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1Lesson HOW DOES A COMPUTER WORK? Hello, Kids! Remember me? I am Clicko. Today, we will learn how a computer works. Let Us Start Now, we are familiar with what a computer is and what its parts are. Can you identify the main parts of a computer? Let Us Do 1: Write the names of the parts in the given boxes. Today, computers are used in most places because they are fast, accurate and safe to work with. Do you know that a computer cannot work on its own? We need to enter letters, numbers and commands into the computer. This is called Data Input. 1

In this We will learn about how a computer works in the ‘Input-Process- lesson Output’ Model. A computer works step by step. We can divide this whole process into three phases: 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Output IPO Model A computer is a machine that works on the principle of the IPO or Input- Process-Output Model. The picture below shows the IPO model: Input Processing Output Some of our daily activities also involve this IPO model. Let us see some examples. Dirty Clothes Washing Clean clothes Blunt Pencil Sharpening Sharpened Pencil 2

Let Us Do 2: Write the correct word (Input, Output or Processing) in the given blanks: DO YOU The word ‘computer’ comes from the word ‘compute’, KNOW? which means ‘to calculate’. Come on, Friends! Let us learn how a computer processes the input to give us output. Let us also find out about the different input and output devices. Input Computers need data to work. Any Fig. 1.1 Input Example data or information we send to a computer for processing is called input. Input is sent to the computer using an input device. Examples of input devices are keyboard, mouse, scanners, video cameras and microphones. Processing Processing is the method of taking input data and changing it to output. It occurs in the CPU of the computer. CPU converts data from the input devices into useful information. What we see on the screen is the result of our given data. It is processed by some program so that we can have the output. 3

DO YOU ‘The first CPU was developed KNOW? by Federico Faggin and Ted Hoff in 1971.’ Federico Faggin Ted Hoff Output Any information sent out from a computer is called output. It is the result of processing of the input. A simple example of output is anything you view on your computer monitor. In Fig. 1.2, data is being sent from a computer Fig. 1.2 Output Example to a printer. This is called output. This data is then printed onto a sheet of paper, which is also a form of output. Now, let us understand better with the help of an example: To know the result of 5 x 5, we type ‘5 x 5 =’ using the keyboard. So, ‘5 x 5 =’ is the input and the keyboard is the input device. Now, the CPU solves this and gives you the result as ‘25’. It displays the result on the monitor. Hence, ‘25’ is the output and the monitor is the output device. Glossary 1. Compute – To calculate 2. Data – Information like your address, phone number, class, etc. fed into the computer 3. Input – Information sent to the computer for processing 4. Output – Processed information sent out by the computer 5. Processing – Act of taking input data and changing it into useful output 4

Inside the Lab Teacher’s Notes • Discuss with learners different examples of input or output devices. • Have a class quiz on the terms ‘Input’, ‘Output’ and ‘Processing’ to reinforce the understanding of these terms among learners. • G uide and help them draw a few examples from daily life which follow the IPO Model in MS Paint (as given under learner’s note). Learner’s Note • Name any five parts of a computer that you see in your computer lab. • Y ou have already learnt drawing in Grade 2 using MS Paint. To revise the same, try to draw pictures to show the stages of growth of a plant from a seed. Mark the three parts of the IPO Model in the pictures as: (a) Sowing of a seed (b) Sun shining and water drops falling on the baby plant (c) Baby plant turning into a big plant or tree with flowers Exercise 1) Multiple Choice Questions a) The information sent to the computer is called (A) data (B) output (C) device (D) mouse (D) monitor b) Processed information sent out by the computer is (D) printer (A) output (B) input (C) device c) Input to computer can be given through (A) screen (B) keyboard (C) speaker 5

2) True or False a) The CPU was invented in 1971. __________ b) Processing takes place in the keyboard. __________ c) Mouse is an input device. __________ 3) Fill in the blanks a) The word ‘compute’ means _______________. b) Any hardware that shows information is an __________ device. c) We need to enter ___________ as an input into the computer. 4) Match the following a) Input (i) b) Processing (ii) c) Ted Hoff (iii) Inventor of CPU d) Output (iv) The act of taking input data and changing it into output 5) Very Short Answer Questions a) Give an example of Input, Process and Output from your daily life. Ans. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ b) Name two input devices. Ans. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 6) Short Answer Questions a) What do you mean by processing? Ans. __________________________________________________________________________ 6

__________________________________________________________________________ b) What do you mean by input? Ans. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 7) Long Answer Question a) How does a computer system work? Ans. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 8) Picture Based Question Identify the given picture. Which part of a computer is this? Explain how it helps in the working of a computer. Ans. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ACTIVITY: Complete the table. Machine Input Process Output Sewing machine ________________ Shirt Rice cooker Cloth, Thread Juicer ________________ ________________ Telephone Raw Rice, Water Juice ________________ Squeezing Dialling a Connecting the ________________ number number 7

Lesson MORE ON KEYBOARD 2 Hello, Friends! I am back. In grade 2, we learnt about the keyboard. Do you want to learn more about the keyboard and its keys? Let Us Start In the previous lesson, we learnt that we input data into the computer. It is done using a mouse or a keyboard. Whenever we want to write in the computer, we use the keyboard. Let Us Do 1: Let us see how much you know about the keyboard. 1. Circle the key which is situated directly to the right of this key. 2. Circle the key on which the given star symbol sits. In this We will learn about the keyboard, its different keys, types and their lesson functionalities. 8

The keyboard is the most basic input device. It is made up of many small buttons called ‘keys’. It allows us to enter letters, numbers and symbols into the computer. The given image (Fig. 2.1) shows a regular 104-keys keyboard. DO YOU Fig. 2.1 Keyboard KNOW? Christopher Latham Sholes (1819-1890) is known as the ‘Father of the Typewriter’. There are various types of keys on a keyboard (Fig. 2.2) such as: 1. Alphanumeric Keys 2. Punctuation Keys 3. Navigation Keys 4. Function Keys 5. Modifier Keys 6. Special keys 7. Toggle Keys Fig. 2.2 Different Sets of Keys The keyboard layout is known as QWERTY as these are the first six letters in the first row of letters. Let’s have a look at some keys in the keypad section. 9

Alphanumeric Keys These keys refer to either letter or number keys. The number keys are located in two places on the keyboard. They are above the letters and to the right of the letters. Fig. 2.3 Alphanumeric Keys Numeric Keypad It is a group of keys located on the right side of the keyboard. It looks like a calculator. It has a plus sign, minus sign, Enter key, Delete key and Num Lock key. Punctuation Keys The punctuation keys are related to punctuation. These are the comma (,), slash (/), colon (:), semi colon (;) and period (.) keys. All of these keys have multiple uses. For example, the slash key (/) doubles as the question mark (?) key. To type the upper symbols, we need to press the key Fig. 2.4 Punctuation Keys while holding the Shift key. Navigation Keys These keys are also known as cursor or arrow keys. The Fig. 2.5 Navigation Keys consist of four arrows. One is pointing up, one pointing down, one pointing right and one pointing left. We can also change the position of the cursor using the keys mentioned below: Page Up, Page Down, Home and End DO YOU This key is called the Windows Key. It opens the KNOW? start menu of Windows. 10

Let Us Do 2: Draw the arrow keys and complete the sentence given below: These keys are also called __________________. Function Keys The keys from F1 to F12 are known as Function Keys. These are lined along the top of the keyboard. The Function keys have many uses. Fig. 2.6 Function Keys Modifier Keys A modifier key is a key on a computer’s keyboard that is only used together with another key. They perform computer keyboard shortcuts and other commands. Modifier keys include Shift, Control and Alt. For example, in many text editor programs, pressing Ctrl+A will select all text. When the Shift key is pressed at the same time as a letter key, an upper case version of that letter is produced. For other non-letter keys, this action provides the symbol that is above the main symbol or number on the key. These shortcuts are useful for managing files. Fig. 2.7 Modifier Keys Ctrl+Save Ctrl+C Copy Ctrl+V Paste Ctrl+O Open Ctrl+X Cut Ctrl+N New Ctrl+A Select All Ctrl+Z Undo 11

Let Us Do 3: Look at the keyboard and write which keys you will press to get the signs given below on the screen. One has been done for you. % ____s_h_i_ft__+_5__________ # ____________________ @ ____________________ Special Keys Special Keys on the keyboard have specific tasks. Tab– Move between the items or move forward five characters Esc Key– Is used to cancel or stop any command Spacebar Key– It is the longest key on the keyboard. It is used to give one space while typing. Backspace Key– Is used to erase letters towards the left of the cursor Delete Key– Is used to remove letters towards the right of the cursor or delete selected text or objects Insert Key– Is used to insert any letter or image while typing Prtscr Key– Pressing the Print Screen key captures an image of your entire screen Let Us Do 4: Meena has typed the following sentence on the screen but forgotten to use the spacebar key to separate the words. Mark with a coloured pencil the places where she should have pressed the spacebar key. Ilikereadingbooksandwatchingcartoons. Toggle Keys A toggle key is a key that is used to turn a function on or off. Caps lock key and Num lock key are examples of toggle keys. Num Lock– Turning the Num Lock key on allows us to use the numbers on the keypad. When the Num Lock key is off, the arrows and special keys on the number pad are not active. Caps Lock– When we press the Caps Lock key, the feature is ON and that lets us type capital letters. To go back to typing lower case letters, press the Caps Lock key again. 12

Let Us Do 5: Sam wrote the names of five of his friends on the computer. Mark the ones which were written with Caps Lock on. AVANTIKA ANIRUDH VIVAN bella mihika Glossary 1. Alphanumeric Keys – Alphabet and number keys 2. Caps Lock – Enables or disables all the letters from being typed in upper case 3. Enter Key – Used to send the cursor to the next line or execute a command or operation 4. Function Keys – Keys F1 to F12, have special function sets 5. Keyboard – Primary input device of a computer 6. Prtscr – Sends the current screen image to the computer clipboard or the printer 7. Toggle – Switches a feature on a computer on and off by pressing the same button or key Inside the Lab Let’s practise a little of what we just learnt. Teacher’s Notes • Explain to the learners the different types of keys on the keyboard. Also, it must be explained that there are several types of keyboards available. • G ive enough practice on using both their hands to type on the keyboard. • Open Notepad and help students practise typing and complete the activities given in the lesson. 13

• E xplain to the learners the different functions of the modifier keys. • E mphasize the difference between the Caps Lock and the Shift keys. Let learners try using the Shift key with an alphabet key while the Caps Lock is ON. Learner’s Note • Open Notepad and type your name in capital letters. Then, write three sentences about your school using proper punctuation. • W rite the names of any five states of India in Notepad. . Exercise 1) Multiple Choice Questions a) Keyboard was developed by (A) Christopher Sholes (B) Christian Shol (C) Steven Shale (D) Bill Gates b) The modern keyboard is based on (A) printer (B) blackboard (C) typewriter (D) mouse c) The keys on a keyboard which are used with other keys are called (A) toggle keys (B) modifier keys (C) alphabet keys (D) symbols 2) True or False a) A keyboard in general has more than 100 keys. __________ b) The keyboard can be used to draw pictures. __________ c) To type ‘&’ using a keyboard, we use the number key 8 along with the Shift key. __________ 3) Fill in the blanks a) A key that begins with ‘C’ that is used for shortcuts is called ___________ key. b) Esc key is also called _______________ key. c) ________________ key enables or disables all the letters from being typed in upper case. 14

4) Match the following a) (i) Toggle key b) (ii) Print Screen c) (iii) Start Menu d) (iv) Longest key 5) Very Short Answer Questions a) Which key is used to move the cursor to the right by many spaces? Ans. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ b) Name the modifier keys. Ans. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 6) Short Answer Questions a) Write the difference between Backspace and Delete key along with examples. Ans. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ b) Describe the Toggle keys. Ans. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 7) Long Answer Question a) Describe the special keys of the keyboard along with their functions. 15

Ans. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 8) Picture Based Question Fill in the blank Keyboard: Match the colour codes with the type of keys they indicate: Navigation keys Function keys Control keys Numeric keys Alphanumeric keys ACTIVITY: Write down the keys that you will press to enter the following. (An example is given.) [email protected] type Caps on K Caps off N O W Shift and @ Space T YP E Com#pute EA gle 16

3Lesson Hardware AND Software Friends, by now, we know about the different computer devices and the way they work. Do you remember the types of devices? Let’s recall and learn more about these. Let Us Start The invention of the computer has had a huge impact on our day-to-day lives. They are now present all over– at home, at work and in school. In the first lesson, we learnt that the computer works on the principle of the Input- Process-Output model. It accepts data, processes it and gives the result. Input devices are used to get data into the system. The output devices show the results of processing. Do you remember the names of input or output devices? Can you identify them? Let Us Do 1: List the devices and decide whether each device in the box is an input or output device. Device Input Or Output Keyboard, monitor, speaker, scanner, printer, mouse, microphone, joystick, webcam, projector 17

A computer system consists of two major elements. They are Hardware and Software. To make all the input and output devices work together, we need both hardware and software. In this We will learn lesson • The hardware and software components of a computer • Functions of different computer parts Hardware is the physical parts of a computer. Software is the programs that run on a computer. Without hardware, the software would not be able to run. They need each other. Hardware Computer hardware refers to the electronic parts Fig. 3.1 that we can touch and feel. It includes all the input and output devices that we learnt about earlier. The devices which are connected to the CPU by wires or wirelessly are known as Peripheral Devices. Hardware is classified into four types of devices. DO YOU Fig. 3.2 KNOW? Hardware also includes the cables, connectors and power supply units. 18

While processing, the computer saves the data or result in storage devices. Let us learn about them one by one. Input devices Input devices consist of the external parts by which we give data and commands to the computer. Common input devices are keyboard, mouse, scanner, etc. Keyboard The keyboard is used to enter data into the computer system. It can type letters, numbers, etc. Mouse The mouse is a pointing device. It is used to give commands to the computer. Joystick A joystick is used to play games on a computer. Scanner We use a scanner to copy a document and input it into a computer. Microphone The microphone allows us to input sounds like our speech and songs into the computer. Webcam A web camera takes pictures and puts it into the computer. Processing Devices CPU The Central Processing Unit, which is called the brain of the computer, is also hardware. It is the most important part of the computer. It controls all the other parts and does all the calculations of the computer. 19

Output Devices Output hardware consists of devices that transfer information from the computer to the user. Below are some examples of hardware output devices: Monitor The computer displays the result of processing on a TV-like display screen called monitor. The monitor is also known as VDU (Visual Display Unit). Printer The printer can print the results of our work on paper. The output is called a printout. Projector It takes images from a computer and projects them onto a large, flat surface. Speakers You can listen to music, speeches or sounds from a computer through a speaker. Storage devices Any hardware that stores information in a computer is called a Storage Device. Let’s have a look at some of the hardware storage devices. Hard Disk A hard disk is a data storage device. It is used for storing and recovering large volumes of data. CD or DVD It is a round disk with a shiny surface. It is used to store large amounts of data, mostly games, videos, movies, songs, etc. USB Pen Drive (Flash Drive) It is a handy storage device and connects to the computer via the USB port. It can also be used to store or transfer data from one computer to another. 20

Let Us Do 2: What do you call the objects shown in the picture? ����������������������������������������������� Are they hardware or software? ����������������������������������������������� The computer hardware mentioned above is controlled by a list of commands called Software. Let us learn more about it. Software Software refers to the part of the computer which we cannot touch. It exists in the form of commands which make the computer work. A set of commands is called a program and one or more programs is termed as software. DO YOU The games you play on the computer are software. KNOW? Let us take the example of a TV. The TV itself is hardware. But, the programs we watch on TV are software. There are two main types of software. System Software The system software makes a computer useful. It helps all parts of a computer work together. The Operating System is the most important system software. It is the first software loaded into the computer memory. Some examples of system Microsoft Windows MAC OS software are: 21

Microsoft Windows, MAC OS, Linux, Unix DO YOU As CPU is the brain of a computer, the Operating system KNOW? is known as the ‘heart of a computer’. Application Software Application software is designed to perform a specific task. For example, MS Paint is used for drawing and colouring. Notepad is used for typing text. We use Calculator for calculation. Some more examples include MS Word, MS PowerPoint, Media Player, Games Let Us Do 3: Identify the following software from their icons. Which among these is a system software? _________________________________ Glossary 1. application Software – Set of programs designed to perform a specific task 2. Calculator – Software capable of performing mathematical calculations 3. Debugging – Removing errors from a program is called debugging. 4. Hardware – Physical parts of a computer that we can see and touch 5. Media Player – A media player is a computer program for playing videos, movies and music. 6. Program – A computer program is a collection of instructions that performs a particular task when executed by the computer. 7. Software – Set of computer programs that perform a specific task 8. User – A user is a person who uses the computer. 22

Inside the Lab Let’s practise a little of what we just learnt. Teacher’s Notes • Discuss the role of hardware and software with learners. • Show learners various hardware components available in the computer lab. • Explain the various types of software. Learner’s Note • Collect information about any three hardware other than those given in the chapter. • Name five software present in the computer inside your lab. Exercise 1) Multiple Choice Questions a) Brain of the computer is (A) hardware (B) software (C) both (A) and (B) (D) none of these b) The output from a printer is called (A) operating system (B) software (C) hardware (D) printout c) MS Paint and Notepad perform particular tasks for (A) operating system (B) user (C) CPU (D) computer 2) True or False a) Software used in railway reservation is an example of system software. __________ b) MS Windows is a system software. __________ c) Application software controls the basic functioning of computer. __________ 23

3) Fill in the blanks a) The devices that are used to give data to the computer are called ____________________devices. b) The devices used for displaying the results are called ______________ devices. c) Any hardware that stores information is __________ device. 4) Match the following a) Projector (i)  b) Flash Drive (ii)  c) Joystick (iii)  d) CPU (iv)  5) Very Short Answer Questions a) Correctly arrange the words in two columns: Keyboard, Mouse, CPU, MS Paint, Notepad, Monitor, Printer, Operating System, Microsoft Word, Games, Calculator, Windows Media Player Hardware Software 24

b) Name the following: i) Two input devices _____________________ , _____________________ ii) Two output devices _____________________ , _____________________ iii) Two storage devices _____________________ , _____________________ Are these devices hardware or software? ________________________ 6) Short Answer Questions a) What is hardware? Give examples. Ans. ������������������������������������������������������������������������ ������������������������������������������������������������������������ b) Define software. Give examples. Ans. ������������������������������������������������������������������������ ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7) Long Answer Question a) Write four differences between hardware and software. Ans. ������������������������������������������������������������������������ ������������������������������������������������������������������������ ������������������������������������������������������������������������ ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 8) Picture Based Question Identify the following groups of devices or software: (Input, Output, Storage, System Software, Application Software) 25

i) ii) iii) ______________i_v) ________ ACTIVITY: Identify the jumbled words and complete the blanks: 1) PUC__________________________ 5) ERPRTNI________________________ 2) OMINOTR_____________________ 6) AMEWBC_______________________ 3) OMSUE_______________________ 7) RSCNNEA________________________ 4) EKBYAODR___________________ 8) YOJCKTIS_______________________ 26

Lesson LET’S LEARN OPERATING 4 SYSTEM Hi, Kids! I am back. Do you remember which part is called the heart of a computer? Yes, it is the operating system. Let Us Start We already know about various parts of a computer. An operating system is the most important thing that runs on a computer. Between the hardware and the application software lies the operating system. In this We will learn lesson • Operating system and its types • Different parts of a desktop Did you know that you and your computer speak different languages? It does not speak Spanish, Swedish or Chinese; it speaks in ones and zeros. We can’t communicate directly with the computer. Here, the operating system comes in. It is a system software. The operating system is the program that lets us talk to the computer without knowing its language. It tells the computer how to do its work and run its functions. These days the computer comes already loaded with the operating system. Operating system tasks: • Accepts input from input devices like the mouse or keyboard • Sends output to output devices like the display monitor or printer 27

• Identifies peripheral devices • Handles storage data • Loads the application software • Handles system problems Common Operating Systems Nowadays, many operating systems are available. The three most common are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and Linux. Operating systems use Graphical User Interface. It is pronounced ‘gooey’. It comes with menus, icons and taskbars. A GUI helps us use the mouse to point and click on icons or buttons on the screen. Different operating systems have different GUI. Let’s have a look at the different operating systems: Microsoft Windows Microsoft created the Windows Fig. 4.1 Windows Operating System operating system in 1985. Over the years, Microsoft has continuously updated and released many versions of Windows. As of September 2016, the most recent version of Windows is Windows 10. Other recent releases are Windows 8 and Windows 7. Windows is the most popular operating system. DO YOU The first version of Windows, Windows 1.0 was released in KNOW? 1985, two years after the initial announcement made by Microsoft about their new OS. 28

Mac OS X Fig. 4.2 Mac Operating System Mac OS was created by Apple in 1984 as part of Macintosh operating systems. It is the second most widely used desktop operating system after Windows. Initially, it was named Mac OS X, until 2012 when it was changed to OS X. In 2016, with the release of MacOS 10.12 Sierra, the name was changed from OS X to macOS. Linux Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a family of open-source operating systems. It is unique among the popular operating systems. Open-source means that the operating system is free and available to people for modifying. Fig. 4.3 Linux Operating System DO YOU 21-year-old Linus Torvalds created Linux in KNOW? Finland in 1991. 29

Learning Windows Desktop Here, we will learn about the Microsoft Windows desktop. An operating system needs a way to communicate with the user. The way the OS interacts with a user is called the interface. MS Windows is the most popular GUI operating system. When we start the computer, the area we look at is called the Desktop. It acts as a work area. The desktop is usually different from one computer to another. Fig. 4.4 Windows Desktop There are various parts to the Microsoft Windows desktop. Let’s have a look at the parts: Icons: From the top left to the bottom left side of the screen, there are small pictures or images called icons. These small images represent items such as My Computer, Recycle Bin, etc. Fun Fact We cannot give the same name to different icons. My Computer: It shows the information stored on the computer. It can also show us the location of that information. Recycle Bin: It is the dustbin of your computer. It has all the deleted files. 30

My Documents: This folder stores our files, documents, music, movies, etc. File: A file is a collection of stored information. Any work that is done is done in a file. We have already worked using MS Paint, Notepad, etc. and saved the work in files with different names. Folder: A folder is a container that helps organise files and other folders. Start Button: This button is found on the bottom left of your screen. When we click this button, the list that appears is called the Start menu. It provides a central point of access to programs and performs other tasks. Desktop Background: It is the picture we can see behind the objects. Hence, it is known as the desktop background. Taskbar: This bar is placed at the bottom of the desktop. At the left-hand corner, the start button is present. At the right-hand corner, there are shortcuts to Speakers, Clock, etc. Glossary 1. Desktop – The screen that comes up when we start the computer 2. File– An object in a computer that stores data and information 3. Folder – A place to store files 4. GUI – Graphical User Interface 5. Icons – Different pictures that we can see on the desktop 6. Mac – Short form of Macintosh operating system, developed by Apple 7. Open-source Operating System – This operating system can be modified and distributed by anyone around the world. 8. Taskbar – It is along horizontal bar at the bottom of the desktop. 31

Inside the Lab Let’s practise a little of what we just learnt. Teacher’s Notes • B riefly explain the OS loaded on the computers in the school’s computer lab. • Explain the interface of the Windows Operating System. • Show different parts of the Windows Desktop in the school lab. • Ask learners to sort different icons on the desktop. Learner’s Note • S ee the picture given below and answer the following questions: 32

a. Name any folder in the above figure. b. Locate the Recycle Bin. • Find out which version of Windows is installed on your computer. • Make a list of the icons on your desktop. Compare the list with your friends and tick those which are common to all the lists. Exercise 1) Multiple Choice Questions a) The bar at the bottom of the desktop is called the (A) Taskbar (B) Title bar (C) Menu bar (D) Start button b) MS Windows is easy to use because of its _____________ User Interface. (A)Graphic (B) Graphical (C) Image (D) Both (A) and (B) c) The first version of Windows was released in (A) 1995 (B) 1983 (C) 1900 (D) 1985 2) True or False a) The Linux operating system was created by Linus Torvalds. __________ b) Files can store any number of folders and files. __________ c) We can give two different icons the same name. __________ 3) Fill in the blanks a) Start button is at the __________ side of the taskbar. b) The latest version of Microsoft Windows is __________. c) The ________ folder shows our files, documents, music, etc. 4) Match the following i) Icons a) Has deleted files b) Heart of a computer ii) My computer c) Small pictures on desktop iii) Operating system d) Shows the information iv) Recycle bin 33

5) Very Short Answer Questions a) Name any two operating systems. Ans. ������������������������������������������������������������������������ ������������������������������������������������������������������� b) Name the picture that you see on the monitor in the background. Ans. ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� 6) Short Answer Questions a) Name two primary tasks of an operating system. Ans. ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� b) List the different components of a desktop. Ans. ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� 7) Long Answer Question a) Write a short note on ‘Mac OS’. Ans. ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� 34

8) Picture Based Question Describe the different icons in the picture given above with their functions. Ans.  ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� ACTIVITY: In the box given below, there are many words which you have read in this lesson. How many can you find? T S L Z X M CGU I D A S K T O P ABC U X T S A C P WJ O M L A X S E J I GN E B R E K G CNXQ N V T P B I L DZA U Q A M A C V OU Z K M I C R O S WF T R F O L D E R SDX 35

5Lesson Drawing with MS Paint Hey, Friends! You can now draw and colour pictures using Paint. Do you know that Paint has many advanced features using which you can make your drawing more creative? Let Us Start We are now familiar with the MS Paint program. It is included in all versions of Microsoft Windows. We can use Paint to create drawings that range from simple to detailed and also to edit pictures. So far, you have made drawings in Paint using the tools in the Home tab. Can you now do the following activity to practise? Let Us Do 1: Draw a picture similar to the one given below, using the different Paint tools you have learnt. Colour the picture and save your file. 36

In this We will learn some more tools– the Select and Crop features lesson available in Paint. Also, we will learn how to move and copy portions of an image. When Paint opens, we can see an empty window; drawing and painting tools are located in the ribbon at the top of the window. The following illustration shows the different parts of the Paint window. Let’s have a quick look at the window (Fig. 5.1). Fig. 5.1 Paint Window Working with More Tools Fig. 5.2 Paint Ribbon The Ribbon in Paint (Fig. 5.2) includes a handy collection of drawing tools. We can use the tools to create freehand drawings and add a variety of shapes to our pictures. The Magnifier Tool The Magnifier tool (Fig. 5.3) is used to get a closer view of an image. To use the magnifier tool, follow the steps given below: 37

Step 1: In the Home tab, select Magnifier. Step 2: Left-click the mouse to zoom in on the image and right-click to zoom out on the image. DO YOU Fig. 5.3 Magnifier Tool KNOW? Magnifier tool does not affect the actual image. It just affects how the image appears on our screen. Brushes The tool Brushes lets us paint in various widths and textures. Brush size can be adjusted using the Size option. Using Brushes, we can add additional effects to our image. Size This tool becomes active only after we have chosen either a Brush or a Shape. We can also increase the border thickness of an image using the Size option. In the given image (Fig. 5.4), the Fig. 5.4 Size Tool rectangular shape is selected and the size of the border is adjusted to 5px (pixels). Let Us Do 2: Draw mountains using different sizes of the brush. Drawing a Shape We know how to draw many different shapes in Paint. For example, we can draw ready-made shapes, such as rectangles, circles, squares, triangles and arrows. Did you know that you can also make your own custom shapes by using the Polygon shape? 38

Polygon is a shape with three or more sides. Using this tool, you can draw one side of the Polygon at a time. To draw a Polygon: Step 1: Click on the Polygon shape in the Shapes group (Fig. 5.5). Step 2: Move the mouse pointer to the Drawing Area. The mouse pointer changes to a cross. Step 3: Choose a colour for the polygon outline. To keep your lines straight, remember to hold down the Shift key as you are drawing your lines. Step 4: To draw the polygon, drag the mouse pointer and click at each corner. Keep clicking Fig. 5.5 Polygon Tool the end points until you want the last line to finish the shape. Double-click when you are done. Curve line Tool is used to draw curved lines. Step 1: Click on the Curve tool in the Shapes group (Fig. 5.6). Step 2: Move the mouse pointer to the Drawing Area. The mouse pointer changes to a cross. Step 3: Draw a line by dragging the pointer. Step 4: Click where you want one arc of the curve to be. Fig. 5.6 Curve line tool DO YOU If you want to draw an exact shape, say a square or a circle, KNOW? hold the Shift key while you draw and release the mouse button before you let go of the Shift key. Image Selection In Paint, you might want to make a change to part of a picture or an object. To do this, you need to select the part of the picture that you want to change and then, make the change. 39

Select Option Fig. 5.7 Select Option This option is used to select rectangular areas of an image. How can we select rectangular areas in Windows 7 Paint? Step 1: To select part of a picture or a rectangular area, click the Select tool in the Image group. Step 2: Drag the pointer to select the part of the picture you want to work with. Clipboard Menu The clipboard menu offers three options– Cut, Copy and Paste. Only when a selection has been made can the Cut and Copy icons be used. You can move or copy a part of an image or an entire image once it has been selected. The Cut option removes the selected part from its original place. The Copy option copies the selected part, but does not remove it from its original place. You can insert the cut or copied part anywhere using the Paste option. Follow the steps below: Fig. 5.8 Select Part of Image Step 1: Select the part of the image you want to cut or copy. Step 2: On the Home tab, click Cut or Copy in the Clipboard group. Step 3: Click Paste in the Clipboard group. The cut Quick Keys or copied part will appear on the top left corner of Copy Ctrl+C the drawing area. Paste Ctrl+V Cut Ctrl+X Step 4: Click and drag the pasted image to the position you want. You can paste the cut or copied image as many times as you want. 40

Fig. 5.9 Copy and Paste Fig. 5.10 Cut and Paste DO YOU The cut and copied part of the image is stored in a KNOW? temporary place called Clipboard. Glossary 1. Clipboard – A temporary place where cut and copied items are stored 2. icons – Different pictures that we see on the desktop 3. Magnify – To make something look bigger than it actually is 4. Microsoft – Microsoft Corporation is one of the largest companies in the computer industry. 5. tool – It is a shortcut button to perform a task. 6. Zoom – To have more detailed view of an image Inside the Lab Let’s practise a little of what we just learnt. Teacher’s Notes • Ask learners to create a drawing using some basic shapes present in MS Paint to recap or revise the working of tools and commands. 41

• Explain and help learners draw different pictures using Polygon and Curve line tools in Paint. • Ask learners to create a pattern using the different shapes they have learnt. • Explain the difference between the Cut and Copy options. • Ask students to make some images and use the cut, copy and paste options on them. Learner’s Note • Draw a shape using the shape of your choice. Select the shape and paste it at a new location on the Drawing area. • Make a birthday card for your friend using the tools you have learnt. Exercise 1) Multiple Choice Questions a) The blue bar at the top of the screen is known as (A) Menu bar (B) Title bar (C) Tool bar (D) Ribbon b) All the tools, the colour palette, and most commands are grouped together in the (A) Menu bar (B) Title bar (C) Quick Access Toolbar (D) Ribbon c) The tool that becomes active only after choosing brush or shape is (A) Brush (B) Size (C) Shapes (D) Colors 2) True or False a) Brushes help us paint in various widths and textures. _________ b) It is possible to select a part of an image. _________ c) The keyboard shortcut for the Cut option is Ctrl+X. _________ 3) Fill in the blanks a) Color 1 is the _________________ Color and is always __________________ when you open Paint or open a different Paint page. 42

b) Color 2 is the __________________ Color and is always __________________ when you open Paint or open a different Paint page. c) If you haven’t yet saved your picture, the name will be shown as ___________________. 4) Match the following a) i) Control buttons b) ii) Clipboard c) iii) Paint button d) iv) Title Bar 5) Very Short Answer Questions a) Write the names of the tools corresponding to following actions: b) Group the following into correct columns: Program name, Control buttons, Help option, Home tab, View tab, Quick Access toolbar, Paint button Title Bar Menu Bar 43

6) Short Answer Questions a) What is Ribbon? Ans. ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� b) How is the function of Eraser different with right-click and left-click of the mouse? Ans. ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� 7) Long Answer Question a) Identify and write the functions of the five tools of MS Paint. Ans. ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� 8) Picture Based Question  Observe the Figure and answer the questions given below. a) Identify the shapes used to draw the picture. b) Name the tab that is selected in the Figure. c) What is the foreground colour selected in the Figure? Ans. ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������������������������� 44

ACTIVITY: a) Open a blank drawing window. Try to recreate the Computer Room in MS Paint using the shapes and tools you have learnt. Colour the images of your choice. Save the drawing with the name ‘Computer Room’. b) Draw the picture given below in Paint. Hint: Use the curve tool to draw the outline of the shape. Use the Clipboard Menu options to complete the drawing. Colour it. 45

6Lesson Understanding MS WORD Friends! I think you want to make a fun birthday card for your friend. How can you do this? We learnt to type using Notepad. Is it possible to make a colourful, fun card on Notepad? Let Us Start There are a lot of programs that are used for typing. They are called Word Processors. We know that Windows is the most popular GUI Operating System. MS WORD is the most popular word processing software. It works in Windows. Let Us Do 1: Draw lines to match the words given in column A with column B to revise the terms learnt in previous lessons. A B Notepad Brain of a Computer Mouse Storage Device CPU Give space between two words Recycle Bin Text Editor Hard Disk Pointing Device Spacebar Storage area of deleted files and folders In this We will learn lesson • To start Microsoft Word and be familiar with the MS Word screen • Different features of MS Word • How to create, open and save a word document 46

MS Word is a part of the bigger package called MS OFFICE. It can do much more than word processing. When you open up MS OFFICE, you will find four main components in it. They are MS WORD (for word processing), MS EXCEL (for making spreadsheet), MS ACCESS (for database management) and MS POWERPOINT (for presentation purposes). However, we will learn only MS WORD in this lesson. DO YOU Microsoft Office suite is a collection of commonly used KNOW? computer programs made by Microsoft. Getting Familiar with MS Word Microsoft Word (MS Word) is excellent for creating documents. It is used to create different types of documents that can include graphics and pictures. We can write poems, letters, essays and stories. We can even make reports, posters and greeting cards using MS Word. It allows us to make documents attractive and interesting by giving the option of adding bullets, borders, shading, etc. MS Word was first released on October 25, 1983. A number of versions of MS Word are available. Some of them are MS Word 95, 97, 2000, XP 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2013. MS Word 2007 is the 12th version of Microsoft’s word processing software. Starting MS Word To start working on a new Word document or continue working on an existing document we need to first open a Word window. To open a new Word window, Click: Start → All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Word 2007 47

MS Word 2007 Interface Below is the MS Word interface as it appears (Fig. 6.1). It is a blank document page ready to start typing in. Let us discuss the important components of the screen or interface. Fig. 6.1 Ms Word Screen Office Button: It is located in the upper left corner of the screen. It contains the basic commands on the File menu. Some of them are Open, Save, Save As, Print, etc. Title Bar: The title bar displays the names of the documents. By default, the document is named Document 1. Control Buttons: It is a set of three buttons in the top right corner that minimise, restore and close the program respectively. 48

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