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Home Explore 51705016_Maple G4_Textbook Integrated_Term3

51705016_Maple G4_Textbook Integrated_Term3

Published by IMAX, 2020-04-09 01:51:05

Description: 51705016_Maple G4_Textbook Integrated_Term3


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Contents 4Class Theme 5: Exploring the World 14 Beware of Mikhailovitch���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1 (Drama) 15 Going Downhill on a Bicycle ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 S5 Speaking Project ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10 R5 Reading Comprehension ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Theme 6: The Wonders of Science 16 The Magical World of Science ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������15 17 Robot with a Virus ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 20 18 My Shadow ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24 S6 Speaking Project ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29 R6 Reading Comprehension ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 30 Glossary �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 33

Lesson Beware of Mikhailovitch 14 Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Words furnished gangster regal moustache fireplace scratching groceries acquaintance Warm Up Activity • Have you ever changed houses? • Do you think changing houses and going to new places is good? Why or why not? Let us read a funny drama piece about a mysterious character named Mikhailovitch. 1

Reading the Text Setting: A cosy living room in a cottage in Russia with a fireplace at the back. Two easy chairs and a sofa with a centre table are the only furniture in the living room. An old, worn-out rug is placed on the floor, close to the fireplace. fireplace Satish Anand – Cast a man in his forties; Meera’s husband Meera – a woman in her forties; Satish’s wife Satish and Meera’s nine-year-old son Aditya – the Russian landlord the Russian cleaning lady Yuri – Valentina – Satish: This is a lovely and beautifully furnished cottage. We were lucky to get it. It’s really cosy. Aditya: (sitting on the sofa) I’m tired, and I’m also bored. Meera: (sitting on the chair) Don’t worry. I’m sure you will make lots furnished of friends at school. Aditya: I’m cold. Satish: (moving to the fireplace and warming his hands) Come closer to the fireplace. It’s warm. Aditya: (not moving) I’m hungry. Meera: Just wait for a bit. Yuri said Valentina would bring some groceries groceries very soon, and I’ll make you a sandwich. Satish: Meera, come here; I want to talk to you about something. Meera: (going close to him) Yes, what is it? Satish: Yuri told me a strange thing. Before he disconnected the call, he said, ‘Beware of Mikhailovitch’. I don’t understand what he meant. Meera: Shhh! Don’t let Aditya hear that. He might get scared. Aditya: I heard you! Who is Mikhailovitch? Satish: (with a forced smile) Nothing, son. 2

Doorbell rings. Meera: (opening the door) Ah, it’s Valentina. Do come in. Valentina comes in, carrying packets of groceries. Valentina: Good evening, welcome to Moscow. I have brought the groceries. She goes into the kitchen to keep the packets. Valentina: I cleaned the cottage yesterday. If you need any help, I live close by. Do give me a call. Yuri is coming to meet you, and he will give you your local mobile phone and my number. Opens the front door and steps out. Valentina: Everything is fine here, but beware of Mikhailovitch. Valentina closes the door and leaves before the family can ask questions. Aditya: Who is Mikhailovitch? Satish: (uneasily) Don’t worry; I’m sure it’s nothing. Aditya: I’m sure Mikhailovitch is a gangster. A tall, huge man with a black hat gangster and a machine gun. Papa, I’m scared, I wish we hadn’t come. Satish: Be calm; Yuri is coming very soon. We’ll ask him. Meera, please make a sandwich for Aditya. Meera: (going to the kitchen) Of course, coming to help me? Aditya: No, we better be prepared in case Mikhailovitch comes in with his revolver gun. Papa, you don’t happen to have a hidden revolver, do you? Satish: (smiling) No, son. I don’t. There is a scratching sound at the front door. Aditya: (in a panicked tone) That must be Mikhailovitch, what should we do? Satish: (opening the door a little and laughing loudly) Come in. Aditya: Papa! Be careful, what are you doing? Satish opens the door, and a beautiful, white cat walks in regally, with measured steps, goes to the rug near the fireplace and settles down. Satish: This cat must belong to the owners of the cottage, see how comfortable regally it is. Aditya: (with a relieved sigh) I was very frightened. Satish and Aditya share a smile. Beware of Mikhailovitch 3

Meera: What was the commotion? Oh my goodness, what do we have here? What a beauty! Come here. The cat ignores everyone and makes itself comfortable. Aditya: Mummy, we were really scared just now. The cat scratched the commotion door, and I thought it was Mikhailovitch. When Papa opened the door, I got really scared. Meera: (smiling) We’ll clear this mystery of Mikhailovitch once and for all when Yuri comes. Now, be a good boy and have your snack. Aditya goes into the kitchen and returns with a look of surprise. Aditya: Mummy, where are the sandwiches? There is an empty plate on the table. Meera: (stunned) I made them just now. What could have happened? Aditya: Mummy, I’m terrified. Do you think Mikhailovitch came in through the kitchen window and took the sandwiches? Doorbell rings. Satish opens the door. Satish: It’s Yuri. Do come in. Yuri: (shaking hands with Satish) Welcome to our country! I’m sure you will acquaintance enjoy yourself here. This cottage is very comfortable except for one thing. Ah! I see Mikhailovitch has made your acquaintance, naughty boy. Satish, Meera and Aditya: Who is Mikhailovitch? Yuri: (pointing to the cat) There he is. Is there any food missing? He is always hungry and steals all the food in the kitchen. Beware of Mikhailovitch! Everyone bursts out laughing, and the looks of worry on the faces of Satish and Meera disappear. – Manjula Shukla Let Us Discuss 1) In which country is the play set? 2) What was the strange thing that Yuri said over the phone? 3) Who did Aditya think Mikhailovitch was? 4) Who was Mikhailovitch? 4

Understanding the Text Meaning Exercise 1: New words Word fireplace furnished groceries gangster revolver regally commotion acquaintance Speaking Task Group discussion Get into groups of three. Now, imagine that Mikhailovitch wasn’t a cat after all. Think of a different ending for the play in your group. Write it down and share your ending with the rest of the class. Vote for a group other than your own that you think presented the best ending. Beware of Mikhailovitch 5

Lesson Going Downhill 15 on a Bicycle Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Rhyming word Word Rhyming word hill swift lift Word fly joy boy still air – cry – share Warm Up Activity • Do you know cycling? Do you like to cycle? Why or why not? • H ave you ever cycled down a hill? How do you think you would feel while cycling down a hill? Share your thoughts. Let’s read a poem in which a boy describes the fun of riding downhill on a bicycle. 6

Reading the Text With lifted feet, hands still, heedful I am poised and down the hill Dart, with heedful mind; The air goes by in a wind. dart poised Swifter and yet more swift, Till the heart with a mighty lift Makes the lungs laugh, the throat cry, ‘O bird, see; see, bird, I fly. Is this, is this your joy? O bird, then I, though a boy, For a golden moment share, Your feathery life in air!’ – Henry Charles Beeching Let Us Discuss 1) What is the boy doing in the poem? 2) What kind of mind does the boy have when he darts down the hill? 3) According to the boy, how does the air go? 4) To whom does the boy compare his joy? Understanding the Text Meaning Exercise 1: New words Word poised dart heedful Going Downhill on a Bicycle 7

Exercise 2: Literature comprehension 1) Describe the boy’s position before going down the hill. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2) What happens when the boy goes ‘swifter and yet more swift’? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3) What does the boy ask the bird to see? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4) How does the boy compare himself to the bird? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Exercise 3: Value-based questions – Judgement and appreciation 1) What do you think the boy thinks about the lives of birds? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) The poem is about feeling joyful. What kinds of activities give you a feeling of joy? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 8

Speaking Task Ask and answer question People often get lost when they are travelling or when they are in a new place. Imagine that your partner is a new student. Take turns and help them by giving directions to different places in your school. You could also try giving them directions from the school to your house. Going Downhill on a Bicycle 9

S5 Speaking Project Travel preparations Travelling is fun. We get to see, learn and experience many things when we travel. But before a journey, there is a lot of preparation that goes into making our journey comfortable and safe. Do you know how one should prepare for a journey? Can you share your preparation plans with your classmates? Hints: • How many days in advance do you start preparing for travel? • What kind of preparation is needed? (things that need to be packed, helping parents select a hotel, making lists and helping with household work before going for a holiday and so on) • What do you do on the day of travel? 10

R5 Reading Comprehension Passage 1 Read the story and answer the questions given below. ‘It is a wonderful book, Maa’, Barun replied happily. ‘I am reading about Rakesh Sharma right now.’ ‘So you are reading about the first Indian to go to space’, said his mother. She sat on the bed beside her son and asked him, ‘Have you read about Kalpana Chawla?’ Barun started reading about Kalpana Chawla in the evening. Kalpana Chawla was born in 1962 in Karnal in the state of Haryana. Nicknamed ‘Montu’ by her family, she went to school at the age of three. Later, she studied Aeronautical Engineering at Punjab Engineering College, India. In 1982, Kalpana went to the USA to study at the University of Texas at Arlington. In 1988, she became a research scientist at NASA Ames Research Center in Sunnyvale, California. In November 1996, Kalpana joined the STS-87 mission aboard space shuttle Columbia. The mission flew in November–December 1997, during which Kalpana spoke with the then Prime Minister of India, Mr Inderjit K. Gujral, from the orbit. On 16th January, 2003, Kalpana again went into space. She was on board the space shuttle Columbia. After a successful flight, Columbia was lost with its crew during re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere on 1st February, 2003. A hill on Mars and a star in deep space have been named after Kalpana. Her story shows the value of hard work and sincerity that is remembered even when one is no more. 1) Who was the first Indian to go to space? Ans. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Where was Kalpana Chawla born? Ans. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11

3) Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions from the options given in brackets. a) Kalpana Chawla was born _____________________ (on/in) Haryana. b) She was _____________________ (under/among) a group of astronauts who travelled to outer space. c) The rocket flew _____________________ (over/with) the Earth. 4) Another word for ‘answer’ in the passage is  . 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) space shuttle a) honesty 2) crew b) spacecraft 3) sincerity c) team Passage 2 Read the story and answer the questions given below. Kite flying is one of the world’s oldest sports. In China, people used to fly different coloured kites to send different messages. No one knows for certain who invented kites. Some historians believe that the Egyptians were the first to fly kites. Ancient Egyptian carvings depict men flying objects attached to strings. Some believe that Ancient Greeks invented kites, while others believe that the Chinese made the first kites. Throughout the centuries, kites have been used for various purposes. Once, a Chinese emperor who had been imprisoned was saved by a kite. His followers flew a huge kite over the tower in which the emperor was imprisoned. Recognising the kite, he took hold of the huge ropes hanging from the kite and flew away to freedom. Benjamin Franklin used a kite to prove that lightning is a form of electricity. He flew a kite in a thunderstorm and was almost killed when lightning travelled down the wet string and lit up his instruments. The kite was also responsible for the invention of aeroplanes. The Wright Brothers flew many kinds of kites and studied their movements before making the first aeroplane. Actually, the first aeroplane was a huge kite glider that was specially made to carry an engine and a person. 12

1) Which is one of the world’s oldest sports? Ans. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Who used a kite to prove that lightning is a form of electricity? Ans. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Write the past tense of the words given below. a) fly – ___________________________ b) make – ___________________________ c) take – ___________________________ 4) The meaning of the word ‘ancient’ is _____________________________________. 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) invented a) a period of hundred years 2) historian b) created for the first time 3) century c) someone who studies and records history Reading Comprehension 13

Why are we studying this theme? Great human minds have worked hard to understand the world and make it a better place. Science and technology have changed the face of the world we live in. Let us read two stories and a poem that tell us more about the wonders of science.

Lesson The Magical 16 World of Science Let Us Start Listen and say aloud According to scientists, this is the hardest tongue twister. Try it out. pad kid poured curd pulled cod Warm Up Activity • S cience is a field of study. It focuses on finding and describing the world around us through observation and experimentation. Do you think it would be difficult to live without science? • Look around you and name a few things in your classroom that are there because of science. Let us read a story that will tell us about the magical world of science. 15

Reading the Text ‘S-C-I-E-N-C-E.’ Timee was trying hard to learn the spelling of ‘science’ for her dictation test the next day. She always got it wrong. ‘Why do we have to learn spellings? Why do we have to learn history? Why fed up do we have to learn tables? And why in the world do we have to study science? Why?’ asked Timee. She was fed up of trying to remember things that she could not understand. Limee, her elder sister, was watching her. ‘Timee, science is not hard at all. If you understand it, you will remember it easily’, said Limee. ‘But Didi, even if I understand it, so what? It is the most boring subject in the world. It is just diagrams and explain-the-working- of-this and what-is-this-process-called! Humph! What is the use of science?’ Limee looked at her sister in surprise. ‘Just try to imagine your process world without science.’ ‘I can imagine it very well. There would be no science subject and no science teacher! In that period, we would watch cartoons, eat ice cream and draw. It would be delightful, Didi!’ ‘My dear sister, if there were no science, you would be living in a cave with no electricity. No electricity would mean no television or fridge. And no ice cream, eh? There would be no books and no pencils. And, just by chance, if a mosquito were to bite you in malaria the cave, you could get malaria. There would be no medicines to cure you.’ Timee scratched her head. ‘Science is a part of our life’, Limee went on. ‘It helps us and makes our lives better. Look around; what do you see in this room?’ ‘I see my notebook, pencil, my bed, Mama’s mobile phone, the fan and you!’ said Timee. ‘All the things that are there in this world work according to certain rules. Even your body. Since ancient times, people have questioned, studied and understood these rules. Then, they used this knowledge and invented new things.’ ‘Hmmm’, said Timee, thinking hard. 16

‘Do you know how electricity was discovered? Benjamin Franklin, an American scientist, flew a kite with a metal key attached to it in a thunderstorm. The lightning charged the key, and he got an electric shock. This proved what he had been thinking about – that lightning and electricity are related. Today, nothing in the world works without electricity.’ ‘I am already sweating at the very thought of no electricity!’ said Timee. ‘Now, imagine if Alexander Graham Bell had not invented the telephone! We would not be able to talk to people halfway across the globe while sitting comfortably in our homes. In fact, the internet, e-mail, computers, smartphones, tablets – all these have changed our lives so much. If you think about it, they are like miracles!’ ‘They are!’ said Timee. ‘Timee, you have no idea how much study is going on. From discovering the power of herbs in forests to exploring outer space. From the food we eat to the clothes we wear, science is doing wonders for us.’ ‘Didi, are there aliens in outer space?’ ‘Honestly, I don’t know about that.’ For once, Limee had no answers, and she kept quiet. ‘Then, I know what I will do when I grow up. I will science aliens’, said Timee proudly. aliens Limee fell laughing from her chair. ‘It is very good that you want to study science and be a scientist. But first get your spelling and grammar right. Otherwise, how will the aliens understand you?’ – Surbhi Sarna Let Us Discuss 1) What was Timee fed up of? 2) Who discovered electricity? 3) Who invented the telephone? 4) What does Timee decide at the end of the story? The Magical World of Science 17

Understanding the Text Exercise 1: New words Meaning Word fed up process malaria miracles aliens Exercise 2: Literature comprehension 1) What did Timee think about science at the beginning of the story? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2) How did Timee describe a world without science? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3) How was electricity discovered? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4) How is science doing wonders for us, according to Limee? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Exercise 3: Value-based questions – Judgement and appreciation 1) Do you like science? Why or why not? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 18

2) An invention is something that is created through an experiment. A discovery shows the existence of something. Given below are the names of a few things. Are they inventions or discoveries? Sort them. gravity   television   computer   bicycle   oxygen   fingerprints   needle   water cycle Inventions Discoveries Speaking Task Story telling Tell your partner a story that begins with the line: ‘The day I met an alien...’ The Magical World of Science 19

Lesson Robot with a 17 Virus Let Us Start Words with two syllables – adjectives (stress the first syllable) Listen and say aloud messy Words with two syllables – nouns honest (stress the first syllable) modern parents lovely robot butler object Warm Up Activity • Do you know what a robot is? • Do you think that a robot is useful? Why or why not? Let us read a story about how a robot teaches a young boy an important lesson. 20

Reading the Text luxuries Rohit lived with his parents in a delighted butler lovely house that had all kinds of modern luxuries. Among them was a robot butler! Rohit didn’t help much around the house. However, he was delighted when his parents bought the latest model of a butler robot. Soon after its arrival, it went around cooking, cleaning, ironing and – most importantly – gathering up the clothes and toys scattered on the floor of Rohit’s bedroom. Rohit never liked picking up the clothes and toys from the floor. On the first day of the robot’s arrival, when Rohit went to sleep, he had scattered left his bedroom in a total mess as always. But when he woke up the next morning, everything was perfectly clean and tidy. In fact, it was too clean. Rohit couldn’t find his favourite T-shirt or his favourite toy. However much he searched, these two items were not to be found. Soon, a few of Rohit’s other things started to disappear too. Rohit looked suspiciously at the shiny robot. He planned to spy on it and began following it around the house. Not long after, he caught it red-handed, hiding one of his toys! caught it Off he went, running to his parents to tell them that the robot was not red-handed working properly and was badly programmed. Rohit asked them to have it changed. But his parents told him that it was impossible. They were delighted with the new robot and said that, besides everything else, it also cooked delicious food. Rohit continued complaining to his parents about how the robot was hiding whirring all his good stuff. One day, as the robot was whirring past on its duties, it heard Rohit’s complaints. The robot returned with one of his toys and some clothes. ‘Here, sir. I did not know it was bothering you’, said the robot, in its metallic voice. furiously ‘How could it not, you thief?! You’ve been stealing my stuff for weeks!’ Rohit shouted furiously. Robot with a Virus 21

‘The objects were left on the floor. I, therefore, calculated that you don’t need them. I am programmed to collect all that is not needed. At night, I send these things to places where other humans can use them. I am a maximum-efficiency machine. Didn’t you know about this?’ the robot said with pride. Rohit felt ashamed. He had spent all his life treating things as efficiency though they were useless. He never took care of his things. It was true that many other people would be very happy to have those things. They would treat them with all the care in the world. He understood that the robot was neither broken nor wrongly programmed. In fact, it had been programmed extremely well! Since then, Rohit decided to become a ‘maximum-efficiency boy’. He started to take care of his things. He kept them tidy and made sure that he didn’t have more than necessary. He even gave away the extra things that he had to people who needed them more.  (Source: Let Us Discuss 1) What were the tasks that the robot did in Rohit’s house? 2) W hat were the things that Rohit couldn’t find on the day after the robot’s arrival? 3) What did the robot say it had done with Rohit’s toys and clothes? 4) Why did Rohit feel ashamed? Understanding the Text Exercise 1: New words Meaning Word luxuries butler delighted scattered suspiciously caught it red-handed 22

Word Meaning programmed whirring furiously maximum efficiency Speaking Task Debate Is technology good? Divide your class into two groups. Group A will list points in favour of technology and the advantages. Group B will list points against technology and the disadvantages. Each group will then share its point of view. Robot with a Virus 23

Lesson My Shadow 18 Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Rhyming word Word Rhyming word see ball all Word bed play way me slow up head buttercup grow Warm Up Activity • S ometimes, when you are walking in the light, do you see something dark walking along with you? Do you know what it is called? • Have you ever realised that its shape keeps changing? Do you know why that happens? Let us read a poem about what a child has to say about this. 24

Reading the Text I have a little shadow that goes in and out with me, And what can be the use of him is more than I can see. He is very, very like me from the heels up to the head; And I see him jump before me, when I jump into my bed. The funniest thing about him is the way he likes to grow, Not at all like proper children, which is always very slow. For he sometimes shoots up taller like an India-rubber ball, And he sometimes gets so little there’s none of him at all. He hasn’t got a notion of how children ought to play, coward nursie And can only make a fool of me in every sort of way. He stays so close beside me, he’s a coward you can see; I’d think shame to stick to nursie as that shadow sticks to me! One morning, very early, before the Sun was up, dew I rose and found the shining dew on every buttercup. buttercup But my lazy little shadow, like an arrant sleepy-head, Had stayed at home behind me and was fast asleep in bed. – Robert Louis Stevenson Let Us Discuss 1) Who is ‘very very like’ the poet? 2) What is the funniest thing about the shadow? 3) What does the shadow not have a notion about? 4) What did the poet find on every buttercup? My Shadow 25

Understanding the Text Exercise 1: New words Word Meaning India- rubber ball notion ought coward nursie dew buttercup arrant Exercise 2: Literature comprehension 1) Mention two things that the shadow does with the child in the poem. Ans.   2) How does the shadow grow? Ans.  26

3) Why does the child call his shadow a coward? Ans.  4) What does the shadow do when the child gets up before the Sun? Ans.   Exercise 3: Value-based questions – Judgement and appreciation 1) Why do you think the shadow did not go along with the child very early before the Sun rose? Ans.   2) What does the child feel about sticking close to his nurse or caretaker? Why do you think he feels this way? Ans.  My Shadow 27

Speaking Task Interview In the poem ‘My Shadow’, the child describes how he spends his time by playing with the shadow. Divide your class into pairs. Ask questions to each other about the fun things that you do by yourselves. 28

S6 Speaking Project My favourite invention When it is raining, what does the car driver use to wipe the water away from the windshield? The driver uses a windshield wiper. Did you know that Mary Anderson invented the windshield wiper in 1905? Human beings have invented many things that have made our lives easier and more comfortable. Inventions are all around us. Speak about your favourite invention. Here are a few hints to help you get started: • Talk about who invented it. • Talk about any story behind it. • Also, share why you think it is useful. • Discuss how the invention could be used more interestingly. 29

R6 Reading Comprehension Passage 1 Read the story and answer the questions given below. Spit keeps our mouths moist and softens our food when we chew. Without spit in our mouths, we would have a hard time talking and swallowing. But for some animals, spit works better after it has left the mouth. Some animals are experts at surviving because they are expert spitters. Llamas are animals that like their personal space. A llama that feels threatened or annoyed will spit slimy gobs at you to get you to leave it alone. Sometimes, llamas even spit on each other to steal food! Llama spit includes food from the llama’s stomach, and it can be quite smelly. When a llama spits on another animal, the animal usually loses its appetite and walks away, leaving its food behind. The archer-fish is a very skilled spitter. It takes aim and spits jets of water at insects and other small creatures to knock them into the water. Then, it gulps them down quickly. Spitting cobras are also known for their expert aim. These snakes spray venom from their fangs to protect themselves. Scientists believe that these snakes actually aim for the eyes! When the cobra’s venom gets into the eyes of an animal, the venom causes terrible pain and even blindness. This gives the snake plenty of time to get away. 1) How does spit help human beings? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) How do spitting cobras protect themselves? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Write the present continuous tense form of each of the words below. a) walk – ___________________________ 30

b) talked – ___________________________ c) stole – ___________________________ 4) The meaning of ‘appetite’ is ______________________________________________. 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) soften a) continuing to live 2) surviving b) poison 3) venom c) to make soft Passage 2 Read the story and answer the questions given below. Once upon a time, there lived a beast in a faraway land. The beast lived in a large house that had a beautiful garden. It had flower-bearing plants and fruit-bearing trees. It was so beautiful that people could not stop praising it. Children especially loved it. They always came to play in this garden. But soon, the beast got irritated with them coming into his garden. The annoyed beast shooed the children away and built a huge wall around the garden. He stood at the gate, guarding it. The children were no longer welcome in his garden. The beast kept watch, and the children stayed away. Many days passed, the garden lost its vigour and did not bear any flower or fruit. One day, a small girl entered the garden without the beast noticing. Once inside, she was scared of being caught by the beast. So, she climbed a tree to hide from the beast. In her presence, the tree started flowering. Seeing the tree flower in the company of the girl, the beast realised his mistake. It broke open the garden gate and let all the children play happily. The garden thus grew beautiful once again. (Source: Adapted from Reading Comprehension 31

1) Who loved the garden the most of all? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) What did the beast do when he got irritated with the children? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Write the given sentences in the simple present tense. a) There lived a beast in a faraway land. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ b) It was so beautiful that people could not stop praising it. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ c) The annoyed beast shooed away the children and built a huge wall around the garden. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) The opposite of ‘pleased’ in the passage is  . 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) beast a) being there 2) faraway b) a dangerous animal 3) present c) distant 32

Glossary Sr. No. Words Meaning 1 acquaintance (n.) a person whom one knows but is not close to 2 aliens (n.) creatures from outer space 3 arrant (adj.) complete; absolute 4 butler (n.) the chief servant in the house of a rich person 5 buttercup (n.) a plant with small, bright, yellow flowers 6 caught it red- caught during a crime handed (v.) 7 commotion (n.) a state of confusion and excitement 8 coward (n.) someone who is not brave 9 dart (v.) move quickly 10 delighted (adj.) very happy 11 dew (n.) droplets of water that form on cool surfaces at night 12 efficiency (n.) to do something very quickly and well 13 fed up (phr.v.) tired beyond one’s patience 14 fireplace (n.) a place designed to light a fire to keep a room warm 15 furiously (adv.) very angrily 16 furnished (adj.) provided with furniture 17 gangster (n.) a member of a group of criminals 18 groceries (n.) supplies like food, meat and vegetables 19 heedful (adj.) mindful and attentive 20 India-rubber Ball a ball that bounces very high (n.) 21 luxuries (n.) expensive things that people enjoy but do not really need 22 malaria (n.) a disease from a certain type of mosquito bite 23 maximum (adj.) as high as possible 24 miracles (n.) amazing or wonderful occurrences 25 notion (n.) an idea or belief about something 26 nursie (n.) nurse; caretaker

27 ought (v.) should 28 poised (adj.) in a ready position 29 process (n.) method 30 programmed given a set of instructions to perform an action (adj.) 31 regally (adv.) in a royal manner 32 revolver (n.) a pistol that allows several shots to be discharged 33 scattered (adj.) thrown all around 34 suspiciously (adv.) with doubt or distrust 35 whirring (v.) moving very fast with a low, continuous sound n. Key v. noun adj. verb adv. phr. adjective adverb phrase


Contents 4Class 10 Decimals 1 12 10.1 Conversion Involving Fractions  15 18 11 Money 23 30 11.1 Conversion of Rupees and Paise  11.2 Add and Subtract Money with Conversion  11.3 Multiply and Divide Money  12 Measurements 12.1 Multiply and Divide Lengths, Weights and Capacities  13 Data Handling 13.1 Bar Graphs

Chapter Decimals 10 Let Us Learn About • the term ‘decimal’ and its parts. • u nderstanding decimal system. • e xpanding decimal numbers with place value charts. • converting fractions to decimals and vice versa. Concept 10.1: Conversion Involving Fractions Think Jasleen and her friends participated in the long jump event in their Jasleen – 4.1m Ravi – 2.85m games period. Her sports teacher noted the distance they jumped on a Rajiv – 3.05 m piece of paper as shown here. Amit – 2.50m Jasleen wondered why the numbers had a point between them as in the case of writing money. Do you know what the point means? Recall Recall that in Class 3 we have learnt to measure the lengths, weights and volumes of objects. For example, a pencil is 12.5 cm long. 12. 5 cm 1

A crayon is 5.4 cm long. 5.4 cm The weight of your mathematics textbook is 0.905 kg. A milk packet has 0.250 of milk, and so on. In all these values, we see numbers with a point between them. Have you read price tags on some items when you go shopping? ` 300.75 ` 439.08 They also have numbers with a point between them. Let us learn why a point is used in such numbers. & Remembering and Understanding We know how to write fractions. In this figure, 3 portion is coloured and 7 portion is not coloured. 10 10 3 or 0.3 and the We can write the coloured portion of the figure as 10 portion that is not coloured as 7 or 0.7. 10 Numbers such as 0.3, 0.7, 3.0, 3.1, 4.7, 58.2 and so on are called decimal numbers or simply decimals. Tenths: The figure below is divided into ten equal parts. 1 111 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Each column is of the same size. Then, each of the ten equal parts is 1 . It is read as one-tenth. Fractional form of each equal part is 1 . 10 10 Decimal form of each equal part is 0.1. 2

We read numbers like 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 … as ‘zero point one’, ‘zero point two’, ‘zero point three’ and so on. Zero is written to indicate the place of the whole number. A decimal number has two parts. 48 . 35 Whole or integral part Decimal part (= or > 0) (< 1) Decimal Point Note: T he numbers in the decimal part are read as separate digits. Recall the place value chart of numbers. 100 × 10 10 × 10 1 × 10 1 Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones 6 2 5 5 3 2 2 6 5 2 We know that in this chart, as we move from right to left, the value of the digit increases 10 1 times. Also, as we move from left to right, the value of a digit becomes times. The place 10 value of the digit becomes one-tenth, read as a tenth. Its value is 0.1 read as ‘zero point one’. 2 is read as ‘two-tenths’, 7 is read as ‘seven–tenths’ and so on. 10 10 We can extend the place value chart to the right as follows: 1 × 1000 1 × 100 1 × 10 1 . 1 10 Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Decimal Tenths 7 . 2 1 2 4 . 3 30 4 3 . 6 1 5 . 7 The number 3015.7 is read as three thousand and fifteen point seven. Similarly, the other numbers are read as follows: Decimals 3

Seven point two; twenty-four point three and one hundred and forty-three point six. The point placed in between the number is called the decimal point. The system of writing numbers using a decimal point is called the decimal system. [Note: ‘Deci’ means 10.] Hundredths: Study this place value chart. Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Decimal Tenths Hundredths 1 × 10 1 point 1 × 1000 1 × 100 2 1 1 2 8 6 . 10 100 3 . 9 When the number moves right from the tenths place, we get a new place, which is 1 1 and read of the tenths place. It is called the ‘hundredths’ place written as 10 100 as one-hundredths. Its value is 0.01, read as ‘zero point zero one’. 2 is read as two-hundredths, 5 is read as five-hundredths and so on. 100 100 So, the number in the place value chart is read as ‘two thousand eight hundred and sixty-two point three nine’. Expansion of decimal numbers Using the place value chart, we can expand decimal numbers. Let us see a few examples. Example 1: Expand these decimals. a) 1430.8 b) 359.65 c) 90045.75 d) 654.08 Solution: To expand the given decimal numbers, first write them in the place value chart as shown. S. no Ten Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Decimal Tenths Hundredths thousands 1 point a) 4 3 0 . 8 b) 9 0 3 5 9 65 c) 0 4 5 . 75 d) 6 5 4 08 . . 4

Expansions: 1 a) 1430.8 = 1 × 1000 + 4 × 100 + 3 × 10 + 0 × 1 + 8 × 10 b) 359.65 = 3 × 100 + 5 × 10 + 9 × 1 + 6 × 1 + 5 × 1 Example 2: 10 100 c) 90045.75 = 9 × 10000 + 0 × 1000 + 0 × 100 + 4 × 10 + 5 × 1 + 7 × 1 + 5 × 1 10 100 1 1 d) 654.08 = 6 × 100 + 5 × 10 + 4 × 1 + 0 × + 8 × Solution: 10 100 Write these as decimals. a) 7 × 1000 + 2 × 100 + 6 × 10 + 3 × 1 + 9 × 1 + 3 × 1 10 100 b) 3 × 10000 + 0 × 1000 + 1 × 100 + 9 × 10 + 6 × 1 + 4 × 1 + 5 × 1 10 100 c) 2 × 1000 + 2 × 100 + 2 × 10 + 2 × 1 + 2 × 1 + 2 × 1 10 100 d) 5 × 100 + 0 × 10 + 0 × 1 + 0 × 1 + 5 × 1 10 100 First write the numbers in the place value chart as shown. S. no Ten Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Decimal Tenths Hundredths thousands point a) 7 2 63 . 93 b) 3 0 1 96 . 45 c) 2 2 22 . 22 d) 5 00 . 05 Standard forms of the given decimals are: a) 7263.93 b) 30196.45 c) 2222.22 d) 500.05 Conversion of fractions to decimals Fractions can be written as decimals. Consider an example. Example 3: Express these fractions as decimals. a) 18 2 b) 43 5 c) 26 1 d) 4 9 10 10 10 10 Solution: To write the given fractions as decimals, follow these steps. Step 1: Write the integral part as it is. Step 2: Place a point to its right. Decimals 5

Step 3: Write the numerator of the proper fraction part. a) 18 2 = 18.2 b) 43 5 = 43.5 10 10 c) 26 1 = 26.1 d) 4 9 = 4.9 10 10 Example 4: Express these fractions as decimals. a) 25 b) 17 2 c) 43 d) 5 92 100 100 100 100 Solution: a) 25 = 25 hundredths = 0.25 100 b) 17 2 = 17 and 2 hundredths = 17.02 100 c) 43 = 43 hundredths = 0.43 100 d) 5 92 = 5 and 92 hundredths = 5.92 100 Shortcut method: Fractions having 10 or 100 as their denominators, can be expressed in their decimal form by following the steps given below. Step 1: Write the numerator. Step 2: Then count the number of zeros in the denominator. Step 3: Place the decimal point after the same number of digits from the right as the number of zeros. For example, the decimal form of 232 = 2.32 100 Note: F or the decimal equivalent of a proper fraction, place a 0 as the integral part of the decimal number. Conversion of decimals to fractions To convert a decimal into a fraction, follow these steps. Step 1: Write the number without the decimal. Step 2: Count the number of decimal places (that is, the number of places to the right of the decimal number). Step 3: Write the denominator with 1 followed by as many zeros as the decimal point. 6

Example 5: Write these decimals as fractions. a) 2.3 b) 13.07 c) 105.43 d) 0.52 Solution: a) 2.3 = 23 b) 13.07 = 1307 10 100 c) 105.43 = 10543 d) 0.52 = 52 Alternate method: 100 100 A decimal having an integral part can be written as a mixed fraction. So, 2.3 = 2 and 3 tenths = 2 3 10 13.07 = 13 and 7 hundredths = 13 7 100 105.43 = 105 and 43 hundredths = 105 43 100 Application Let us see a few real-life examples of decimals. Example 6: The amount of money with Sneha and her friends are given in the table. Sneha ` 432.50 Anjali ` 233.20 Rohan ` 515.60 Jay ` 670.80 Write the amounts in words. Solution: To write the decimals in words, the integral part is read as usual. The decimal part is read as digits. Amount In words ` 432.50 four hundred and thirty-two and fifty paise rupee ` 233.20 two hundred and thirty-three and twenty paise rupee ` 515.60 five hundred and fifteen and sixty paise rupee ` 670.80 six hundred and seventy and eighty paise rupee Decimals 7

Example 7: The weights of some children in grams are given in the table below: Name Weight in grams Solution: Rahul 23456 Anil 34340 Anjali 28930 Soham 25670 Convert these weights into kilograms. We know that 1 kg = 1000 g. To convert grams to kilograms, we divide it by 1000. So, the weights in kilograms are as follows. Name Weight in grams Weight in kilograms Rahul 23456 23456 1000 = 23.456 Anil 34340 34340 = 34.340 Anjali 28930 1000 28930 = 28.930 1000 Soham 25670 25670 = 25.670 1000 Example 8: Complete this table. S. No Fraction Read as Decimal Read as 0.7 Zero point seven a) 7 7 tenths 10 b) 47 100 c) 3 5 10 d) 0.34 e) 12 and 65 hundredths 8

Solution: S. No. Fraction Read as Decimal Read as a) 7 tenths 0.7 Zero point seven b) 7 47 hundredths 0.47 Zero point four seven c) 10 3 and 5 tenths 3.5 Three point five d) 47 34 hundredths 0.34 Zero point three four e) 100 12 and 65 hundredths Twelve point six five 35 12.65 10 34 100 12 65 100 Example 9: Ajay and Vijay represented the coloured part of the figure given as follows: Ajay: 3 Vijay: 0.03 10 Solution: Whose representation is correct? The number of shaded parts as a fraction is 3 or 3 tenths. 10 As a decimal it is 0.3 and not 0.03. So, Ajay’s representation is correct. Higher Order Thinking Skills (H.O.T.S.) Observe the following: 2 tenth=s =2 0.2 10 5 tent=hs =5 0.5 10 8 tent=hs =8 0.8 10 10 tent=hs 1=0 1 10 Decimals 9

57 hundredths = 57 =0.57 100 hundredths = 100 = 1 100 100 Example 10: Write the decimals that represent the shaded part. a) b) c) d) Solution: a) T he fully shaded part represents a whole. So, the decimal that represents the given figure is 1.3. b) The required decimal is 0.6. c) 10 + 43 = 143 = 114.433 d) 100 + 100 + 29 = 22.2299 10 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 10

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