the pace of transport number of providers. Better still, there’sas Uber and Lyft are revolutionising innovation reached no reason this same membershipon-demand transport, and upcoming its current level cannot be used in other countriestechnologies such as driverless cars – and it’s the IoT where a MaaS subscription providerare enabling further exciting models which is driving it operates to ease international travel.for mobility. Arguably, never has thepace of transport innovation reached In the not-so-distant future, a single As part of Whim’s initial UKits current level – and it’s the IoT button press could be all it takes to deployment in the West Midlands, thewhich is driving it. ensure all your various services are company has partnered with Transport booked and in contact with each other for West Midlands (TfWM) for bus A limiting issue with today’s various to ensure your journey is smooth. In transport, National Express for coachtransport options is they all exist within the previous example, live bus tracking travel, Catapult for local driverlesstheir own silos. Today, you can open up could alert your train operator if you’re pods, Enterprise Holdings (owners ofGoogle Maps and with some confidence due to be late so you can be placed on Enterprise and National) for car rental,find all the various transport options the next train and/or automatically and SilverRail for train bookings. Infor you to get to your destination, but compensated. Without extra input, the future, this could be expandedit can often mean switching between an Uber could be alerted with due to bike and car sharing with ownersdifferent types of transport and time from your phone’s location to earning a cut when they’re not usingbooking each service independently. ensure it’s ready and waiting for you. their vehicles. This is the kind of efficiency which “Economic incentives that MaaS facilitates. “We saw that mobility as a service ishistorically led people to purchase happening, and there needed to be antheir own vehicles just isn’t the same intervention,” says Dalton. “It’s reallyas it once was,” explains Dalton. “The getting the public/private [sector] tovalue of our time has really shifted. If shift the way MaaS evolves in a moreyou’re spending two hours on the train
7 / IoTnewsIn the not-so-distant future, a singlebutton press could be all it takes toensure all your various services arebooked and in contact with each otherto ensure your journey is smooth
8 / IoTnewsopen and global way. We’re set on enable drivers to see available parking be given priority to ensure staff candeveloping open standards.” spaces and book them ahead of time get on with their duties quickly and as well as report back automatically without obstruction. Small efficiency “If you go back 30-40 years and try when they leave and their space is now improvements here and there add upexplain to someone why you need an vacant for others. to significantly reduced journey times.open standard for an internet protocol,you’d have to say ‘Well, it opens up all Such data is highly-valuable and can Of course, some companies, suchthese fantastic opportunities’ and it be used when algorithms decide the as Lilium and Uber, are seeking to liftwas difficult to describe – but now we best journey option for each individual cars off the ground altogether. For itshave the benefit of seeing how much user, and allocate you a space. A part, we’ve already seen a two-seaterit’s expanded.” Google Maps search today will provide version of Lilium’s VTOL (vertical take- an indication of how long it will take to off and landing) aircraft successfully MaaS is synonymous with the take off, perform manoeuvres, and landconcept of moving away from the We’re seeing on a private German airfield. Lilium ispersonal ownership of vehicles. In innovative services now working on a five-seater, but it’sresearch conducted by UCLA professor launching all over the clear the technology is almost ready forDonald Shoup, today’s cars are parked world, new automated production. The next step will be thefor approximately 95 percent of the technologies are biggest challenge, satisfying regulators.day. Instead of paying large sums of improving themoney to buy vehicles, maintain them, range of transport While the current focus forkeep them fuelled, and insure them, a options available TravelSpirit is on the movement ofgrowing number are seeking methods people, there’s no reason it couldn’tof paying less while having access to reach your destination, but you could be be extended to goods in the future asmore flexible options. spending much longer driving around more automated technology becomes looking for a parking space when you widely available. Amazon, for example, This all ties back into sustainability. arrive. It’s data such as this which could have its goods loaded onto aAnyone who drives in an inner city TravelSpirit is hoping to make open and driverless truck which transportswill have experienced the increasing facilitate interoperability which allows packages the majority of the way andcongestion. Not only is this increasing smart transport to reach its potential. then automated drones could deliver ajourney times, but traffic stuck in package the “last mile” to a customer.gridlock for long periods of time is Also increasing efficiency is thecausing health and environmental debut of V2I (vehicle to infrastructure) MaaS is just beginning, although it’sproblems from the pollution it creates. technology in connected cars. Rather clear it will have a major impact on all“Fewer cars circling around looking than sit waiting at a clear junction, our lives in the not-so-distant future.for spaces means less congestion, because a light is on a standard timer, We’re seeing innovative servicesand less congestion means better air a vehicle can let the light know you launching all over the world, newquality,\" says Dalton. are waiting and, if clear elsewhere, automated technologies are improving switch the light to green. When an the range of transport options Startups capitalising on smart emergency vehicle approaches, it could available, and clever business modelsparking include Parkanizer and Save- are helping to link them all together.a-Space – along with EU-backed As an industry, we need to ensure toinitiatives promoting developments foster an environment of collaborationsuch as frontierCities and FIWARE. and open data for MaaS to reach itsThe apps, currently in limited tests, full potential.
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10 / IoTnews Internet of Things case study – the smart city of Shanghai In this extract from the eBook Making Sense of IoT: How the Internet of Things Became Humanity’s Nervous System, Kevin Ashton, who coined the term Internet of Things, looks at Shanghai’s vision for growth Kevin Ashton lose upwards of 50 percent of the total supply to leaks and IoT Specialist, Author the electric grid is incapable of truly responding to new technologies such as electric vehicles and solar panels. Smart Many Internet of Things deployments combine several parking meters, connected street lights, instrumented wateruse cases in a single vision. One of the best examples supplies, and smart grids will reduce traffic, save energy, savecomes from local government. Mayors and municipalities all water, and make the grid more friendly to renewables.”over the world have started using the Internet of Things tomanage their urban infrastructure more efficiently, a concept The root of the problem is scalability. In the past, ‘dumb’known as ‘smart cities’. Smart cities deployments are as rich cities were manageable because they contained few people,and complex as cities themselves, applying the Internet of but the future is urban. In 1800 three percent of the world’sThings to everything from transportation and safety to population lived in cities. By 1900 that number had risen toenergy and water. 14 percent. In 2008 it exceeded 50 percent for the first time. The United Nations predicts that two-thirds of the world’s Sanjay Sarma, a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at population will be living in cities by 2050.MIT and co-founder of the Auto-ID Center, where the Internetof Things was first developed, describes smart cities like this: As a result of this trend, as well as increases in total world“Cities today are rather dumb: a significant portion of traffic population and life expectancy, today’s cities contain tens oris just drivers ‘cruising’ while they look for parking, street in some cases hundreds of times more people than they did alights are often on when they are not needed, water systems century ago. The area of land cities occupy has not increased by the same amount, however, resulting in ever larger, everMaking Sense of IoT: Howthe Internet of Things becamehumanity's nervous systemKevin Ashton
11 / IoTnewsdenser urban populations facing problems including howto manage resources and waste, how to travel efficiently,how to stay safe, and how to maintain vital infrastructurelike roads, bridges, and streetlights. The solution to theseproblems is better information, captured and delivered by theInternet of Things. Shanghai, the world’s most populous city, is a good example.It has 24 times more people than it did in 1900 but occupiesonly seven times more land. Shanghai started using the Internet of Things to bothmanage and sustain its growth in 1999, when the municipalgovernment introduced the Shanghai Public TransportationCard, an electronic ticket based on radio-frequencyidentification technology, or RFID, for its mass transit system.The card can be used to pay for rides on buses, metro trains,ferries, and even in taxis; it can be reloaded with more moneyas necessary; and, because it is radio-based, it does not needto be swiped, inserted or inspected, which makes it easier forlarge numbers of people to pass quickly through turnstilesand other mass transit chokepoints.
12 / IoTnews Other smart city programs in Shanghai include electronic utility billing, smarter healthcare records, and ways to ensure the food supply stays safe. And Shanghai is one of many hundreds of smart cities emerging worldwide
13 / IoTnews Managing increasing passenger volumes is intervention, such as shutting off heating and cooling systemsessential for city transportation services, and via a building control panel, but in time, Shanghai and othersmart tickets, which effectively sense whether Chinese cities plan to automate the process completely. Thea passenger is permitted to ride as they enter a electricity generator will sense that the power grid is reachingstation or vehicle, are the best way of doing it. peak demand, send a signal over the Internet, and commercialLondon adopted a similar RFID-based system and industrial facilities will adjust their consumption instantlyin 2003, called Oyster Card, which is operated and automatically.by Hewlett Packard Enterprise. The number ofpassengers on the London Underground had Analysts at the University of Oxford, estimate the programbeen increasing rapidly since the 1980s, and could save up to $116 million a year in Shanghai alone byOyster Card enabled London’s administrative reducing the need to build and fuel power plants, emit carbonbody, the Greater London Authority, to reduce dioxide, and invest in new transmission lines.congestion at transit entrances and exits.Passenger journeys have increased by more than The Shanghai PublicTransportation Card and moves towards40 percent since it was introduced. Automatic Demand Response are just two examples of Shanghai’s smart city initiatives. Other smart city programs in Smart cities like Shanghai are also using the Internet of Shanghai include electronic utility billing, smarter healthcareThings to manage electricity. Generating enough electricity to records, and ways to ensure the food supply stays safe.keep up with an ever growing population is difficult, but that’snot the only challenge—adding the power lines, substations, And Shanghai is one of many hundreds of smart citiesand other equipment needed to transmit electricity reliably emerging worldwide. Juniper Research named Singapore,from generator to consumer is also hard in a landscape that is London, Oslo, Barcelona, and San Francisco as five of thealready crowded with buildings. smartest cities. China aims to have more than 50 smart cities, in addition to Shanghai, and India is aiming to develop 109 After Shanghai’s electricity tripled between 1990 and 2005, smart cities under a program launched by its Prime MinisterChina’s National Development and Reform Commission Narendra Modi in 2015.(NDRC) looked for innovative, Internet of Things-enabledmethods to manage electricity in Shanghai and other Chinese Mark Roberti, the Editor of RFID Journal,cities. Rather than simply generate and transmit ever has been writing about the Internet of Thingsmore energy, NDRC sought to reduce demand, especially since 2000. He summarizes the smart citiesat peak times, and especially among commercial and opportunity this way: “There are many differentindustrial energy users. smart cities applications, from monitoring recycling to informing bus riders where their bus In 2015, Shanghai launched China’s first pilot of ‘demand is and when it will arrive, to providing informationresponse’—an energy management method that notifies on where an open parking space is. I think thecommercial electricity users when energy demand is applications that make cities more sustainablepeaking, and rewards them if they temporarily reduce are vitally important.”their consumption. For now, reduction activities are monitored using a relativelysimple networked electric meter and often require manual
14 / IoTnews MobileIron VP IoT Santhosh Nair: On security, productivity, and the future of healthcare The job title ‘VP IoT’, and its associated brethren, is gaining in prominence. IoT News speaks to Santhosh Nair, newly appointed to lead the IoT division at MobileIron, to shed more light on the Mountain View company’s strategy and the industries it will target Words: James Bourne MobileIron, a provider of enterprise can level the playing field for a lot of IoT, especiallymobility management (EMM) software, healthcare providers. the security andis going big on the Internet of Things – management side, is aand their latest hire, brought in to head “A lot of issues that you see in very natural adjacentup its IoT division, is another step in the healthcare today are literally human market to enterpriseright direction. errors, or lack of information, mobility management because devices don’t talk to each Meet Santhosh Nair. The new other,” he adds. firm, recently put it: “In 2017, healthcareMobileIron VP IoT (right, speaking at providers are the bullseye for hackers.”the company’s Santa Clara event in This is not to say the huge potential inMay) has followed in the footsteps the industry – worth $163.24 billion by When it comes to challenges withinof Barry Mainz, the company’s CEO, 2020, according to MarketsandMarkets IoT, security is an obvious port of call.in moving from Wind River. Prior – is without its drawbacks. As the “The entire system design should beto joining the embedded software Herjavec Group, an information security built with security in mind, because ifprovider in 2010, Nair started hiscareer with more than a decade at GEHealthcare, beginning as a graphic andUI designer. “I was a software guy in theearly 90s when software was not thatcool yet,” he explains. When we speak, on a crackly phoneline, Nair had been at MobileIron for allof five weeks – “I know probably 15 or20 people by name”, he admits – yet hispassion for technology transforminghealthcare through his time at GEcomes through loud and clear. “Healthcare is a sector that isvery close to me but I think it is veryready for that disruption,” says Nair.“The influences are different in thehealthcare sector. With technology you
15 / IoTnewsit’s not for security you can’t trust the press materials announcing the new “IoT, especially the security anddata, and if you can’t trust the data, or IoT division, the company also named management side, is a very naturalthe analytics that you build around the energy, manufacturing, and automotive adjacent market [to EMM],” he says.data it’s probably not very useful,” says as a ‘tremendous opportunity’. The “We do a lot of business in the EMMNair. Yet in a wider context, another Mountain View company has many space with these customers, weissue raises its head. of its more than 13,500 customers have great relationships with these in these verticals, from Amica, PCL customers, most of them are digitising “I think industrial productivity is their businesses and have IoT projectsdeclining,” Nair explains. “Labour is A lot of issues that going on, so we’re trying to work witha big part of the industrial market, you see in healthcare them, do a few projects, and thentechnology is very good but you can’t today are literally clarify and define that offer.”build things every year. You need to human errors, ormake these machines – these things – lack of information, Out of these industries, however,connect and operate a lot better. You because devices don’t it’s healthcare where MobileIron’salso need to look at building efficiencies talk to each other customer portfolio really stands out,and taking inefficiencies out from the from Great Ormond Street Hospital,industrial sector. Construction and Brother on the to the NHS, to St. Joseph Health – manufacturing side to BOS and Denso the latter in conjunction with cloud “The challenges that lie ahead – for automotive. Nair’s challenge from storage provider Box.number one [is] an absolute lack of here is to get these companies, whostandardisation,” he adds. “There’s are already securing their devices, apps For Nair, there is one more thing toa lot of custom machining, custom and email through MobileIron’s EMM, add. “The only caveat I would say indevelopments that happen in the OT to the next level. healthcare is it’s not exactly the early[operational technology] sector. Add adopter of technology,” says Nair. “Ifit to the internet revolution, network you ask me, healthcare always looks atis cheap, connectivity is cheap, all industries like avionics or defence andof a sudden sensing technologies they kind of follow suit, just because it’sare taking off, so you’re presented a very careful market.”with this opportunity where youcould implement this complicatedmachinery and operations, and at thevery minimum you could learn insightsabout how your machines are learningand how your operations are in place. “Whether you’re in avionics, whetheryou’re in automotive, healthcare, thereare a lot of human-driven operationsthat exists today, some of whichdoesn’t need to be,” adds Nair. “It putsa lot of onus on that human capital,which is still very essential, but youcan use technology to supplementthe operations. “Hence the promise of IoT – however,it’s a lot easier said than done.” Naturally, healthcare is not the onlyindustry MobileIron is targeting. In the
16 / IoTnews A legal perspective: Europe aims for a human-centred IoT IoT News previously examined (issue one, p. 22-23) how the European Commission can make IoT regulation a success. Here Chiara Rustici, an independent GDPR and EU privacy analyst and author of the upcoming book ‘Applying the GDPR: Privacy Rules for the Data Economy’, further explores the legal and regulatory ramificationsChiara Rustici takes place in cooperation with the always given a choice on what theirGDPR and EU privacy analyst EU Parliament, directly representing personal data will be used for. the voice of EU citizens, and with the We do not yet have a unified IoT EU Council, representing the voice of A second required reading is the so-regulatory framework, but we have each member state's government and called Data Economy Package, aimedwork in progress on different aspects associated industrial interests. Broadly at ensuring a free market for data,impacting the IoT: security and privacy speaking, consumer interests find their chiefly those all-important massiveof telecommunications data; product voice rings loudest in Parliament while datasets produced by sensor richliability for smart, connected objects; enterprises find it easier to get their machinery. The chief concern for the EUa deep and liquid market for massive point across via the Council. legislator in this regulatory initiativedatasets; EU-wide interoperability is to fight localisation rules restrictingstandards in data generation, data The reason why all of this matters the free flow of business data acrosstransfers, data storage, data processing to the IoT regulation at this moment EU members states' borders; layingand data services. in time, is that consumer activism or down new rules for product liability in industrial lobbying can still sway the a context of connected smart objects; If you are an absolute novice in process one way or the other. In other preventing anticompetitive behaviourEU institutions, imagine the EU words, we have the EU's statement of by datasets owners, fighting any lock-Commission as analogous to a R&D policy intent, but we do not have the in of consumers to proprietary datadepartment: they study what's trending final legal detail: a general direction analytics platforms for the commercialin the market, identify the goals in the of travel, but no detailed map and no exploitation of data sets.best interest of the EU as a whole, spot sense of which wind will prevail.hurdles and come up with suggestions A third regulatory initiative is theto overcome those hurdles to achieve With this in mind: what is the updating of the telecommunicationsthe goals. The output of all of this is EU's general direction of travel? rules and the transformation of theknown as a regulatory package, a mix old ePrivacy directive, aka the Cookieof research, public consultations and Absolute required reading for any directive, into a Regulation. Thestatement of policy goals. player in the IoT space is Advancing the telecoms rules are chiefly concerned Internet of Things in Europe. Published with guaranteeing net neutrality, Yet, the EU Commission does not by the EU Commission in April 2016, fighting fragmentation of spectrumhave the final say on what shape the this policy document spells out the availability in rolling out 5G connectivityfinal law takes, just like R&D don't have EU's three policy goals and twenty in all EU memberstates and encouragingthe final say on business strategy: that's areas where standardisation is deemed industry-led venture fund to supportfor the board. The actual law-making critical for the IoT. The first policy 5G innovation. The ePrivacy Regulation, objective is to achieve a single market on the other hand, will be dictating for the IoT, where devices and services privacy and security standards for connect everywhere in the EU on a any network communication data, plug-and-play basis. The second is to both when it includes personal data ensure the IoT ecosystem is truly open and when it is exclusively about non- to all players, where open platforms personal, business data or machine-to- across vertical silos support developer machine data. Smart connected objects communities wishing to innovate. would fall into the definition of network The third policy goal is to keep the communication data. IoT human-centred, where people are
Three innovative startups– Colony, Gnosis andProtocol Labs – on movingblockchain forward How blockchain and artificial intelligence is converging The industries set to have the biggest impact through blockchainREAD MORE AT:https://www.blockchaintechnology-news.com/
18 / IoTnews THE BLOCKEditor Editor's note COLM HEBBLETHWAITE In the same way that the internet efficiency barriers within the global supply [email protected] revolutionised business communication in the chain could add 5% to world GDP and increase last two decades, there are similar seismic total volume by 15%. changes ahead for business transactions through blockchains, or distributed ledger technology. There are young and innovative companies sprouting up looking to leverage the potential Don Tapscott urges business leaders and of blockchain in areas as diverse as finance, organisations to think of today’s landscape as business organisation and accountancy. moving from the internet of information to an ‘internet of value’: in other words, a place where Tech giants and banks are also beginning to all kinds of value, from money, to intellectual make moves. Marie Wieck, general manager of property, to music and even to votes, could be IBM Blockchain has described the technology stored, managed and transacted in a secure and as being a way of “revolutionising the way private manner. organisations recognise value and do business with one another”. Looking at the enterprise, blockchains are essentially business networks that are smart and The possibilities of blockchain at this point in tamper-resistant ledgers of business activity – its infancy seem almost infinite. But one thing is and with regards to the global supply chain and for certain – it is likely to trigger huge changes to logistics industry alone, blockchain could reduce the business landscape. delays and spoilage. In fact, the World Economic Forum has stated that reducing internal Colm Hebblethwaite, EditorFrom Bitcoin to boardrooms:the history of blockchain It all began with a nine-page The idea proposed that this currency The second generation of Blockchainwhitepaper published in 2008 by an could be used to send payments between also heralded a number of importantanonymous scientist using the name two parties without the need for an innovations that are bringing theSatoshi Nakamoto. intermediary financial organisation. technology into the boardrooms or Each transaction would be stored in a companies all over the globe. The paper laid out Nakamoto’s vision of blockchain, with each transaction linkeda cryptocurrency based on a foundation to preceding one via a digital signature. The first was smart contracts, firstof complex mathematical formulas and created by Ethereum. Smart contractsthe idea of distributed architecture. This idea became Bitcoin and is the are computer protocols that writes push that set the blockchain ball rolling. the contract terms into a blockchain. A triggering event such as a time limit The next stage of the process came being reached then allows the contract to when people realised that the technology execute itself according to the terms. underpinning Bitcoin could be used for a vast range of peer-to-peer interactions. The second innovation is known as proof of stake. These systems are In 2012 annual venture capital funding working to replace data centres with for blockchain was $1.13 million. By complex instruments and are due to be 2016 it had reached $718 million. By launched this year. 2017 around 15% of banks were planning to adopt blockchain, according to The next stage will be creating faster an IBM survey. scalability to the network processes.
THE BLOCK 19 / IoTnewsNews—The latest news and research around blockchain technologiesUN World Food Programme Humaniq and Deloitte joinhails blockchain test forces The UN’s World Food Programme (WFP) has revealed that Blockchain technology startup Humaniq has announcedis testing the application of Blockchain to the way it provides that it is joining forces with global auditing ginat Deloitte.assistance to those in need around the world. The partnership aims to ‘help establish sustainable and The WFP has moved towards providing more direct structured operations to enable more financial inclusion,cash assistance in areas where markets and services are justice and strong institutions on a global scale.’functioning at a reasonable level, with the first field testbeing held in January in Sindh province, Pakistan. Humaniq states that its mission is to provide financial inclusion products and services to the two billion unbanked As families received food and cash assistance a public individuals across the globe (see page 24). The startup looksblockchain were used to authenticate and record all to release its blockchain-powered services in Africa, Souththe transactions. The blockchain worked through a America and parts of Asia before expanding.smartphone interface. The strategic partnership will allow the startup to ‘highlight The WFP is going to be undertaking a full-scale pilot in their IP and legal efforts with a powerful global company.’the coming months. Deloitte will also be providing audit, consulting, tax and advisory support to the fledgling company.Tracking prescription Blockchain potential for IoTdrugs with Chronicled faces barriers to growth Blockchain startup Chronicled has launched a pilot for a Blockchain is driving ‘substantial’ investment in IoTserialised track and tracing service for prescription drugs as projects, according to ABI Research.they are distributed in the United States. Venture capital funding for blockchain reached half a billion The US FDA has issued requirements, known as the USD globally in 2016.Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA), to better protectconsumers from dangerous counterfeit prescription drugs. The company added that there are barriers that may inhabit the growth and maturity of the burgeoning blockchain Chronicled hopes to help big pharmaceutical companies technology market, including the need for vendors to drivemeet these requirements by tracking prescription drug over interest in the technology for end users, scalability, cost,an interoperable blockchain. This will mean that counterfeit privacy, and clarification of the legal uncertainties status ofmedicines will be more easily identified. smart contracts. “We will be working closely with teams at leading enterprise “While the cryptocurrency market may be maturing, IoTblockchain projects over the coming months to identify the applications are still largely untested,” Michela Menting,most suitable enterprise blockchain to serve as a data utility research director at ABI Research, said.for the pharmaceutical industry,” said Chronicled co-founderSamantha Radocchia. “The excitement around Bitcoin’s success is nonetheless fuelling a great many endeavours beyond fintech that are likely to impact IoT.”
20 / IoTnews THE BLOCKOn the cutting edge: Threecompanies taking blockchainforwardOnce you begin thinking of blockchain as a foundational tool, it becomes clear howit can underpin such a dazzling array of projects, as three young companies explainWords: Colm Hebblethwaite Matt Liston, chief strategist at Gnosis Gnosis has built a platform on public blockchain Ethereum have better information then the market to come and sell theirthat allows anyone to create prediction markets for any event. information to the market. In April, the company raised $12.5 million in just 12 minutes What is it about Ethereum that appealed to you?through its initial coin offering. Ifyouwant to prototype orbuild smart contract decentralisedWhat is the Gnosis mission statement? applications, Ethereum is the only viable protocol at this point. Prediction markets are kind of endless tools. You can do With Gnosis, there is never an intermediary or custodianinsurance, you can do governance, information aggregation, of the funds. Once shares are purchased the funds are heldfinancial instruments. in smart contracts and the user owns the shares directly in their wallet. That’s the business vision, but I would say the missionis more that we want to give the users tools to aggregate By creating this network on a decentralised platform weinformation, make sure that information is free and public so can have applications operating in China on the same liquiditythat society can access the information so that governments pool as the UK and South America. Ultimately it will lead toand the world can run more smoothly and efficiently. better information and a more competitive platform in terms of bringing applications on.What is a user-generated predication market?How does it get information? What is the future of blockchain? A prediction market is primarily an information tool. It’s a There are two threads: these independent startups doingP2P mechanism. crazy ideas and large enterprises and financial institutions building prototypes. It’s a market that is designed to aggregate all sorts ofinformation sources to get a prediction and a forecast and a I hope we see a lot more experimentation with governancequantified data point about the outcome of that event. models. I think we can not only change fundraising but change how organisations are governed and built and operate. By using a market mechanism, it is essentially the purestincentive we can provide for anyone who thinks that they
THE BLOCK 21 / IoTnewsJack Du Rose,co-founder of Colony Colony looks to create self-organising supply chains of Colony as a way of harnessing the latent talent within theirprofessionals where decision-making influence is earned organisations.through contribution. The company is currently readying itsbeta for release. Why is smart contract technology important?What is Colony’s mission? Smart contracts is a bit of a misleading term, because it makes you think that they are just like legal contracts – which What if thousands of people, all over the world, could build they are not. They are just a program that runs on a distributedcompanies together, online? network of computers rather than on some company’s server. We set about thinking how to do all of the things that a Instead of requiring lawyers, banks, and a robust legalcompany does, from the ground up and with consideration of system to fall back on, all the terms of an agreement can bethe opportunities and constraints modern communications executed 100% using smart contracts. Why is that necessarytechnology provides. to Colony? Well, we think of Colony as being infrastructure for organisations. Infrastructure should be reliable and impartial.Is this for projects with lots of freelancers? One organisation should not be beholden to another.Or could it be applied to more traditionalcompany structures? What do you see as the short-term future of blockchain technology? What excites me the most is the idea of being able to havevery open, internet-based organisations where you have got Over time, the hype will die away, and what will be left isa lot of independent people who are contributing to a project a very useful bit of technology that few think about as beingthat they care about, and of which they all steer the direction. there, in much the same way that they don’t think about the database their favourite web app uses. That said, we’ve been quite surprised at the numberof traditional organisations that have been interested inMatt Zumwalt,programme manager at Protocol Labs The InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) wants to add IPFS identifies content by its ‘fingerprint’, its cryptographicdecentralised permanence to internet data and make file hash, rather than identifying it by its location.retrieval act more like a P2P system. The benefit of content-addressing is that you will be able to IPFS is now looking to incentivise data storage across the find and retrieve content from the network of peers as long asnetwork with the release of its Filecoin currency. anyone on the network has a copy of it.Why is it important to decentralise the internet? If you identify content by its fingerprint it doesn’t matter where that content is stored. The web gives people superpowers, but is in bad shapebecause it’s built on centralised protocols. That's how HTTP Likewise, we often rely on some far away server to aggregateworks. It's location-addressed. and store information from our IoT devices. What are its implications for privacy, security, and ownership of the data Whoever controls that location decides what content to your devices have produced?return when people use that link. They also decide whether toreturn any content at all. How is Filecoin related to this project? This is the essence of centralization. It makes the web Anyone can mine Filecoin by renting out unused storage. Itbrittle and insecure. will also drastically reduce the cost of storage by harnessing the gargantuan amount of unused storage that’s currentlyWhat is a block storage model? available on the internet.
22 / IoTnews THE BLOCKHow and why enterprisesshould connect blockchainand AIBlockchain and artificial intelligence has more in common than you might think, asJessica Groopman, principal analyst at Tractica, explainsJessica Groopman of overlap in tension and opportunity, application programming interfacesprincipal analyst at Tractica such as data sharing, security, and the (APIs) are facilitating a development need for trust. culture based on shared access to As enterprises and society at frameworks and, in many cases, data.large struggle to wield the massive Both blockchain andamounts of data flowing off of artificial intelligence Both blockchain and artificialdevices, infrastructure, workflows, require data sharing intelligence require securityand users, two profound, but distincttechnological developments are A decentralised, distributed database Moving high value, volume, andshaping the narrative. Artificial requires data sharing because multiple velocity transactions to blockchainintelligence and blockchain are both nodes on the network must agree upon infrastructure requires extensivepoised to transform enterprise data (and access) information from multiple security development at every levelstrategies, but in very different ways. parties in order to do so. AI applications of the stack. Similarly, when software benefit from and often rely on big data agents and devices themselves are AI is an umbrella term for numerous and data sharing as well – the more empowered with perception andsubsets of advancements in technology data, the better the algorithm, after all. decision-making capabilities, securitygenerally concerned with enabling While many enterprises still insist on is paramount to mitigate risks andmachines to perceive, speak, act prevent abuse. Both technologiesautonomously, and efficiently analyse Moving high value, introduce entirely new infrastructureand learn from large data sets. volume, and velocity to safeguard – decentralised ledgers inBlockchain represents a series of transactions the case of blockchain, and automatedtechnologies that enable distributed to blockchain analysis and decision-making indatabase architecture, wherein the infrastructure requires the case of AI.record and verification of a transaction extensive securityor event relies on multiple parties development at every Interestingly, both AI andagreeing on the validity of that level of the stack blockchain market activity istransaction, rather than relying on a booming in common areas, such assingle centralised authority. proprietary models for competitive or fraud prevention, financial trading, compliance reasons, in an increasingly security enhancement, supply chain On the surface, it is difficult to digitised society, data access becomes automation, market prediction, andascertain precisely where or how these the essential catalyst for the value both the Internet of Things (IoT), althoughtechnologies or the capabilities they technologies can deliver. there are few examples of companiesengender would converge. Companies applying both AI and blockchainshould begin by considering the areas In the blockchain space, capabilities to the same problem. numerous consortia are working toward facilitating cooperation and Both blockchain and artificial collaboration across historically intelligence require trust estranged market constituencies. In the AI space, open-source communities and Whether through architecture, analytics, or autonomous decision- making, changing the way businesses process billions or trillions of transactions and manage their data creates uncertainty. The general lack of
THE BLOCK 23 / IoTnewstrust (and understanding) of the current Customer acquisition process: and startups like Numerai, Blockchainand future applications for AI and Multiple banks could improve models AI, Colony.io and Yojee are dabbling inblockchain represent one ofthe greatest (and customer experience) for know blockchain architectures with “smartexistential threats to broader adoption your customer (KYC) or anti-money agents” layered at different parts of thein both areas. The unprecedented laundering (AML) approval and architecture or process. For example,adoption of a distributed ledger, away fraud prevention. some are working to apply intelligencefrom a centralised one, introduces huge to smart contracts that automaticallystrategic and cultural barriers for which Supply chain operations: Multiple execute code in the form oftrust will be essential to overcome. suppliers, distributors, retailers, etc decentralised autonomous applicationsBut it is not just structural shifts that could improve transparency and (Dapps) and decentralised autonomouschallenge trust, businesses must be accountability in supply chain and corporations (DACs). The idea beingaccountable to their stakeholders and provenance tracking, identifying points that these smart(er) contracts willthe law. This means both blockchain of non-compliance, mismanagement of eventually engage in end-to-endand AI systems must be auditable, goods, and even root causes to product automated operations, including auto-adhere to compliance and regulation, or delivery issues. optimisation, auto-installation, auto-uphold secure identity access protocol regulation, auto-management, andand protections, and respect ethics to Ecosystem awareness: Multiple auto-retirement.the greatest extent possible. industries (e.g. agriculture, government, logistics, utilities, These concepts underlie the idea of Consider the potential opportunities universities) could leverage data checks and balances inwhich blockchainwhen data sharing where security and globally to unearth otherwise obscured helps make AI more accountable, whiletrust are encoded into: patterns, threats, opportunities related software and hardware intelligence to ecology, weather, consumption, enhance blockchain development, Infrastructure operations: Original human rights, etc. application, and process automation.equipment manufacturers (OEMs) “Smarter” is held to a standardin numerous industries, alongside Blockchain will make artificial of transparency.maintenance, insurance, and other intelligence accountableservice providers could improve This piece first appeared at:visibility into, and therefore more Long term, the benefits of sharing https://www.tractica.com/robust prevention, even prediction of data may far outweigh the risks, artificial-intelligence/how-and-machine failure, system downtime, rendering centralised structures less why-enterprises-should-connect-parts replacement, etc. competitive than decentralised ones. blockchain-and-artificial-intelligence/ But we have a long way to go. Today, companies like IBM, Microsoft, Google,
24 / IoTnews THE BLOCKQ&A – Sally Eaves,Team BlockchainSally Eaves combines working on the board of Team Blockchain, an independentconsultancy firm, alongside being chief technology officer at MindFit Ltd as wellas a number of directorshipsSally Eaves is demonstrated by its token price people, yet traditionally many of the CTeam Blockchain massively increasing in value since July farmers have regularly lived on less M 2014. It resonates with the gold rush in than $2 a day. YWhat is Team Blockchain’s California where people made far more CMmission and how money selling shovels than panning for I am also personally involved in MYdid it come about? the gold itself! projects regarding the use of blockchain CY to monitor food supply and support CMY Being truly independent, Team What’s the most ethical trade which can particularly aid KBlockchain Ltd is able to select best of exciting application of developing economiesbreed expertise to help a broad range blockchain technology youof organisations to find the relevant have seen so far? Which industries do yousolution to the specific challenges they think are set to have theface. This mission emerged from the I am passionate about building and biggest impact throughrising demand to provide clarity on the promoting opportunities for technology blockchain and why?speculation and hype that surrounds to support social impact and socialblockchain and associated technologies inclusion, so have been excited by In the short term, the financewith regards their likely impact on day developments in this area. There has industry is set to be most impacted.to day activities. been much coverage regarding the two There are so many costs that can be billion unbanked and those excluded removed through blockchain andHave you noticed a particular from the digital economy – if blockchain coupled with new entrants coming intorise in applications of banking as a result of PSD2 [paymentblockchain outside of There is a critical services directive] across Europe, theyBitcoin over the past year? role for blockchain will actively use this new technologyWhat has caused it? in respect to data and not be handicapped by legacy security, privacy system complexities. The original principles and early and identityapplications of blockchain are now management which There is a critical role for blockchainbeing rapidly engineered and expanded crosses sectors and in respect to data security, privacy andfor cross-sector benefit, given its organisational types identity management which crossesnatural fit with a variety of contexts sectors and organisational types. Inwhich involve the compilation and and related technologies can just help particular and coupled with PSD2, thistransmission of highly complex data 5% of these people it will be a huge will help individuals to gain bettersets on a global scale. advancement with sustainable socio- transparency, protection and control economic benefits. of how their personal digital assets are Ethereum has seen a particular utilised and indeed monetised. This is inrise over the past 12 months and An example is the US startup keeping with a move away from passivecovers many different industries. This Bext360, which combines blockchain consumers to active prosumers. with mobile robotics to assess product weight and quality, and then pay coffee In the medium term, there are farmers fairly and instantly. This is an huge opportunities in the healthcare industry involving over 125 million sector. As populations increasingly age we need to find ways to be more efficient with healthcare budgets using technology as an enabler, and thereby allowing a greater focus on illness prevention rather than cure.
Unlocking the Internet of Value29-30 Nov 2017, Santa Clara CC, Silicon Valley GLOBAL 2018 EUROPE 2018 18-19 April 2018, Olympia, London Autumn 2018 GET INVOLVED+44 (0) 117 980 9020 - [email protected] www.blockchain-expo.com
26 / IoTnews Aiming for a revolution in oil and gas The Internet of Things has the potential to transform a variety of industries. Oil and gas is the very definition of a brownfield development, but Piers Corfield, chief exec at startup Dashboard, believes his company has an answer Words: James Bourne
27 / IoTnews “For the technology industry I’m of data, a powerful data analyticssomething of a heretic,” explains Piers engine and a real-time and historicCorfield, CEO of Dashboard, “because interface suitable for integration withI’ve always been very clear over which enterprise systems.’is the tail and which is the dog. I seeall forms of communication as nothing Immediately, however, the challengesmore and nothing less than tools… the of the industry become apparent. “55%purpose of the technology is there to to 60% of all pipelines in the world aredo the donkey work and leave humans beyond their original design age, and ofto do the stuff that humans excel at.” course, there is enormous complexity in terms of how these pipeline systems No technology for technology’s operate,” says Corfield.sake here. With two decades in theindustry, Corfield’s mission has always There are monitoring processesbeen around solving tangible business the industry already has, throughchallenges – and his latest venture aims SCADA (supervisory control and datato transform a vital, yet technologically acquisition), pressurisation readings,slow-moving industry. and density readings to bring about a mass balance calculation. (Corfield The two watchwords sums up the latter as ‘I put this you will find that stand much in at one end of the pipe and above all others in the this much came out at the other…is oil and gas industry are there a difference?’, calling it a ‘fairly ‘safe’ and ‘efficient’ blunt instrument’.) Accenture argues that “as the Another method is throughIndustrial Internet of Things becomes distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) andmainstream, oil and gas companies are distributed temperature sensing (DTS),able to make decisions ‘on the edge’ based on fiber optic cabling – but the– where digital and physical worlds problem there is one of cost.meet.” Dashboard’s modus operandi,featuring a product called LIMPET, is Corfield sensed a new plan wastightly integrated with that statement. needed. “The problem is that retro- fitting fiber optic cabling to an existingHow it works pipeline is very, very expensive,” he explains. “Because my original design The company provides, as Corfield criteria was to design something thatputs it, a ‘retrofit collar’ for existing was a hydra – you couldn’t kill it, sooil and gas infrastructure. To use every collar was going to be individualDashboard’s own description, LIMPET and completely self-sustaining – we hadis a ‘fully integrated technology stack to take an entirely different approach.”comprising resilient field-basedhardware, the secure transmission LIMPET therefore makes contact through ultrasonic technology, which brings about its own problems in fluid dynamics. To help combat the problem of ‘phased flow’ – in this instance, gas settling at the top of the pipeline, with the oil in the middle and sludge at the bottom – the collar has a multi
28 / IoTnewstransducer array, which can cut the flow time you have a collar you’re effectively Most people talkof the pipeline from every angle and creating a 360 degree ring which acts about oil and gassend and receive data in milliseconds. as a watertight bulkhead, because as though it’s some the moment hydrocarbons hit it at sort of parallel “At its core, it’s a clamshell retrofit any time around the pipe it will alert,” dimension – but it’scollar that goes around the outside of says Corfield. the entirety, the A to Zthe pipeline that use ultrasonics and of industrial processslices through the flow, and then you’re “You need to understand in a in one businessrunning differential analysis, the collars significant amount of detail the endare carrying out all the post-processing to end structure of the pipeline,” hein the device using edge computing, adds. By this he means there is no ‘offand they are making decisions about the shelf’ option. With every pipelinereporting by exception, to be extremely the diameter may be different – andefficient in the telemetry overhead, and sometimes it varies along pipelines ifthen at the cloud level you’re running they go up or down a hill – as may thedifferential analysis,” says Corfield. coating system, and the material from which it is made. To this end, DashboardLess than smooth sailing has got on board Alastair Maclachlan, formerly senior pipelines consultant at Naturally, that process on its own BP, as an advisor.would be far too easy. Corfield puts itthis way: a ‘remarkably small’ amount Deployment is another issue.of hydrocarbons can contaminate a “Frankly, I’d rather gouge my eyes10 kilometre lake in one hour. So how out with a teaspoon than go throughdo you mitigate against that risk and the accreditation process to have ourfor any pinhole leaks in the pipeline, people visit a pipeline site and dig itor weld defects? up,” says Corfield. “So what you have to do is de-scope the complexity of the LIMPET also includes a reactive installation. We’ve thought about howmaterial which goes around the collar to design systems so they are extremelyto pick up hydrocarbon activity as soon efficient to manufacture, and that theyas possible. “What you’re doing is every can be assembled close to their market
29 / IoTnewsand therefore maintained if necessary, detail, enabling new questions to be The rationaleand that they are also good to retrofit asked and answered.”for non-specialists.” Corfield explains his reasoning The key is to create a source of data behind targeting oil and gas. “The oil The final challenge is around ‘capable of informing us of change and gas industry is a very interestingintegration. Never mind the school better than the individual sources’. one,” he explains. “It starts from a veryof thought that enterprise mobility is After all, anyone can take a spreadsheet low base of adoption on innovation andanything outside of the office; engineers and make it look nice. technology, lower than most industrialand personnel in oil and gas will often verticals. The commodity price hasbe in areas which are ‘environmentally “The reason why the company’s waxed and waned, but the industry asludicrous’, as Corfield puts it – not to called Dashboard is because it’s about a whole has now finally got to the stagemention highly regulated. the human machine interface,” says where it’s saying ‘you know what, we Corfield. “You could have the best data, have to reengineer our business models “That integration is threefold,” he captured in the best way, analysed to to be survivable at $50 oil. We can’t justexplains. “One is about integrating the nth degree, but if you can’t actually rely on the fact that this is only a blipat the hardware end into a device, put it into an interface that is genuinely and it’ll go back to $80 oil.’the second is about successfully red button green button, you’veintegrating with existing data sources wasted your time.” “The entire industry from top towhich are inside the organisation, and bottom is all about efficiency, and it’sthe third thing is about all of the user Beyond enabling a very painful process, because it’sauthentication that is required. technologies lies a a very conservative industry, which landscape which we has evolved in a particular way – “The ambition of the oil and gas would call pervasive very engineering led – and thereforeindustry typically to this point has been technology – and IoT is transforming these organisationsdata to desk,” Corfield adds. “We know the embodiment of it which are incredibly complicated andthat that’s not fundamentally good highly regulated is very complex.”enough and it has to be data to mobile. This goes back to Corfield’s vision around enabling technologies – with Nevertheless, while the challenge “If you’ve got Bob in the field with the Internet of Things (IoT) at the ahead may be an onerous one, Corfieldhis ruggedized tablet, in the arse end epicentre of it. “Getting on for 20 is firm in his beliefs that he’s onof nowhere, using a wet piece of string years ago I was preaching a message of the right path.to communicate, then it has to be really enabling technologies – but then I waslight – our systems architecture has to saying beyond enabling technologies “Most people talk about an oil andbe very, very light on the device, and lies a landscape which we would call gas company as though it’s some sortinherently mobile-friendly.” pervasive technology,” he says. of parallel dimension,” he explains, “but an oil and gas company is theAnalysing the data IoT is the embodiment of pervasive entirety, the A to Z of industrial process technology, according to Corfield – in one business. It’s infrastructure, it’s Dashboard’s interface and data “capture all of that information, suck it power generation and distribution,analytics engine ‘utilises an end-to-end up into the cloud, analyse the bejesus it’s certainly water – an oil companyapproach to creating data collection, out of it and reflect it in an intuitive produces eight barrels of water fortransmission, storage, analysis visualisation” – which goes far beyond every one barrel of oil – it’s engineering,and visualisation systems capable other interfaces. “That’s what it’s all it’s distribution, it’s even retail.of accurately modelling process about,” he says.performance characteristics and fault “So it’s a fantastic industry for usdetecting on a variety of systems’, “You’ve failed in your mission if you’re to work in, because it’s enormous, it’sas the company puts it. This means in the old school SCADA interface, established, it’s going through a periodusers can assess quantitative versus where you look at it and it’s just horrific, of change, and it’s highly regulated.qualitative data, data from different and counterintuitive at the same time. We want to position ourselves veryindividual measurement points, or data Even the people that stare at it every much as a clean tech business, notfrom different systems, for instance. day don’t know what half of it means.” oil and gas, and we see ourselves as greening oil and gas, mitigating “Companies have more data to use environmental and human risk, and thethan ever before, at a volume and increase in efficiency.with a variety that are unparalleledin the past,” the company explains. “The two watchwords you will find“Companies are using new analysis that stand above all others in the oiltools and services to understand their and gas industry are safe and efficient –own operations and process behaviour that’s tattooed on the foreheads of theat a previously unattainable level of people from BP.”
30 / IoTnews Assessing a data-driven evolution in healthcare From blockchain to machine learning – not to mention IoT – the technological scope for transforming healthcare is vast. As Lisa Sion, public sector and healthcare solutions lead at Cloudera explains, it’s what you do with the data that countsLisa Sion the Internet of Things in areas like and diagnostics that require largePublic Sector and Healthcare remote patient monitoring. This amounts of data to be analysed rapidly.Solutions Lead at Cloudera advancement is particularly appealing This promises to revolutionise the due to its ability to increase quality of level of care each patient can receive For years, we’ve heard about how carewhile reducing both patient risk and as well as the ability for physiciansdata has been fuelling a dramatic cost of care, all benefits being realised to quickly diagnose conditions thattransformation of the healthcare across multiple industries through were once difficult to detect throughindustry. It has driven sweeping change the analysis of sensor data available conventional means.around everything from the way we through devices connected to the IoT.identify and treat disease to the steps Healthcare has always been onhealthcare organisations have taken to Many patients no longer need to the forefront of technology adoptionstreamline billing and combat fraud. remain hospitalised for conditions that and as we look to future advances once required an overnight stay with in data discovery and security that Most recently, Apache Hadoop and their care being monitored remotely by are just beginning to unfold, thethe larger open-source ecosystem physicians able to intervene as needed interest in blockchain reflects thathas been at the centre of this data with data from remote devices. In many spirit. Being positioned by many asrevolution, enabling pioneers to more ways, the hospital bed has become the the next frontier in healthcare datacost-effectively drive change and largest monitoring device, allowing security advancement, leaders acrossimpact the lives of patients worldwide. hospital staff to track and view the vital healthcare are excited about blockchainSome of the most powerful innovations statistics of patients in their care and as it provides the necessary balancemade possible by Hadoop are in the area alerting them to changes that require between security and distribution ofof precision medicine and genomics intervention before a crisis occurs. personal health data.with solutions that contributed to thesequencing of the human genome while Sensor data is also being used by While blockchain has been largelyalso providing insight into population Cloudera and Intel to better understand used in the financial services industry,health by ingesting and storing data and treat chronic diseases like it has only recently been touted as afrom millions of patients through digital Parkinson’s disease. By partnering with solution that could greatly benefit thehealth records. The insights gained the Michael J. Fox Foundation, Cloudera secure data needs of healthcare withhave accelerated the path towards and Intel have begun to identify many believing it will become the nexteffectively treating terminal illness as patterns through wearable monitors big innovation, particularly aroundwell as managing chronic disease. that can track patient symptoms. payments and payer contracts. Another These results are combined with possible healthcare application for Just as important are the patient provided symptom data as well blockchain is around population health.advancements made possible through as medication usage which are tracked With blockchain, health information on a mobile application that provides exchanges could be eliminated as continuous feedback to participants. the way to aggregate data, allowing organisations to eliminate the The evolution of machine learning middleman and access patient and its potential to impact the databases on a large, population scale. healthcare industry is becoming more evident daily. More and more providers With the many discoveries and are starting to use cognitive analytics changes being made possible through to aid in the diagnosis of patients, often advances in big data, the future of driven by new programs for imaging healthcare looks bright.
31 / IoTnewsThe rise, risks, and resolutionsof healthcare IoTWith so much data at stake IoT healthcare security best practices are vitallyimportant, as the previous issue of IoT News found. But how does this affect theCIO? Carson Sweet, CTO and co-founder of CloudPassage, looks at the possibilitiesCarson Sweet Although data theft isn’t considered Security must be baked into theCTO and co-founder of CloudPassage life threatening, it can have devastating software development lifecycle. implications on patients and providers. This involves firmware and software Spending on IoT in healthcare is Imagine the impact if sensitive medical updates, security testing procedures,expected to reach $117 billion by 2020, conditions suffered by thousands of timely manufacturer response toand with adoption increasing, CIOs will patients were posted to public forums detected vulnerabilities, and thehave to rethink security in light of the like Pastebin, or worse, if data were ability of the devices or their backendvulnerabilities that could arise. sold to extortionists. These data management systems to detect if compromises could create HIPAA the integrity of a device has been The use of IoT within the healthcare violations for the healthcare provider, compromised. Unfortunately, theindustry, including internet-enabled which can be very expensive and backend systems that manage andhealthcare devices, inevitably raises unpleasant from a business standpoint. process the data from devices arecybersecurity concerns for both often overlooked. There is a tendencypatients and the healthcare provider. An even more terrifying prospect is to focus solely on the device’s expressHealthcare is not alone: many high-tech subversion of the devices themselves. purpose, but these backend systemsindustries have been grappling with There are weaponised tools designed are high-value targets for attackerscybersecurity issues for decades now. to exploit weaknesses in security and can often be used to compromiseOften organisations within industries present in a large portion of online devices en masse.slower to adapt new technology work medical devices, including remotelyfrom an established base of industry manageable insulin pumps, internal There are a lot of considerationsknowledge and standards that are no defibrillators and pacemakers. These that go into finding weaknesses withinlonger applicable to new technology. threats transcend typical cybersecurity devices and systems and setting up the threats and move into the realm of proper protocol and software to protect Right now, the healthcare industry cyber terrorism. It’s the duty of the patient information. Cybersecurity is– particularly as it pertains to medical medical provider, and the healthcare an ongoing process that requires thedevices – is not exactly savvy when it industry as a whole, to build thorough attention of trained professionals. Ifcomes to cybersecurity. When it comes defences against these cyber-attacks. your organisation decides to outsourceto learning on the fly, the stakes are security concerns to a softwaremuch higher for healthcare. Losing your CIOs must understand how to best provider, make sure they addresscredit card number is annoying, but protect their organisations from IoT issues like compliance, automatedtheft of medical data or the compromise cybersecurity threats to patients and notifications of security breaches, andof a medical device itself is something providers. Each organisation needs providing an easy to use interface.entirely more sinister and harmful, to apply practices that consider Protection is key when it comes towhich is why strong cybersecurity devices and their manufacturers’ implementing cybersecurity solutions,efforts are imperative. security measures, key areas in the but that protection must fit your needs. software development lifecycle, and the backend systems used to manage Whether you’re an individual provider and process data. or a larger organisation, it’s important that security weaknesses are found Cybersecurity standards must begin and fixed quickly in order to protect the with an understanding of how device interest of patients and the organisation manufacturers measure the security as a whole against cyberattacks. of their devices. It is essential to understand the systems that manage the devices and process relevant data in order to protect them from threats.
32 / IoTnews Transportation, the Internet of Things, and legitimising big data Ford Global Warranty Operations is one company in the transportation sector taking advantage of IoT and big data technologies – and as Michael Corcoran, CMO of Information Builders explains, the game has changed even though the data remains the same Words: James Bourne Of all the industries the Internet By crunching the WebFOCUSof Things is set to impact, it’s hard to numbers – five years’argue a case against transportation worth of warranty The Business Intelligence tooland logistics being one of the information in a developed by Information Buildersmost influential. Teradata database – various aspects It’s not just the numbers – although of the businessanalyst firm Technavio says the sector can be analysedwill see a CAGR of 16.9% betweennow and 2020 – but its wider impact. Ford, described by Michal Stencl,Not only can data around vehicles be founder and CEO of Sygic, in IoT Newscollected to enable the long-awaited online earlier this year as the ‘posterautonomous driving revolution, but child of Fortune 500 connectedthe interaction with the environment technology adoption’, is a classicaround it needs to be considered. Take example. Among its many involvementsPhiladelphia as an example; according is the use of big data visualisation for itsto a report from GCN, the US city, as part Global Warranty Measurement Systemof its Smart Cities Readiness Challenge (GMWS). By crunching the numbersGrant, did not realise the extent of – five years’ worth of warrantytheir current technology projects, from information in a Teradata database –smart traffic light sensors to data- various aspects of the business can beinfused water meters. analysed, from customer experience to supplier quality, with predictive Transportation is at the heart of analytics enabling repairs to be carriedall of these initiatives – and plenty out at much greater efficiency.of companies, not least automotivemanufacturers themselves, aretaking the lead and hoping to gain acompetitive advantage.
33 / IoTnews The key to this is WebFOCUS, a Part of the beauty of these types Predictive analytics is anotherbusiness intelligence (BI) tool. Ford of use cases is that data can become example of this. Information Buildershas been a customer of Information truly transformative when put in the uses R, an open source programmingBuilders, the company behind it, for hands of non-specialists – “taking the language focused around statisticalmore than a decade. As Jim Lollar, knowledge of a 20-year veteran and computing and graphics, to developbusiness systems manager at Ford putting it in the hands of a first day its predictive capabilities – butGlobal Warranty Operations, explains: rookie”, as Corcoran puts it. with a twist. “It’s a massively used“We’re accessing the same data community, it’s being taught in mostas before, but we have presented Howdoyou make the data operational of the universities around the worldand visualised it in new ways for a and get it out to the truck drivers and today, and what we liked about it wasdifferent audience.” operational workers so they’re not the mass adoption it was getting, only able to make decisions and ask and the low cost of the open source Michael Corcoran, the CMO of questions of data easily, but also see technology,” says Corcoran. “What weInformation Builders, explains the how they compare against their peers? didn’t like about it was the fact it was arationale. “New technologies help programming language.us bring in new customers every “There’s way too much work rightday, but we have taken a number of now still going on in the back office,” “So we gave it a user interface soour long-standing customers and he explains. “It’s great that we’re that an application developer couldcontinually moved them into new providing tools to people that have the easily use it without having to be a datatechnologies,” he says. analytical skills, and that’s important, scientist or a programmer.” but BI and analytics has basically been “Technology has to be applied to a halted at about 20% adoption in most When it comes to IoT technologiesvery real business need – something companies, because we continue to more generally, Corcoran sees plenty ofthat can have quantifiable value to focus on that same audience.” positives. “What’s starting to legitimisethe company,” Corcoran adds. “Those IoT for business is the consumerisationare the things we try and help the of it,” he says.customers hone in on, and if we do thatsuccessfully then you tend to become a “When you look at the devicestrusted partner, and if you do a good job we’re putting in our homes today,innovating and building new capabilities with all these connected appliancesthen you have an opportunity to stay and devices, having that kind ofthere and expand your presence in automation and capability is extremelythose kinds of organisations.” powerful. Individuals everywhere are becoming more and more familiar Another organisation reaping the and comfortable with some of thesebenefits in this sector is Maverick new technologies, so I think that willTransportation. Based in Arkansas, the translate to further adoption of voicecompany operates more than 1,200 recognition in business – I think that’svehicles hauling steel, machinery, and going to be an important one.other building materials throughoutthe US and Canada. Using WebFOCUS, “What’s exciting to me about IoT isMaverick can put sensors in each vehicle that it’s actually legitimising big data,”to more precisely measure performance, Corcoran adds. “Big data, I think uptrack profitability objectives, and keep until the past 12 months, has been aon top of compliance. An additional little bit more of a science looking for aeffect has been a marked decrease in problem to address.”driver turnover, a particular boon giventhe notoriously high figures across theindustry at large.
34 / IoTnews Beyond smart homes: The IoT from the sensor to the application via the cloud The Internet of Things continues to grow at an impressive rate with a seemingly endless number of potential use cases – and smart homes are only the starting point, as Armin Anders, co-founder of EnOcean, writesArmin Anders The Internet of Things is growing Smart homes are only one ofco-founder of EnOcean rapidly. Studies speak of 20 billion countless IoT applications devices being connected to the Internet by 2020 and 30 trillion “things” by 2030. Innovations such as lawnmowers Most of these “things” will be sensors. that continuously keep the grass at an These devices record the data that is so ideal height, and vacuum cleaners that important for processing information automatically vacuum the home were and are therefore the sensory organs of mocked only a few years ago but are the IoT. They are mounted, for example, enjoying increasing popularity today. on windows, doors, walls, landscaped Some of these devices can even be areas and plants. operated by voice control. These solutions are interesting The question of whether these things primarily for applications that require are really necessary brings to mind a large number of sensors, for example, the discussions of electric windows in in building automation and to collect cars many years ago: a suitable manual data in traffic and usable areas. To winder did the job in less time. So why meet the different requirements, replace it with an electric window that sensors must be small, unobtrusive and also costs more? Easy answer: the easy to install. electric window is more convenient, which is why new cars no longer come The overwhelming number of with manual winders. The same thing IoT sensors will be wireless radio will happen with building automation. sensors, since connecting them to the internet with cables is quite Very few people in the private impractical. Moreover it is not sphere give priority to this benefit possible to power these trillions of when making a purchasing decision. wireless sensors with batteries, due However, smart homes will be to the amount of maintenance work basic equipment in the residential involved as well as the cost of battery construction market a few years from replacement and disposal. The logical now. Property owners will also want to conclusion is to use energy harvesting add this function as a retrofit. wireless technology.
35 / IoTnewsFrom asset brightness, CO2, moisture), room usage companies and is a crucial way to buildmanagement to the campus profiles and even a correlation with the customer loyalty. Sanitary facilities effectiveness at particular workplaces would be much easier to use if sensors Use cases, in which comprehensive could be determined. This could make reported the fill level of paper andor even predictive evaluation of it possible to optimise the use of rooms soap, and if the degree of toilet useextensively collected data in the IoT and devices and possibly even enhance were transmitted by the door contact.adds considerable value for users and results in the workplace. In hotels and other living and useableare currently the ones most interesting spaces, the combination of windowand most widely discussed. The Early detection and intervention in contacts and motion sensors is an idealquantity of conceivable applications the event of fires and water leakage is way to increase protection, securityseems to be endless, and yet a number a good sales argument for insurance and energy efficiency. A closed windowof fundamental fields of application can protects the room against bad weather,be identified. The quantity avoids unnecessary heating and of conceivable prevents false alarms by the motion In offices, development laboratories applications sensor caused by the wind. Combiningand creative spaces, seat occupancy can seems to be endless the sensors with available weatherbe detected with presence detectors, data on the internet is also useful.and the use of devices can be determinedwith power meters. In connectionwith room climate data (temperature,
36 / IoTnews To enable seniors to live in their own To be able to feed the world’s everhomes comfortably and safely, motion growing population, and to optimisesensors in mattresses, fall and presence quality and crop yields, plantationsdetectors as well as flexibly positioned and crop areas must be monitored withemergency call and control buttons millions of sensors. The condition ofsupply urgently needed information. bridges and rockfall nets can also beMotion sensors in indoor markets monitored with vibration sensors, andcan be used to determine movement natural disasters such as floods can beprofiles and protect the premises at detected at an earlier stage.night. Booth-mounted climate sensorsregulate the ventilation depending The cloud – the networkingon the location and use; sensors on command center of the IoTelevators, fan motors and pest trapssignal a need for maintenance. Increasingly, devices and sensors will be networked via the internet in theOutdoor applications form of web-based services: so-called cloud services. However, the amount The IoT has an endless number of of intelligence needed locally andpotential applications even outside especially which user- and operator-buildings. In addition to detecting and specific data needs to be stored onanalysing traffic flow, the importance site for data privacy reasons are stillof parking space management in under discussion.urban centres will rise sharply in thefuture. For this purpose, traffic flow One important aspect is the timeand parking space availability must availability of a cloud-based solution.be detected with thousands upon Since this availability is not alwaysthousands of sensors. ensured, basic security relevant
37 / IoTnewsfunctions, such as turning room and getting ready for an arms race, in which The trend is movingbasement lights on and off, must be each vies for the best position in the towards the intelligentimplemented locally and ensured networking command center of the IoT. networking of objectswithout access to the internet. by means of cloud- In addition to the big IT players, based services and However, the functionalities, user classic industrial corporations such analysing datainterfaces and range of web-based as Siemens, Bosch, ABB and General collected with theservices are growing rapidly and offer Electric also believe themselves to help of sensorsenormous potential for application. be well armed to conquer the IoTIf an appropriate system partitioning market with their market access andis selected, it becomes apparent experience in engineering and productthat value-added services and the life cycle management.interconnection of the individualfunctionalities should be reproduced They must urgently establishon the internet in the future. The cloud themselves in this market segment inthen becomes the central system order to keep pace with the IT corporateintelligence for value-added services. giants, since the next stage on the value chain in automation engineering will beThe gateway – the link between reached through digitalisation.sensors and the cloud The market is also exciting because In this regard, the gateway that more and more specialised providersconnects the local sensors to the and startups are entering the field.cloud takes on enormous importance. Most of them lack critical mass butA suitable cross-standard and open instead have the advantage of beingsoftware stack in the gateway forms able to act disruptively, unburdenedthe basis for integrating the data of by any existing business. However, allthe EnOcean wireless sensors into the of these IoT players have one thing inmanaged services of the IoT platforms common: they need to have the besthosted in the cloud. access to data, specific sensor solutions and therefore close collaboration with This result in an interoperable sensor providers. For example, IBM andnetwork, in which the collected data the EnOcean Alliance will work togethercan be used for the intelligent control in their new partnership to promote theof different devices, independently of use of intelligent building solutions andthe equipment manufacturers and the standardise smart IoT applications.cloud platforms. In summary, let me say that there isThe IoT players – from an enormous amount of unstructuredIT giants to industrial data that needs to be sifted through,corporations to startups analysed, weighed up, interpreted and learned from. The latest data must The trend is moving towards the be used for control purposes but alsointelligent networking of objects by related to historic information andmeans of cloud-based services and other data available on the internetanalysing data collected with the help with tools such as the IBM Watsonof sensors. The well-known IT corporate IoT platform in order to therebygiants who offer these cloud-based discover any unknown correlationsservices and tools are in a good position that may exist. This will result in newhere. IBM, Cisco, Apple, Microsoft, insights and a new understanding ofGoogle and Amazon are currently interrelationships.
38 / IoTnewsQ&A – Oleg Logvinov, presidentand CEO, IoTechaOleg Logvinov, president and CEO of IoTecha Corporation, an Industrial IoT solutionsprovider, and chair of the IEEE P2413 ‘Standard for an Architectural Framework forthe Internet of Things’ Working Group, discusses Industrial IoT, connected cars,security, and moreOleg Logvinov successful adoption of the IoT in any the attention on system level securitypresident and CEO of IoTecha Corporation scenario requires transformation of and safety. It is not enough to address the business, an evolution of processes just components of an IoT system.IoT News: Hi Oleg. How do you in the way that allows leveraging thesee the Industrial Internet of information that IoT can bring. It is Architects of IoT systems need newThings landscape right now the transformation of this information tools to deal with these challengesand what is your definition into knowledge and wisdom that – one such tool is an architecturalof the term? Is the term create the impact. framework we are defining in theoverhyped right now? IEEE P2413 project. One of my favourite examples is OL: In my own definition, IIoT is not just around electric vehicles (EVs). We What is the most excitingan application of IoT in manufacturing expect the number of EVs on the road use case you have seen in– it is also IoT in smart cities, smart to grow rapidly. EVs offer a much this space, and where do yougrid, electromobility, transportation, greener transportation option and an expect to see the landscape inretail, and logistics – and of course improved driving experience, but they 12 months’ time?these applications and domains require are also likely to add a very significantrobustness, dependability, functional unplanned electric load to our power There is no singular answer here. IoTsafety, security and in many cases grids during charging. That means is an umbrella for many technologiesbounded latency. I do not think that the that we need to employ charging that have to work together.term is overhyped – it is important to technology that is sensitive to availableaddress requirements specific to the power and capable of managing As an example of a few areas whereindustrial space and the application of the energy demand. we will see continuous innovationthis term helps. and emergence of leaders, low power How do you see the security wireless communication and dataWhich industries do you think aspect evolving? processing will help us to create sensorare most likely to have the ‘dust’ that can be embedded into ourgreatest impact from the Of course the stakes are higher in the environment, while edge computingInternet of Things? Which will IIoT space, but there is also a much more collaborating with cloud computingsee the quickest impact, and focused effort to address potential will help us to reduce communicationwhich will struggle? vulnerabilities. It is important to focus costs and decision making latencies. I would not segment this question At the end of the day As I mentioned before, EV/consumer/by industry – I would rather measure a successful adoption power grid integration is one of mythe impact based on the readiness of the IoT in any favourite examples and I believe thatto evolve. At the end of the day a scenario requires is the area where we will see a lot of transformation of innovation in the next 12 to 24 months. the business, an That includes the emergence of new evolution of processes business models and potentially even technologies. We decided to launch our company IoTecha to focus on this.
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News | Views | Features June 2017 Issue Two | iottechnews.comFor the IoT professional p17 An eight page blockchain supplementExploring the smartcity of Shanghai Kevin Ashton – who coined the term Internet of Things – on the potential of the world’s most populous cityBuilding sustainable The rise, risks and Aiming for a revolution Transportation, bigtransport systems resolutions of in oil and gas data, and the Internetwithout borders healthcare and IoT of Things