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Home Explore 51705014_Maple G4_Textbook_Integrated_Term1

51705014_Maple G4_Textbook_Integrated_Term1

Published by IMAX, 2020-04-09 03:13:42

Description: 51705014_Maple G4_Textbook_Integrated_Term1


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Preface IMAX partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. IMAX presents the latest version of the Maple series – updated and revised after considering the perceptive feedback and comments shared by our experienced reviewers and users. Designed specifically for state board schools, the Maple series endeavours to be faithful to the spirit of the State Curriculum Framework and National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005. Therefore, our books strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. NCF 2005 asserts that listening, speaking, reading and writing (LSRW) are all generalised skills, and students’ mastery over them is key to success at school. All these skills frequently need to be used together. Therefore, the Maple English textbooks and workbooks strive to provide adequate opportunities for students to practise all the four LSRW skills. To this effect, the Maple English textbooks and workbooks for state board schools offer the following features:  T hemes recommended by the NCF across grades 1–5 in the literature pieces  S amples of Indian writing in English as well as popular English literature pieces from western countries  P ictures for word meanings in each lesson to help students with visual clues for new or difficult words  Non-detailed lessons to enable additional reading  A speaking project and two reading comprehension passages in each unit to further hone speaking and reading skills  H orizontal and vertical progression across grades for the grammar concepts covered in the workbooks, providing a spiral of cumulative learning  S amples of format-based writing to provide for scaffolding of learning of formal writing Overall, the IMAX Maple English textbooks, workbooks and teacher companion books aim to generate greater engagement with and enhance fluency in English language communication and empower students to develop a genuine appreciation of the language and its literature.  – The Authors

Textbook Features Let Us Start Warm Up Activity Activities and questions to prepare Interesting questions to arouse students to focus on pronunciation and curiosity about the lesson help teachers to introduce the lesson Reading the Text Variety of literature pieces (prose/ poetry/drama) Questions after the literature piece for quick check of understanding Understanding the Text Questions to check comprehension of the literature piece – 'Literature comprehension' and 'Value-based questions' are only a part of detailed lessons Speaking Task Activities for students to speak individually or in pairs or groups on a theme-related topic

Contents 4Class Theme 1: Peace and Harmony 1 The Prince and the Pauper ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2 The Peaceful Warrior ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 3 The Caged Bird �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 S1 Speaking Project ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 R1 Reading Comprehension ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Theme 2: Life Around Us 4 The Man Who Never Lied ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21 5 The Lady of the Forest ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26 6 To Sleep �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 30 S2 Speaking Project ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 R2 Reading Comprehension ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 35 Theme 3: Art and Culture 7 Puppet Traditions of India ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 8 The Elephant’s Nose ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 44 Glossary �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 48

Why are we studying this theme? History teaches us that we should spread peace and love, not war and hate. Everything begins with us. Each one of us can make a difference in a small way to make the world a better place. We can do this by being peaceful and loving to everyone around us. Let us read two stories and a poem that teach us something about the importance of peace and harmony.

Lesson The Prince and the 1 Pauper Let Us Start Words Listen and say aloud wicked mistreat disturbed observed relieved garments strange imprisoned Warm Up Activity • What would you do if you met a prince or a princess? • W hat questions would you ask him or her? Let us read the story of a poor boy who gets a chance to meet and talk to a prince. 2

Reading the Text Tom Canty was a poor boy who lived in London. His father was a thief. Tom’s favourite dream was to meet the prince. Tom and the prince were born on the same day but in very different surroundings. One day, the dream came true. Read the story to know what happened next. ‘What is your name, boy?’ asked the prince to a strange-looking lad. ‘Tom Canty, Sir’, he replied. The prince found this name to be odd. ‘Where do you live?’ enquired the prince. ‘In the city, in Offal Court off Pudding Lane’, answered Tom. This address too sounded rather strange to the prince. Growing curious about Tom’s family, the prince asked further, ‘Do enquired you have parents?’ ‘I have parents and a grandmother who is not kind to me; God forgive me if it is wrong to say so. I also have twin sisters, Nan and Bet’, replied Tom. twin ‘So your grandmother does not love you?’ asked the prince. ‘My grandmother loves nobody, as she has a wicked heart’, said Tom. wicked drunk ‘Does she mistreat you?’ the prince asked. ‘There are times when she is drunk or asleep and does not lift her hand. But she makes up for it by beating harder at other times’, replied Tom sadly. The prince was very disturbed by this. ‘What? Does she beat mistreat disturbed you?’ he asked angrily. ‘Yes, indeed’, Tom confirmed. ‘How can she beat you? You are so small and weak. I will have her imprisoned imprisoned in the Tower immediately!’ the prince declared. ‘Sir, the Tower is for important people. My grandmother has a lowly place in society’, Tom pointed out. The prince admitted that he had not thought of that. ‘I will decide her punishment later’, he said. temper The prince then asked Tom about his father. ‘He is not any kinder than my grandmother’, said Tom with a whimper. This touched the prince’s heart. ‘My father does not have a good temper either. He is very strict. He doesn’t beat me, but he is quite heavy-handed with me. He does not spare me from his tongue’, observed the prince. ‘How about your mother?’ the prince asked. Tom’s face brightened up, much to sorrow the relief of the prince. ‘She is good and does not give me any pain or sorrow. Nan and Bet are like her’, answered Tom. The Prince and the Pauper 3

‘How old are your sisters?’ asked the prince. ‘Fifteen’, replied Tom. The prince revealed that he had one sister, Lady Elizabeth, who was fourteen. His other sister, Lady Mary, was so gloomy that she did not permit the servants to laugh. ‘Do your sisters forbid the servants to laugh?’ asked the prince. Tom answered, ‘Oh Sir, do you think they have servants?’ The prince was very surprised. ‘Who helps them to change their garments forbid at night? Who helps them to get dressed in the morning?’ he asked. ‘No garments one, they have one garment each’, responded Tom. ‘Why do they have only one?’ asked the curious prince. ‘What would they do with more? They have but one body each’, replied Tom. The prince could not understand how anybody could have only one dress. ‘Then I have decided that they shall have as many dresses as they desire’, announced the prince. After this conversation, Tom and the prince decided to change places, and they had many adventures. – Adapted from The Prince and the Pauper by Mark Twain Let Us Discuss 1) What is the poor boy’s name? 2) What is common about the prince and the poor boy? 3) How old is Lady Elizabeth? 4) What is special about Lady Mary? Understanding the Text Exercise 1: New words Meaning Word strange enquired twin wicked mistreat drunk 4

Word Meaning disturbed imprisoned with a whimper temper heavy-handed spare me from his tongue observed sorrow forbid garments desire Exercise 2: Literature comprehension 1) Where did Tom Canty live? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2) Who were the people in Tom Canty’s family? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3) Why did the prince have to consider a punishment for the grandmother? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4) What did the prince decide for Tom’s sisters? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� The Prince and the Pauper 5

Exercise 3: Value-based questions – Judgement and appreciation 1) From the story, it seems like the prince’s life was very happy, and Tom’s life was difficult. However, can you think of a few difficulties that the prince might have in his life? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) After reading the story, what kind of person do you think the prince’s father was? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Speaking Task Pair discussion Discuss what adventures the two boys might have had once they exchanged places. Think of an adventure that they would each have had. Examples: • Tom Canty may have been crowned as the king in place of the prince. • The prince may have taught Tom’s father and grandmother a lesson. 6

Lesson The Peaceful 2 Warrior Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Words samurai revenge sword kneel fascinated patience regretted rubble Warm Up Activity • Do you get angry? Why or why not? • What happens when you are angry? Do you say or do things in anger that you feel bad about later? Many years ago, a few soldiers lived in Japan. They were good fighters and were very faithful to their masters. They lived disciplined lives and were called the ‘samurai’ warriors. Let us read the story of a samurai warrior who got angry and did something wrong. 7

Reading the Text Once, a samurai warrior got angry with his master and, without thinking, killed him. He regretted his action, but the master was dead and gone. He knew that if he were to be caught, he would be put to scared death. He got very scared and ran away. He went from one place to another till he arrived at a small village. The village was regretted separated from the rest of the world by a mountain. The path across the mountain was narrow and dangerous. Many villagers had died while climbing it. The warrior decided to single-handedly carve a road through the mountain. He wanted to connect the village with the rest of the world carve and help the villagers. He worked from early morning to late evening. In four years, he had almost dug halfway into the mountain. One morning, when he was working hard in the tunnel, a young man shouted his name. He asked the samurai to come out. The young tunnel man was the son of the man that the samurai had killed. He wanted to take revenge. ‘I deserve to die’, said the samurai. ‘Kill me if you want, but wait till I’ve completed this tunnel.’ fascinated The young man agreed to wait. He watched, fascinated, as the samurai worked hard day after day. The rocks that he was digging through were huge. At the end of a day’s work, it seemed that the rocks were untouched. The young man began to slowly develop respect for his enemy’s hard work and patience. After rubble some time, the young man started to help the samurai. They dug and carried the rubble together. Many years passed, and both the men kept digging the mountain. And then, one day, the two men broke through to the other side. Finally, the villagers were no longer alone. They could now easily connect with the rest of the world. ‘I am ready to die’, said the samurai, kneeling before the young man. ‘You can kill me now.’ The young man raised his sword with a cry, the blood rushing kneeling to his head. At last, he could take revenge for his father’s death. But he found that he could not kill the samurai. Slowly, he put his sword down. sword 8

‘You’re a killer’, he said. ‘But I’ve learnt a lot from you in the last few years. How can I harm my teacher?’ He dropped his sword and walked away. (Source: Adapted from ‘Learning from the Enemy’) Let Us Discuss 1) Why did the samurai run away? 2) Why did the samurai kill his master? 3) How long did it take the samurai to dig halfway into the mountain? 4) Why did the dead man’s son not kill the samurai? Understanding the Text Exercise 1: New words Meaning Word regretted scared single-handedly carve tunnel revenge fascinated patience rubble kneeling sword The Peaceful Warrior 9

Speaking Task Group activity Divide your class into groups of four. Discuss the following questions in each group. Then, share your point of view with the class. Later, all the groups should design a poster about peace. • If someone were to trouble you, what would you do? Give as many suggestions as possible. • What does the word ‘peace’ mean to you? • Why should we encourage peace? 10

Lesson The Caged 3 Bird Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Rhyming words Word Rhyming words strong me free, she Word sky round wrong cure around, bound – – fly pure Warm Up Activity • Do you think that birds and animals should be kept in cages? • How would you feel if you were a bird in a cage? Let us read a poem in which the poet talks about the helplessness of a caged bird. 11

Reading the Text The bird I saw today Looked gloomy and pale. I wondered what was wrong, Why did he look pallid and weak? gloomy The question I asked was, pallid ‘Why did you do this to him? Why can’t he play like me? Why can’t he also be happy and free?’ I think he wants to fly! Fly high in the azure sky. I think he wants to swirl his wings, Fly with abandon with his kith and kin. swirl azure He played in the cage. Up, down, round and round. No one around, He was to that tiny space bound. bound He sings a sad song. ki th and k in He sleeps alone in rage. He fights with himself again and again, But nothing happens, to his amaze! I speak to you – You who are free. How would you feel To be a caged bird like he? A creature so beautiful. to his amaze A creature so pure. You tell me, human, What is the cure? – Pritika Mahendru 12

Let Us Discuss 1) What does the poet wonder about? 2) Where does the poet think the bird wants to fly? 3) Whom does the poet think the bird would want to fly with? 4) In the second-last stanza, what does the poet ask us? Understanding the Text Exercise 1: New words Word Meaning gloomy pale pallid azure swirl with abandon kith and kin bound to his amaze cure Exercise 2: Literature comprehension 1) How does the bird appear to the poet? Ans.   2) The poet asks a few questions in the second stanza. What are these questions? Ans.   The Caged Bird 13

3) What does the bird do inside the cage? Ans.   4) What kind of creature is the bird described as? Ans.  Exercise 3: Value-based questions – Judgement and appreciation 1) T he poem ends with the question: ‘What is the cure?’ What do you think is the cure for the caged bird? Explain your answer. Ans.    2) P eople have kept birds in cages for centuries. They do this for their amusement. Is this right? Why or why not? Ans.   Speaking Task Recitation (Individual) You know that India gained independence on 15th August 1947. Given below is a poem written by Rabindranath Tagore, who is one of India’s most famous poets. The poem was written when India was still trying to gain independence. Recite the poem aloud with voice modulation. 14

Where the mind is without fear Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high Where knowledge is free Where the world has not been broken up into fragments By narrow domestic walls Where words come out from the depth of truth Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit Where the mind is led forward by thee Into ever-widening thought and action Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake. The Caged Bird 15

S1 Speaking Project A peace-loving classroom What words come to your mind when you think of the word ‘peace’? Do you think it is important to have peace around us? Why? Now, think of a classroom that loves peace. Describe a ‘peace-loving classroom’. What should it be like? What can we do to achieve peace in a class? Keep the following points in mind while preparing your speech: • Respect everyone. • Help and care for each other. • Make rules for the class and follow them. • Take turns and listen to each other. • Do not fight with or bully others. 16

R1 Reading Comprehension Passage 1 Read the story and answer the questions given below. The national flag went up fluttering in the air. Everyone looked up, and loud clapping was followed by the singing of the national anthem, ‘Jana-Gana-Mana’. A small group of children sang a few patriotic songs, and Mini’s grandmother gave a short speech about India’s freedom struggle. All this while, Mini stood beside her grandmother. All the people who had gathered keenly listened to what the 90-year-old freedom fighter had to say. Their hearts were full of pride as they looked at the flag. Soon, sweets were distributed before everyone dispersed. On the occasion of 15th August, the Indian Independence Day, Mini’s grandmother was invited to hoist the national flag. She was the senior-most resident of the colony and had been a freedom fighter as a young girl. Mini often listened to her detailed descriptions of the freedom struggle of India; her life in an India, that was ruled by the British and the history and struggles of her family. 1) Who gave a speech about India’s freedom struggle? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) What is special about 15th August? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 17

3) Rewrite the below sentences with the correct punctuation. a) minis grandmother gave a short speech about indias freedom struggle Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ b) everyone sang the national anthem jana gana mana together Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ c) patriots like gandhiji nehru and netaji subhash chandra bose fought for freedom from the british rule Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) The opposite of ‘senior-most’ is ____________________________________________. 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) patriotic a) scattered 2) pride b) feeling love towards one’s country 3) dispersed c) a feeling of happiness for something or someone related to you Passage 2 Read the story and answer the questions given below. There once was a king who offered a prize to the artist who would paint the best picture of peace. Many artists tried. The king looked at all the pictures. But there were only two he really liked, and he had to choose between them. One picture was of a calm lake. Overhead was a blue sky with fluffy white clouds. All who saw this picture thought that it was a perfect picture of peace. The other picture had mountains. They were rugged and bare. Above was an angry sky from which rain fell. Down the side of the mountain tumbled a foaming waterfall. This did not look peaceful at all. 18

But when the king looked closely, he saw behind the waterfall a tiny bush growing in a crack in the rock. In the bush, a mother bird had built her nest. There, in the midst of the rush of angry water, sat the mother bird on her nest – in perfect peace. Which picture do you think won the prize? The king chose the second picture. To be at peace does not mean to be in a place where there is no noise, trouble or hard work. To be at peace means to be in the midst of all those things and still be calm in your heart. 1) How many paintings did the king need to choose from? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) In the second picture, what did the king see behind the waterfall? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Write the plural forms of the words given below. a) bush – ______________________________ b) waterfall – ______________________________ c) sky – ______________________________ 4) The meaning of ‘tumbled’ is ______________________________________________. 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) foaming a) up in the sky 2) overhead b) calmness 3) peace c) bubbling up Reading Comprehension 19

Why are we studying this theme? The world is a fascinating place. All things around us tell us stories if we are willing to hear them. Writers and poets give us a slice of life through their writing. Let us read two stories and a poem to enjoy more of the wonderful world we live in.

Lesson The Man Who 4 Never Lied Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Tongue twisters are a great way to practise and improve pronunciation. Given below are a few tongue twisters. Say them as fast as you can. • I scream, you scream, we all scream ‘ice cream’. • She sells seashells on the seashore. • He threw three free throws. • V incent, the very vivacious vacuuming vampire, visited Victor von Viking, the vegetarian vampire, vacationing in Valentine Valley. Warm Up Activity • Do you think people lie? Why or why not? • H ave you ever lied and got into trouble? Share an incident. Let us read a story of a man who never lied. 21

Reading the Text Once upon a time, there was a wise man named Abu who never lied. All the people in the land knew about his honesty. The king heard about Abu and wanted to meet him. He ordered his guards to bring Abu to the palace. The king asked, ‘Abu, is it really true that you have never lied?’ ‘It’s true, your majesty’, Abu replied. ‘And for the rest of your life, you will never lie?’ asked the king. ‘I am absolutely sure about that, your majesty.’ ‘All right, continue to tell the truth, but be careful! A lie is cunning, and it can slip off your tongue easily.’ After a few days, the king called Abu to his palace again. When Abu arrived, the king was about to leave on a hunting trip. There was a big crowd near the palace. The king was holding his horse by its mane, and his stirrup left foot was in the stirrup. He ordered Abu, mane ‘I want you to go to my summer palace where the queen lives. Tell the queen that I will join her for lunch today. Ask her to prepare a big banquet. You will also have lunch with me.’ Abu bowed respectfully and went to see the queen. banquet The king laughed behind Abu’s back and said, ‘We won’t go hunting now. So, whatever Abu tells the queen will be a lie. Tomorrow, we will make fun of him and enjoy!’ But Abu was a wise man. He went to the palace and told the queen, ‘Your majesty, maybe you should prepare a big feast for lunch or maybe you shouldn’t. Maybe the king will come by noon or maybe he won’t.’ ‘Tell me for sure. Will he come or not?’ asked the queen. ‘I do not know whether he put his right foot in the stirrup or his left foot on the ground after I left, my queen’, replied Abu. ‘Maybe he will come, maybe he won’t.’ Everyone waited for the king at the summer palace. He came the next day and said to the queen, ‘The wise Abu, who says he never lies, actually lied to you yesterday.’ 22

But when the queen told him what Abu had said, the king realised that Abu was a wise man who meant what he said. Abu never lied and only spoke about things that he saw with his own eyes. – an African folktale Let Us Discuss 1) Who was Abu? 2) What did the king order his guards to do? 3) How did the king describe a lie? 4) Where was everyone waiting for the king? Understanding the Text Exercise 1: New words Meaning Word cunning mane stirrup banquet Exercise 2: Literature comprehension 1) What did the king ask when Abu came to the palace? Ans.   2) What did the king ask Abu to tell the queen? Ans.  The Man Who Never Lied 23

3) What did Abu tell the queen? Ans.   4) How did the king plan to make Abu lie? Was he successful in his plan? Why or why not? Ans.   Exercise 3: Value-based questions – Judgement and appreciation 1) D o you think that Abu was a wise man? Why or why not? Ans.    2) Do you think that honesty is the best policy? Why or why not? Ans.   24

Speaking Task Debate Form two groups in your class. Discuss points for and against the proverb, ‘Honesty is the best policy’. Then, have a debate in class on this topic. Remember, you must argue only for the side that you are on. Give examples from your lives to prove your points. The Man Who Never Lied 25

Lesson The Lady of the 5 Forest Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Words with one syllable Words with two syllables eat spent visit sometimes long love forest wonder Warm Up Activity • Do you like animals? • If given a chance, would you like to work with animals all your lives? Why or why not? Let us read the story of Jane Goodall, who spent all her life studying chimpanzees. 26

Reading the Text Have you ever wondered about the animals in forests? How do they live there? What do they eat? For how long do they live? Jane Goodall was a woman who spent her entire life studying chimpanzees. She was born on 3rd April 1934 in London, England. Her father was a businessman, and her mother was a writer. When she was a child, Jane’s father gifted her a life-like chimpanzee chimpanzees stuffed toy. She named it ‘Jubilee’. She developed a love for animals and chimpanzees because of that toy. In her free time, she used to observe birds and animals and read books about them. Jane began to dream of going to Africa. She wanted to study her favourite animals in the wild. Africa After finishing college, Jane started working small jobs. She wanted to save money to make her dream come true. Her dream did come true. She was invited by a childhood friend to visit their farm in Kenya. In Africa, she met the famous archaeologist, Louis Leakey. He offered her a job of studying chimpanzees. Jane was very excited. She moved to the Gombe Stream National Park in Tanzania and began observing chimpanzees. Studying chimpanzees archaeologist When Jane began studying chimpanzees in 1960, she did not know much about them. She did not know about their behaviour or how to study them. The first time she tried to observe a group of chimpanzees, they got scared and ran away. After trying and failing, she found a way to observe them in a manner that did not threaten them. After two years of seeing her every day, they became comfortable with her. They often came to her for bananas. threaten Jane spent the next forty years of her life studying chimpanzees. She found many new and interesting things about them. For example, she realised that each chimpanzee was unique. Each one had its own likes and dislikes. Impact and contribution unique In 1977, Jane established the Jane Goodall Institute. It supports the environment and protects endangered animals. She has won several awards for her efforts to protect chimpanzees. The Lady of the Forest 27

Jane has written many articles and books about her experiences with chimpanzees. Her famous books include In the Shadow of Man, The Chimpanzees of Gombe and 40 Years at Gombe. Jane has written about being kind to all kinds of animals. This is especially true for farm animals. She writes that farm animals are far more aware and intelligent than we can ever imagine. They have rights and deserve our respect. She asks all of us – if we don’t stand up to help animals, who will? Let Us Discuss 1) Where did Jane Goodall grow up? 2) When did Jane start studying chimpanzees? 3) How did Jane get to visit Africa? 4) Name one book that Jane Goodall wrote. Understanding the Text Exercise 1: New words Meaning Word studying chimpanzees wild jobs archaeologist threaten unique endangered 28

Speaking Task Interview Interview your partner about what they would like to become when they grow up and why. Take five minutes to prepare your questions. Ask at least five questions. Frame questions using ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘when’, ‘why’ and ‘how’. The Lady of the Forest 29

Lesson To Sleep 6 Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Rhyming words Word Rhyming words sky melodies trees Word seas by cry lay away, day stealth wealth, health bees lie Warm Up Activity • For how many hours do you sleep every night? • What would happen if you don’t sleep for a night? Let us read a poem in which the poet is unable to sleep for many nights and see how he feels. 30

Reading the Text A flock of sheep that leisurely pass by, One after one; the sound of rain, and bees leisurely Murmuring; the fall of rivers, winds and seas, murmuring Smooth fields, white sheets of water, and pure sky; melodies I have thought of all by turns, and yet do lie orchard uttered Sleepless! and soon the small birds’ melodies Must hear, first uttered from my orchard trees; And the first cuckoo’s melancholy cry. Even thus last night, and two nights more, I lay, And could not win thee, Sleep! By any stealth: So do not let me wear to-night away: melancholy Without Thee what is all the morning’s wealth? stealth Come, blessed barrier between day and day, Dear mother of fresh thoughts and joyous health! barrier joyous – William Wordsworth Let Us Discuss 1) How do the sheep pass by? 2) Where do the small birds sing in the morning? 3) What does the word ‘melancholy’ mean? 4) How many nights has the poet been unable to sleep? To Sleep 31

Understanding the Text Exercise 1: New words Word Meaning leisurely murmuring melodies uttered orchard melancholy stealth wear away thee barrier joyous Exercise 2: Literature comprehension 1) What are the things that the poet thinks about when he is unable to sleep? Ans.   2) According to the poet, what is the barrier that comes between a day and another? Ans.   32

3) Why does the poet think that sleep is important? Ans.   4) What is sleep the mother of? Ans.   Exercise 3: Value-based questions – Judgement and appreciation 1) D o you think that you need a good night’s sleep every night? Give reasons for your answer. Ans.    2) Describe a time when you slept very late. What were you doing? How did it affect you the next day? Ans.   Speaking Task Story telling Something that gives us sleepless nights is a horror story! Tell your partner a very scary horror story. Listen to the story that your partner tells you. Decide whose story is scarier. To Sleep 33

S2 Speaking Project What I like doing the most We all like to do different things when we have free time. The activities that we do in our free time are called ‘hobbies’. Prepare a brief presentation on your favourite hobby. You can use the following points for your presentation: • Talk about your hobby. • Share why you enjoy this particular hobby. • Share the benefits of the hobby. • Encourage your classmates to pursue the hobby as well. 34

R2 Reading Comprehension Passage 1 Read the story and answer the questions given below. Anandi looked excited, ‘OK Papa, which places will we visit tomorrow?’ Manohar said, ‘We will visit Anjuna, Candolim and Calangute beaches tomorrow. We will also visit some churches. We will go to the Basilica of Bom Jesus in Old Goa and the church of St Francis of Assisi. Let us go back to the hotel and take rest now.’ The family had a quiet dinner at the hotel. They enjoyed the traditional food of Goa: fish curry, rice and Arroz Doce. Sharat and Anandi sat next to their parents on the bed before going to sleep. Sharat asked curiously, ‘Papa, tell us more about Goa.’ Manohar said, ‘Goa is India’s smallest state in terms of area and fourth smallest in terms of population. It is located on the western coast of India along the Arabian Sea. It is renowned for its beautiful beaches. Tourists from all over India and other countries flock here for an unforgettable experience. Panaji is the capital of Goa. The other important city is Margao. Isn’t all this interesting?’ The children nodded, ‘Yes, Papa.’ ‘Konkani is the official language here. Marathi, Hindi and Portuguese are also spoken here by the people. So you can learn Konkani here, children.’ 1) Which beaches were Anandi’s family going to visit in Goa? Ans. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Where is Goa located? Ans. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 35

3) Write the noun forms of the following words: a) traditional – ______________________________ b) excited – ______________________________ c) beautiful – ______________________________ 4) The opposite of ‘unforgettable’ is  . 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) official a) residents of a place 2) population b) famous or well-known 3) renowned c) formal Passage 2 Read the story and answer the questions given below. Little Meera was a disobedient child. Despite being only eight years old, she pretended to be a grown-up. She would hardly listen to her parents or her elder sister, Keira, who was twelve. Her parents and teachers were tired of trying to correct her. Her mother kept complaining to her father about her. ‘What a disobedient girl! She asks me, “What’s the use of sending her to school when she can figure out everything on the internet?”’ exclaimed Mrs Thomas to her husband. ‘Give that tiny one some time. She is only eight and doesn’t know how tough life can get.’ In the evening, while Meera was watching how to make a grilled chicken sandwich on the internet, she requested her mom to make one for her. ‘What’s the use of making a sandwich, Meera? You can just grab a bite from the internet!’ ‘Mom! How can I do that? It’s a screen. I will hurt my teeth instead.’ ‘Exactly! The Internet can help you see and hear but not taste, touch or feel. You can learn a lot from it, but you can’t taste a sandwich or get the feel of a classroom from the other side of the screen. I hope you understand the difference between the real world and the world of computers.’ 36

‘Yes, Mom! Now can we please have some sandwiches?’ The happy family of four had some delicious grilled chicken sandwiches for snacks. As the parents sipped their tea, Meera settled down at her study table and completed her homework happily. What more could her parents ask for? 1) What kind of a child was little Meera? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) What did Meera’s mother want her to understand? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Write if the following nouns are of masculine, feminine, neuter or common gender. a) Keira -___________________________ b) teacher -___________________________ c) sandwich -___________________________ 4) The meaning of ‘requested’ is  . 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) disobedient a) spoke with strong emotion 2) exclaimed b) unwilling to obey 3) grilled c) cooked lightly on a grill Reading Comprehension 37

Why are we studying this theme? Art and culture decorate human lives. They are also traditions which have been carried on for centuries. To be open-minded, we must learn not only about our own culture, but also about many other cultures. Let us read two stories and a poem which tell us about art and culture - the rich heritage of our past.

Lesson Puppet Traditions 7 of India Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Words with three syllables Words with four syllables various storybook identical information theatre tradition storytelling calculator Warm Up Activity • You must have seen plays and dances on stage during the annual day at school. Have you participated in any of these performances? Share your experiences. • Have you ever seen a puppet show? What did you like about it? Let us now read about the rich puppet traditions of India. 39

Reading the Text We all love stories, don’t we? Just as there are many stories, there are various ways of telling them. You can read a story in a storybook, or you can watch one on television. We hear stories from our friends and watch a story performed in the theatre. Some of these ways of storytelling are very old; they have become what we call traditions. In which category of storytelling do you think puppetry falls? And how old do you think is this tradition? Do you know what a puppet is? Very simply, a puppet is a doll that is brought to life by a storyteller to narrate a story. The person who controls the doll is called the puppeteer or ‘sutradhar’. The doll can ancient be made out of any material, such as wood, cloth, clay and so on. The puppeteer moves the doll using strings, rods and his hands. It is believed that puppetry began in India. From the ancient times, puppets have been used to tell stories across the different regions of India. Let us read more about them and discover the different kinds of puppets. Let us begin with the string puppets. These puppets have strings attached to various parts of their bodies. The puppeteer pulls a string, and the puppet moves a part of its body. These puppets are also called ‘marionettes’. string puppet from Rajasthan string puppet from Karnataka Shadow puppets, on the other hand, are flat and something shadow puppet from Odisha like paper cutouts. They are usually made of leather. The puppets are pressed against a white cloth with light falling on it. This results in the puppet’s shadow falling on the cloth. The audience then watches and listens to the story through these shadows. glove puppet Glove puppets, as the name suggests, fit on the hands like gloves. The from Kerala puppeteer uses his or her fingers to move the puppet. These are also known as ‘hand puppets’ or ‘palm puppets’. 40

Then, we have the rod puppets, which are like glove puppets except that they are bigger and rods are used to control them. Puppets bring the stories alive for us. Isn’t it magical to see lifeless figures suddenly dance, jump and talk? These ancient props rod puppet from West have always entertained and brought props Bengal people together. The puppeteers are master artists who have to practise for several days to give a perfect performance. In olden days, puppeteers would travel from village to village, doing puppet shows. They would leave behind stories and memories. They kept culture and rich heritage intact through their puppet shows. Nowadays, puppetry is no longer as popular as it was. The medium intact of telling stories has changed. We can now see stories on TV and read them in magazines, story books and comics. But the charm medium of stories remains the same. Let Us Discuss 1) What is a puppet in simple words? 2) What do we call a person who controls puppets? 3) What are string puppets also called? 4) What are glove puppets also called? Understanding the Text Exercise 1: New words Meaning Word traditions ancient props heritage Puppet Traditions of India 41

Word Meaning intact medium Exercise 2: Literature comprehension 1) What are the different ways in which a story can be told or shown? Ans.   2) What is a puppet made of, and how does it move? Ans.  3) What are shadow puppets? How are they used to tell stories? Ans.  4) What is the difference between rod puppets and glove puppets? Ans.  Exercise 3: Value-based questions – Judgement and appreciation 1) D o you think traditional art forms such as puppetry should be encouraged? Why or why not? Ans.     2) Do you think that storytelling is an important art form? How can we contribute to this wonderful tradition in our homes and schools? Ans.    42

Speaking Task Story telling The entire class sits in a large circle for this activity. One student begins with a sentence that starts a story. For example, ‘Once upon a time, there was a big, black dog.’ The second student in the circle adds a sentence to continue the story. Everyone must contribute to the story. Puppet Traditions of India 43

Lesson The Elephant’s 8 Nose Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Words with two syllables – verbs (second syllable is stressed) present decrease upset decide increase require reject rewrite Warm Up Activity • Do you know anybody who asks a lot of questions? Who is it? • Name a question that you have always wondered about. Have you tried to find the answer? Let us now read a story about how elephants got their trunks. 44

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