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Published by IMAX, 2020-02-13 00:34:42



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ENGLISH 4 LITERATURE – 2 Name: ___________________________________ Section: ________________ Roll No.: _________ School: __________________________________

Preface ClassKlap partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. Our books strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. ClassKlap presents the Traveller series, designed specifically to meet the requirements of the new curriculum released in November 2016 by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE). Guiding principles: The 2016 CISCE curriculum states the following as a few of its guiding principles for English language teaching:  Connecting learning to life in the outside world  Integrating English with other subjects across the curriculum  Using meaningful contexts to develop language as a whole  Making assessment for learning an integral part of the teaching-learning process  Ensuring active participation of children by using a variety of activities and tasks Each of these principles resonates with the spirit in which the ClassKlap textbooks, workbooks and teacher companion books have been designed. The ClassKlap team of pedagogy experts has carried out an intensive mapping exercise to create a framework based on the CISCE curriculum document. Key features of ClassKlap Traveller series:  B ooks for English are mapped to the assessment patterns of English-I and English-II in ICSE schools.  T he grammar concepts covered in English-I have a horizontal and vertical progression across the grades, providing a spiral of learning.  T he writing sections contain a wide variety of topics with a focus on process-based writing in higher grades.  T he English-II book also covers all the themes recommended by the CISCE curriculum across classes 1–5.  A hallmark of ICSE English is a wide representation of authors – Indian and foreign. The Traveller series includes pieces by writers such as Charles Dickens, Rabindranath Tagore, Sarojini Naidu, Oscar Wilde and Mark Twain among others.  Vocabulary building is a key focus area for ClassKlap Pictures for word meanings are included in each lesson to help students with visual clues for new or difficult words. All in all, the Traveller English books aim to generate greater engagement and enhance fluency in English communication, which spans all the four skills of Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. – The Authors

Textbook Features Warm Up About the Writer/Poet I Read Interesting questions to Brief introduction to the Literature piece (either arouse curiosity about the writer or poet prose, poetry or drama), lesson along with pictures for new/difficult words ? In-text Questions New Words Literature Comprehension Quick check of To practise contextual understanding meanings A variety of questions to ensure the comprehension of the lesson P VocabularyR I Feel I Speak Q Value-based questions Activities to cultivate To help build and based on the lesson that ask speaking skills enhance age-appropriate for opinions and judgement vocabulary Listen and Say Aloud Dictation Language Game P ronunciation practice Words from the lesson or Games to provide based on phonics, difficult sentences with commonly engagement with and words, tongue twisters and confused spellings for enhance fluency in the multi-syllabled words dictation practice language Listening Audio Connect the Dots A Note to Parent Captivating listening Questions that stimulate Constructive activities to audio pieces followed by interdisciplinary thinking be done at home along exercises by connecting English with with parents to reinforce other subjects learning

Contents 10 The Great Race................................... Art and Culture �����������������������������������������1 11 Black Beauty....................................... Animals and Plants ���������������������������������12 – Anna Sewell 12 My Shadow ....................................... Self, Family, Home, Friends����������������������18 – Robert Louis Stevenson 13 The Herculean Task .......................... Art and Culture ���������������������������������������26 14 Beware of Mikhailovitch .................... Art and Culture ���������������������������������������35 (Drama) 15 Going Downhill on a Bicycle ........... Physical Activities and Sports �����������������42 – Henry Charles Beeching 16 The Magical World of Science ........ Science and Technology �����������������������50 17 Robot with a Virus .............................. Science and Technology �����������������������59 18 Humpty Dumpty’s Song ................... Adventure and Imagination �������������������65 – Lewis Carroll Glossary�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������76

10Lesson The Great Race Art and Culture Warm Up • Different countries and cultures follow different calendars. The solar calendar is based on the Earth’s movement around the Sun, whereas the lunar calendar is based on the Moon’s movement around the Earth. Which calendar is followed the world over? • Do you know which calendar is followed while deciding the festival dates in India? Let us read an interesting story that will tell us why the Chinese calendar is named after twelve different animals. I Read zodiac Long ago, the Jade Emperor of China invited all the animals to a swimming race. He declared that the first twelve animals would each have a year of the zodiac named after them. All the animals lined up along the river bank. The rat and the cat were poor swimmers. They asked the strong ox to help them. ‘Of course’, said the kind ox. ‘Just climb on my back. I will take you across the river.’ A Good Play 1

They had almost reached the other bank when the rat pushed the cat into the water. Just as the ox was about to win the race, the rat leapt onto his head and then onto the bank to finish first. ‘Well done’, said the emperor to the proud rat. ‘The first year of the zodiac will be named after you.’ The poor ox had the second year of the zodiac named after him. Shortly after them, an exhausted tiger clawed his way to the river bank. The third year of the zodiac was named after him. The next to arrive was the rabbit. He had reached exhausted the shore by floating on a log. The Jade Emperor declared the fourth year after his name. Just then, a dragon swooped down to take fifth place. The emperor asked, ‘Why didn’t you win the race when you can fly?’ swooped ? Which are the ‘I needed to make rain for a few animals in the thirsty animals and people. Then, I story that were blew a puff of wind to help the kind and helpful? rabbit float to the river bank.’ puff ‘Well, that was very kind of you. You will have the fifth year of the zodiac named after you’, declared the emperor. T he next thing the Jade Emperor heard was the sound of the horse’s hooves. Suddenly, a sneaky snake wriggled out from sneaky around one of the horse’s hooves. hooves wriggled The horse was surprised and jumped backwards, giving the snake a chance to take the sixth place. The poor horse had to be satisfied with seventh place. Not long afterwards, a raft arrived, carrying the raft goat, the monkey and the rooster. The emperor said rooster that the goat would be the eighth zodiac animal. The monkey would be the ninth, and the rooster the tenth. The next animal to finish was the dog. His reward was to have the eleventh year named after him. There was only one place left in the zodiac. Finally, the emperor boar heard a grunt from the boar. ‘You took a long time to cross the river’, said the emperor to the boar. 22

‘I was hungry and stopped to eat’, explained the According to the boar. ? story, why have ‘You have still done well’, said the emperor. ‘The cats and rats not last year of the zodiac will be named after you.’ been friends since the race? As for the cat, he was too late to have a year named after him. He felt very angry with the rat. Since then, cats have never been friends with rats. From that day onwards, the Chinese Zodiac has followed this cycle of years that was named after these twelve animals.  (Source: New Words Word Meaning Jade Emperor zodiac exhausted swooped puff hooves sneaky wriggled raft rooster boar The Great Race 3 A Good Play

Literature Comprehension A) Direct questions and answers 1) How did the rat reach the river bank first? Ans.   2) Why did the dragon not reach first even though it could fly? Ans.   3) Which animals arrived together on a raft? Ans.   B) Reference to context 4) ‘Just climb on my back. I will take you across the river.’ a) Who said this and to whom? Ans.  b) When did the speaker say this? Ans.  c) Where was the speaker when he said this? Ans.  5) ‘The last year of the zodiac will be named after you.’ a) Who says this? Ans.  b) To whom did the speaker say this? Ans.  c) Why did the speaker say this? Ans.  44

C) Answer the following ______________ 6) Write whether the statements are true or false. ______________ a) The rat cheated the ox and the cat in the swimming race. ______________ b) The rabbit reached the shore by a boat. ______________ c) The horse was disappointed upon not getting the sixth place. ______________ d) The eleventh year was named after the dog. e) The boar helped the cat cross the river. PR Vocabulary Q Feeling words Feeling words can be used to describe a person’s positive and negative feelings. A feeling is the state of a person’s emotions. For example: • You get annoyed when someone spills ink on your dress. • You are confused when you’re reading a book annoyed confused and don’t know what is going on. • You may get frightened when you see a big spider. frightened • You may feel anxious before getting the results of your anxious exams. 7) Match the feeling words in the box to the given pictures. Also, write a sentence with each feeling word. surprised    nervous    elated    embarrassed a)  The Great Race 5 A Good Play

b)  c)  d)  I Feel 8) Why is the snake called ‘sneaky’ in the story? Ans.    9) Which animal’s efforts do you appreciate the most in the story? Why? Ans.     66

I Speak This is an activity to help you to practise your speaking or conversational skills in English. Conversation 1 Act out the following situation with your partner before the class: Situation: Mahesh introduces his cousin Anand to his friend. Mahesh: Hello Zara, how are you? (greeting) Zara: Fine, thank you. How are you? Mahesh: I am fine too. (responding to the greeting) Mahesh: Zara, meet my cousin Anand. Anand, meet my friend Zara. Zara: How do you do? (responding to the first introduction) Anand: I am fine. How do you do? Mahesh: Zara, yesterday I saw your brother at the railway station. Was he going somewhere? Zara: No. He had gone to the station with my grandparents to help them to carry the luggage. Conversation 2 Enact the situation given below with your partner in front of the class. Situation: A conversation between a shopkeeper and a customer. Shopkeeper: How can I help you? Customer: Can you show me some shoes, please? Shopkeeper: Sure, which colour and size? Customer: Black. And size eight, I think. Shopkeeper: How about these shoes? Customer: They seem to fit well. Could you pack these shoes, please? Shopkeeper: Certainly! Here is your packet. Customer: Thank you! The Great Race 7 A Good Play

Make groups of three. Write a noun on a slip of paper and fold it. Then, exchange the slips with your group members. You have to speak on something related to the word on your slip for 30 seconds. Time each other to see who speaks for the longest time. Listen and Say Aloud Words with more than four syllables multiplication imagination generosity personality overpopulation identification responsibility enthusiastically Sentence Dictation 10) Listen to your teacher and write the sentences. a)  b)  c)  d)  e)  Language Game Which head is blowing fire? Dragons are a symbol of good luck in China. The dragon also represents the fifth year of the zodiac. Solve the dragon puzzle by matching the head that is blowing fire with the body. Once you finish it, write down as many words that you can think of that start with the letter ‘z’, e.g. ‘zodiac’. How many have you got? 88

Ans.   Listening Audio 11) What did Trishanku desire? [    ] a) wealth c) to reach heaven when he dies b) to ascend bodily into heaven d) to get godly powers The Great Race 9 A Good Play

12) Why did Sage Vishwamitra decide to fulfil Trishanku’s desire? [    ] a) for the good turn he had done Vishwamitra b) to receive praises c) so that he would be worshipped d) for making him stop praying to Vishnu 13) What did Indra do to Trishanku? [    ] a) made Trishanku sit next to him b) threw him down from heaven c) adorned him with flowers d) made him ascend to heaven 14) What did Vishwamitra do to keep Trishanku from falling down? [    ] a) propped him up with a long pole b) placed a big cloth mid-air c) propped him up with a sword d) raised his hand and caught him 15) Which part of the coconut, according to the story, is Trishanku’s beard? [    ] a) the husk b) the inner part c) the nut d) the fibre Connect the Dots Maths Fun You learnt how to make tangrams in the previous grade. Look at the tangrams of the Chinese zodiac, and try making them on your own. 1100

Social Studies Fun China has the world’s largest population. Hence, the Chinese New Year is celebrated by one fifth of the world’s population! ‘Xinnian kuaile’ means ‘Happy New Year’ in Chinese. It is pronounced ‘shin nee-an kwai le’. 2017 is the year of the rooster, while 2018 is the year of the dog and 2019 is the year of the boar. A Note to Parent We follow the Gregorian calendar the world over. Familiarise your child with the local calendar used in your culture. It is important to remain connected with one’s heritage. The Great Race 11 A Good Play

11Lesson Black Beauty Animals and Plants Warm Up • Do you think that animals can be our best friends? Why or why not? • If you were an animal and could not speak, how would you warn your master about some danger? About the Writer Anna Sewell (1820–1878) was an English novelist. She is best known as the author of the 1877 novel Black Beauty. Black Beauty is considered to be one of the top-ten bestselling novels for children ever written. Let us read the story of a horse named Black Beauty and how he saved his master. I Read rails and woodwork One day, my master had to go on business. dog-cart I was put into the dog-cart, and John went with us. There had been a great deal of rain, and the wind was very high. We went along merrily till we came to the toll-bar and the low wooden bridge. The river banks were rather high, 1122

and the bridge went across just level. In the middle, if the river was full, the water would be nearly up to the woodwork and planks; but as there were good, strong rails on each side, people did not mind it. W hen we got to the town, the master’s business took him planks a long time, and we did not start for home till late. What did Black Beauty hear the The wind was much higher. I ? master tell John heard the master say to John when they started that he had never been out in for home? such a storm before. We went along the woods, where great storm branches were swaying about like twigs. It was dark by the time we got to the bridge. We could see that the water was over the middle of it; but as that happened sometimes, master did not stop. But the moment my feet touched the bridge, I felt sure there was something wrong. I dared not go forward, and I twigs made a dead stop. ‘Go on, Beauty’, said my master, and he gave me a touch with the whip, but I did not stir. He gave me a sharp cut but still I did not go forward. ‘There’s something wrong, Sir’, said John, and he sprang out of the dog-cart and looked all around. ‘Come on, Beauty, what’s the matter?’ Of course I could not tell him, but I knew very well that the bridge was not safe. Just then, the man at the toll gate on the other side ran out of the house, tossing a torch about like a mad man. ‘Stop!’ he cried. tossing ‘What’s the matter?’ shouted my master. ? Why did the man at the toll gate ‘The bridge is broken in the middle, and if you come stop them from on you’ll be into the river.’ going ahead? ‘Thank God!’ said my master. ‘You Beauty!’ said John, and took the bridle and gently turned me around. I trotted quietly along, the wheels hardly making a sound on the soft road. Master said that if I had gone on as he wanted, most bridle likely the bridge would have given way under trotted us. We would have all fallen into the river and drowned. given way Black Beauty 13 A Good Play

As we reached the park gates, we saw a light at the hall door and mistress ran out, saying, ‘Are you really safe, my dear? Oh! I have been so worried.’ ‘If your Black Beauty had not been wiser than we were, we would all have been carried down the river at the wooden bridge.’ supper I heard no more, and John took me to the stable. stable bran Oh, what a good supper he gave me that night, a oats good bran mash and some crushed beans with my oats and a thick bed of straw. I was glad, for I was tired. – Adapted from Black Beauty by Anna Sewell New Words Word Meaning dog-cart toll-bar woodwork planks rails storm twigs tossing bridle trotted given way stable supper bran oats 1144

I Speak Make groups of three. Change the story into a play. Write down the lines. You can also add more lines or add a twist to the story. Then, act out the play. Each member of the group will take up the roles of the master, John, mistress and Black Beauty. Sit in a circle with your teacher and classmates. Your teacher will provide you with a copy of the book, Black Beauty, from which the above story has been taken. Take turns to read the first part of the story about the birth of the baby horse that comes to be known as Black Beauty. Listen and Say Aloud Here is a tongue twister to practise the ‘ch’ and ‘w’ sounds. Try saying it aloud as fast as you can. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? Can you find a few words from the lesson that have the ‘ch’ and ‘w’ sounds? Word Dictation 1) Listen to your teacher and write the words. c) a) b) f) d) e) i) g) h) Black Beauty 15 A Good Play

Language Game Let’s make alliterations! Six socks sit in a sink, soaking Alliteration is when you repeat a beginning sound in a group of words. in soapsuds. Example: Black Beauty did not barge onto the broken Cabbage Cricket Crunch bridge. Strawberry Salsa Swirl Divide your class into groups of three. Choose any three letters and make three alliterations using those letters. You can make fun sentences like the ones on the right! Listening Audio 2) Where does the owner of the woods live? Ans.   3) Why would the little horse think that there was some mistake? Ans.    4) What does the poet say about the woods? Ans.    5) What was special about that evening? Ans.   6) Write the line that is repeated in the poem. Ans.   1166

Connect the Dots Maths Fun The master and John gave Black Beauty a treat for saving their lives. They gave Black Beauty many green and red apples to eat. Use tally marks to find out how many green apples and red apples Black Beauty ate that night. Social Studies Fun Horses were tamed and domesticated 4,000 years ago. They were used mainly for transportation. This was because they were capable of moving much faster and further than humans. Nowadays, horses have been replaced by cars, tractors and other modes of transport. Horses are now raised as pets, companions and athletes for horse races. A Note to Parent Black Beauty has been considered to be a children’s book ever since it was written. However, the author meant for it to reach a wider audience. She wanted this book to act as a message that animals should not be treated cruelly but be given the love and respect that is given to any human being. Share this message with your child and ensure that they do not treat any animal with cruelty. Teach your child to have compassion for all living beings. Black Beauty 17 A Good Play

12Lesson My Shadow Self, Family, Home, Friends Warm Up • S ometimes, when you are walking in the light, do you see something dark walking along with you? Do you know what it is called? • H ave you ever realised that its shape keeps changing? Do you know why that happens? About the Poet Robert Louis Stevenson (1850 –1894) was a famous writer and poet from Scotland. Two of his famous books are Treasure Island and Kidnapped. He has also written many fun poems for children. Let us read a poem about what a child has to say about this. I Read I have a little shadow that goes in and out with me, ? Who is ‘very very And what can be the use of him is more than I can see. like’ the child in He is very, very like me from the heels up to the head; the poem? And I see him jump before me, when I jump into my bed. 1188

The funniest thing about him is the way he likes to grow, ? What is the funniest Not at all like proper children, which is always very slow. thing about the For he sometimes shoots up taller like an India-rubber ball, shadow? And he sometimes gets so little there’s none of him at all. He hasn’t got a notion of how children ought to play, nursie And can only make a fool of me in every sort of way. He stays so close beside me, he’s a coward you can see; I’d think shame to stick to nursie as that shadow sticks to me! coward One morning, very early, before the Sun was up, buttercup I rose and found the shining dew on every buttercup. But my lazy little shadow, like an arrant sleepy-head, Had stayed at home behind me and was fast asleep in bed. dew – Robert Louis Stevenson New Words Word Meaning India-rubber ball notion ought coward nursie dew buttercup arrant My Shadow 19 A Good Play

Literature Comprehension A) Direct questions and answers 1) Mention two things that the shadow does with the child in the poem. Ans.    2) Why does the child call his shadow a coward? Ans.    3) What did the shadow do when the child got up before the Sun? Ans.    B) Reference to context 4) ‘And I see him jump before me, when I jump into my bed.’ a) Who does ’him’ refer to in these lines? Ans.  b) Who does ‘me’ refer to in these lines? Ans.  c) What is the speaker trying to say in this line? Ans.  5) ‘For he sometimes shoots up taller like an India-rubber ball,’ a) Whom does ‘he’ refer to? Ans.  2200

b) How does the child feel in this stanza? Ans.  c) What comparison does the child make in this line? Ans.   C) Answer the following 6) Complete the sentences based on the ideas expressed in the poem. a) In the first stanza, the child feels that the shadow is ______. Ans.  b) In the second and third stanzas, the child compares the shadow to the ______. Ans.  c) The child is amused when he sees ______. Ans.  d) In the third stanza, the child sounds annoyed with the shadow because ______. Ans.  e) In the fourth stanza, the child does not have a shadow because ______. Ans.  PR Vocabulary Q Synonyms Synonyms are words that are similar or have meanings related to each other. You need to choose an appropriate synonym carefully, as they are not all the same. Examples: • beautiful: pretty, lovely •  funny: humorous, comical • intelligent: smart, bright •  honest: sincere, truthful 7) Write a synonym for each of the words that has been underlined in the sentences. a) The old artefacts were on display in the museum.  _____________________________ My Shadow 21 A Good Play

b) The old house has been empty for many years.  _____________________________ c) My neighbours are very kind.  _____________________________ d) It was a hard task, so he had to work more. _____________________________ I Feel 8) W hy do you think the shadow did not go along with the child very early before the Sun rose? Ans.     9) W hat does the child feel about sticking close to his nurse or caretaker? Why do you think he feels this way? Ans.     I Speak In a few cultures, it was considered unlucky to see one’s shadow while looking at the mirror. In Egyptian culture, the shadow of a person under an umbrella was considered lucky. A shadow is formed by light. When an object doesn’t allow light to pass through it, a shadow forms. This is the scientific explanation for how shadows are formed. However, when people do not understand something, superstitions are born. A superstition is something that people believe in because they think it is lucky or unlucky. There is often no scientific reason for the belief or practice. For example, the fear of Friday the 13th is a popular superstition. 2222

Do you know of superstitions from your culture? Sit in groups of five and share the popular superstitions that you are aware of. Try to think about how these superstitions may have developed. In the poem ‘My Shadow’, the child describes how he spends his time playing with his shadow. Divide your class into pairs. Ask questions to each other about the fun things that you do by yourselves. Listen and Say Aloud Word Rhyming word Word Rhyming word me see ball all head bed play way grow slow up buttercup Sentence Dictation 10) Listen to your teacher and write the sentences. a)  b)  c)  d)  e)  My Shadow 23 A Good Play

Language Game Which is the correct shadow? Match the correct shadow to the picture. Once you are done, list as many words that you can think of that begin with the sound ‘sh’. How many did you get? Listening Audio 11) How many islands together make the Lakshadweep islands? [    ] a) 36 b) 34 c) 24 d) 28 12) How many among these islands are populated? [    ] a) 10 b) 32 c) 15 d) 25 13) What was Lakshadweep formerly called? [    ] a) Minicoy b) Seychelles c) Laccadives d) Lakh Deeps 14) Which is the biggest of all the Lakshadweep islands? [    ] a) Port Blair b) Kavaratti c) Minicoy d) Mahim 15) Which of the following languages is mentioned in the passage you  [    ] heard? a) English b) Malayalam c) Hindi d) Muslim 2244

Connect the Dots Maths Fun If there are 5 men, 3 women, 2 children and 6 dogs standing in a dark room, how many shadows will you see? Social Studies Fun Do you know what an eclipse is? It is shadows at play. A shadow cast by the Earth on the Moon results in a lunar eclipse. Similarly, a shadow cast by the Moon on the Earth results in a solar eclipse. A Note to Parent Do you remember having fun with shadows in a dimly lit room? Relive the experience with your child by doing some shadow play with your hands. My Shadow 25 A Good Play

13Lesson The Herculean Task Art and Culture Warm Up • According to you, what qualities should a hero have? • If you were a hero, what qualities would you like to have? Let us read a story about the ‘hero’ of Rome, Hercules, who was famous for his strength and his love of adventure. I Read King Eurystheus was worried. Hercules had proven his courage and strength by completing the previous ten difficult tasks that had been given to him. He was becoming popular. People had started calling him a hero. ‘The next task must be even more dangerous and challenging’, thought the king. ‘It is important that he loses so that the countrymen can see me as their hero again.’ King Eurystheus called Hercules to his court and congratulated him. He set him the challenge of getting golden apples from the Garden of the Hesperides. nymph Hercules set out in pursuit of this new pursuit challenge, and on the way, he met a beautiful nymph. He asked her for help. 2266

She told him to seek the old ? Who guided man of the sea, who was the Hercules at the best navigator. ‘But there is one beginning of the condition – you need to hold challenge? him tight. It is difficult to maintain navigator a grip on him. He can change forms’, warned the nymph. Hercules found the old man sleeping on the shore. He quietly moved towards him and held on to him tight before he could react. The old man woke up, startled. ‘Who are you?’ he screamed. ‘I am Hercules. I need your help to show me the way to the Garden of startled the Hesperides.’ The old man struggled to get free. However, Hercules held on even tighter. The old man turned himself into a deer. He then turned into a kraken – a sea monster resembling a giant octopus. He tried to scare Hercules but failed every time. Garden of the Finally, the old man told him about the kraken Hesperides Hesperides, who were the goddesses of the evening. He said that the golden apples were in a garden on an island. To get to the island, Hercules would need to take the help of Antaeus, who was a short- tempered man. Hercules thanked the old man. After some time, he met Antaeus. ‘What do you want from me?’ yelled Antaeus. ‘I want you to show me the way to the Garden of the Hesperides.’ ‘How dare you?’ Antaeus was angry. He attacked Hercules. Ladon Hercules fought back and lifted Antaeus high up in the air. Antaeus got scared. ‘Please put me down. I will answer all your questions.’ Antaeus told him that the ? Who guarded the Garden of the mythology Garden of the Hesperides was Hesperides? guarded by a never-sleeping, hundred-headed dragon named Ladon. Only Atlas could enter the garden and take the golden apples. According to Roman mythology, it was believed that Atlas had been carrying the weight of the Earth on his shoulders for over a thousand years. The Herculean Task 27 A Good Play

Hercules knew that convincing Atlas would be next to impossible. He also knew that Atlas hated carrying the Earth on his shoulders. So, on his way, he thought of a plan. When Hercules reached the Garden, he said, ‘I salute you, Atlas. You have been holding the Earth for so long.’ ‘I am so tired’, exclaimed Atlas. ‘I can help you ease the load for some time. You only have Atlas to get me three golden apples from the Garden of the Hesperides’, offered Hercules. Atlas agreed and brought back the golden apples for Hercules. He could do anything for some rest. ‘You are great, Atlas! It is quite a tough task to hold the Earth’, said Hercules. When Hercules returned with the three golden apples, the king was shocked and nearly fainted. New Words Word Meaning adventure courage Garden of the Hesperides pursuit nymph navigator startled short-tempered mythology fainted 2288

Literature Comprehension A) Direct questions and answers 1) Why did the king want Hercules to lose a challenge? Ans.   2) How did the nymph help Hercules? Ans.   3) Who was standing outside the gate of the garden? What did Hercules offer to do for him? Ans.   B) Reference to context 4) ‘Who are you?’ a) Who said this and to whom? Ans.  b) What was the speaker’s feeling when he said this and why? Ans.  c) Why did the speaker say these words? Ans.  5) ‘I want you to show me the way to the Garden of the Hesperides.’ a) Who is the speaker? Ans.  b) Who is being spoken to? Ans.  c) How does the listener react? Ans.  The Herculean Task 29 A Good Play

C) Answer the following 6) Read the sentences. Write whether they are true or false. a) The king assigned an easy task to Hercules. _______________ b) Antaeus was a short-tempered man. _______________ c) Hercules met Atlas at the entrance of the garden. _______________ d) Hercules won the challenge because he was a cunning man. _______________ e) The king nearly fainted when he saw Hercules with the three _______________ golden apples. P R Vocabulary Q Idioms ‘A Herculean task’ is a phrase that means a task that is very hard to complete. It is an idiom. An idiom is a group of words that means something different from what the words literally mean. Look at a few more examples of idioms. crying over spilt milk • To spill the beans means ‘to talk too much and reveal a secret’. • To have butterflies in the stomach means ‘to feel anxious or nervous’. • To cry over spilt milk means ‘worrying about something that has already happened’. • To add fuel to the fire means ‘to make a bad situation worse’. 7) Match the idioms in Column A to their meanings in Column B. Then, draw each idiom in the space given. Column A   Column B a) it’s all in your head      A) call for help when it is not needed b) to cry wolf      B) someone has nothing to say c) under the weather d) cat got my tongue      C) s omething that is imagined and not real     D) feeling sick or sad 3300

it’s all in your head to cry wolf under the weather cat got my tongue I Feel 8) What are a few of the important qualities of Hercules that helped him succeed at his task? Ans.    9) G iven below are a few qualities that might make a person a hero. Discuss each quality with your classmates. Then, choose three qualities that you would like to have. Give reasons for your choices. c ourage, humility, patience, ability to understand other people, ability to work hard, honesty, kindness, helpfulness, sensitivity Ans.    The Herculean Task 31 A Good Play

I Speak We all have examples of real-life heroes like Gandhi, Mother Teresa and Malala Yousafzai. Read or listen to the stories of these famous role models. Make two groups in class. Each group chooses a hero that it feels inspired by. The groups then list down their heroes’ qualities and share them with the class. Parents, teachers and other elders often give us seemingly difficult tasks to complete. Tell your class about one such ‘Herculean task’ by answering the following questions: • What was the task set for you? •  Who set this task? • What were the challenges that you faced? •  Who helped you? • Did you manage to complete the task? •  What did you learn about yourself? Listen and Say Aloud Words proven sturdy react accomplished salute pursuit firmly convincing Word Dictation 10) Listen to your teacher and write the words. c) a) b) f) d) e) i) g) h) 3322

Language Game Jumbled words Rearrange the jumbled words. Jumbled word Actual word Jumbled word Actual word GDROAN PYHMN LASTA DOGNEL SANTAEU RAINGOTAV Listening Audio 11) What did Akbar love doing? Ans.  12) How many roads were there at the junction? Ans.   13) According to the young man, which of the roads went to Agra? Ans.   14) What was the young man’s name? Ans.   15) What did Akbar gift the young man? Ans.   The Herculean Task 33 A Good Play

Connect the Dots Maths Fun If each golden apple weighs 241 kg, how much would 3 apples weigh? Social Studies Fun You have learnt earlier how different ancient civilizations are connected with one another. The civilizations also influenced one another. The Romans were influenced by the Greek and Egyptian civilizations. Therefore, there are many similarities between the Greek and Roman myths. They also worshipped the same gods but with different names. For example, the goddess of love is known as ‘Aphrodite’ in Greek culture but as ‘Venus’ in Roman culture. Look at the following images of two ancient structures of the Greek and Roman civilizations. Colosseum, Rome Herodeon of Athens, Greece A Note to Parent This story is taken from a Roman myth. Tell your child stories from Indian mythology or from other cultures. There is a lot to be learnt about cultures and human behaviour through myths and legends. They also make for fascinating stories. 3344

14Lesson Beware of Mikhailovitch Art and Culture Warm Up • Have you ever changed houses? • Do you think changing houses and going to new places is good? Why or why not? Let us read a funny drama piece about a mysterious character named Mikhailovitch. I Read Setting: A cosy living room in a cottage in Russia with a fireplace at the fireplace back. Two easy chairs and a sofa with a ? In which country centre table are the only furniture in the is the play set? living room. An old, worn-out rug is placed on the floor, close to the fireplace. Satish Anand – Cast Meera – a man in his forties; Meera’s husband Aditya – a woman in her forties; Satish’s wife Yuri – Satish and Meera’s nine-year-old son Valentina – the Russian landlord the Russian cleaning lady A Good Play 35

Satish: This is a lovely and beautifully furnished cottage. We were lucky to get it. It’s really cosy. Aditya: (sitting on the sofa) I’m tired, and I’m also bored. Meera: (sitting on the chair) Don’t worry. I’m sure you will make furnished lots of friends at school. Aditya: I’m cold. Satish: (moving to the fireplace and warming his hands) Come closer to the fireplace. It’s warm. Aditya: (not moving) I’m hungry. Meera: Just wait for a bit. Yuri said Valentina would bring some groceries very soon, and I’ll make you a sandwich. Satish: Meera, come here, I want to talk to you about What was the something. strange thing that Yuri said over the ?Meera: (going close to him) Yes, what is it? phone? Satish: Yuri told me a strange thing. Before he disconnected the call, he said, ‘Beware of Mikhailovitch’. I don’t understand what he meant. Meera: Shhh! Don’t let Aditya hear that. He might get scared. Aditya: I heard you! Who is Mikhailovitch? Satish: (with a forced smile) Nothing, son. Doorbell rings. Meera: (opening the door) Ah, it’s Valentina. Do come in. Valentina comes in carrying packets of groceries. Valentina: Good evening, welcome to Moscow. I have brought the groceries. She goes into the kitchen to keep the packets. groceries Valentina: I cleaned the cottage yesterday. If you need any help, I live close by. Do give me a call. Yuri is coming to meet you, and he will give you your local mobile phone and my number. Opens the front door and steps out. Valentina: Everything is fine here, but beware of Mikhailovitch. Valentina closes the door and leaves before the family can ask questions. 3366

Aditya: Who is Mikhailovitch? Satish: (uneasily) Don’t worry; I’m sure it’s nothing. Aditya: I’m sure Mikhailovitch is a gangster. A tall, huge man with a black hat and a machine gun. Papa, I’m scared, I wish we hadn’t come. Satish: Be calm; Yuri is coming very soon. We’ll ask him. Meera, please gangster make a sandwich for Aditya. Meera: (going to the kitchen) Of course, coming to help me? Aditya: No, we better be prepared in case Mikhailovitch comes in with his gun. Papa, you don’t happen to have a hidden revolver, do you? Satish: (smiling) No, son. I don’t. revolver There is a scratching sound at the front door. Aditya: (in a panicked tone) That must be Mikhailovitch, what should we do? Satish: (opening the door a little and laughing loudly) Come in. Aditya: Papa! Be careful, what are you doing? Satish opens the door, and a beautiful, white cat walks in regally, with measured steps, goes to the rug near the fireplace and settles down. Satish: This cat must belong to the owners of the cottage; see how regally comfortable it is. Aditya: (with a relieved sigh) I was very frightened. Satish and Aditya share a smile. Meera: What was the commotion? Oh my goodness, what do we have here? What a beauty! Come here. The cat ignores everyone and makes itself comfortable. Aditya: Mummy, we were really scared just now. The cat scratched commotion the door, and I thought it was Mikhailovitch. When Papa opened the door, I got really scared. Meera: (smiling) We’ll clear this mystery of Mikhailovitch once and for all when Yuri comes. Now, be a good boy and have your snack. Aditya goes into the kitchen and returns with a look of surprise. Aditya: Mummy, where are the sandwiches? There is an empty plate on the table. Meera: (stunned) I made them just now. What could have happened? Beware of Mikhailovitch 37 A Good Play

Aditya: Mummy, I’m terrified. Do you think Mikhailovitch came in through the kitchen window and took the sandwiches? Doorbell rings. Satish opens the door. Satish: It’s Yuri. Do come in. Yuri: (shaking hands with Satish) Welcome to our country! I’m acquaintance sure you will enjoy yourself here. This cottage is very comfortable except for one thing. Ah! I see Mikhailovitch has made your acquaintance, naughty boy. Satish, Meera and Aditya: Who is Mikhailovitch? Yuri: (pointing to the cat) There he is. Is there any food missing? He is always hungry and steals all the food in the kitchen. Beware of Mikhailovitch! Everyone bursts out laughing, and the looks of worry on the faces of Satish and Meera disappear. – Manjula Shukla New Words Word Meaning fireplace furnished groceries gangster revolver regally commotion acquaintance 3388

I Speak A play is written for the stage. This story about Mikhailovitch is presented in the form of a drama or play. Divide your class into groups. You can enact the play or read it out using voice modulation and expressions for the different characters. Get into groups of three. Now, imagine that Mikhailovitch wasn’t a cat after all. Think of a different ending for the play in your group. Write it down and share your ending with the rest of the class. Vote for a group other than your own that you think presented the best ending. Listen and Say Aloud furnished Words regal moustache fireplace gangster groceries acquaintance scratching Sentence Dictation 1) Listen to your teacher and write the sentences. a)  b)  c)  d)  e)  Beware of Mikhailovitch 39 A Good Play

Language Game Many words from one Come up with as many words as you can by using the letters of the name MIKHAILOVITCH in one minute. See who gets the most words in your class. Listening Audio 2) Where was Jawaharlal Nehru born? [    ] a) Ahmedabad b) Allahabad c) Bhopal d) Aligarh 3) Who was Jawaharlal Nehru’s mother? [    ] a) Kamala Nehru b) Kamala Das c) Putali Bai d) Swarup Rani 4) What was Nehru’s profession before he joined the freedom movement? [    ] a) lawyer b) professor c) scientist d) teacher 5) What was Nehru’s position after India attained independence? [    ] a) Home Minister b) Chief Minister c) Prime Minister d) President of India 6) Why is 14th November celebrated as Children’s Day? [    ] a) It is Jawaharlal Nehru’s birthday. b) It is MK Gandhi’s birthday. c) Jawaharlal Nehru loved children. d) Both a and c. 4400

Connect the Dots Maths Fun Meera has made 13 sandwiches. She needs to divide them equally among Aditya, Yuri and Satish. But Mikhailovitch has stolen 2. How many parts will she have to divide them into so that all three individuals can get an equal share? Science Fun Did you know that the cat family comprises of 37 cat species, including animals like the cheetah, the lion and the tiger? Collect pictures of other animals that belong to this family, and make a chart for your science lab. A Note to Parent Encourage your child to learn more about theatre and plays. Try taking them for a play in your locality. Beware of Mikhailovitch 41 A Good Play

15Lesson Going Downhill on a Bicycle Physical Activities and Sports Warm Up • Do you know cycling? Do you like to cycle? Why or why not? • Have you ever cycled down a hill? How do you think you would feel while cycling down a hill? Share your thoughts. About the Poet Henry Charles Beeching (1859–1919) was an English poet and priest. Two of his other poems are ‘A Boy’s Prayer’ and ‘Fatherhood’. Let us read a poem in which the poet describes the fun of riding downhill on a bicycle. I Read With lifted feet, hands still, dart heedful I am poised and down the hill Dart, with heedful mind; The air goes by in a wind. poised 4422

Swifter and yet more swift, ? According to the Till the heart with a mighty lift poet, how does Makes the lungs laugh, the throat cry, the air go? ‘O bird, see; see, bird, I fly. Is this, is this your joy? ? To whom does the O bird, then I, though a boy, poet compare his For a golden moment share, joy? Your feathery life in air!’ – Henry Charles Beeching New Words Word Meaning poised dart heedful Literature Comprehension A) Direct questions and answers 1) Describe the boy’s position before going down the hill. Ans.   2) What happens when the boy goes ‘swifter and yet more swift’? Ans.   3) What does the boy ask the bird to see? Ans.   Going Downhill on a Bicycle 43 A Good Play

B) Reference to context 4) ‘I am poised and down the hill Dart, with heedful mind;’ a) Who does ‘I’ refer to? Ans.  b) Where is the speaker when he says these lines? Ans.  c) What is the speaker getting ready for? Ans.  5) ‘Is this, is this your joy?’ a) Who says this and to whom? Ans.  b) What does ‘this’ refer to? Ans.  c) Why does the speaker say this? Ans.   C) Answer the following 6) Match Column A to Column B. Column A      Column B a) In the second line, the       A) h e is riding swiftly with a word ‘poised’   heedful mind. b) When the boy rides down           B) the joy of flying. the hill,          C) because he rides the c) The rider and the bird share cycle swiftly. d) A ‘golden moment’ refers to      D) means ‘properly the moment   positioned’. e) The boy can be considered       E) w hen the boy feels that he a careless rider is as free as a bird. 4444

PR Vocabulary Q Prefixes and suffixes A prefix is a letter or a group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word to change the word’s original meaning. A suffix is a letter or a group of letters that is usually added to the end of a word. It changes the way the word fits into a sentence grammatically. The original word to which a suffix or prefix is added is called the root word or base word. For example: Prefix + Base word New word dis + advantage disadvantage ir + relevant irrelevant Base Word + Suffix New Word sad + ness sadness arrive + al arrival 7) Given below are a few prefixes and suffixes. Read the sentences and add a prefix or a suffix to the words in brackets to complete them. mis ment ish ir a) The school expelled him for his ________________________. (behaviour) b) A decision was finally made after some heated ________________________. (argue) c) It would be ________________________ to ignore these warnings. (responsible) d) I’ve had enough of your ________________________ pranks. (child) I Feel 8) What do you think the boy thinks about the lives of birds? Ans.   Going Downhill on a Bicycle 45 A Good Play

9) The poem is about feeling joyful. What kinds of activities give you a feeling of joy? Ans.        I Speak People often get lost when they are travelling or when they are in a new place. Imagine that your partner is a new student. Take turns and help him or her by giving directions to different places in your school. You could also try giving them directions from the school to your house. Make groups of four. Discuss the mode of transportation – air, water or land – that you think is the best. Give reasons for your choice. Listen and Say Aloud Word Rhyming word Word Rhyming word still hill swift lift cry fly joy boy air – share – 4466

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