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NatScienceTBM4codex

Published by khaosaym, 2021-09-12 02:58:33

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lk]t[ko ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ |hk rkdmu I G dkoln[rao c]t rafmtokdko0v’Ijk’dkp,to5f ................. 1 [qfmu ! G dkog8u[.spj c]t dkoxPj ocx’0v’Ikj ’dkpw;|,5j ....................... 1 [fq mu @ G ]t[[q ln[roa ................................................................................... 8 [qfmu # G dkogduf]6d c]t dko;k’czo7v[7q;......................................... 14 [qfmu $ G rtpkf8yf8+mk’grflerao Xr8r? ............................................... 21 [qfmu & G dkolq’j glu,l50trk[ c]t madlt-u;yf ........................................... 26 rkdmu IIG dkoxjPocx’mkf8jk’M .......................................................... 31 [fq mu * G xt8dy ]y py kg7,u ............................................................................. 31 [fq mu ( G lf6 g7,u ........................................................................................ 41 [qfmu ) G l,q zoq g7,u ................................................................................... 49 [qfmu _ G vqd-uc-o c]t vqd-yffk-q’.......................................................... 54 [qfmu !W G I3u fic-o ................................................................................... 62 rkdmu IIIG dtclw22hkdq’ .......................................................................... 67 [qfmu !! G dkorq;rao]ts;kj ’ dtclw22hkF zqo]q[]tfa[w22hk c]t 7;k,8hkow22hk0v’lkpF dqfgdo3v, ................................ 67 [qfmu [email protected] G 8volkp8+]Podao c]t 8+0t|kodao ............................................ 71 [qfmu !# G 7;k,8hkow22hk0Boda[7;k,pk;F goNvm|uj hk8af c]t mkfmguj Iaf lkpok= w22kh ............................................................................... 77 [fq mu !$ G g7vnj ’8kh ow22kh xPj o7kj c]t g7vnj ’8kh ow22kh .og8da oyd ................. 82 [qfmu !& G de]a’w22hkF rt]a’’kow22hk c]t cI’’kodtclw22hk .............. 87 [fq mu !* G dfq gdo1o6 {c]ol ......................................................................... 92 [fq mu !( G dko.-wh 22kh m4uj nd8vh ’.................................................................. 96 rkdmu IVG oEF vk-yfF [kg-u c]t gdnv................................................... 102 [qfmu !) G oE ............................................................................................ 102 [qfmu !_ G vk-yf........................................................................................ 109 [fq mu @W G [kg-u......................................................................................... 117 [fq mu @! G gdvn ........................................................................................... 125

rkdmu VG w22hkc,jgsa^d ........................................................................... 133 ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ [qfmu @@ G m’jq c,gj s^da ................................................................................. 133 [fq mu @# G m’jq c,gj s^ad0v’dtclw22kh ........................................................ 139 [qfmu @$ G dko8yfc,gj sa^d c,gj s^adw22hk c]t 7;k,cI’c,gj s^ad ................. 145 [fq mu @&G 3,g8wu 22kh dtcld’q ................................................................... 150 [fq mu @* G dkoltmvh oc,gj sd^a w22kh ........................................................... 153 rkdmu VIG w22hkdtcllts^a[ ................................................................... 157 [qfmu @( G dkodegouf c]t [qf[kf0v’w22hkdtcllts^a[ ....................... 157 [fq mu @) G 3,g8uw22kh dtcllts^[a .............................................................. 161 [qfmu @_ G 7;k,g0A,dtclw22hk c]t zqo]q[]tfa[w22hklts^a[ ................... 164 [qfmu #WG \\=hcx’w22hk c]t dkolq’j w22hkwxwd ......................................... 168 rkdmu VIIG g]o ......................................................................................... 173 [qfmu #! G g]oF g]ol;fF g]os^5[ ................................................................ 173 [fq mu #@ G v’q xtdv[mluj e7oa 0v’g]o ......................................................... 175 [fq mu ## G ]da ltot0v’cl’zkj og]o ......................................................... 178 [fq mu #$ G I[6 0v’;fa 4z5 kj og]ol;f ........................................................... 181 [fq mu #& G I[6 0v’;fa 4z5 kj og]os[5^ ............................................................. 183 [fq mu #* G dkogdfu I[6 gm’y 2,u .odvh ’4kj pI[6 ............................................... 186 [qfmu #( G 8k c]t dkog[y’j gsao ................................................................ 188 [qfmu #) G cl’0k;F cl’lu c]t dkocpdcl’lu0k;................................. 193 [qfmu #_ G lu0v’;af45 ................................................................................. 196 [qfmu $WG xt3spf c]t zqoglp0v’cl’................................................... 201 rkdmu VIIIG mkfvq’7tmkf c]t mkfvtoq’7tmkf ............................ 204 [qfmu $! G mkfvq’7tmkf ......................................................................... 204 [qfmu [email protected] G mkfvtoq’7tmkf...................................................................... 209 rkdmu IXG dko4jkpmvf]adltotmk’de,trao .................................... 213 [fq mu $# G 37i3,3-, ................................................................................ 213 [fq mu $$ G dkoc[’j 9]5 ’a c[[Ida lk ............................................................ 219 [qfmu $& G dkoc[’j 9]5 ’a 3fpmk’d’q ........................................................... 225 [fq mu $* G 7;k,zyfxdq dt8y0v’37i3,3-, ................................................. 233

[fq mu $( G dfq gdodkol[n g-vN 0v’mkj o,’a cf] ............................................ 236 [qfmu $) G c-o c]t dko7;[75,dkoltcf’vvd0v’c-o........................ 242 rkdmu XG dkoxjPoI6[ c]t Iadlkrt]a’’ko ....................................... 247 [fq mu $_ G rt]’a ’koI[6 8kj ’M ................................................................... 247 [fq mu &W G dkoxPj oI[6 rt]’a ’ko ............................................................... 256 [fq mu &! G dkozt]yfrt]’a ’kow22kh ......................................................... 260 [fq mu &@ G dkooe.-rh t]’a ’ko .................................................................. 266 rkdmu XIG dkooe.-hmkfg7,u.odkofe]q’-u;yf0v’,to5f................... 269 [qfmu &# G 7;k,dhk;|hk c]t [qf[kf0v’mkfg7,u ................................... 269 [qfmu &$ G vao8t]kp0v’mkfg7,u.o-u;yfxt9e;ao...................................... 273 [qfmu && G dkooe.-hmkfg7,umuj4nd8hv’ c]t dkoxqdxadIadlkly’j c;f]hv, ... 279 ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ

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zt|a’,qf]6d m+oelq’j w0j 9]5 ’a .oI;j pw0j xkd,qf]6d 95]a’w0j 8qd9kdI;pw0j mkf95]a’w0[j +wfhIa[dkoxtlq, g0Qkl6mj +oelq’j w0j 9tlts^kp8q;wx l;j ozt|a’ ,qf]6d c]t s^vfg]nvf9t lts^kpgxaoxt9egfnvo 95]a’w0j ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ g7njvowxskzt|a’,qf]6d I6[ @D* dko8qdw0j #D dko,uxt9egfnvo0v’grfpy’ dko,xu t9egfvn o ltcf’g4’y dkorfa mtokdko0v’Ikj ’dkp 0v’gfda p’y ;kj wfgh 0kQ lwj6 ; lk;c]h; c]t [q’j [vdg4y’7;k,rhv,mu9j t4nrk s^n .shdegoufgfadwfhD xt9egfnvogduf0BophvodkogIaf;Pd0v’Ivd3,ogrfgvl38ic-o (Estrogen) c]t 3xig9lg83io (Progesterone)D Ivd3,o @ -toyfoU,u|hkmu7j ;[75,dkolhk’w0Fj dko8qdw0j 8tsv^ f9oq oewxldj6 koxt8ly oq m0y v’vtl95 Sy c84j kh w0j c]t vtl95 [y w+ fxh tl,q roa doa 9trk.szh t|’a fkh o.o3z’h ,fq ]d6 m4ju dn lkh ’0oB gxoa [vj o/’a 8;q 0v’w0oj oA 9t4dn 0[a w]vj vd,kdkpgxoa g]vn fxt9e gfnvoD 3fpxqddt8yc]h;grfpy’,uxt9egfnvoc8j [email protected] xu sk &W xuF c8]j t7A’xt9egfnvo9t,k # sk & ;ao .om5dM @) ;ao c]t glpg]nvfxt,ko [email protected] sk !)W cm3D fa’j oAoF c,pj y’9b’j 8hv’dyo vkskom,uj umkfgs^ad c]t 3xi8yo grvnj lhk’g]nvfmqfcmol;j omguj lpwxD dko,uxt9egfnvo0v’grfpy’,da 9t,uvkdkos^kp1kj ’ltcf’vvdwxrvh ,doa g-oja G vyf g,nvj pF g[nvj vkskoF g9a[sq;F x;f[=]yg;os^a’ c]t cv;F vk]q,[+fu Xs’5fs’yf’kj p?D [k’7qo,ad 11

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.oxaf95[aopa’[+mao,u;ad-yoxhv’dao c]t 1kxyoj xq;3]dgvf.shskp0kfgmnvj g4y’;kj wfh,u ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ dkomqf]v’ c]t oe.-h1k[k’-toyfc]h;d=8k,D &D dko.shdko-j;pgs^nvcdjzh68yfg-Nvgv9wv;u c]t 3]dgvf !? dko-j;pgs^nv c]t .shde]a’.9 g4y’;kj xaf95[aooU,uzh68yfg-Nvgv9wv;u c]t gxaogvf .oxtgmfc]h;d=8k,F g0qkg9Qklk,kf fe]’q -;u fy 1.6j o7v[7;q c]t l’a 7,q wf1h kj ’xdq dt87y dn [a 7oq m;jq wxrvh ,m’a ,lu fy .omd5 fkh orkp.8dh fq \\kp0v’[kh og,vn ’D 7oq mgju xoa 3]dgvfd,= 3u vdkfwfIh [a dkoxojy x;q 1kj ’4dn 8vh ’ 8k,vkdko0v’ rtpkfmcju -d-vh oD ltooA F r;dgIkq [7+ ;o]’a dPfF 7;o.sdh ko-;j pgsvn^ F .sdh e]’a .9cdgj 0kq g9kQ grvnj .sgh 0kq g9kQ ,u-u;yfpnopk;D @? dkoxt8y[af8qo0v’zh68yfg-Bvgv9wv;u 4kh I;h6 kj 8oq gv’8yfg-Nvc];h 7;oxt8y[fa 8oq f’ja oUG { gIaf.sh9yf.9xqddt8yF dyovkskom,uj umkf[e]5’.shrP’r=F vvdde]a’dkpD { r[q crfgxoa xt9eD 0D le][a 7v[7;q 0v’z8h6 fy g-vN }gxoa gvfD { ltcf’7;k,Iad c]t .dh-yf-;j pgs^nvD { gvqk.9.lIj a[2a’[aosk c]t gxaomxuj bdlkg,vnj zh68yfg-Nvgduf7;k,da’;qoF m=h4vpD 7D |kh m0ju v’7oq .ol’a 7,q D { IPoI.h6 sgh 0kQ .97;k,gxoa 9’y dPj ;d[a 3]dgvfD { 3v]h ,q ;my du koxvh ’doa dkocr]j t[kf0v’gvfD { xtdv[l;j og0kQ .odkogzpu cr.j s-h ,5 -oq vvh ,0kh ’,lu t8Iy ;,j ,xn vh ’doa 8oq gv’F 7v[7;q c]t la’7q,.shxvfwr9kddko8yfg-Nvgv9wv;um4uj nd8hv’D 7e4k,G !D g-Nvgv9wv;u,us^kp16j.lL g,nvj ,aog0Qkwx.oIkj ’dkp0v’zh68yfg-Nvc]h;9twxme]kp l;j o.f0v’Ikj ’dkpL @D r,6 8kh omko0v’Ikj ’dkp7oq gIkq ,u7;k,\\kpco;.fL #D c,oj d,j5 7oq .flPj ’8+dko8yfg-Nvgv9wv;us^kpd;kj \\Lj6 $D dqowd s^n dko8yfg-hnvrtpkf,uco;.fL &D oda IPo7;oxt8y[fa 8oq co;.fgrvnj [+.s8h yfg-Nv3]dgvfL *D 4hk,u7qo8yfg-Nvgv9wv;u}3]dgvfF g9Qk9t[vd]k;wxIa[dkoxoyj xq; c]t Ia[dko.sh 7exbdlk16.j lL 25

[qfmu & dkolqj’glu,l50trk[ c]t madlt-u;yf .o-;u fy xt9e;oa gIkq g7pu gsoa [k’7oq ,da pkj ’vvdde]’a dkpF sfa dkpt[]= sy ko sn^ soY^ d]y k xtgrf8kj ’M c]t [k’7qovvdcI’’ko16j8k,gInvo-ko1kj ’gxaoxqddt8y g0qkg9Qk9tgxao7qo c0’cI’[,+ da g9[a gxoa D ltooA F 4kh r;dgIkq md5 7oq 1kd.sIh kj ’dkp,lu 05 trk[c0’cI’fu d8= vh ’wfh vvdde]a’dkpgrvnj gIaf.sh8qogv’,ul50trk[dkp c]t 9yfc0’cI’fuD !D dkolqj’glu,l50trk[dkp { dkol’qj glu,l50trk[dkp,uvao.fcfLj dyf9tdeG 9a[76jvvdde]a’dkp vvdde]’a dkpf;h pmkj 8kj ’Mf’ja oGU \\o6 c0oF cv;F ]d5 o’ja F g8oA g-vn dF 1on cd;’j 0kF c0oF 0Bo]q’0Aowf c]t vnoj MD ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ zkj odkovvdde]’a dkpoda IPoIlh6 db co;.fL rkps’a^ vvdde]’a dkpc];h oda IPo 9tIlh6 db ;kj de,t9vo0v’gIkq g8oA cI’d;kj 0t\\a[ Ijk’dkp0v’gIqkmuj1j6.omjkxqddt8yF oAod= 0hk’]e7= phvo;jk.o0totmujvvdde]a’dkpoAoIjk’ dkp8hv’.-hrt]a’’kogru,j 0BoF rt]a’’ko faj’djk;wfh9kddkogzqkw\\hvksko c]t cv[cv0k dkl vqd-uc-oD fa’j oAoF 9b’j 8hv’dkovqd-u [=]yg;f0=h,n= c-ogru,j 0Bo c]t .og;]kfP;daooAoIkj ’ dkpd=8hv’de9afdkl dkd3[oydvvdovdD phvoco;oAo9bj’rk.shsq;.9g8Aow; c]t skp.94Duj l05 trk[mk’dkp \\kpg4y’ltrk[ s^a’/k8uo Ikj ’dkpm,ju 7u ;k,l,q [o6 c0’cI’F g8[u .spj 1kj ’gxoa xdq dt8Fy ]t[[q 8kj ’M 0v’Ikj ’dkp gIaf;PdwfhfuF ,uxtlyfmyrk[ c]t ,u7;k, I6[ &D! [vj o9a[de,t9vo0v’Ikj ’dkp7qo 8hko8+rtpkfwfhfuD 26

dkovvdde]’a dkp\\kpg4’y Ikj ’dkp0v’gIkq wfvh vdcI’sk^ p9oq Ilh6 db ;kj vfy g,vjn pF [;+ kj 9tvvdcI’’kofh;pdkos^Yody]kF dko[=]yskoIkj ’dkp s^n gIaf;Pd8kj ’MD ltoAoF dkovvd de]’a dkpgxoa xfa w9le7oa le][a md5 M7oq D 7o5 xt3spf0v’dkovvdde]’a dkp,uco;.fcfLj T Ikj ’dkpg8[u .spcj 0’cI’D T 8kh omkortpkfD T s;q .9g8oA cI’0BoF dko\\o6 ;Po0v’g]vn ffuD T 8vj ,gsvjn gIfa ;Pds^kp0oB grvjn de9fa l’jy glfgs^vn 8kj ’Mvvdmk’Ig6 svjn D T -;j p.sh[5d7t]yd c]t mkj mufu S g7nvj ows;7vj ’c7h; c]t ;vj ’w;D @D dkolqj’glu,l50trk[9yf oadIPo9’qj la’gdfI6[ zh6m,uj ul50trk[9yfmfuj u c]t z6hm,uj ul50trk[9yf[+fuD T |kh 8kp,Y cp,h T ,u7;k,r=.9 c]t -njo-q,8+7;k,l5d c]t ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ zoq leg]fa 0v’8oq D I6[ &[email protected] zh6,ul50trk[9yffu I6[ &D# z6h,ul50trk[9yf[+fu T ;k’cczo-u;yf8oq gv’w;1h kj ’g\\ktl,q D T g,nvj rq[[aosk8hv’8A’lt8y c]t 7yfw88j v’ 1kj ’,ugsfzoq I;h6 kj [oa skooA c,oj sp’a D T ,umk’g]nvd.fcfjF g]nvdmk’mujg\\ktlq, le][a 8oq gv’D T ,du kor;q roa d[a \\gj6 rvjn o1kj ’4dn 8vh ’D T |kh 8k[+lfq -ojn D T ;k’czo-u;yf8oq gv’p’a [+wfDh T [+,ad8A’.92a’vao.f|bj’.shg0Qk.99tc9h’ g;]kIPo|a’ln2a’wxc]h;7yfwxg]njv’vnjoF rk.sdh koIPo[I+ gh6 ]vjn ’D zh6muj,ul50trk[9yf[+7jvpfu ltcf’vvd .shgsao 9yf.9[+lts’q[F rk.sh9yf.9[+9qf9+1j6da[lyj’mujgIaf1j6F fqookowxvkfrk.sh9yf.9glnvj ,3-,wfhF gdufvk]q,[+fu Xs’5fs’yfDDD? gxaogsf.shIjk’dkpglnjv,oeD faj’oAoF 27

r;dgIkq md5 7oq 9t8vh ’rtpkpk,me9fy .9.sfh Fu 8’A .98l+ ’jy mgju Ikq r;,gIfa 196j ’jb rk.sIh gh6 ]vjn ’ c]t 9tgxoa 7oq mxju tl[q zoq leg]fa D { oadIPo9qj’sk;ymume.sh9yf.9lts’q[fh;p dkoo’ja lt,kmyD { vu’.lj7ela[8+wxoUgrnjvc8j’gxaoxt3spd I6[ &D$ oaj’lt,kmy .og;]koa’j lt,kmyG ,n0;kF ,n-hkpF 8q;-nFj g8a’F oa’j F oa’j .shlt[kpF lt,kmyF DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD lyj’muj7;ogvqk.9.ljG g;]koaj’lt,kmy.sh8A’l6o dk’0v’9yf.9w;hmuj]q,skp.9 g-ajoG skp.9g0Qk.sh leodb ;kj G rf5 F g,vjn ],q skp.9vvd.soh db ;kj G 3mF s[a^ 8k r=lt[kpF [+obdg4y’g]nvj ’vnoj gIafwxxt,ko & okmuD ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ dkome9yf.9.shlts’q[ ,u75oxt3spf8+8qogv’s^kpgrkt,aogIaf.shlj;o8jk’M 0v’ lt\\v’wfrh da zvj oF 7;k,7Pfd=zvj o7kp]’q F s;q .9lk,kfl[6 lufg]vn fwx]Ph ’l;j o8kj ’M 0v’ Ikj ’dkpwfhfuD g,nvj ,uvkdkog7a’j 8b’ sn^ ,u7;k,7Pf.sh zvj o7kp,aofh;pdkogIaf.sh7;k,7yf 9fq 91= dj6 [a l’jy .f|’jb rP’l’jy fP; 8;q 1kj ’G o[a g]d .o.9 #F @F ! c];h skp.9g0kQ g]dy M sn^ 2’a c8lj P’ ooA D ltoAoF r;dgIqkmu1j 6.j ow;IPo9’bj 8hv’lhk’8qogv’.sh,ul50trk[dkp c]t 9yf.shfufh;pG T dkoxa[8q;.shg0Qkda[\\g6j rvnj oF zh6.spFj la’7q, c]t dkoxa[8q;mk’grfD T Ida lkvtokw,l;j o8kj ’M0v’Ikj ’dkp.slh tvkf1l6j tg\\uD T vvdde]’a dkplt\\+kltg\\Du T dyovkskom,uj uxt3spfD T s^udg;Aodkofn,j gs^Qk s^n 0v’,bog,qkvonj M m,uj uzqodtmq[8+l50trk[g;Qk];,c]h; zh6mu,j u l50trk[c0’cI’lq,[6o c]t l50trk[9yfmufj uF lk,kfcdh[aosk c]t xa[9yf.9 8qogv’.sh16j.oltrk[xqddt8yl5d 9t[+,udkog9a[w0hwfhx;j p.fMD oU 4n;kj gxao-u;yfmu,j u 7o5 trk[f’ja mmuj d5 7oq xkf4t|kD #D madlt-u;yfgrnjvglu,lhk’l50trk[ mda lt-u;yf gxoa 7extl,q mxuj tdv[f;h plv’7e7n mda lt c]t -u;yfG mda lt\\kpg4y’7;k, 28

lk,kfF 7;k,-eoy-eoko.odkog7nvj ows;fhkoIkj ’dkp c]t ,aolt\\v’ g-y’j wfh,k9kd ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ dkola’gdfF dkoIej IPo c]t xtlq[dkoD -u;yf\\kpg4y’ dkofe]q’7q’8q;0v’,to5fmu,j udkog8u[.spFj g7nvj ows;F xPj ocx’ c]t rfa mtoko[a c8gj xoa ]d6 vvj o.omvh ’c,j 9oq g4y’,NlYo],q skp.9D madlt-u;yf \\kpg4y’7;k,lk,kf0v’7qo .odkoxa[xPj orbf8ydewx.omk’mufj u c]t g\\ktlq, g-y’j 9t-;j p.shlk,kfcdhw0[aosk8k,lt4kotdko8kj ’M .o-u;yfxt9e;aoD gonjv’9kd;jkgIqkfe]q’-u;yf1j6.ola’7q,F gIqk[+lk,kf8afcpd-u;yfvvd9kd]t[P[ dfq \\kpooA wfFh .ol’a 7,q rfa gduf,us^kp[oa sklts^[a l[a -vh oD ltooA F [k’gmvnj w;|,5j vkf9t[+moa 9ecodwfh[aoskmvuj kf9tgduf0Boda[8qogv’rkps^a’D ltoAoF w;|,5j 9egxao8hv’wfh.-hmadlt-u;yf g0Qk,kcdhw0grnjv-j;p.shgdufzqofu8+8qogv’F 7v[7q; c]t xtgmf-kf g-ajoG dkoxhv’dao 8+lyj’gl[8yfF g-Nvgv9wv;u c]t rtpkf8yf8+mk’grfleraovnjoMS dko]t;a’7;k,I5ocI’ mk’grfF dkogdufvkf-tpkde c]t g]nvj ’\\qfs;a’8+-u;yf8qogv’S lq’j glu,dko,ul50trk[mufj u c]t dkorq;raovaofuoedao]ts;kj ’,to5ffh;pdaoD madlt-u;yfxtdv[ ,u & madlt8Qo8=fa’j oUG madltdkolnlj koF dko8aflyo.9{cdhw0[aoskF dkoxt8yglf{8+]v’F dko9ecod7kj oypq, c]t dkodeoqfgxQk\\kpD madltdkolnjlko \\kpg4y’dkoI6h9ad.-h7eg;Qk c]t rklkmkj mk’mu4j nd8hv’ g\\ktlq, da[lt4kotdko grnjvltcf’7;k,I6hlbd c]t 7;k,,5j’,kfxkf4t|k0v’8qogv’ c]t lk,kfIadlk7;k,gxao,yfw;hwfhD 8q;1kj ’G dkoxkdg;Qk8hv’.sh,u dk]tgmltF g;Qk9tc9h’ -fa g9oD l’jy le7oa 1kj ’|’jb gIkq 8vh ’wfgh /dy 7;k,dkh sko .odkolljn kol’jy m8ju oq gv’8vh ’dko1kd 9tlwnj xrvh ,doa D dkoI6h9ad8qogv’ c,oj 7;k,lk,kf.odko7oQ sk c]t g0kQ .99f5 fFu 9f5 vvj o0v’8oq gv’F I6h7;k,8hv’dko c]t 7;k,IadF I6hoyfwl c]t 7;k,c8d8kj ’0v’8qogv’da[zh6vnoj gxao8QoD 8;q 1kj ’G g,vjn I;h6 kj 8oq gv’,ou fy wl.9Ivh od]= t,fa ]t;’a dkoxkdg;kQ F dkodtmegrvnj [+lkh ’7;k, dtmq[dtgmnvo8+zh6vnoj c]t vonj MD madltdko8aflyo.9{cdhw0[aosk \\kpg4y’ 7;k,lk,kf.odkog[y’j ltrk[ murj q;rao g4y’[oa sk1kj ’44uj ;h o}Iv[fkh ogrvnj 8fa lyo.9cdwh 01kj ’4nd8vh ’D djvo9t8aflyo.9{cdhw0[aosk.f|bj’gIqk8hv’G I6h;k’czoF deoqf0v[g0f0v’[aoskF [oa skooA c,oj sp’a F lkgsfmrju k.s[h oa skgdfu 0oB ,cu o;.fF gdfu 0oB .oltrk[dko.fF gdfu 0oB 1.6j lD s^a’9kdoAo9bj’ry9k]tokc8j]tmk’g]nvdD mk’g]nvdmujfuoAo 8hv’c,jomk’g]nvddko8af loy .9f;h plt8xy oa pkF .-gh sfzoq cmodko.-vh k],q F [z+ fy loy meF [m+ eIkh p7oq vojn 3fpmk’d’q c]t 29

mk’vhv,D ovdoAoF d=7;oxbdlk F 0=7;k,-;j pgs^nv9kdzh6muwj ;h.9D 8q;1k’G d=]tou\\6-j ad-;owx ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ mk’m[ju f+ u g-oja G dkomPj ;[o5 F mk’mgju lpg’oy F dkor;q roa g4’y 1kgl[8fy F dkodoy gskQ^ F dkortooa c]t vojn M8vh ’-’ja -k zoq wfzh oq glpF 4kh zoq glpsk^ pd;kj d[= 8+ vh ’wxD c84j kh wxmPj ;[o5 c];h gdfu dl5 oq .sh8qogv’ c]t [aort[6]5fcmhMd=fuD madltdkoxt8yglf{8+]v’ \\kpg4y’7;k,lk,kf.odkoxt8yglf grnjvIadlk95f 1on }sd^a \\oA 0v’8oq gv’w;Dh dkoxt8gy lf{8]+ v’ c,oj lfy mly ;j o[d5 7oq mlju tcf’ g4’y 7;k,8vh ’dko0v’8oq gv’ m8ju kj ’ 9kd7lj6 oq mtok grvjn sd^u g;oA 9kdrfb 8dy em[u +gdfu xt3spf s^n rfb 8dy emvuj kf rk.sgh dfu zoq ltmvh o m[uj +fu8k,,k8+8oq gv’F 7v[7;q c]t xtgmf-kfD 8;q 1kj ’G xt8yglf8+gsfdkom\\uj j6 s^n grfd’q doa 0hk,-ad-;o.od=]toum8uj qogv’[+rhv, c]t vkfrk.shgdufzqoIhkp8k,,kD dvj o9toe.-dh koxt8gy lf{ 8+]v’dPj ;d[a [oa sk.f|’jb 8vh ’v’u .llj trk[dkoF lt4komFju g;]kF lkpleraoF 7;k,le7ao0v’[aosk c]t zqo8k,,kD madltdko9ecod7jkoypq, \\kpg4y’7;k,lk,kf.odko9ecod7;k,I6hlbdF 7;k, g-njv s^n mjkvjP’0v’[5d7qo.f|jb’muj,u8+8qogv’F 8+zh6vnjoF 8+lt4kotdko.f|bj’ g-yj’,uvyfmyrqo ltcf’vvdfhkorbf8ydeD 7oq gIkq md5 7oq ];h oc8,j 7u kj opy ,q g-’jy 7kj opy ,q 0v’c8]j t7oq c8d8kj ’doa wxD dko,7u kj opy ,q mufj uF lq,gsflq,zqo -;j p.shgIqk8aflyo.9cdhw0[aoskwfh4nd8hv’ c]t ,uzqoglpskp|hvpd;kj dkocdwh 0[oa skm.uj -7h kj opy ,q m[uj +g\\ktl,q cd[h oa skD madltdkodeoqfgxQk\\kp dkodeoqfgxQk\\kp s^n 7;k,s;a’0v’gIqkoAo [+7;o 8A’7;k,s;a’l6’ s^n 8ej gduowxD dko8A’7;k,s;a’8hv’vu’.l7j ;k,lk,kf0v’8qogv’ c]t .sch mfg\\ktd[a 7;k,gxoa 9’y D 8;q 1kj ’G mkh ; dD 1kd,gu Ivn oF mkh ;0= 1kd,mu d5 1kj ’D ltooA F gxkQ \\kp .f-fa g9od;kj doa D dkodeofq gxkQ \\kp-fa g9o rk.sgh Ikq [oa ]75 ;k,s;’a wfDh dko8’A 7;k,s;’a [7+ ;o.sdh ;kh ’gdou wxF 8vh ’.sgh dfu zoq D ltooA F 7;k,s;’a 0v’g9kQ gv’.oxfa 9[5 oa c,oj sp’a D 7e4k,G !D dkolq’j glu,l50trk[dkp c]t 9yf ,u7;k,\\kpco;.fL @D dkovvdde]’a dkp,u7o5 xt3spfco;.fcfLj #D madlt-u;yf,u7;k,\\kpco;.fL oadIPo7yf;kj 8qogv’,u7;k, 9egxao8hv’wfhIPoI6h madltf’aj dkj ;[=L 4hk9egxao 9’qj vtmy[kpD $D oadIPo9qj’0Po & ;ymumujgIaf.sh8qogv’,u9yf.9lts’q[ s^n ,ult,kmys^kp0BoD 30

rkdmu II dkoxjPocx’mkf8jk’M [qfmu * xt8ydy]ypkg7,u !D 7;k,\\kp0v’xt8ydy]ypkg7,u I6[ *D! 1vfvk-yf HCl dyf9tde !G !? gvqkg,afla’dtlu]q’.lj9vdcdh;c]h;1vf HCl ]q’.lFj la’gdfxkdqfdko c]t [ao mdb zoq D @? gvqkxkdgxqjkm+mu9j 5,j ]q’.ooEx6o.lmu[j ao95 ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ .o9vdcdh;.lF la’gdfxkdqfdko c]t [oa mdb zoq D I6[mu *[email protected] gxqjk]q,.loj Ex6o.l #? 9f6 g9ph F l’a gdfdkoxPj ocx’c];h [oa mdb zoq I6[mu *D# 96fg9hp 9kddkogIfa dyf9tde0kh ’gmy’ oda IPol’a gdf gsoa dkoxPj ocx’sp’a cfgj duf0BoL { s^a’9kd1vf HCl ]q’.llj a’dtlu.o9vdcdh;gIqk9tla’gdfgsaog,afla’dtlu.o9vd cdh;2qf c]t ,uvkpgduf0BoD g,nvj xtw;hw]pt|b’j c]h;gIqk9tla’gdfgsaog,afla’dtlu ohvp]q’c]h; d=\\qfwxD 31

{ g,vnj gvqkxkdgxkqj m+m9uj ,5j ]q’.o9vdcdh;.lm[uj ao95oEx6o.l9tla’gdfgsaooEx6o0o5j D ooA ltcf’;kj dkldkd3[ody 9kdxkdgIkq wxgdfu xt8dy ]y py kd[a oExo6 .l c];h wfmh kf.\\Dj { g,vjn gvkq g9ph wx9f6 l’a gdfgsoa cx;w2]d5 w\\Fh g9ph 7vj pdkpgxoa lfu e c]t l0u gU mkqj S ooA ltcf’;kj g9ph m4uj nd9f6 dkpgxoa mkf.\\Dj dkoxPj ocx’m,ju mu kf.\\gj dfu 0oB ,da ,du koxPj ocx’lFu ,mu kfm]ju tgspu vkpvvdF ,du ojy gdfu 0BoF ,urbd9q,]q’ s^n ,udkoxPj ocx’v5ostr6, c]t vnoj M groyj gvUodkoxPj ocx’c[[oU;kj xt8ydy]ypkg7,uD 7;k,w;.odkogdufxt8ydy]ypkg7,uc8]j t-toyf[+7ndoa g-oja G { dkogzqkw\\hg-Nvw2gdufw; c]t cz7j ;k,Ihvol6’D { dkogokqj gxnvj p0v’goNvlaf c]t rnfF dkoc]dxPj omkf0v’rnf c]t lafgduf-hkD { dkogzkq xo6 9kdsou xo6 8vh ’wf.h -7h ;k,Ivh orP’r9= ’jb gdfu xt8dy ]y py k0oB wfDh @D xt8ydy]ypkg7,u.ome,t-kf { xt8ydy]ypkg7,umujgduf0Bo.ome,t-kfwfhcdjG dkogxao\\hP’0v’3]stg-yj’c,jo ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ gxao\\hP’ la’g7ktcl’ 0v’3]st 0v’rnf xt8ydy]ypkg7,u .ome,t-kf dkopvj pvk dkogokjq gxvjn p sko.o]ewlh 0v’laf c]t rnf xt8ydy]ypk]ts;jk’3]st c]t vqd-uc-o.ovkdkfF dkola’g7ktcl’0v’rnfF dkogokqj gxvnj p0v’laf c]t rnfmu8j kpc]h;F dkopvj pvksko.o]ewlhD 32

#D xt8ydy]ypkg7,umuj,to5flhk’0Bo c]t xt3spf0v’xt8ydy]ypkg7,u vu’.l7j ;k,dkh ;|kh mk’fkh og7,ulkf c]t 7;k,IPdIvh ’8vh ’dko0v’7oq gIkq ltooA 7oq gIkq 9’jy wflh kh ’xt8dy ]y py k0oB gv’g-oja G { dko9f6 g-Nvw2F g-’yj l;j os^kpc,oj mkfxtl,q Iu3fic-o c]t dkd[vogrvnj lt|v’ 7;k,Ivh ocd7j qogIqk s^n .-h.shg7vnj ’9adg7vnj og|a’wfhD { dko\\da gskQ^ c,oj dkoxPj ocx’mkf9kdcx’h gxoa oE8koc];h 9kdoE8ko gxoa gskQ^ D { dko.-mh kfvk],6 uouvv,xoq d[a vdq -yfgsd^a c];h gzkq grvnj .swh fgh sd^a lfq D oda IPo9’jq l’a gdfI[6 rk[ c];h [vd-jn c]t xt3spf0v’zt]fy 8troa mwju f9h kdxt8dy ]y py k g7,um,uj tof5 lkh ’0BoD lkode9af|6 xuikg-8k, 1kdt8h5ornf lkode9af|6 ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ 1kx;q rtpkf 1k’x^kl8yd ;af45-ad]hk’ .shdtclw22hk g7njv’levk’ I6[ *D$ xt8ydy]ypkg7,umu,j to5flhk’0Bo { ,to5fgIqkwfhoe.-hxt8ydy]ypkg7,ugrnvj zt]yfmkf.\\sj ^kp-toyf8k,7;k,8hv’dko g-oja G dkox’5 c8’j 1kx;q rtpkfF dkozt]fy g7vjn ’levk’F dkozt]fy lt[F6 dkozt]fy 1k’xk^ l8dy DDD 33

{ xt8ydy]ypkg7,u.sh7;k,Ihvo c]t cl’lts;kj ’g-aoj G dkogzqkw\\hw,h s^n 4kj ow,hF dkogzkq w\\oh E,oa g-vN w2D { xt8ydy]ypk.sdh tclw22kh g-oja G xt8ydy]ypk.oxuoF .o\\=wh 2gxoa 8oQ FDDD { 7qogIqklk,kfla’g7ktmkf.ome,t-kfgrvnj x5’c8’j 1k0hkc,’w,hF 1k0hksphk { 7qolk,kfx5’c8’j 1kdt85hogrvnj .shrnfrao.spwj ;F laf0tspkp8q;1kj ’;vj ’w;FDDD $D zqoglpskp0v’xt8ydy]ypkg7,u oda IPo9’jq l’a gdfI[6 rk[ c];h [vdzoq glpskp0v’xt8dy ]y py k c]t zt]fy 8troa g7,]u ,j5 oGU 4Y,0UgspNv-t-kp w2w\\hxkj ]tg[ufສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ 1kgl[8yf I6[ *D& zqoglpskp0v’xt8ydy]ypkg7,u 7P’7dj6 [a xt3spf0v’xt8dy ]y py kg7,cu ];h [k’xt8dy ]y py kg7,du p= ’a ,zu oq glpskpg-oaj G { dkozt]yf1kgl[8yfF dkozt]yf1kg[vnj D { dko9f6 0gU spvN -t-kpgIfa .sgh dfu ,su k^ pmkfmgju xoa rfy c];h gIfa .slh ’jy c;f]vh ,gxoa rfy D 34

{ dkogoqkj gxnvj p0v’-kdlaf c]t rnf9tgIaf.shgdufmkfvkpmu,j udyoj g\\aoF gduf,u,qo ]tryf c]t rtpkf8kj ’MD [k’xt8ydy]ypk ,uma’xt3spf c]t ,uma’zqoglpskpg-ajoG { dkogzqkw\\hg-Nvw2s^kpvkf9tlt|v’7;k,Ihvo c]t rt]a’’ko.shcdj7qogIqk c8dj =gIaf.sh3]dIhvo c]t ,uvkpryf.ovkdkfD { dkooe.-1h kxk[lfa 8r6 fn 4kh oe.-[h +4dn ;my du 9= t,mu kfg7,8u dq 7kh ’mgju xoa rfy 8+7oq gIkq D lts^5[c]h; 7qogIqkgxaoz6hlhk’xt8ydy]ypkg7,u0Bo,k s^n xt8ydy]ypkvkfgduf0Bogv’.o me,t-kfF ltooA gIkq 8vh ’IPoIh6 c]t oe.-.h s4h dn ;my u xt8dy ]y py kd9= t,zu oq f8u + ,tof5 c]t 3]dme,t-kf0v’gIqkD &D -toyf0v’xt8ydy]ypkg7,u v’u .lxj kdfq dko8;q 9’y mgju dfu 0oB .ome,t-kf c]t l’jy m,ju tof5 lkh ’0oB ,k[oa fkoda ;my tpk lkfwf9h fa -toyfxt8ydy]ypkg7,u0oA rNo4koG !? xt8ydy]ypkc9dcpd s^n ;yg7ktG c,joxt8ydy]ypkmujmkffP;g-yj’gxaomkfxtlq, cpdvvdgxaolv’ s^n s^kpmkfvkf9tgxaos^kpmkffPj ; s^n s^kpmkfxtlq,d=wfDh ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ O Hg O Hg O Hg O Hg 2HgO → O2 +2Hg @? xt8ydy]ypkxtlq,mkf s^n la’g7ktmkfG c,oj xt8ydy]ypkmusj ^kpmkfvkf9tgxaos^kp mkffPj ;fh;pdaoF s^kpmkfxtlq,fh;pdao s^n vkf9tc,oj mkffPj ;da[mkfxtlq,I;, g0kQ doa dkpgxoa mkfxtl,q fP; HH O to H OH HO H HH O 2H2 +O2 ⎯t⎯o → 2H2O 35

#? xt8dy ]y py kc]dxPj omkfG c,oj xt8dy ]y py k]ts;kj ’mkfxtl,q d[a mkfxtl,q f;h pdoa D Cl Cl + + Cl Cl 2KOH+CuCl2 → 2KCl +Cu ( OH ) 2 $?D xt8ydy]ypkcmo[vj oG c,oj xt8ydy]ypk]ts;kj ’mkfxtlq, c]t mkffPj ; g-’yj .ooAo vk38,0v’mkffjP; wfhcmo[jvovk38,0v’mkf,6o|bj’ .omkfxtlq, gvUo;jk xt8dy ]y py kcmo[vj oD Cl Cl ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ + + Cl Cl Mg+2HCl → MgCl2 +H2 &?D xt8ydy]ypkczj c]t Ia[7;k,Ihvo xt8ydy]ypkg7,ugduf0Bo c]t ,udkooe.-hc8d8kj ’daoc8xj t8ydy]ypkm7uj qogIqk,ad9toe.-h s^kp c,oj xt8ydy]ypkczj c]t Ia[7;k,IhvoD !D xt8ydy]ypkczj7;k,Ihvo xt8ydy]ypkg7,ugduf0Bo.og’nvj ow0mcuj 8d8kj ’daog-oaj G dkow\\h0v’oE,aog-Nvw2F dklme ,t-kf c]t ;fa 4v5 ojn M rP’c89j f6 w2.og[vN ’8oQ gmkjq ooA ,oa d9= tgIfa .sxh t8dy ]y py kgdfu 0oB c];h l[n 8+ fegouowxgv’F xt8ydy]ypkgsk^jq oUwfch z7j ;k,Ivh ovvdD xt8ydy]ypkg-’yj gduf0Borvh ,d[a dkocz7j ;k,Ivh ovvdgvUo;kj xt8ydy]ypkcz7j ;k,Ivh o 36

8q;1kj ’G xt8ydy]ypkcz7j ;k,Ihvo8kj ’Mg-oaj G ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ { dko9f6 4kj o { dkogdufxt8ydy]ypk]ts;kj ’x6ofy[ CaO da[ H2O,... { H2 gdufxt8ydy]ypkda[ O2 dkpgxao H2O,... @D xt8ydy]ypkIa[7;k,Ihvo xt8dy ]y py kg7,gu dfu 0oB g-oja G { dkogzkq suoxo6 dvj o9twfxh o6 fy[8vh ’.-7h ;k,Ivh o9’jb rk.sgh dufxt8ydy]ypkwfDh { dko;yg7ktoEgrnvj .shwfh O2 c]t H2 8hv’wfh.-h7;k,IhvoD { dkoxPj ocx’mkf0v’rnf4kh [+,ucl’lts;kj ’d=[+gdufxt8ydy]ypkg7,uwfh \\kp7;k, ;kj grvnj 1kd.shxt8ydy]ypkgduf0Bo c]t fegouowxwfh9e8hv’wfh96fF gzqk8ts^vfg;]k s^n fegouowxphvo7;k,Ihvo9kdmk’vonj -;j pD xt8ydy]ypkg7,ug-yj’gduf0Borhv,da[,udkoIa[7;k,IhvogvUo;jkxt8ydy]ypkIa[ 7;k,IhvoD g,vnj g;kQ g4y’xt8ydy]ypkI[a 7;k,Ivh o.f|’jb F gIkq 8vh ’-vdskcs’^j 7;k,Ivh ogrvnj -;j p.sxh t8ydy]ypkgduf0BowfDh #D lq,zqo7;k,Ihvo .orkdxt8[y fa 8;q 9’y c];h [k’7’A grojy oe.-xh t8dy ]y py kg7,u [c+ ,oj grvjn 1kdwfzh t]fy 8troa 0v’,oa c8gj rvnj oe.-7h ;k,Ivh omcuj zvj vd9kdxt8ydy]ypkooha g-oja G { dko9f6 4kj o sn^ dklc,oj grvjn .swh f7h ;k,Ivh ooe.-gh 0khq .odkos’5 8,hq 8kj ’MF c8[j k’ xt8ydy]ypkgIqkraf8hv’dkooe.-hzt]yf8trao0v’,ao c]t xt8ydy]ypkfaj’djk; dvj o9tgduf0Bowfh8hv’,umkfg]a’j s^n g’nvj ow0 8qho8=c,oj 8hv’,u7;k,Ihvoltgrkt.sh ,ao9qod;kj xt8ydy]ypk9tlYol5f g-oaj G dkogzqksuox6o.shwfhx6ofy[D ltooha grvjn 1kd.sIh dh6 koI[a sn^ cz7j ;k,Ivh o0v’xt8dy ]y py k.f|’jb ooha [oa fkoda ;my tpklkf wfdh eofq gvkq ;ymu0Pol,q zoq 7;k,Ivh o8k,dkomfq ]v’8;q 9y’D 8q;1kj ’G dko9f6 4kj o ! dik,.og7vjn ’;fa cmdxt],y ko7;k,Ivh o (Calorimetre) 9twfh 7;k,Ihvo ##F& kJ 9kdouhgIqk7yfw]wj fh;kj 4kj o.oxt]y,ko ! 3,] s^n [email protected] w\\h9tcz7j ;k,Ihvo 402 kJ gIqkgvqk7kj ouhwx[;d.lrj kdl;j og[nhv’0;k0v’lq,zqoxt8ydy]ypk0v’dko96f4kj oc]h; 9twfh C + O 2→ CO 2 +402kJ D 37

g7njv’\\kp[;d16j8+|hk7jk0v’xt]y,ko7;k,Ihvo-U.shgsao;jk 7;k,Ihvowfhczjvvd ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ \\kp7;k,;kj xt8ydy]ypkfa’j dkj ;c,oj xt8yudy]ypkcz7j ;k,IhvoD 4hkc,oj xt8ydy]ypkIa[7;k, IhvoF gryjo9tgvqkzqo7;k,Ihvo[;d.ljg[Nv’-hkp0v’lq,zqo s^n vkf9tgvqkw;hg[Nv’0;kd= wfch 88j vh ’c,oj g7vnj ’\\kp][q 8q;1kj ’G CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 -180kJ s^n CaCO3 +180kJ → CaO + CO2 lq,zqog7,ug-y’j ltcf’wfhzqo7;k,Ihvo0v’xt8ydy]ypkgvUo;kj lq,zqo7;k,Ihvog7,uD .og,nvj gIkq ,mu kfg7,mu gju dfu xt8dy ]y py kc];h cz7j ;k,Ivh ovvdd7= dn [a ;kj gIkq ,cu s’j^ rt]’a ’koS rt]’a ’ko fa’j dkj ;gvuho;kj G rt]a’’kog7,uF ,aoc,oj rt]a’’korkp.o0v’mkf c]t ,ao[+ltcf’vvd 4kh xt8dy ]y py k[g+ dfu 0oB D 8k,me,tfkc];h .oxt8dy ]y py kg7,u rt]’a ’kog7,mu gju -vjn ’-vh o1.j6 o;fa 45 mguj dufxt8ydy]ypk4ndoel’jq .s;h fa 4v5 onj .oI[6 Ikj ’7;k,Ivh ovoa cooj voD 8q;1kj ’G .odko96f4kj ogrnvj gvqk7;k,Ihvowx.-h.odkogzqksuox6o.shdkpgxaox6ofy[oaho \\kp7;k,;kj rt]’a ’kog7,wu fxh Pj ogxoa rt]’a ’ko7;k,Ivh oc];h gIfa .smh kfvojn 4dn xPj omkfS c8mj ’a \\fq ooha gxoa wx8k,dfq gdodkoIda lk c]t zoa xPj ort]’a ’koD 8q;1kj ’ !G g,nvj 96f4kj o ! g 9t,uxt]y,ko7;k,Ihvoczvj vdgmqkj .fL ;ymucdhG lq,zqog7,u7;k,Ihvo0v’xt8ydy]ypkG C + O 2→ CO 2+402kJ 12 = 402 1x x = 402×1 = 33,5kJ 12 8q;1kj ’ @G grnvj 1kdwfhx6ofy[ CaO 5,6 g 9kddkogzqksuox6o CaCO3 9t8hv’.-h7;k, Ihvo9ad kJ I6h;kj lq,zqog7,u7;k,IhvoG CaCO3 ⎯t⎯o→ CaO + CO2 -180kJ ;ymucdhG 8k,lq,zqo CaCO3 ⎯t⎯o→CaO + CO2 -180kJ 38

56 = 180 5, 6 x x = 5, 6×180 = 18kJ 56 8v[G !) kJ \\kp;kj gIkq 9t8vh ’.-7h ;k,Ivh o !) kJ 9’jy 9trP’r.= odkocpdsou xo6 .swh fxh o6 f[y &F*g 8;q 1kj ’ #G .odkogzkq sou xo6 .swh fxh o6 f[y [email protected] g 4k,;kj 9t8vh ’.-h C 9da g L 9’jb 9trP’r= .odkogzqkD ;ymucdhG lq,zqo7;k,IhvoD CaCO3 +180kJ → CaO + CO2 xt]y,ko7;k,Ihvomu9j t8hv’.-hgzqk 180kJ = 56g ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ x 11,2g x = 180kJ ×11,2g = 36kJ 56g { -vdxt]y,ko C m9uj tlt|v’7;k,Ihvo.shcdxj t8ydy]ypk.odkogzqkD C + O2 → CO2 + 402kJ 12g = 402kJ ⇒ x = 12g × 36kJ = 1,07g x 36kJ 402kJ 7e4k, !D xkdfq dko8+wxoU,u0=.h fcfmj cuj ,oj xt8ydy]ypkg7,uL dD dkogxnvj p0v’oEdhvoD 0D dko96f4kj o 7D xkgoqkj gxnvj p ’D 9vdc8d 9D oE2qf lD suox6odkpgxaox6ofy[ 39

@D 9’jq 9af[aofk0=h,6o8+wxoU.l.j oshv’s;kj ’0v’8k8t]k’G ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ dkozt]fy 1kgl[8fy F dkozt]fy gskhq^ F dko9f6 4kj oF w2w\\xh kj F dkozt]fy 1kg[vjn F dko9f6 0UgspNv-t-kp c]t dkola’g7ktcl’0v’rnfF dkozt]yf1kxq;rtpkf zqoglpskp9kdxt8ydy]ypkg7,u zqofumuwj fhIa[9kdxt8ydy]ypkg7,u #D xt8ydy]ypk],5j oUc,oj xt8ydy]ypkczj s^n Ia[7;k,Ihvo 2Hg + O2 → 2HgO + 168 kJ $D grvjn 1kdwf7h ;k,Ivh o )#($ kJ 9t8vh ’9f6 g,8ko XCH4? .o,;olkogmkjq .fL I;h6 kj zoq 7;k,Ihvo0v’xt8ydy]ypkgmkqj + 892 kJ Xle]a[lq,zqomu-j ’aj -kr=fu? &D 4kh 9f6 g,8ko !* gF 7;k,Ivh omcju zvj vd9t,gu mkjq .fLF I;h6 kj 7;k,Ivh o0v’xt8dy ]y py k c,oj + 892 kJ D *D g,vnj 9f6 4kj o.ovdq -uc-oF wf7h ;k,Ivh o 2050 kJ 4k,;kj ,;olko0v’4kj o9t,ugmkjq .fL (D l,q zoq 7;k,Ivh og7,0u v’xt8dy ]y py kg7,gu zkq xo6 c,oj CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 - 180kJ rt]a’’komu9j egxaole]a[xt8ydy]ypkwfh9kddko 9f6 4kj o.og8kq ooA 4k,;kj 1kj ’\\vh plf5 9t.-4h kj ogmkjq .f grvjn .swh fxh o6 f[y XCaO? ! 38oL )D 8k,l,q zoq g7,7u ;k,Ivh o H2 +Cl2 → 2HCl +184kJ H2 +I2 → 2HI − 52kJ 9’qj 7yfw];j kj 7;k,Ihvomcuj zvj vd s^n Ia[g0Qk,ugmkqj .f.oc8]j td=]touL { 4hk;kj xt]y,ko0v’Iu3fic-omugj 0QkI;j ,.oxt8ydy]ypk,u @ 3,]L 40

[qfmu ( ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ l6fg7,u mkfg7,umuj.-h.o-u;yfxt9e;ao,us^kp-toyfF grnjv7;k,ltf;doadg7,uwfh.-hlaopt]ad cmodko0Po-nmj kfg7,ugs^qkj oahoD laopt]admu.j -hcmomkf8kj ’M oaho IPd;kj G l6fg7,uD .ooAo ,ul6fg7,umkffPj ; c]t mkfxtlq,D !D l6fg7,u0v’mkffjP; mkffjP;mujmP[da[mkf,6og7,u,u9eo;os^kpd;jk !WW mkfF mkffjP;gs^qjkoaho [k’ mkfxtdv[f;h pvtor5 kdm1ju .j6 oI[6 3,g]do5 c]t [k’mkfxtdv[f;h pvtor5 kdm1ju .j6 oI[6 vk38,D v’u .ldj koxtdv[lkh ’ c]t dkolkh ’8;q 0v’c8]j tvtor5 kd0v’c8]j tmkfF v’u .ldj ko9fa lkh ’ mkf.ome,t-kf gryoj wfhc[’j c[[0Po sn^ l6f0v’mkfc8]j t-toyf8kj ’daog-aoj G !? 3]st Fe Cu I6[ (D! I6[9e]v’3]st lj;os^kpgryjo0Polaopt]admkf8k,I6[c[[vk38, 8q;1jk’G Fe, Cu, Mg, Ag. ! 3,g]d5o9txtdv[fh;p ! vk38,D @? vt3]st O OO I6[ ([email protected] I6[9e]v’vt3]st 41

vt3]stmugj xaomkfc0’ gryoj 0Pol6f0v’,ao8k,c[[vk38,7nda[3]st g-aoj G C, Si, S. l6f0v’vt3]stmujgxaomkfvkpgryjo0Polaopt]admkf,6ooaho c]h;0Po8q;g]dgrnjv[vdg4y’ 9eo;ovk38,0v’mkf,o6 ooha 1.j6 o|’jb 3,g]do5 0v’,oa 1gj6 [Nv’0;k0kh ’],j5 0v’loa pt]da g7,uD 8q;1jk’G ! 3,g]d5ovqd-uc-oxtdv[,u @ vk38,vqd-uc-oF l6fg7,u G O2 ! 3,g]d5oIu3fic-oxtdv[,u @ vk 38,Iu3fic-oF l6fg7,uG H2 #? mkfvkp]hk Xvkpvbf? gryoj 0Polaopt]admkf,6og7,u8k,c[[vk38,7n 3]st g-oja G { mkf,6ogI]u ! 3,g]d5o xtdv[ ! vk38,D l6fg7,uG He D { mkf,6ogovq’ ! 3,g]d5o xtdv[fh;p ! vk38,D l6fg7,uG Ne @D l6fg7,u0v’mkfxtlq, ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ Na Cl HOH dD I6[9e]v’gdnv dD I6[9e]v’oE I6[mu (D# I6[9e]v’mkfxtlq, mkfxtlq,c,oj mkfmuxj tdv[fh;pvk38,s^kp-toyf8kj ’daoF c8]j t-toyf d=,u9eo;o vk38,8kj ’doa S ltooA F lf6 0v’mkfxtl,q dl= tcf’.sgh soa g4’y mkf,o6 g7,u c]t 9eo;ovk38, 0v’c8]j tmkf,6omuxj tdv[gxaomkfxtlq,oAo g-aoj G l6fg7,umu,j u @ mkf,6oG XaYb .ooaho X,Y c,oj laopt]admkf,6oF a,b c,oj fafltoumu,j u7kj gmqkj da[9eo;ovk38,0v’,aoF 4hk a = b = 1 grojy 9t[0+ PoD gvkq .9.lGj 4kh mkfxtl,q .f|’jb xtdv[f;h p3]st c]t vt3]st c,oj grojy 0Polf6 0v’,oa 42

f;h pdko0Poloa pt]da 3]stdvj oc];h 9’jb 0Po loa pt]da vt3]st8k,s’a^ G 8;q 1kj ’G NaCl, CaCl2, FeS2 ,… { 4kh mkfxtl,q m,ju mu kf,o6 8kj ’M 1dj6 [a O grojy 9tdeofq 0Poloa pt]da 0v’mkf,o6 8kj ’M dvj oc]h; 0Po O 8k,s^a’g-aoj G Al2O3 , CO2 , SO2 ,... { .olf6 g7,0u v’mkfxtl,q .f|’jb g;]k.fd,= vu fa 8kl;j ofkh o,;olkovoa cooj vo c]t [x+ Pj ocx’D 8q;1kj ’G .o H2O; mH = 1 mO 8 #D -vd7jkg7,u0v’mkf,6o.omkfxtlq,muj,u @ mkf,6o !? 7jkg7,uc,jospa’L gryjodeoqf7jkg7,u0v’mkf,6o.f|bj’ 3fpvu’.ljmkf,6o H muj,u raomtda[mkf,6ooaho .omkfxtlq,0v’,aoda[ H 8q;1kj ’G HCl d^=,u7kj g7,u IF .o NH3 ou38ic-o ,u7kj g7,u III. 7kj g7,u0v’mkf ,6o.f|b’j vkf9tdeoqfwfh 3fpvu’.lmj kf,6omu,j u7kj g7,ufP; g-aoj G O 7kj g7,u II, Cl 7jkg7,u I F Ca 7jkg7,u II… ltoaho 7jkg7,u c,jo75o]adltot0v’vk38,mkf,6o mu9j a[da[vk38,vonj fh;p9eo;o9edafD ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ @? s^addko7jkg7,u g]nvdl6fg7,u0v’mkfxtlq,.f|bj’mu,j u lv’mkf,6og-aoj G ⎛a b ⎟⎠⎞ ; a, b, c,oj 7kj g7,umuj ⎜⎝ A x By ltcf’fh;pg]d3ic,a’S x, y, c,oj 9eo;ovk38,0v’mkf,o6 A, B 9kdoAooegvqk8q;g]d x, y 7o6 d[a 7kj g7,u a,b 0v’c8]j tmkf,o6 gIkq xP[mP[zoq 7o6 m’a lv’mgju duf0oB f’ja 8k8t]k’],j5 oGU Xx a yxb NH3 1 x III 3xI CO2 1 x IV 2 x II 9kdooA gIkq 9tl’a ];,gxoa sd^a dkowfDh 43

.ol6fg7,u0v’mkfxtlq,F zqo76o]ts;kj ’9eo;ovk38, c]t 7kj g7,u0v’mkf,6ooU gmkqj da[zqo76o]ts;kj ’9eo;ovk38, c]t 7kj g7,u0v’mkf,6ooAoD s^addkooUpa’lk,kfoe.-hda[mkf,6o3]st s^n d,5j mkf,6ovt3]stvudfh;pG 8q;1kj ’G l6f3,g]d5o0v’ II ( I )2 Cu OH gIqk,u 1 × II = 2 x I $D dkooe.-h dD -vd7jkg7,u0v’mkf,6o.f|bj’.ol6f -vd7kj g7,u0v’ Fe .ol6fmkfxtlq, FeCl 3 I6h;kj d^=,u7kj g7,ugmqkj !D ;k’7kj g7,u0v’ Fe c,oj aF gIqk,u 1 x a = 3 x I a = III. ສ.ວ.ສສະຫງວນລິຂະສິດ 0D dkolhk’l6f8k,7jkg7,u g,vjn I7h6 kj g7,cu ];h grojy lk,kflkh ’lf6 0v’mkfxtl,q mxju tdv[f;h plv’mkf,o6 D [fa orhu ;d gIqk,k lhk’l6f0v’vqd-ufvk]6,uouvv,]v’g[yj’ g,njvgIqkI6hc]h;;jkvk]6,uouvv,,u7jkg7,u gmqkj da[lk, c]t vqd-uc-o,u7kj gmqkj da[lv’D gIqk0Polaopt]adg7,u0v’vk]6,uouvv, c]t vqd-uc-o]q’rhv,ma’\\kp7jkg7,u0v’r;d,ao.ljmk’gmy’ lIII II mt;u76oIj;,|hvpl5f AO 0v’7kj g7,um.uj sh X# c]t @? c,oj *D grvnj -vdsk9eo;ovk38,0v’vk]6,uouvv, c]t 9eo;o vk38,0v’vdq -cu -oF gIkq gvkq mt;7u o6 I;j , |vh plf5 f’ja dkj ; X*? sko.s7h kj g7,0u v’vk],6 ou vu v, X#? g-yj’c,jo * G # = @ [email protected] c,jo9eo;o vk38,vk]6,uouvv,?S gvqkmt;u76oIj;,|hvpl5f vaofP;daooahosko.sh7kj g7,u0v’vqd-uc-o [email protected]? g-y’j c,oj * G @ = # X # c,oj 9eo;ovk38, 0v’vdq -cu -o?D gIkq 0Po9eo;ovk38,vk],6 ou vu v, c]t vdq -cu -om-ju vdwfoh oha svh p.llj oa pt]da 0v’r;d,ao Xg[nhv’0;k,n? c]h;gIqk9twfhl6f0v’vqd-yfvk]6,uouvv, Al2O3 . [fa oghu Ikq ,kd;fg[’jy ;kj 9eo;o];,s;q |;j p7kj g7,0u v’vk],6 ou vu v,9tgmkjq d[a 9eo;o ];,sq;|;j p7kj g7,u0v’vqd-uc-o sn^ [=Lj 44


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