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Migration Textbook

Published by Migration Commission, 2018-07-04 07:02:35

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მიგრაციისსახელმძღვანელო


მიგრაციისსახელმძღვანელო პირველი გამოცემა თბილისი 2017 1


saredaqcio kolegia:violeta vagneri (ICMPD) - mTavari redaqtorirusudan tuSuri (ICMPD/Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti) - aRmasrulebeli redaqtoribiajio speCiale (sorbonis universiteti)Tamar zurabiSvili (sociologiis doqtori, kvlevisa da ganviTarebis fondi)irina baduraSvili (mosaxleobis kvlevis erovnuli centri)katrin hosleri (ludvig boltcmanis saxelobis adamianis uflebebis instituti)martin hofmani (ICMPD)melisa sigeli (maastrixtis universiteti)miqaela vianore (maastrixtis universiteti)piter van krikeni (leidenis universiteti)robert maqnili (oqsfordis universiteti)roland hosneri (ICMPD)qsenia filipenko (ICMPD)gamocemaze pasuxismgebeli: qsenia filipenkoqarTuli enis redaqtori: manana tabiZeAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form orby any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage andretrieval system, without permission of the copyright owners.This publication has been produced by the project “Enhancing Georgia’s Migration Management~(ENIGMMA), funded by the European Union and implemented by the International Centre for MigrationPolicy Development (ICMPD). The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the authors andcan in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union, International Centre for Migration PolicyDevelopment, the State Commission on Migration Issues or its member institutions.yvela ufleba daculia. ar SeiZleba am saxelmZRvanelos an misi nawilis gamravleba,aslis gadaReba an gadacema eleqtronuli an nebismieri sxva formiT, maT Soris fo-toaslis gakeTeba, Cawera an informaciis Senaxvis sxva saSualebiT, saavtoro uflebismqone piris Tanxmobis gareSe.winamdebare saxelmZRvanelo momzadebulia evrokavSiris mier dafinansebuli damigraciis politikis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso centris mier marTuli proeqtis -„migraciis marTvis gaZliereba saqarTveloSi“ (ENIGMMA) farglebSi. dokumentis Si-naarsi gamoxatavs mxolod avtor(eb) is Sexedulebebs da ar unda aRiqmebodes, rogorcevrokavSiris, migraciis politikis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso centris an migraciissakiTxTa samTavrobo komisiis da misi wevri uwyebebis mosazreba. International Centre for Migration migraciis politikis ganviTarebis Policy Development (ICMPD) saerTaSoriso centri Gonzagagasse 1 Gonzagagasse 1 A-1010 Vienna A-1010 vena Austria avstria www.icmpd.org www.icmpd.org ISBN 978-3-903120-07-5 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო2


Sinaarsi winasityvaoba........................................................................................... 5 levan aleqsiZe, martain plaimi 1. Sesavali..............................................................................................10 violeta vagneri, giorgi jaSi 2. migraciis swavlebis interdisciplinuri xasiaTi..................................................................................................16 piter van krikeni, mariam WumburiZe, martin hofmani 3. migraciis formebi........................................................................34 irina baduraSvili 4. migraciis ZiriTadi Teoriebis mimoxilva....................63 martin hofmani, violeta vagneri 5. migraciis istoria........................................................................89 giorgi jaSi 6. migraciis samarTlebrivi aspeqtebi..................................135 levan aleqsiZe, qeTevan xuciSvili 7. sazogadoebrivi geografia da migracia........................190 ia iaSvili 8. saerTaSoriso migraciis statistika da demografiis safuZvlebi..........................................................255 Sorena wiklauri, giorgi wulaZe 9. migraciis ekonomikuri aspeqtebi........................................288 aleqsi guguSviliშინაარსი 3


10. migracia da socialuri mecnierebebi................................343 Tamar zurabiSvili, maia mestviriSvili, ekaterine fircxalava 11. genderi da SromiTi migracia...............................................402 Tamar zurabiSvili, TinaTin zurabiSvili 12. migracia da media..........................................................................428 mariam gersamia, robert maqnili 13. migracia da saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi...................456 nikoloz samxaraZe 14. migracia da sajaro marTva....................................................490 mariam WumburiZe, Temur goginovi 15. migraciisa da usafrTxoebis urTierTkavSiri msofliosa da saqarTveloSi................................................526 nino RvinaZe, nikoloz samxaraZe abreviaturebi..........................................................................................560 danarTi: terminebis ganmarteba..................................................5614 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


winasityvaobamigracia, migranti, migraciis marTva, TavSesafris maZiebeli,ltolvili _ am da sxva terminebiT dRes savsea beWdviTi da eleqtro­nuli mediis saSualebebi. gansakuTrebiT, es movlena aqtualuri gaxdabolo wlebisa da Tveebis tragikuli movlenebis gamo, rog­or­ icaa,axlo aRmosavleTSi da afrikis CrdiloeT qveynebSi sisxlismRvrelidapiris­pireba da ramdenime aseuli aTasi adamianis masobrivi gada­adgileba dasavleT evropis qveynebis mimarTulebiT, ramac gamo­iwvia am qveynebSi seriozuli socialuri da politikuri Zvrebie.w. „migrantebis“ mimarT. am termins imitom viyeneb brWyalebSi,rom mediasaSualebebSi siriidan da sxva qveynebidan adamianTamasobriv gadaadgilebas uwodeben migrantebis nakadebs, maSinrodesac aRniSnul gadaadgilebas SeiZleba ewodos migracia, radganxdeba adamianTa mier sakuTari sacxovrisis masobrivi datovebada sxva qveyanaSi gadasvla nebismieri saSualebiT legaluriad,Tu aralegalurad, Tumca es nakadebi sxvadasxva statusis mqonepirebisagan Sedgeba da saerTaSoriso samarTliT gaTvaliswinebulisxvadasxva samarTlis statusis mqonea. kidev erTi movlena mindaaRvniSno, romelic gansakuTrebiT sagulisxmoa da misaxedi, kerZodbolo Tveebis migraciis procesi sul ufro da ufro agresiulxasiaTs atarebs, am sityvis sruli mniSvnelobiT. evropis qveynebissazRvrebis gadakveTa xSir SemTxvevaSi Zaladobrivi gzebiTac kixdeba.Cemi azriT, evropa bolomde mzad ar iyo movlenebis amgvari gan­viTarebisaTvis da yuradReba ZiriTadad gadatanili iyo migraciisnakadTa konkretul kategoriaze, kerZod migrantebis specifikuristatusis gansazRvrasa da maTi ufleba-movaleobebis Camoyalibebasada dacvaze.migraciis marTvis procesi, anu migrantTa statusi, rogorc CvenqvemoT davinaxavT, jerac ar aris zustad gansazRvruli; miuxedavadimisa, rom Seqmnilia mravali saerTaSoriso organizacia, es sakiTximniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs rogorc universalur (gaero), iseregionul (evropis sabWosa da evrokavSiris wevrebis cxovrebaSi)doneze.SeiZleba iTqvas, rom pirveli seriozuli fiqri migrantebissamarTlebrivi statusis Sesaxeb daiwyo 1960-1970-iani wlebis mijnaze,vgulisxmob, migranti muSakebis (muSebis) da maTi ojaxis wevrebisuflebebis dacvis sfero. me piradad, rogorc gaeros samdivnosწინასიტყვაობა 5


adamianis uflebaTa departamentis sakonsultacio momsaxurebisada specialuri davalebebis seqciis xelmZRvanels, damevala tunisSi1975 wlis noemberSi pirveli saerTaSoriso seminaris organizebaTemaze: „migranti muSebis (muSakebis) adamianis uflebebi“.seminarze, romelsac 30-mde saxelmwifos eqsperti da aseve mravaliarasamTavrobo organizaciis warmomadgenlebi eswrebodnen, me viyavigaeros generaluri mdivnis warmomadgeneli, romelsac evalebodaseminaris organizeba, warmarTva da moxsenebis momzadeba. iqpirvelad vnaxe raoden mtkivneuli da delikaturi iyo gansaxilvelisakiTxebi. dapirispireba ganviTarebul da ganviTarebad qveynebsSoris iyo imdenad mwvave, rom zogjer fizikur dapirispirebamdec kimidioda (meqsikis da aSS-s warmomadgenlebs Soris). miuxedavad amisa,konsensusiT moxerxda 41 gverdiani moxsenebis miReba, romelic 144punqts Seicavs da dawvrilebiT aRwers migranti muSebis uflebebsada movaleobebs erTi qveynidan meore qveyanaSi samuSaod gadasvlisas.am seminaris Sedegad miRebuli rekomendaciebi mogvianebiT aisaxa bevrsaerTaSoriso regionul Tu universalur dokumentSi da konvenciaSi:evropis sabWos mier 1977 wels miRebuli „evropuli konvencia migrantimuSebis samarTlebrivi statusis Sesaxeb“ da gaeros generaluriasambleis mier 1990 wels miRebuli „saerTaSoriso konvencia yvelamigranti muSisa da maTi ojaxis wevrebis uflebebis Sesaxeb“. magram aqveunda aRiniSnos, rom evropis qveynebi didi sifrTxiliT ekidebodnenam konvenciebis xelmowerasa da ratificirebas. aRsaniSnavia, romevropuli konvencia Sevida ZalaSi 6 wlis Semdeg da dRes is ZalaSiamxolod 11 saxelmwifosaTvis (albaneTi, safrangeTi, italia, moldova,niderlandebi, norvegia, portugalia, espaneTi, SvedeTi, TurqeTi,ukraina), aseve xeli moaweres, magram ratificireba ar mouxdeniamxolod 4 saxelmwifos (belgia, germania, saberZneTi, luqsemburgi);danarCen 32 saxelmwifos xelic ki ara aqvs mowerili, rac mowmobskonvenciis nakleb efeqturobas evropis arealSi; xolo rac Seexebagaeros konvencias, romelSic dRes 50 saxelmwifoa monawile, ar arisarc erTi dasavleTi da centraluri evropis qveyana.winamdebare saxelmZRvanelo Zalian drouli da saWiro naSromia. isgvawvdis informacias da analizs migraciis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiTfarTo speqtrSi (migraciis swavlebis interdisciplinuri xasiaTi;migraciis samarTlebrivi aspeqtebi; migraciis ZiriTadi Teoriebismimoxilva; migraciis istoria; sazogadoebrivi geografia damigracia; saerTaSoriso migraciis statistika da demografiissafuZvlebi; migracia _ ekonomikuri aspeqtebi; migracia dasocialuri mecnierebebi; genderi da SromiTi migracia; migraciada media; migracia da saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi; migracia da6 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


sajaro mmarTveloba; migraciisa da usafrTxoebis urTierTkavSirimsofliosa da saqarTveloSi).aRsaniSnavia yvela Tavis avtoris mier mowodebuli informaciisda analizis maRali xarisxi, rac aZlevs mkiTxvels SesaZleblobasSeiswavlos migraciis TiToeuli aspeqti siRrmiseulad, racmniSvnelovans da sainteresos xdis saxelmZRvanelos sazogadoebissxvadasxva wreebisaTvis. is, pirvel rigSi, mniSvnelovani iqnebasaxelmwifos samTavrobo da arasamTavrobo dawesebulebebisaTvis,romelTa saqmianobac dakavSirebulia migraciis sakiTxebTangansxvavebuli aspeqtebiT; aseve sxvadasxva samecniero (iuridiuli,ekonomikuri, sociologia da sxv.) wreebis warmomadgenlebisa dagansxvavebuli specialobis studentebisaTvis, romlebic migraciissakiTxebs Seiswavlian sxvadasxva prizmaSi.qveynis ganviTarebis paralelurad matulobs migrantebis interesisaxelmwifos mimarT, rac sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT Tu daniSnulebiTmaTi nakadis zrdas ganapirobebs. amgvari viTareba saxelmwifosganiTxovs migraciis efeqtian marTvas, raTa daculi iqnes qveynisinteresebi da adamianis uflebebi, xolo migraciis dadebiTi gavlenada potenciali qveynis ganviTarebas moxmardes. amisaTvis aucilebeliamigraciis gamomwvevi, Sedegobrivi da sxva aspeqtebis samarTlebrivikuTxiT gaazreba, rac saxelmwifos saSualebas miscems, sworadgansazRvros da ganaxorcielos Tavisi migraciuli politika. profesori levan aleqsiZe Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetiწინასიტყვაობა 7


migracia, albaT, kacobriobasaviT uZvelesia, Tumca, is arasdrosyofila iseTi aqtualuri, rogoric dResaa; amas ki didwiladadamianTa mobiluroba gansazRvravs. winamdebare saxelmZRvaneloSidetalurad aris ganxiluli migraciis sakiTxi disciplinaTaSorisiperspeqtiviT da xazgasmiT aris naCvenebi misi socialuri, ekono­mikuri da politikuri zegavlena msoflios sazogadoebebsa dasaxelmwifoebze. samarTlianobis uzrunvelyofa migrciisTvisdamaxasiaTebel rTul pirobebSi sakmaod Znelia, magram _ SesaZlebeli;am saxelmZRvanelos konkretul TavebSi aRwerilia, Tu rogor undaiqnes daculi wonasworoba Teoriul ganmartebasa da TvalsaCinomagaliTebs Soris, raTa Seiqmnas naTeli suraTi imisa, Tu rogorviTardeboda migracia wlebis ganmavlobaSi da ras niSnavs igimomavlisaTvis.qarTul enaze migraciis saxelmZRvanelos Seqmna mniSvnelovani etapiasaqarTveloSi migraciis marTvis SesaZleblobaTa ganviTarebisaTvis.es saxelmZRvanelo, romelic asaxavs adgilobrivi mkvlevrebisada eqspertebis mosazrebebs, qarTveli mecnierebis, studentebis,migraciis sferoSi momuSave profesionalebisa da sajaro moxeleebi­sT­ visaa gankuTvnili, Tumca igi farTo sazogadoebisTvisac iqnebasaintereso.misi mizania Rirebuli saswavlo resursis miwodeba ara mxolodmaTTvis, vinc qmnis politikas, aramed, saqarTvelos mTeli mosaxleo­bisTvisac, ramac xeli unda Seuwyos gonivruli politikis Seqmnas damigraciis aRqmas mtkicebulebaTa safuZvelze.migraciis politikis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso centri (ICMPD)evrokavSiris mier dafinansebuli proeqtis „migraciis marTvisgaZliereba saqarTveloSi (ENIGMMA)“ farglebSi, exmareba saqarTve­los xelisuflebas momavalze orientirebuli migraciis strategiisganviTarebaSi, rac moicavs saqarTveloSi migraciis Sesaxebanalitik­uri SesaZleblobebisa da codnis sabaziso safuZvlebisganmtkicebas. ENIGMMA proeqtis farglebSi migraciis Sesaxeb aseTimniSvnelovani saxelmZRvanelos gamocema gansakuTrebuli miRwevaa damasSi monawileoba da mxardaWera migraciis politikis ganviTarebissaerTaSoriso centrisTvis didi pativia.saqarTveloSi migraciis landSafti swrafad viTardeba, rac strate-giuli dagegmvisa da detaluri analizis ganviTarebas moiTxovs.evrokavSirTan uvizo mimosvlis amoqmedebis Semdeg saqarTvelosmigraciis politikaSi efeqturad gadaiSleba axali Tavi, romlis­8 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


Tvisac damaxasiaTebeli iqneba rogorc dadebiTi Sedegebi, isegamowvevebi.migraciis politikis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso centri, romel­ icsaqarTvelos didi xnis partnioria, amayobs im roliT, rome­lic manunda Seasrulos am procesebSi da mzad aris momavali TanamSrom­lobisTvis.me, rogorc migraciis politikis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso centrisfarglebSi arsebuli migraciis dialogisa da TanamSromlobismimarTulebis xelmZRvanels, msurs madloba gadavuxado ENIGMMA-sproeqtis gunds da, aseve, proeqtis yvela monawiles im fasdaudebeliSromisaTvis, romelic maT am saxelmZRvanelos gamoqveynebisTvisgaswies. darwmunebuli var, rom aseTi saxis saxelmZRvanelo mniSvne-lovani saganmanaTleblo resursi iqneba dRevandeli da momavaliprofesionalebisaTvis, romlebic saqarTveloSi migraciis sferoSimoRvaweoben. martain plaimi migraciis politikis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso centriწინასიტყვაობა 9


1. Sesavali violeta vagneri migraciis politikis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso centri giorgi jaSi migraciis sakiTxTa samTavrobo komisiis samdivnoCveulebriv, axali wignis xelSi aRebisTanave - miuxedavad imisa, essaxelmZRvaneloa Tu sxva saxis literatura - misi dauyovneblivwakiTxvis survili gvipyrobs. xolo Sesavali - romelzedac axlavarT SeCerebuli - naklebad izidavs mkiTxvels, romelic imTaviTveeswrafvis saxelmZRvanelos gacnobas da cdilobs, dro ar dakargosSinaarsis Sesaxeb mokle informaciis amokiTxvaze. magram amkonkretul SemTxvevaSi mainc gvsurs mkiTxvels vTxovoT, ramdenimewuTi dauTmos Sesaval nawils, romelic Sinaarsis gacnobasTan erTadSeatyobinebs, Tu rogor Seiqmna da ganviTarda es saxelmZRvanelo dasabolood rogor aRmoCnda igi mis xelSi.2013 wlis seqtemberSi migraciis sakiTxTa samTavrobo komisiissamdivnosa da migraciis politikis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso centrsacnobes, rom xeli moewera xelSekrulebas evrokavSiris dafinansebiTsaqarTveloSi migraciasTan dakavSirebuli axali iniciativis Sesaxeb,da rom orive partniors unda Camoeyalibebina sakuTari mosazrebebiimaze, Tu rogor unda gaumjobesebuliyo qveyanaSi migracia - qveyanaSiSemosvlis, qveynidan gasvlisa da qveynis SigniT migraciis CaTvliT;am ideebs mogvianebiT xorci Seesxa evrokavSiris mier dafinansebuli`saqarTveloSi migraciis marTvis gaZlierebis (ENIGMMA)“ proeqtisfarglebSi. migraciis Sesaxeb saxelmZRvanelos Seqmnis idea erT-erTiprioriteti iyo, romelzec orive mxare didi xniT adre SeTanxmda;dadga dro, rodesac unda ganxiluliyo saxelmZRvanelos formatida gansazRvruliyo misi avtorebi. vis unda Seeqmna igi: qarTvelavtorebs? evrokavSiris avtorebs? orives erTad? migraciis raaspeqtebi unda ganxiluliyo masSi? rogor unda momxdariyo migraciissxvadasxva mxaris dakavSireba? rogor unda gamxdariyo wignimimzidveli yvela CarTuli mxarisaTvis: studentebis, profesorebis,mkvlevrebis, sajaro moxeleebis, samoqalaqo sazogadoebisa dazogadad sazogadoebisTvis? saaTebi dasWirda analitikur ganxilvas,diskusiebsa da molaparakebebs, rasac male mohyva mravaldRiani10 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


Sroma axali koncefciis, formatebis, Teoriisa da xedvebis Camosaya­libeblad. cxadia, yvelas kargad esmoda, rom migracia Cvens globa­lizebul samyaroSi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani sakiTxia, da romqarTul enaze migraciis Sesaxeb yovlismomcveli saxelmZRvanelosSeqmna iyo da kvlavac aris revoluciuri idea, rac, udavod, saWiroebsdetalur ganxilvas.swored am mizniT, ENIGMMA proeqtis orive partniorma mxardaWeramiiRo adamianisagan, romelic calke unda gamovyoT mTeli procesisganmavlobaSi, radgan mas SeiZleba am saxelmZRvanelos mamac ki vuwo­doT, radgan, sabolood, misi monawileobiT, xangrZlivi diskusiebierTi ZiriTadi RerZis garSemo dakristalda da monawileebmasagu­lisxmo nabiji gadadges saxelmZRvanelos Seqmnis gzaze -gadawyvetileba miiRes saxelmZRvanelos struqturisa da avtorTajgufis Semadgenlobis Sesaxeb. profesori piter van krikeni -saqarTvelos, misi kulturis, tradiciebis da, yvelaze metad, misixalxis Tayvanismcemeli, migraciis politikis ganviTarebis saer­TaSoriso centris didi xnis partniori, humanitaruli da migraciissamarTlis TvalsaCino profesori, saxelmZRvanelos avtori, leq­tori, mrCeveli da saukeTeso megobari - am saxelmZRvanelos xilviTuzomod gaixarebda da miRweuli SedegebiTac iamayebda. samwuxarod,igi Zalian adre wavida Cvengan da ver moaswro am da kidev asobiT sxvaideis, proeqtisa da gegmis realizeba. da mainc, Cven - am Sesavlisavtorebs - Rrmad gvjera, rom SevZeliT misi miTiTebebis Sesrulebada es wigni swored iseTi gamovida, rogoric Cafiqrebuli gvqonda.mowonebis niSnad piteri (an PvK - rogorc mas megobrebi da kolegebieZaxdnen), udavod, agviwevda Tavis cera TiTs. piteri rom CvenTanyofiliyo, migraciis disciplinaTa mravalferovnebas, albaT, msgavsisaxiT aRwerda:`rodesac ambavi xdeba, vTqvaT, magaliTad, Cais Wiqa magididaniatakze vardeba da aTasobiT namsxvrevi garSemo ifanteba, Sedegad,Cveulebriv, gansxvavebuli reaqciis mowmeni vxdebiT. es SeiZlebaiyos Soki an aSkara siamovneba, ganrisxeba an sruli uinteresoba.ufro metic, mecnierebs daainteresebT Wiqis vardnis siCqare, xoloqimikosebs - aTasobiT mcire nawilakis Semadgenloba; bizn­esmeniaxali Wiqebis gayidviT dainteresdeba (da amavdroulad, mtver­sasrutebisac!); advokati dainteresdeba sasamarTlo procesiT,zianiTa da samarTaldamrRvevis gasamarTlebis SesaZleblobiT;Teologiuri ganaTlebis mqone adamiani SeiZleba dafiqrdes, Turas unda niSnavdes es vardna, da iyo Tu ara incidenti bediswerazemimaniSnebeli.reaqciaTa mravalferovneba SexedulebaTa mravalferovnebis, dis­cipl­ inaTa mravalferovnebis Sedegia. igive SeiZleba iTqvas rTuliშესავალი 11


sakiTxis SemTxvevaSic – ra farglebSi SeiZleba miviRoT an sulacgavriyoT migranti1.~zemoaRniSnul ideebze dafuZnebiT, ZiriTadi principebi, romleb­zedac proeqtis monawileebi saxelmZRvaneloze muSaobisas SeTan­xmdnen, moicavs Semdegs:- ar iTargmnos migraciis Sesaxeb ucxo enebze gamocemuli saxelm­ ZRva­neloTa wyeba, aramed Seiqmnas wigni, romelic gamoxatavs saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebul xedvebs migraciis Sesaxeb;- saxelmZRvaneloSi aisaxos migraciis mravaldisciplinuri da disciplinaTaSorisi fenomeni da mkiTxvels mieces saSualeba Tavad gadawyvitos migraciis romeli forma dominirebs kacobriobis, sazogadoebis Tu saxelmwifos ganviTarebis ama Tu im etapze;- Camoyalibdes, ganviTardes da SenarCundes migraciis sferos qarTveli da saerTaSoriso eqspertebis TanamSromloba am saxelmZRvanelos Seqmnis mizniT, magram Seqmnis etapze ZiriTadad CaerTon qarTveli avtorebi, xolo Semdgomi ganxilva da teqstis saboloo versiis SeTanxmeba moxdes erToblivad - saerTaSoriso eqspertebTan erTad.yovelive amis Sedegi dRes Tqvens xelT aris disciplinaTaSorisifenomenidan (me-2 Tavi) dawyebuli – romlis avtorebi arian pitervan krikeni (leidenis universiteti), mariam WumburiZe (inovaciebisda reformebis centri) da martin hofmani (migraciis politikisganviTarebis saerTaSoriso centri), – saxelmZRvaneloSi detaluradaris axsnili, ra aspeqtebi unda gaviTvaliswinoT migraciisganxilvisas da ratom aris esoden mniSvnelovani maTi gaTvaliswineba.TiTqmis SeuZlebelia bolomde CaerTo ama Tu im sakiTxis SeswavlaSimocemuli sakiTxis Teoriuli safuZvlebis saTanado aRqmis gareSe -swored amitomac Seicavs es saxelmZRvanelo kidev or Tavs winaTqmissaxiT: migraciuli moZraobebis ZiriTadi formebi (me-3 Tavi),sadac irina baduraSvili (mosaxleobis kvlevis erovnuli centri)warmoadgens migraciasTan dakavSirebul ZiriTad gansazRvrebebs dasaerTaSoriso migraciis Teoriuli CarCo (me-4 Tavi), sadac martinhofmani da violeta vagneri (orive migraciis politikis ganviTarebissaerTaSoriso centridan) ganmartaven, Tu ra aris migracia realurad.migraciis disciplinaTaSorisi realuri buneba am saxelmZRvaneloSipirvelad ganxilulia giorgi jaSis (migraciis sakiTxTa samTavrobo1 Peter J. van Krieken and T.M.C. Asser Instituut Health, migration and return: a handbook for a multidis- ciplinary approach. T.M.C. Asser Press; The Hague, 2001; Introduction, gv. XIV-XV.12 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


komisiis samdivno) kvlevaSi `migraciis istoria~ (me-5 Tavi): migraciada Cveni civilizaciis ganviTareba erTi medlis ori mxarea da erTisganviTareba meoris gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneboda: maSasadame, aseTiurTierTqmedebis gzebi istoriuli perspeqtiviT unda Sefasdes.mecniereba adamianis geografiis Sesaxeb ikvlevs urTierTobebsadamianTa sazogadoebasa da im geografiul garemos Soris,romelSic adamianebi moqmedeben; da vinaidan adamianTa sazogadoebisSemadgenlobaze migracia did zemoqmedebas axdens, ia iaSvilma(Tbi­l­isis saxelmwifo universiteti) am saxelmZRvanelosaTvismoamzada adamianis geografiasa da migracias Soris kavSirebis ana­lizi (me-7 Tavi). kidev erTi mecniereba, romelic sazogadoebasan mosaxleobas ikvlevs – ufro zustad, adamianis gamravlebis damimdinare sazogadoebriv-istoriuli ganviTarebis sakiTxebs, - arisdemografia. am mecnierebasa da migracias Soris kavSirebi, rogorcerT-erTi demografiuli procesi, aRwerilia Sorena wiklaurisa dagiorgi wulaZis (oriveni ilias saxelmwifo universitetidan) kvlevaSistatistika da demografia (me-8 Tavi).aleqsi guguSvilma (oqsfordis universiteti) am saxelmZRvaneloSiwarmoadgina migraciis ekonomikuri aspeqtebi, sadac igi mkiTxvelsacnobs emigraciasa da imigracias Soris korelaciis mraval principsada ideas da iseT ekonomikur kategoriebs, rogoricaa, ekonomikurizrda, inflacia da gacvlis kursi, Sromis bazari da adamianis Sesa­ZleblobaTa ganviTareba, da sxv. (me-9 Tavi). migraciasa da socialurmecn­ierebebs Soris kavSiri ufro zogadad aris ganxiluli me-10TavSi – Tamar zurabiSvilis (kvlevisa da ganviTarebis fondi), maiamestviriSvilisa da ekaterine fircxalavas (orive Tbilisis sa­xelmwifo universitetidan) mier. am Tavis avtorebi ZiriTadadfokusirebas axdenen migraciasa da socialur struqturaze, romeliciTvaliswinebs sazogadoebis Semadgenel sxvadasxva institutsa danormebs, arsebul mdgrad da grZelvadian kavSirebs Rirebulebebsa dasocialur rolebs Soris. statiaSi `migracia da genderi~ (me-11 Tavi)Tamar zurabiSvilis da TinaTin zurabiSvilis (kavkasiis kvleviTiresursebis centri) mier ganxilulia genderis roli saqarTvelosmigraciul nakadebSi. migraciis samarTlebrivi aspeqtebi didi xaniamiiCneva migraciis marTvis ZiriTad berketad; aqedan gamomdinare,SeuZlebelia migraciis yvela kategoriis ganxilva samarTlis Sesaxebkonkretuli Tavis gareSe: am saxelmZRvaneloSi igi warmodgenilialevan aleqsiZis (Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti) gundismier (me-6 Tavi). da bolos, saxelmZRvanelos socialuri nawiligaRrmavebulia migraciis Sesaxeb sazogadoebrivi azriT – korelaciamigraciasa da masmedias Soris. sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis es aspeqtiშესავალი 13


sul ufro met mniSvnelobas iZens yovel sazogadoebaSi; masmediissakiTxebi ganxilulia me-12 TavSi, romelzedac erToblivad imuSavessaxelmZRvanelos avtorebma mariam gersamiam (Tbilisis saxelmwifouniversiteti) da robert maqnilma (oqsfordis universiteti).saxelmZRvanelos bolos ganxilulia kavSirebi migraciasa da sajaroadministrirebas Soris rogorc erovnul, ise saerTaSoriso doneze.es nawili warmodgenilia me-13 TavSi, sadac migraciis zegavlenassaerTaSoriso urTierTobebze, da piriqiT, nikoloz samxaraZe(Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti) mimoixilavs. garda amisa,migraciis saxelmwifo marTvis sakiTxis kvleva mocemulia Temurgoginovis (migraciis sakiTxTa samTavrobo komisiis samdivno) damariam WumburiZis statiaSi `migracia da sajaro marTva~ (me-14 Tavi).migraciis usafrTxoebis WrilSi danaxva globalizaciis kidev erTiSedegia da mas damatebiTi ganxilva da Sefaseba sWirdeba. sworedam mizans emsaxureba me-15 Tavi – `migracia da usafrTxoeba~. igimomzadebulia nikoloz samxaraZisa da nino RvinaZis (migraciissakiTxTa samTavrobo komisiis samdivno) mier.am SesavalSi aRniSnul avtorebTan erTad, gansakuTrebuli madlobagvinda gadavuxadoT qsenia filipenkos (ICMPD) da rusudan tuSurs(ENIGMMA proeqtis akademiuri eqsperti, Tbilisis saxelmwifo uni­versiteti) saxelmZRvanelos Seqmnis mTliani procesis warmarTvisada koordinirebisaTvis. amavdroulad, qarTveli avtorebi mWidrodTanamSromlobdnen melisa sigelsa da miqaela vanorTan (maastrixtisuniversiteti), roland hosnerTan (ICMPD), martin hofmanTan (ICMPD),katarina hauslerTan (ludvig bolcmanis adamianis uflebaTainstituti), biajio speCialesTan (sorbonis universiteti) irinabaduraSvilsa da Tamar zurabiSvilTan – romlebmac wvlili Seitanessxvadasxva Tavis damuSavebaSi. am saxelmZRvanelos mTavari redaqto­ria violeta vagneri (ICMPD), romelmac uzrunv­el­yo SesabamisobasaxelmZRvanelos calkeul Tavebs Soris. saxelmZRvanelos enobriviredaqtireba ganaxorciela manana tabiZem. da bolos, rac tolfasadmniSvnelovania, ICMPD ENIGMMA-s gunds daxmarebas uwevdnenprofesionali mTargmnelebi, koreqtorebi da dizainerebi, romlebmacdidi wvlili Seitanes am saxelmZRvanelos Sinaarsisa da teqnikuridetalebis srulyofaSi.evrokavSiris mier dafinansebulma proeqtma `migraciis marTvis gaZ­liereba saqarTveloSi (ENIGMMA)~ CarCo instrumentis roli Sea­srula am saxelmZRvanelos SeqmnaSi, risTvisac man gamoiyena misilogos `fazlis“ elementebi da ZiriTadi gzavnili Semdegi wina­dadebiT Camoayaliba: SevaduRaboT calkeuli fragmentebi, raTaefeqtianad vupasuxoT migraciis gamowvevebs. es saxelmZRvanelo,14 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


amavd­ roulad, miznad isaxavs, erT suraTad Sekras migraciis `fazlis“kvlevis yvela fragmenti, raTa mkiTxvels warmoudginos migraciisgasaocari samyaro, misi zemoqmedeba Cveni cxovrebis yvela aspeqtzeda sakiTxis perspeqtiva momavalSi. Cven gvsurs es Sesavali pitervan krikenis sityvebiT davasruloT: `es saxelmZRvanelo ar isaxavsmiznad gansazRvruli pasuxebis Camoyalibebas, da arc dasrulebulinaSromis pretenzia aqvs. mas surs mxolod debatebis xelSewyoba daim masalebis miwodeba, romlebsac SeiZleba, an unda daefuZnos aseTidebatebi.~2 Cven imedi gvaqvs, rom am saxelmZRvanelos wakiTxva iseTivesiamovnebas mianiWebs mkiTxvels, rogoric Cven mogvaniWa mis SeqmnazemuSaobam!2 Peter J. van Krieken and T.M.C. Asser Instituut Health, migration and return: a handbook for a multidis- ciplinary approach. T.M.C. Asser Press ; The Hague, 2001; Introduction, gv. XVIIIშესავალი 15


2. migraciis swavlebis interdisciplinuri xasiaTidoq. piter van krikenileidenis universitetimariam WumburiZeinovaciebisa da reformebis centrimartin hofmanimigraciis politikis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso centri2.1. Sesavali2015 wlis dasawyisSi internetiTa da sxvadasxva gazeTiT gavrceldamokle Setyobineba: afrikidan evropaSi adamianTa migraciis istoriasnaTeli moefina. arqeologebis mier israelSi aRmoCenili nakvalevimowmobs, rom pirveli migraciuli gadaadgileba ganxorcieldadaaxloebiT 55,000 wlis winaT. am aRmoCenas `afrikasa da evropasSoris dakarguli kavSirebi“ uwodes.1 es aRmoCena miuTiTebs imaze, rommigracia, anu adamianTa gadaadgileba erTi sacxovrebeli adgilidanmeoreze, yvela drois damaxasiaTebeli fenomenia. Tumca, jer kidevucnobia, ram ubiZga pirvel migrantebs gadaadgilebisaken: bunebrivigaremos cvlilebam? Tu konfliqtma adamianTa sxva jgufebTan ancxovelebTan? iqneb rogorRac gaiges, rom maTi `saxlis“ gareTukeTesi cxovrebis pirobebi elodaT? anda ubralod, aRmoCenebissurvilma da cnobismoyvareobam ubiZgaT gadaadgilebisaken? eszustad is kiTxvebia, romlebiTac xelmZRvaneloben dRes politi­kosebi, mkvlevrebi da analitikosebi, roca cdiloben imis gagebas,ratom da rogor gadaadgildebian adamianebi da rogor miiRosSeZlebisdagvarad didi sargebeli procesSi CarTulma yvela mxarem.Tu Tanamedrove CineTs davakvirdebiT, aRmovaCenT, rom ZiriTadikiTxvebi dResac aqtualuria, Tumca damatebiTi kiTxvebic gaCnda.CineTSi urbanizaciis procesi Zalian daCqarebulia. 2000 wels misimosaxleobis ori mesamedi cxovrobda soflad, dRes ki maTi ricxvimosaxleobis naxevarze naklebia.2 2030 wlisaTvis CineTis qalaqebSi1 magaliTisaTvis ix. New York Times, 28 ianvari, 2015 w. მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო2 The Economist, ianvari 17, 2015 w.16


miliardamde adamiani icxovrebs, rac am qveynis mosaxleobisdaaxloebiT 70%-s Seadgens, dRevandeli 54%-isagan gansxvavebiT.3mokle droSi 500 mln Cineli ukve gadavida soflidan qalaqSisacxovreblad an gadasvlis procesSia. adamianTa gadaadgilebisistoriaSi es unikaluri movlenaa, Tavisi masStabidan gamomdinare.miuxedavad imisa, rom aRniSnuli procesi `Sida migracias“ ganekuTv­neba, did dabrkolebebs uqmnis ganaTlebisa da jandacvis sistemebs,Sromisa da uZravi qonebis bazrebs, saxelmwifo investiciebs, teqnikurinfrastruqturas, sajaro transports, energo da garemosdacviTseqtors, politikur sistemas Tu socialur da kulturul tradi­ciebsa da maxasiaTeblebs. es yvelaferi masStabur cvlilebebsganicdis, rac sazogadoebis organizebazec aisaxeba SemdgomSi.da kvlav daismis igive kiTxva: rogor da ratom gadaadgildebianadamianebi? ra Sedegi moaqvs maT gadaadgilebas? rogor SeiZlebagavlena movaxdinoT am procesze?urbanizacia TanamedroveobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli procesia.sa­qar­T­vel­oSic yovelwliurad aTobiT aTasi adamiani gadadissacxovr­ eblad dedaqalaqSi an sxva qalaqSi. ekonomikuri SesaZleb­lobebi, maRalanazRaurebadi samsaxuri da ganaTlebis miRebis uke­Tesi pirobebi adamianebs qalaqSi gadasvlisaken ubiZgebs. vinaidansaqar­TveloSi ZiriTadi ekonomikuri aqtivobebi da umaRlesisaganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebi Tavmoyrilia dedaqalaqSi, TbilisiSida migraciis mTavari daniSnulebis adgilia. dResdReobiTsaqarTvelos mosaxleobis 26% dedaqalaqSi cxovrobs da es tendencia,didi albaTobiT, momavalSic SenarCundeba.4 isev Cndeba axali kiTxvebi:aRniSnuli tendencia kargia Tu cudi saqarTvelos ekonomikuri dasocialuri ganviTarebisaTvis? saiT unda mimarTos saxelmwifom in­vesticiebi: soflad – iq darCenili mosaxleobis cxovrebis pirobebisgasaumjobeseblad, Tu qalaqSi, romliskenac mainc miemarTeba soflismosaxleoba? rogor moaxerxos qveyanam saxelmwifo servisebisefeqtianobis uzrunvelyofa, roca mosaxleobis ricxobrivi da asa­kobrivi maCveneblebi, maTi saWiroebebi gansxvavebulia sxvadasxvaregionSi?zemoT dasmul kiTxvebs Tu gadavxedavT, davinaxavT, rom maTze pasuxisgasacemad saWiroa mivmarToT sxvadasxva akademiur disciplinas,qvedisciplinas, profesiasa da maT Sesabamis meTodologiebs. mxo­lod amis Semdeg gavigebT, ratom da rogor gadaadgildebodnenda gadaadgildebian adamianebi da rogor SeiZleba warmatebiTCaverioT aRniSnul procesSi. SeiZleba SevecadoT da CamovTvaloT3 The Economist, aprili 19, 2014 w.4 Mariam Chumburidze et al., The State of Migration in Georgia.International Centre for Migration Policy Development, Vienna: 2015. gv. 62. nanaxia 12.04.2017 w. http://bit.ly/2fuktyu.მიგრაციის სწავლების ინტერდისციპლინური ხასიათი 17


es disciplinebi: anTropologia; arqeologia; regionuli kvlevebi– kulturuli da eTnikuri kvlevebi; demografia; ganaTleba;ekonomika; garemosdacvis kvleva; ojaxis Semswavleli mecnierebebi;genderi; geografia da urbanuli swavleba; inteleqti; Jurnalistika;samarTalmcodneoba; media da komunikacia; medicina; politikurimecnierebebi; fsiqologia; sajaro administracia; sajaro politika;socialuri samsaxuri; sociologia; statistika da sistemebisSemswavleli mecnierebebi.gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom CamoTvlili disciplinebi da profesiebimigraciis mxolod calkeuli aspeqtis gagebas SeiZleba gaswvdes,Tumca, TiToeuli damoukideblad ver axsnis migracias, rogorcmTlian fenomens. migracia aris `adamianuri mdgomareobis nawili~da `adamianebi yovelTvis iyvnen migraciisken midrekilni~.5 amavedros, migraciam, rogorc procesma, TviTonac ganicada cvlilebaukanasknel aTwleulebSi, rac aisaxa migraciis Sesaxeb Teoriisada konceptualuri CarCos Camoyalibebaze.6 miuxedavad amisa,arangos daskvna, rom `migracia zedmetad mravalferovani damravalwaxnagovania imisaTvis, rom mis asaxsnelad mxolod erTiTeoria kmarodes,~7 ZalaSi rCeba. migraciasTan dakavSirebulikonkre­tuli sakiTxi konkretul kiTxvebs aCens; maT gasagebad daasaxsnelad ki saWiroa meTodologiebisa da donis erToblioba,romelic gamomdinareobs sxvadasxva disciplinisa da profesiidan.Sesabamisad, migraciisa da misi sxvadasxva gamovlinebis analizisaWiroebs midgomas, romelic cdeba mxolod erT disciplinas. ami­tom migraciis kvleva yovelTvis moiTxovs multidisciplinur aninterdisciplinur midgomas.magaliTisaTvis, SevxedoT bolo dros Zalze popularul `migraciisprofilebs~, koncefcias, romelic qveyanaSi arsebul migraciulmdgomareobas aRwers. amisaTvis pirvel rigSi ganixileba da Seiswav­leba raodenobrivi da statistikuri monacemebi; Sesabamisad, sta­tisti­kosebi monawileoben migrantTa nakadebis, migrantTa jgufebisada mosaxleobis aRweris monacemebis damuSavebaSi. magram ama Tu immigraciuli procesisa da misi gamomwvevi mizezebisa Tu Sedegebisasaxsnelad mxolod statistikuri monacemebi ar kmara. ekonomistTaCarevaa saWiro iseTi migraciuli aspeqtebis gamomwvevi mizezebisa daSedegebis gansamartavad, rogoricaa fuladi gzavnilebi, saxelfasosxvaoba, Sromis bazari da ekonomikuri zrda. Tumca, sakmarisi esec5 Melissa Lane, Myths About Migration: Historical and Philosophical Perspectives, History and Policy, Policy Papers, 14 Tebervali, 2006 w; nanaxia 5.04.2017 w. http://bit.ly/2vSaN6R.6 ix. me-4 Tavi.7 Joaquin Arango, Theories of International Migration, ix. saxelmZRvaneloSi International Migra- tion in the New Millennium: Global Movement and Settlement, ed. Daniele Joly, Ashgate, 2004, gv. 15–35.18 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


ar aris. adamianebs migraciisaken mxolod ekonomikuri mizezebirodi ubiZgebs, aranakleb sagulisxmoa pirovnuli, fsiqologiuri dasocialuri faqtorebic. migracia moqceulia socialur konteqstSi;Sesabamisad, migrantebsa da maT gamocdilebebze dakvirvebisasgasaTvaliswinebelia anTropologiuri, istoriuli, fsiqologiurida sociologiuri perspeqtivebic. imigraciisa da integraciisganviTarebas mediisa da kulturis prizmidan unda SevxedoT. Semdegukve SeiZleba yuradRebis gadatana transnacionalur procesebze,romlis farglebSi unda gaanalizdes geografiuli da samarTlebriviaspeqtebi; aseve mniSvnelovania diasporebis gavlena, rasac yuradRebamigraciasa da ganviTarebaze gadaaqvs. migraciis SeswavlisasSeiZleba mivmarToT jandacvis, ganaTlebis, sajaro politikis,komunikaciis, regionuli, genderuli, eTnografiuli, lingvisturida teqnologiuri Temebis kvlevebs. misi mravalferovnebidangamomdinare, zogadad migraciisa da migrantebis Seswavlisas auci­lebelia cxovrebis yvela aspeqtis Seswavla mTeli rigi discip­linebis gamoyenebiT. vinaidan migracia gadajaWvulia mraval discip­linasTan, misi kvleva unda moxdes am dargebis daxmarebiT, maTimeTodologiebisa da uaxlesi miRwevebis gamoyenebiT.2.2. migraciis kvlevis interdisciplinuri xasiaTi1990 wels gamocemul wignSi `interdisciplinuroba: istoria, Teoriada praqtika~ juli klainma pirvelma SemogvTavaza interdisci­plinurobis Tanamedrove koncefciis safuZvliani kvleva. Seexebodara socialur, sabunebismetyvelo da humanitarul mecnierebebsada profesiebs, am naSromma gaaerTiana interdisciplinur kvle­vebze, ganaTlebasa da jandacvaze arsebuli masalebi. klainis mi­xed­viT, nebismieri interdisciplinuri aqtivoba moicavs isto­riuli, socialuri, fsiqologiuri, politikuri, ekonomikuri,filos­ofiuri da inteleqtualuri faqtorebis kompleqsur qsels.interdisciplinurobis koncefcia problemebis gadaWris mniSvne­lovan saSualebaTa nazavia, romlis gareSec mocemul kompleqsurkiTxvebze pasuxis gacema mxolod calke aRebuli meTodisa Tumidgomis meSveobiT SeuZlebeli iqneboda. magram ras niSnavs esyvelaferi? 2008 wels gamocemul wignSi `interdisciplinuri kvleva~alen f. repko SesaniSnavad ganmartavs:`interdisciplinuri kvleva iseT kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemis, improb­lemis gadawyvetis an sakiTxis mogvarebis procesia, romelicმიგრაციის სწავლების ინტერდისციპლინური ხასიათი 19


metismetad farTo da kompleqsuria mxolod erTi disciplinis far­glebSi gadaWrisaTvis; amitom interdisciplinuri kvleva mimar­Tavsbevr disciplinas, maTi Teoriebis gamoyenebis mizniT, raTa SesaZ­lebeli gaxdes aRniSnuli sakiTxis yovlismomcveli gaazreba~.8saganmanaTleblo da saswavlo miznebisaTvis termini interdiscipli­nuri gulisxmobs kvlevas, romelSic iyenebs sxvadasxva disciplinisada kvlevis tradiciuli sferos meTodologias da Teoriebs.masSi monawileoben rogorc mkvlevrebi, ise studentebi damaswavleblebi. interdisciplinuri kvlevis mizania, saerTo amocanisSesasruleblad erTmaneTTan daakavSiros da gaaerTianos sxvadasxvamidgomis, profesiisa Tu teqnologiis akademiuri skolebi, maTTvisdamaxasiaTebel specifikur perspeqtivaTa gaTvaliswinebiT.amgvari kvlevis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia, roca sagani ugulebel­yofilia, an roca mas arasaTanado yuradReba daeTmo kvleviTiinstitutebis tradiciul disciplinur struqturaSi, magali­Tad,qalTa uflebebis an eTnikuri sakiTxebis kvlevebi. interdiscip­linuri midgomebi yvelaze xSirad gamoiyeneba saganmanaTleblowreebSi, sadac sxvadasxva disciplinis mkvlevrebi erTiandebiankonkretuli sakiTxis garSemo, an gunduri swavlebisas, roca saswavlokursis mizania ama Tu im sakiTxis tradiciul multidisciplinurWrilSi ganxilva. magaliTad, miwis gamoyenebis sakiTxi SeiZlebasruliad gansxvavebulad warmoCindes sxvadasxva mecnierebaTa, ker­Zod, biologiis, qimiis, ekonomikis, geografiisa da politikis WrilSi.miuxedavad imisa, rom interdisciplinuri da interdisciplinurobaXX saukunis terminebad miiCneva, koncefcia sakmaod Zveliada jer kidev berZnul filosofiaSi gvxvdeba. bolo wlebSiinterdisciplinur programaTa gaaqtiurebis mizezi SeiZleba iyosrwmena, rom tradiciuli disciplinebi saTanadod ver an ar ikvlevenTanamedrove mniSvnelovan problemebs. magaliTisaTvis, socialurimecnierebis dargebma, rogoricaa anTropologia an sociologia,mTeli XX saukunis ganmavlobaSi mxolod umniSvnelo yuradRebadauTmes teqnologiis socialur kvlevas. Sedegad, socialurikvlevebis sferodan bevri mecnieri, romelTac teqnologiis mimarThqondaT interesi, SeuerTda mecnierebisa da teqnologiis saswavloprogramebs, romlebic dakompleqtebulia rogorc wesi, sxvadasxvadisciplinis warmomadgenlebiT. interdisciplinuroba SeiZleba axaldargTan erTad aRmocendes; magaliTad, nanoteqnologiis SeswavlaSesaZlebelia 2 an meti disciplinis gamoyenebiT. magaliTisaTvisaseve gamodgeba kvanturi informaciis damuSaveba, kvanturi fi­zika da kompiuteruli mecniereba, an Tundac bioinformatika,8 Allen F. Repko, Interdisciplinary Research. Process and Theory, Sage Publications, 2008, gv. 16.20 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


romelic molekulur biologias kompiuterul mecnierebasTanaerTianebs. mdgradi ganviTareba, rogorc kidev erTi nimuSi, kvlevisperspeqtividan gamomdinare, iseT sakiTxebs moicavs, romelTagadaWrac moiTxovs ekonomikuri, socialuri da garemosdacviTisferoebis analizsa da sinTezs, xSirad sxvadasxva socialuri dasabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis gaerTianebasac.interdisciplinuroba metia, vidre multidisciplinuroba, romelicsaerTo kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemisas erTze met disciplinas iyenebs,Tumca ar aerTianebs sxvadasxva disciplinasa da maTi meTod­ ologiaserT midgomaSi. TiToeuli disciplina calkea aRebuli da mocemulsakiTxTan mimarTebiT ar yalibdeba erTiani, glob­aluri midgoma.magaliTisaTvis, multidisciplinuroba niS­navs, rom migraciis pro­filis erTi nawili mTlianad eTmoba imig­ra­c­ias, emigraciasa damosaxleobis Sesaxeb informacias maSin, roca meore nawili ganixilavstradiciul faqtorebs qveynis ekono­mikuri mdgomareobis aRsawerad,kerZod qveynis mTliani Sida produqti (mSp), ekono­mikuri zrda,investiciebi, vaWroba, Sromis bazari, fiskaluri poli­tika da sxv.Sedegad, miviRebT naSromis or damoukidebel nawils, romlebicaxsnian, rogor SeiZleba migracia da ekonomika ukavSir­debodeserTmaneTs, Tumca ar gvawvdian siRrmiseul faqtebs am urTierT­kavSiris Taobaze. politikosebs ki swored es informacia sWirdebaTdrouli da adekvaturi sapasuxo politikis SesamuSaveblad dagasat­ areblad. siRrmiseuli gaanalizebisaTvis aucilebelia migra­ciis kvlevebisa da ekonomikis integrireba.9 migraciis kvle­vebmaSeiZleba axsnas potenciur migrantTa motivebi ekonomikur molo­dinebze, ojaxis gegmebsa Tu pirovnul miznebze dayrdnobiT; eko­nomi­kurma kvlevebma ki – gamoiyenos miRebuli daskvnebi qveynebsSoris Sromis bazrisa da saxelfaso sxvaobis dasadgenad da amissafu­Zvelze ganaviTaros ekonomikuri modeli, romelic gazomavsaRniSn­uli faqtorebis realur Tvisobriv gavlenas emigraciasa daimigra­ciaze. sxvadasxva disciplinis erT interdisciplinur mid­go­mad gaerTianebas xSirad mivyavarT saintereso da, zogjer, gasakvirSedeg­ amde.magaliTad, migraciis marTvis mimarT saxelmwifo politikis efeq­tian­obis kvlevisas, aiko tielemanma ramdenime hipoTeza Camoa­ya­liba TavSesafris maZiebelTaTvis daniSnulebis qveynis arCe­va­nis Taobaze.10 Tavis modelSi, sadac Seiyvana ekonomikuri Tana­mSrom­lobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis wevri 20 qveyana, man9 iqve, gv. 19.10 Eiko R. Thielemann, The Effectiveness of Governments’ Attempts to Control Unwanted Migration; ix. krebulSi Immigration and the Transformation of Europe, ed. Craig A. Parsons and Timothy A. Smeeding. Cambridge University Press, UK: 2006.მიგრაციის სწავლების ინტერდისციპლინური ხასიათი 21


gaiTvaliswina ekonomikuri da geografiuli faqtorebi, daniSnulebisqveynis `reputacia~, migrantis sanacnobo wre da aRniSnuli qveynispolitika. Seadara ra erTmaneTs migraciis realuri maCveneblebi daekonomikuri statistika, tielemanma aRmoaCina Semdegi: daniSnulebisqveynis arCevisas yvelaze didi gavlena aqvs dasaqmebis perspeqtivas,rasac mosdevs istoriuli kavSiri da ukve Camoyalibebuli socialuriqseli; mniSvnelovania binadrobis statusis miRebis maRali Sansi da`liberaluri qveynis reputaciac~; geografiuli daSoreba naklebyuradsaRebia; qveynis politikis maCveneblebic gasaTvaliswinebelia,magram ara ise, rogorc ekonomikuri, istoriuli kavSirebisa danacnobobis faqtorebi. WeSmaritad interdisciplinuri perspeqti­vidan gamomdinare, tielemanma daaskvna, rom daniSnulebis qveynisarCevi­sas migrantisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs ukvearsebul kavSirebs, dasaqmebisa da statusis miRebis perspeqtivas da`liberalur qveynad~ aRqmas.11 Sesabamisad, arsebul mignebebze day­rdn­ obiT, SesaZlebelia scenaris dasaxva politikuri CarevisaTvis.2.3. interdisciplinuroba da migraciis marTvaSi monawile saxelisuflebo organoebirogorc wina qveTavSi vnaxeT, interdisciplinurobas didi mniS­vne­loba aqvs migraciis kvlevisaTvis. Tumca, igi aranakleb sagul­ isxmoa,roca saqme exeba migraciis politikas, mis ganviTarebas, gad­a­wyvetilebis miRebasa da ganxorcielebas. migraciuli procesebis me­Tvalyureoba, kontroli da marTva damokidebulia mravalricxovaniinstitutebisa Tu sxva dainteresebuli mxareebis arsebobasa daTanamSromlobaze.magaliTisaTvis warmovidginoT universiteti, fizikis fakulteti,sagani - atomuri energia. fakultetis dekanma gadawyvita, gamo­cxa­debul saswavlo kursze miiwvios ucxoeli studentebic sazRvar­gareTidan. surT axali profesorebis miRebac. SemCneulia, romuniversitetebs, sadac saerTaSoriso fakultetebi funqcionirebsda ucxoeli studentebi swavloben, adgilobriv saswavleblebTanSedarebiT marTlac ukeTesi maCveneblebi aqvT. Tumca, Cndeba kiTxva:romelma organoebma unda miiRon monawileoba sazRvargareTidanstudentebis miRebaSi? iqneb universitets mocemul viTarebaSidamoukideblad moqmedeba SeuZlia? unda Caerios Tu ara ganaT­lebis saministro? an jandacvis saministro, radgan ucxoeli stu­11 iqve.22 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


dent­ ebic xdebian avad da samedicino mkurnalobas saWiroeben? vizissakiTxebic dasazustebelia - gamartivebuli wesiT unda mieni­WoT,Tu mainc unda daakmayofilon garkveuli kriteriumebi? atomurienergia mgrZnobiare sakiTxia da SesaZloa Sinagan saqmeTa saminis­tro da uSiSroebis samsaxuric dainteresdnen, vin da ratom modisam sagnis Sesaswavlad. Sesabamisad, ucxoel studentTa da pro­fesor-maswavleblebis imigracia gascdeba Tavisi kompetenciiT univers­i­tetsa da ganaTlebis saministros da am procesSi sxva uwyebebsacCarTavs.magaliTisaTvis warmovidginoT, rom saqarTvelos ekonomikisada mdgradi ganviTarebis saministrom gadawyvita, dasavleTsaqarTveloSi investiciebis mozidvis mizniT, ucxoel investorebsgansakuTrebuli privilegiebi SesTavazos, rogoricaa saSemosavlogadasaxadisagan gaTavisufleba, mudmivi binadrobis nebarTva maTTvisda ojaxis wevrebisaTvis, ganviTarebuli infrastruqtura, ucxoelimuSaxelis Semoyvanis ufleba da sxv. warmovidginoT, rom es keTdebaqveynis ekonomikuri zrdisa da misi moqalaqeebis sakeTildReod. vinunda miiRos gadawyvetileba da aRasrulos is? TiTqos ekonomikuraspeqtebs gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs, magram gasaTvaliswinebeliasocialuri da usafrTxoebis sakiTxebic. investorebisaTvis, maTiojaxis wevrebisa da ucxoeli muSaxelisaTvis binadrobis uflebisminiWebam SeiZleba sxvadasxva safiqrali gauCinos mosaxleobas,kerZod, produqtze, momsaxurebaze, uZrav qonebaze fasebis zrdada adgilobriv socialur urTierTobaTa gauareseba. kidev erTisakiTxia, rogor gaaSuqebs masmedia adgilobriv mosaxleobaSiucxoelT­ a momravlebis faqts? metic, imigracia usafrTxoebazeciqoniebs gavlenas, kerZod, dasadgeni iqneba qveyanaSi Semosulikapitalis wyaro. roca usafrTxoebis sakiTxebi gairkveva, dRis wes­rigSi dadgeba socialuri sakiTxebic, magaliTad, romel qveyanaSigadaixdian investorebi da ucxoeli muSaxeli sapensio gadasaxadebs?vin daadgens maTi dasaqmebis standartebs? SromiTi uflebebissakiTxTa gadasaWrelad asparezze gamodis Sromis, janmrTelobisada socialuri dacvis saministro. qveyanaSi mcxovreb ucxoelsTavisTavad aqvs ojaxTan gaerTianebis ufleba, magram arsebobski skolebi ucxoeli bavSvebisaTvis? an vin Seamowmebs swavlebisdones aseT skolebSi? aq ganaTlebis saministros CarTvaa saWiro.Sesabamisad, ucxoel investorTa imigracia scdeba ekonomikisa damdgradi ganviTarebis saministros kompetencias.Tanamedrove msoflio Sedgeba eri-saxelmwifoebisagan, romlebicwarmoadgenen damoukidebel geopolitikur warmonaqmnebs, gansazRv­ruli teritoriiT, erovnuli iurisdiqciiTa da saerTaSorisourTierT­ obebSi monawileobis SesaZleblobiT. eri-saxelmwifo gani­მიგრაციის სწავლების ინტერდისციპლინური ხასიათი 23


marteba, rogorc `politikuri organizaciis forma, romelic efuZ­neba erovnuli identobisa da teritoriis formalurad/ofic­ ia­lurad moziare mosaxleobas da romelsac marTavs erTiani biu­ro­kratia~.12 naklebad savaraudoa, rom aseTi tipis saxelmwifo axlomomavalSi gaqres. igi, rogorc `teritoriaze mibmuli politikuriorganizacia~, aris da iqneba saerTaSoriso politikis mTavarimoTamaSe. saerTaSoriso migracia mimdinareobs erze dafuZ­nebulsaxelmwifoebs Soris, Tumca, zemoxsenebuli magaliTebi gviC­venebs,rom eri-saxelmwifoebi ar arian `monoliTuri erTeulebi~. isi­ni Sedgebian sxvadasxva interesisa da ufleba-movaleobis mqonedajgu­febebisa da mxareebisagan. Tanamedrove sazogadoebisa damisi politikuri sistemebis formireba-CamoyalibebaSi sxvadasxvaaqtorebi monawileoben. ra Tqma unda, maTgan yvelaze mniSvnelovaniatrias politica: sakanonmdeblo, aRmasrulebeli da sasamarTlo xeli­sufleba.Tumca, monteskies mier SemoTavazebuli xelisuflebis ZiriTadiStoebis garda bevri sxva sazogadoebrivi da politikuri subieqticTamaSobs aqtiur da gadamwyvet rols sazogadoebriv da politikurcxovrebaSi. magaliTad: damsaqmeblebi, profkavSirebi, religiuriinstitutebi, arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, Jurnalistebi daakademiuri wreebi. gasakviri ar aris, rom maTi da administraciisinteresebi, mokle Tu grZelvadiani miznebi da samuSao meTodebiyovelTvis ar emTxveva erTmaneTs. aSkaraa, rom Tanamedrovesazogadoeba mxolod monteskies mier moxseniebul sam ZiriTadStos ver daeyrdnoba da aucilebelia sxva aqtorTa CarTulobac,maSinac ki, roca amis oficialuri valdebuleba ar arsebobs. metic,sazogadoebaSi ndobis, gagebisa da madlierebis grZnobis arsebobasaxelmwifos politikis legitimaciis aucilebeli winapirobaa.migraciis politikis formireba ki metwilad damokidebuliazemoxsenebul aqtorTa poziciebze, CarTulobasa da, rac mTavaria,codnaze. maT saTanado koordinaciasa da azrTa gacvlas gadamwyvetimniSvneloba aqvs. xelisuflebisaTvis didad sasargebloa akademiuriwreebis poziciis codna ama Tu im sakiTxze, da ukeTesia, Tu akademuriwreebi ukeT gaerkvevian politikis formirebisa da ganxorcielebisparametrebSi. migraciis sakiTxze gamarTuli debatebi xSirademociur fonze mimdinareobs, Sesabamisad, – kargia es Tu cudi – mTeliyuradReba faqtebidan da grZelvadiani interesebidan grZnobebsa damosaxleobis emociur aRqmaze gadadis. faqtebma SeiZleba gavlenaiqonios politikur debatebze, Secvalos ganwyoba da e.w. `migraciismiTebi~, magram amisaTvis isini saTanado formatiT unda miewodos12 Alan Gamlen and Katharina Marsh, Migration and Global Governance, The International Library of Studies on Migration, Elgar Research, 2011, gv. XV.24 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


politikosebsa da gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebs. xelisuflebasa daakademiur wreebs Soris ufro mWidro kavSiri swored imis winapirobaa,rom aRniSnuli faqtebi politikosebs daniSnulebisamebr miewodebaTda masmediasa da sazogadoebasac adekvatur formaSi gauziareben.13aSkaraa, migraciis marTva WeSmaritad multidisciplinur dainterdisciplinur midgomas moiTxovs da sasurvelia, procesSiCaerTos ara mxolod is institutebi da uwyebebi, romelTac migraciismarTvis oficialuri valdebuleba ekisrebaT, aramed ama Tu im gziTmigraciasTan dakavSirebuli mxareebic; magaliTad, Sinagan saqmeTa,sagareo saqmeTa, ekonomikisa Tu socialuri dacvis saministroebi damaTi Sesabamisi saagentoebi.2.4. interdisciplinuroba da mTavrobisa da akademiuri wreebis TanamSromloba migraciis sferoSimigraciis saerTaSoriso organizacia Tavis leqsikonSi migraciasSemdegnairad ganmartavs: migracia aris `saerTaSoriso sazRvarzean qveynis SigniT gadaadgilebis procesi. migracia gulisxmobsmosaxleobis nebismieri saxiT gadaadgilebas, miuxedavadxangrZlivobisa, Semadgenlobisa da gamomwvevi mizezebisa; migraciamoicavs ltolvilTa, iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa, gamosaxlebulpirTa da ekonomikur migrantTa gadaadgilebas~.14 migraciiseqspertebi da mkvlevrebi migracias ufro neitralurad ganmartavenda ekonomikur faqtors saerTodac gverds uvlian. magaliTisaTvis,everet s. li, migraciis Teoriis avtori, migracias gansazRvravs,rogorc `binadrobis mudmiv an naxevrad mudmiv Secvlas~.15 imisgaTvaliswinebiT, rom migraciuli procesebi jer kidev uxsovardroSi daiwyo, gacilebiT adre, vidre am procesis aRmniSvneli terminiCamoyalibdeboda, gasakviria mis mimarT XX saukuneSi gazrdiliinteresi sxvadasxva disciplinisa da profesiis mxridan. 2009 welsgamocemul saxelmZRvaneloSi kastlesi da mileri aRniSnaven, romamis mizezi saZiebelia ara uSualod migraciis fenomenSi, aramed mis`globalur moculobaSi, Sida da saerTaSoriso politikaSi mTavarmniSvnelobasa da uzarmazar socialur da ekonomikur SedegebSi~1613 ICMPD, Fostering Cooperation between Academia and Government in the Field of Migration, Policy Brief (September 2012), gv. 2-3; nanaxia 22 oqtombers, 2010 w. http://bit.ly/2fupMOe.14 IOM, Glossary on Migration, http://migration.commission.ge/files/glosaary.pdf.15 Everett S. Lee, A Theory of Migration, Semography, tomi 3, # 1, 1966, gv. 45-57 da 49.16 Stephen Castles and Mark J. Miller, The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, gv. 3.მიგრაციის სწავლების ინტერდისციპლინური ხასიათი 25


(igulisxmeba migracia sazRvrebs gareT). msoflioSi TiTqmis armoiZebneba Temi, romelsac garkveulwilad ar ganucdia migraciuliprocesi. cxadia, Sedegebi gansxvavdeboda (gamomdinare misimasStabebidan, struqturidan da gamomwvevi mizezebidan) da gavlenasaxdenda aRqmaTa Camoyalibebasa da politikis formirebaze.gaeros monacemebiT, 2015 wels migrantebi msoflio mosaxleobisdaaxloebiT 3.3%-s Seadgendnen; es wili 1960-iani wlebidan moyo­leb­uli, ase Tu ise, stabiluria.17 Tumca aRsaniSnavia, rom TiTqmisaravin dainteresebula, ratom ar midis emigraciaSi danarCeni97%. riT aixsneba is, rom msoflio mosaxleobis umetesoba `Sin~darCenas amjobinebs. metic, miuxedavad imisa, rom mediaSi yvelazexSirad e.w. samxreT-CrdiloeT migracias aSuqeben, gaeros angariSSinaTqvamia, rom 2013 wels gadaadgilebebi ZiriTadad regionebs SigniTufro ganxorcielda, vidre maT Soris18. amasTanave, Zalian bevriadamiani miemgzavreba droebiT da ara samudamod, anu mimdinareobscirkularuli migracia, rac aseve dakavSirebulia satransporto dasakomunikacio infrastruqturis intensiur ganviTarebasTan.axla, roca migraciis formebi icvleba da saerTaSoriso sazogadoebamgaacnobiera, rom migracia mudmivi procesia, saWiroa misi ukeT marTvagamomwvevi mizezebis gasagebad da Sedegebis gasaanalizeblad. ukveiTqva, rom vinaidan migraciis procesi gavlenas axdens cxovrebaze,ekonomikur faqtorebsa da socialuri organizaciis sakiTxebze,Sesabamisad, misi kvlevac eyrdnoba sxvadasxva disciplinas. migra­ciis Seswavla `bunebrivadaa momwifebuli~ interdisciplinur Wril­Si gansaxilvelad. metic, `multidisciplinuroba, Tavisi mraval­meToduri midgomiT, migraciis swavlebis winapiroba unda iyos~.19 eskidev ufro saWiroa imis gaazrebisas, rom saerTaSoriso migraciissaxe da aRqma bolo aTwleulebSi Seicvala. rogorc rasel kingiaRniSnavs 2002 wlis naSromSi `evropuli migraciis axali rukisaken~,didi cvlilebebi SeiniSneba migraciis tipebis, maxasiaTeblebisada motivaciis Camoyalibebisas, rasac TavisTavad `saerTaSorisomigraciis axali geografiisa da tipologiebisaken~ mivyavarT. escvlilebebi migraciis swavlebazec axdens gavlenas da aRniSnul17 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, International Migration Report 2015, 2016, gv. 25; nanaxia 6.10.2016 w. http://bit.ly/1RQIond18 iqve, migrantebis mxolod 34% gadaadgildeba ganviTarebadi qveynebidan ganvi- Tarebul qveynebSi. migraciuli moZraobis 63% xorcieldeba ganviTarebad qveynebs Soris (`samxreTi-samxreTi~). darCenili 3% ki CrdiloeTidan-samxreTiT moZraobas ukavia.19 Adrian Favell, Rebooting Migration Theory, Interdisciplinarity, Globality, and Postdisciplinarity in Mi- gration Studies, ix. krebulSi Migration Theory: Talking Across Disciplines, ed. Caroline Brettell and James Hollifield, 2nd ed., Routledge: 2007, gv. 259-278 da gv. 260.26 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


procesSi `ufro metad integrirebul midgomas~ moiTxovs.20 amasTandakavSirebiT, kingi oTx mTavar prioritets asaxelebs:• pirveli, migraciis swavleba unda mihyves interdisciplinur midgomas, romelic cnobs paradigmul mravalferovnebas da Sereul meTodologiaTa faseulobas;• meore, migrantebis sxvadasxva jgufsa da droebs Soris Sedarebis saWiroeba da maTze yuradRebis gamaxvileba;• mesame, mniSvnelovania, migracia ganixilebodes individualur da makro doneebzec, raTa igi aRiqmebodes sazogadoebis konteqstSi rogorc warmoSobis, ise daniSnulebis qveyanaSi;• meoTxe, gasaumjobesebelia migraciis dokumentireba da gazomva, aseve, uSualod migraciasTan dakavSirebul monacemTa bazebisa da statistikis xarisxi.21sando monacemebi migraciis nebismieri gamovlinebis ukeTesi moni­toringis saSualebas iZleva. Sesabamisad, sxvadasxva discipliniskombinirebuli codna interdisciplinur monacemTa Segrovebisada analizis safuZvelia, rac, Tavis mxriv, saWiro pirobebs qmnismigra­ciis monitoringisaTvis politikosebisa da xelisuflebissaWiro­ebebis Sesabamisad. igi migraciuli realobis Seswavlisada am procesSi droulad Carevis saSualebas iZleva. analizimonitoringze Sorsac midis – is amowmebs monacemebsa da informaciasgrZelvadian periodSi da gamokveTil tendenciaTa siRrmiseulanalizs gvTavazobs. es ar gulisxmobs mxolod statistikurmona­cemebze dakvirvebas, igi iTvaliswinebs sxvadasxva monacemisda sxvadasxva saSualebiTa da meTodiT mopovebuli damatebiTiTvisebrivi informaciis urTierTdakavSirebasac. SesaZloa, ufrosiRrmiseuli kvlevis Catareba gaxdes saWiro aRniSnuli sakiTxismonitoringisa da analizis Sedegad miRebuli Sedegebis gasagebad.kvlevis mizania ara mxolod monacemTa analizi, aramed principulikiTxvebis dasma socialur realobaTa ganviTarebasa da maT SorisurTierTkavSirze. maSin, roca monitoringi da analizi pasuxs scemskiTxvaze, `ra movlenebi mimdinareobs ama Tu im sferoSi~, kvlevam undaupasuxos kiTxvas, `ratom da rogor mimdinareobs es movlenebi~, racmigraciis politikis formirebisa da marTvis winapirobaa. rogorcwina qveTavebSi gamoCnda, am kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad saWiroainterdisciplinuri midgomebis gamoyeneba migraciis swavlebisas,xolo interdisciplinuroba da uwyebaTaSorisi Tu dainteresebuli20 Russel King, Towards a New Map of European Migration, International Journal of Population Geography, 2010, gv. 8, 89-106.; nanaxia 10.02.2017, www.interscience.wiley.com.21 iqve, gv. 101.მიგრაციის სწავლების ინტერდისციპლინური ხასიათი 27


mxareebis CarTuloba politikis formirebisas, migraciis ukeTesipolitikis warmarTvis sawindari iqneba.2.5. migraciasTan dakavSirebuli sxvadasxva disciplinis mimoxilvaam Tavis Sesaval nawilSi ukve vaxseneT disciplinebi da profesiebi,romlebic sainteresoa migraciis sferoSi momuSave mkvlevarTaTvis,studentebisa da profesionalebisaTvis. es saxelmZRvanelomkiTxvels sTavazobs TiToeulis mokle daxasiaTebas, gansakuTrebuliyuradRebis gamaxvilebiT umniSvnelovanes aspeqtebze. mimoxilvisdaskvnis saxiT gTavazobT mokle axsnas TiToeuli disciplinismniSvnelobaze:• demografia da migracia: unda vicodeT demografiuli prognozebi da xandazmuloba; Sobadobis done; qveynidan gasvla da Semosvla; mosaxleobis zrda da migraciis balansi; asakobrivi struqtura; ganaTlebis done da sxv.• migraciis istoria: unda vicodeT migraciis individualuri da zogadi maxasiaTeblebi; qveynebs Soris istoriuli kavSirebi, emigraciisa da imigraciis warsuli SemTxvevebi da migraciis politikaSi Carevis magaliTebi istoriidan.• politikuri mecnierebebi da migracia: zogadad, unda gvesmodes saxelmwifos politikuri roli farTo speqtrSi; politikuri gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesi; sajaro da politikur sistemebs Soris urTierToba; axali politikuri sakiTxebis warmoqmna; moqalaqeTa da moqalaqeobis armqoneTa/ucxoelTa politikuri mdgomareoba da sxv.• samarTali da migracia: saWiroa vicodeT politikosTa samar­ T­leb­rivi SesaZleblobebi da SezRudvebi migraciis marTvisas Sidasaxelmwi­foebrivi da saerTaSoriso valdebul­ ebebis Sesaba­ misad; konkretuli RonisZiebebisa da instrumentebis SemoRebis iuridiuli Sedegebi; SromiTi kanonmdeblobis, adamianis ufleba­ Ta samarTlis; saerTaSoriso sajaro samarTlis, ltolvilTa samarTlis moTxovnebi da sxv.• ekonomika da migracia: aseve unda vacnobierebdeT migraciis gamomwvev ekonomikur faqtorebs Soris kompleqsur urTier­28 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


Tdamokidebulebas, aseve warmoSobis da daniSnulebis saxelmwi­ foebze, migrantebsa da maTi ojaxis wevrebze, daniSnulebis saxelmwifoebis mosaxleobaze migraciis mniSvnel­ ovan ekonomikur gavlenas; mSp, mSp-is zrda da mSp per capita; gansxvaveba xelfasebSi da maTi donis cvla; ormagi Sromis bazrebi; dasaqmeba da umu­ Sevroba; adamianuri resursebis mateba da Semcireba; fuladi gzavnilebi; inflacia, valutis fasi da sxv. ekonomikas ukavSirdeba is kvlevebic, romlebic swavlobs adamianuri, socialuri, eko­ nomikuri da kulturuli resursebis, maT Soris inteleqtis gadinebisa da Semodinebis gavlenas mimRebi da gamgzavni qveynebis ganviTarebaze, aseve, diasporisa da transnacionalizmis rols da sxv.• sociologia da migracia: unda gvesmodes, ra gavlenas axdens adamianebis qveynidan wasvla an piriqiT, Semosvla, socialur urTierTobebsa da institutebze, sazogadoebis socialur Se­ madgenl­ obaze, saerTo sarwmunoebasa da Rirebulebebze, erTia­ni kulturis, socialuri stabilurobisa da cvlilebebis gaazre­ baze, socialuri qselebisa da Temebis funqciurobaze da sxv.• fsiqologia da migracia: unda vicodeT, ra motivebi da arCevani aqvs adamians migraciaSi wasvlisa Tu wausvlelobis SemTxvevaSi; aseve, migraciis zemoqmedeba adamianisa da socialuri jgufebis fsiqikaze; misi mxardamWeri da sawinaaRmdego damokidebulebebis Camoyalibeba; ojaxis wevrebis aryofniT gamowveuli Sedegebi da sxv.• da bolos, magram aranakleb mniSvnelovani: migracia da sta­ tistika - migraciis sworad gasaanalizeblad aucilebelia cifreb­ isa da faqtebis da maTi ganmartebis codna. kiTxvebi msjelobisaTvis1. mocemul TavSi ganxilul sakiTxebze dayrdnobiT, imsjeleT: interdisciplinuria migraciis kvleva Tu multidisciplinuri? ratom?2. migraciis yovlismomcveli da mtkicebulebebze dayrdnobili politikis SesamuSaveblad, romeli disciplinebi, kvlevebi da profesiebia mniSvnelovani?მიგრაციის სწავლების ინტერდისციპლინური ხასიათი 29


3. ratom aris saWiro migraciis interdisciplinurobis gaazreba?4. Tqveni azriT, ra unda gakeTdes saqarTveloSi migraciis aspeqtTa sxva disciplinebSi integraciis mizniT da piriqiT: a) universitetis doneze - migraciis sferoSi specialistTa mosamzad­ eblad? b) migraciis kanonmdeblobaSi gadawyvetilebis miRebis doneze? g) sazogadoebis doneze - migraciisa da kanonieri migraciis sakiTxebze mosaxleobis saTanado informirebulobisa da ganaTlebis donis asamaRleblad?5. am TavSi ganvixileT migraciis sferos mkvlevrebisaTvis sxva disciplinaTa Seswavlis upiratesoba, magram sakiTxavia, es sxva disciplinebi (mag.: ekonomika, demografia, istoria, fizikuri geografia da sxv.) rogor gamoiyeneben migraciis kvlevebs? kazusebi da saSinao davalebamocemul TavSi ganvixileT migraciis interdisciplinurobisgamovlena sxvadasxva sferoSi da doneze. qvemoT mocemuliagamogonili kazusi q-ni T-s Sesaxeb, romelic ganixilavs misi SesaZlomigraciis gavlenas mikro da makro doneze. q-ni T muSaobs dawyebiTiskolis maswavleblad qalaq k-Si, qveyana g. mas sakmaod mokrZalebulixelfasi aqvs, meuRle ki didi xania samsaxurs eZebs. maTi bavSvebiskolaSi dadian, dedamiss esaWiroeba ZviradRirebuli samedicinomkurnaloba. sxvadasxva mizezis gamo, q-ni T gadawyvets, bedi sadmesxvagan scados da gaemgzavros qveyana h-Si ZiZad an Sinamosamsaxured.misi es gadawyvetileba imoqmedebs sxvadasxva faqtorze (magaliTebimocemulia qvemoT). am magaliTze msjelobis, azrTa gacvlisa dadiskusiis Semdeg, romel disciplinebs SeiZleba mivmarToT mocemulimovlenebis gasaanalizeblad mikro da makro doneze? kazusi 1: q-ni T-s migraciis gavlena mikro doneze: Tavis samSobloSi q-ni T aiRebs ucxo qveyanaSi gasamgzavrebel turis­tul vizas, radgan icis, rom legaluri gziT muSaobis nebarTvis miRebis dabali Sansi aqvs. igi Cadis qveyana h-Si turistad, magram maSinve iwyebs samsaxuris Zebnas. maleve30 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


ipovis keTilganwyobil ojaxs, sadac iwyebs SinamosamsaxuredmuSaobas, normaluri anazRaurebiT. miuxedavad amisa, q-ni Tarc saimigracio da arc socialur/janmrTelobis/sagadasaxadoorganoSi aRricxvaze ar dadgeba. ramdenime kviris Semdeg igiiwyebs Tanxis gadaricxvas samSobloSi, Tumca, misi Casvlidan6 TveSi daniSnulebis qveynis xelisufleba iwyebs kampaniassaimigracio kontrolis gamkacrebaze. misi mizania yvelaaralegalis dabruneba warmoSobis qveyanaSi, Tumca, paraleluradmaT aZleven Sanss, miiRon legalurad yofnis ufleba samsaxuridanoficialuri xelSekrulebis wardgenis safuZvelze. q-ni T-sdamsaqmebeli am pirobaze Tanxmdeba da, sabolood, mianiWebenqveyanaSi binadrobisa da muSaobis nebarTvas. axla mas aqvsufleba, moiTxovos socialuri usafrTxoebisa da janmrTelobisgarantiebi, metic – ojaxic miiwvios TavisTan. Tumca, ojaxijerjerobiT samSobloSi darCenas amjobinebs, vidre mas ufromaRalanazRaurebadi samsaxuri gamouCndeba. zogadad, misi ojaxismdgomareoba uaresdeba, radgan meuRle jer kidev umuSevaria,xolo bavSvebze ZiriTadad bebia zrunavs. skolaSi q-ni T-sadgilas ufro axalgazrda maswavlebeli miiRes, romelic Tavissaqmes Tavs kargad arTmevs. q-ni T-s ufros vaJs dedasTan undaCasvla samuSaod an saswavlad, Tumca, igi Svils Casvlas mxolodskolis damTavrebis Semdeg urCevs, isic garkveuli danazogiT.q-ni T-s mier Sin gagzavnili Tanxis didi nawili xmardeba bebiismkurnalobas, romlis janmrTelobis mdgomareoba, marTalia,sagrZnoblad gaumjobesda, magram saWiro wamali Zalian ZviriRirs da isic mxolod Sav bazarze an qrTamiT iSoveba. gamogzavniliTanxis nawili ki axali televizoris, macivrisa da bavSvebisaTvismoduri tansacmlis SesaZenad daixarja.kazusi 2: q-ni T-s migraciis gavlena makro doneze:inteleqtis gadineba g qveynidan grZeldeba. axalgazrda damaRalkvalificiuri profesionalebis umetesoba cdilobsqveynis datovebas da sazRvargareT Tundac naklebkvalificiurida araoficialuri samuSaos Sesrulebas. bevri maTgani h qveyanaSimiemgzavreba, romelic ufro da ufro SeSfoTebulia imiT,rom ucxoelTa araoficialuri dasaqmebis Sedegad ikargebasaSemosavlo gadasaxadi. garda amisa, adgilobrivi mosaxleobackritikuladaa ganwyobili gazrdili imigraciis mimarT daSeSfoTebulia uZravi qonebisa da Sromis bazarze misi negatiurigavlenis momatebis gamo. Tumca, qveynis xelisuflebisaTviscnobilia, rom ucxoel muSaxelze didi moTxovnaa. amitomმიგრაციის სწავლების ინტერდისციპლინური ხასიათი 31


gadawyvets, erTi mxriv, gaamkacros kontroli imigraciasa da Sromis bazarze – aralegalurad myofi migrantebis dasabru­ neblad – xolo, meore mxriv, maT misces legaluri statusis miRebis Sansi, oficialuri SromiTi xelSekrulebis wardgenis pirobiT. aRniSnuli politika warmatebiT gaatares. `g~ qveyanaSi ki ufro da ufro izrdeba axalgazrdebis mier skolis naadrevad mitovebis faqtebi. amaSi sazogadoeba adana­ Saulebs ganaTlebis sistemas, romelic Sromis bazrisagan Zalian mowyvetilia. e.w. `gayofili ojaxebis~ fenomeni gavrcelda da negatiur gamoxmaurebas povebs sazogadoebaSi. Tumca, msoflio bankis monacemebiT, qveyanaSi gadmoricxuli fuladi gzavnilebis ricxvi yvela drois maCvenebelze maRalia. Sedegad, bevri ojaxis ekonomikuri mdgomareoba sagrZnoblad gaumjobesda da danazogic ki gauCndaT. magram ismis kritikac, rom ZviradRirebuli sayofacxovrebo nivTebis importSi ufro didi Tanxa ixarjeba, vidre Sida warmoebis investiciebSi. mzardi inflaciis fonze saSualo xelfasis done cxovrebis xarjebisTvisac aRar kmara. gansakuTrebiT gauWirdaT im moxucebs, visi ojaxis wevric sazRvargareT ar muSaobs da marto uwevT wamlebisa da samedicino momsaxurebis xarjebis dafarva. tansacmlis ukanaskneli adgilobrivi mwarmoebelic iZulebulia, daxuros biznesi klientTa naklebobis gamo. bibliografia da rekomendebuli literatura1. Adrian Favell, Rebooting Migration Theory. Interdisciplinarity, Globality, and Postdisciplinarity in Migration Studies, ix. krebulSi Migration Theory: Talking Across Disciplines, 2nd eddition, ed. Caroline Brettell and James Hollifield, Routledge 2007;2. Alan Gamlen and Katharina Marsh, Migration and Global Governance, The International Library of Studies on Migration, Elgar Research, 2011;3. Allen F. Repko, Interdisciplinary Research. Process and Theory, Sage Publications 2008;4. China – Building the dream, The Economist, April 19, 2014;5. China in Africa – One among many, The Economist, January 17, 2015;32 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


6. Mariam Chumburidze, Nino Ghvinadze, Sopiko Gvazava, Roland Hosner, Violeta Wagner and Tamar Zurabishvili, The State of Migration in Georgia, Vienna: International Centre for Migration Policy Development, 2015. http://bit.ly/2fuktyu;7. Eiko R. Thielemann, „The Effectiveness of Governments“ Attempts to Control Unwanted Migration, ix. krebulSi Immigration and the Transformation of Europe, ed. Craig A. Parsons and Timothy A. Smeeding. Cambridge University Press, UK, 2006;8. Everett S. Lee. A Theory of Migration. Semography, Vol 3, # 1, 1966;9. ICMPD, Fostering Cooperation between Academia and Government in the Field of Migration, Policy Brief, September 2012, http://bit.ly/2wq2QHS;10. IOM, Glossary on Migration, https://www.iom.int/key-migration-terms;11. Joaquin Arango, Theories of International Migration, in International Migration in the New Millennium: Global Movement and Settlement, ed. Daniele Joly, Ashgate, 2004;12. John N. Wilford, Skull Fossil Offers New Clues on Human Journey From Africa, New York Times, January 28, 2015;13. Melissa Lane, Myths About Migration: Historical and Philosophical Perspectives, History and Policy, Policy Papers, February 14, 2006;14. Russel King, Towards a New Map of European Migration, International Journal of Population Geography, 2010. www.interscience.wiley.com, doi: 10.1002/ijpg.246;15. Stephen Castles and Mark J. Miller, The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009;16. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, International Migration Report 2013.მიგრაციის სწავლების ინტერდისციპლინური ხასიათი 33


3. migraciis formebi irina baduraSvili ekonomikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, mosaxleobis kvlevis erovnuli centri3.1. Sesavalidemografiul procesebs Soris migracias gansakuTrebuli adgiliukavia. sxva demografiuli procesebisagan, magaliTad Sobadobisagan,gansxvavebiT, mosaxleobis migraciis maCvenebeli qveyanaSi myisieradreagirebs sazogadoebaSi mimdinare socialur-ekonomikur dapolitikur cvlilebebze. Tavis mxriv, migraciuli procesebi pirdapirgavlenas axdens qveynis demografiul ganviTarebaze, mosaxleobisstruqturasa da sazogadoebis demografiul qcevaze.am saxelmZRvaneloSi gatarebulia azri, rom migracia, rogorcinterdisciplinuri fenomeni, demografiis, istoriis, sociologiis,ekonomikis, samarTalmcodneobis, sazogadoebrivi geografiisa dasxva socialuri mecnierebebis Seswavlis sagania. amrigad, samecnieroliteraturaSi migraciuli procesebis klasifikacia da migrantTanakadebis tipologia gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan imis mixedviT, Turomel socialur mecnierebas warmoadgens mkvlevari da ra istoriulrakursSi ganixileba msoflioSi mimdinare migraciuli procesebi.winamdebare TavSi ganxilulia migraciis ZiriTadi formebi damigrantTa gansxvavebuli kategoriebis zogadi maxasiaTeblebi.migraciis klasifikaciaSi cnobili specialisti, mosaxleobisteritoriuli gadaadgilebis yvelaze vrceli tipologiis avtori,oqsfordis universitetis profesori frank diuveli wers, rommigraciul nakadTa srulyofili tipologiis ageba `arc ise ioliamocanaa... radgan ar arsebobs misi agebis meTodologia, amasTanave,bevri winaaRmdegobaa migraciis formaTa klasifikaciisadmisociologiur da politologiur midgomebs Soris~1 am sakiTxisSesaxeb inglisurenovani samecniero literaturis analizissafuZvelze, frank diuvelma Seadgina migraciis formebis met-naklebad unificirebuli klasifikacia, romelic ganixileba, rogorc1 Франк Дювель, Пространственная Мобильность Населения: Индикаторы, Категории и Типологии, 2007, gv. 71.34 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


dasavleTevropuli da amerikuli mecnieruli skolebis midgomamigraciis tipologiisadmi.aRniSnul klasifikaciaSi gamoyenebulia Semdegi indikatorebi:1. migraciis xangrZlivoba (mudmivi an droebiTi migracia);2. migrantTa sacxovrebeli da daniSnulebis adgilis specifika (migracia soflidan qalaqSi, qalaqidan sofelSi, sxvadasxva qalaqs Soris da a.S.);3. migraciuli procesis geografiuli maxasiaTeblebi (manZilis mixedviT: regionuli-regionTaSorisi, Sidasakontinento-konti­ nentTaS­orisi, globaluri da a.S.; gadaadgilebis mimarTul­ ebis mixedviT: aRmosavleTidan dasavleTSi, samxreTidan CrdiloeTSi da a.S.);4. migraciis mizani (SromiTi, saganmanaTleblo, ojaxis gaerTianeba da a.S.);5. migraciaze gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesi (nebayoflobiTi an iZulebiTi);6. migrantTa demografiuli maxasiaTeblebi, rogoricaa asaki, sqesi, erovneba da a.S. (axalgazrdebis, pensionrebis, qalebis, eTnikuri umciresobebis migracia da a.S.);7. migrantTa raodenobrivi maxasiaTeblebi (individualuri, oja­ xuri, jgufuri an masobrivi migracia);8. migrantTa profesionaluri unar-Cvevebi (maRalkvalificiuri, saSualo da dabalkvalificiuri migrantebi);9. migraciis tipi qveynis oficialuri sazRvrebis gadakveTasTan mimarTebiT (Sida da saerTaSoriso migracia);10. migrantTa samarTlebrivi statusi mimRebi qveynis kanonmdeblo­ basTan mimarTebiT(legaluri, aralegaluri da a.S.);11. warmoSobisa da mimReb qveynebs Soris kulturuli gansxvaveba (eTnikuri, religiuri da enobrivi TvalsazrisiT); da12. qveyanaSi mimdinare migraciuli procesebis istoriuli xasiaTi (gamoiyeneba klasifikacia, romelic moicavs 4-6 istoriul pe­ riods, merkantilizmidan globalizaciamde, da aseve, e.w. `axal“ migraciebs).მიგრაციის ფორმები 35


Tanamedrove rusuli demografiuli skola gvTavazobs migraciisufro martiv klasifikacias, romelic efuZneba migraciul nakadTadayofas Semdeg ZiriTad kategoriebad2 :1. migraciis tipi qveynis oficialuri sazRvrebis gadakveTasTan mimarTebiT (Sida da saerTaSoriso migracia);2. migraciis tipi daniSnulebis qveyanaSi yofnis xangrZlivobidan gamomdinare (droebiTi da mudmivi migracia); da3. migraciis tipi migraciaze gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesis gaTvaliswinebiT (nebayoflobiTi da iZulebiTi migracia).zogierT rusulenovan literaturaSi migraciis tipologiaSi damate­bulia kidev ori kategoria: (1) migraciuli procesis ganxorcielebisforma (organizebuli an spontanuri migracia) da (2) migraciis mizezi(ekonomikuri, saganmanaTleblo, ojaxis gaerTianeba, politikuri, daa.S.3).am Tavis danarTSi ixilavT sqemas, romelic TvalsaCinod warmogidgenTmigraciul nakadTa sxvadasxva formas, zemoT moyvanil mTavarindikatorebze dayrdnobiT.rogorc aRvniSneT, sxvadasxva avtori migraciis klasifikaciisaTvisgansxvavebul indikatorebs iyenebs. es saxelmZRvanelo mosaxleobismigraciis procesebs warmogidgenT gansxvavebuli disciplinebisTvalTaxedviT. saxelmZRvanelos TavebSi mkiTxveli aRmoaCensmigrantTa sxvadasxva kategorias, warmodgenils indikatorebis mi­xedviT. yvelaze mniSvnelovania saqarTvelosTvis damaxasiaTebelimigraciis formebis ganxilva da migrantTa gansxvavebuli nakadebisaRwera konkretuli magaliTebis daxmarebiT. Sesabamisad, migraciuliprocesebis zemoT moyvanil tipologiebze dayrdnobiT, es Tavimoicavs migrantTa gansxvavebuli kategoriebis maxasiaTeblebs,romlebic efuZneba saqarTvelosa da sxva qveynebis magaliTebs.saqarTveloSi mosaxleobis migracia ganisazRvreba, rogorc `saer­TaSoriso sazRvarze an qveynis SigniT gadaadgilebis procesi...(da) gulisxmobs mosaxleobis nebismieri saxiT gadaadgilebas,xangrZlivobis, Semadgenlobisa da gamomwvevi mizezebis miuxedavad~.4migraciis amgvari definiciiT, SeiZleba gamoiyos migrantebis gansxva­vebul nakadTa Semdegi indikatorebi:2 Экономический факультет МГУ, Курс лекций по демографии, 2013. gv. 123.3 Калабихина И. Е., Калмыкова Н. М., Учебные материалы к курсу Основы демографии, 2007. gv. 89.4 migraciis sakiTxTa samTavrobo komisia, migraciis terminTa ganmartebiTi leq­ sikoni, 2014. gv. 58.36 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


• qveynis saxelmwifo sazRvrebis gadakveTa;• migraciis xangrZlivoba;• migraciis mizezebi;• migraciaze gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesi;• migraciis ganxorcielebis procesi da migrantTa jgufebis Semadgenloba.3.2. qveynis saxelmwifo sazRvrebis gadakveTaqveynis oficialuri sazRvrebis gadakveTasTan dakavSirebiT, migra­ciul nakadebSi SeiZleba gamoiyos migraciis ori gansxvavebuliforma: Sida migracia da gare an saerTaSoriso migracia.3.2.1. Sida migraciaSida migraciaSi igulisxmeba mosaxleobis teritoriuli gadaad­gileba qveynis SigniT, rodesac piri gadadis droebiT an mudmivadsacxovreblad erTi teritoriuli erTeulidan meoreSi. magaliTad,migrantTa nakadebi, mimarTuli raionebidan TbilisSi, saqarTveloserTi administraciuli regionidan meoreSi da erTi da imave regionisfarglebSi, soflis mosaxleobis migracia qalaqSi (mag. soflebidanregionul centrebSi) da a.S. Sida migraciisas migrantebi erTidasaxlebuli punqtidan meoreSi midian samudamod damkvidrebismizniT an droebiT sacxovreblad, magram am dros isini ar kveTensaxelmwifo sazRvrebs.adamianebi sacxovrebel adgils sxvadasxva mizeziT icvlian.nebayoflobiTi teritoriuli gadaadgilebisas es SeiZleba iyos:ganaTlebis miRebis survili, axali samuSaos Zebna, ojaxis Seqmnada a.S., zogierTi gamonaklisis garda, migrantebs amoZravebTaxal sacxovrebel adgilas ukeTesad mowyobis survili. aqedangamomdinare, Sida migraciuli procesebis dros migrantTa nakadi,Cveulebriv, mimarTulia periferiebidan ukeT ganviTarebuliregionebisaken, soflidan qalaqisaken, mTiani teritoriebidan –dablobisaken, arasaxarbielo klimaturi pirobebidan ufro xel­sayreli adgilebisaken. safrangeTSi, magaliTad, mosaxleobasacxovr­eblad CrdiloeTidan samxreTSi gadadis, skandinaviisმიგრაციის ფორმები 37


qveynebSi – periferiuli regionebidan industriul centrebsa dadedaqalaqebSi5. saqarTveloSic xalxi, ZiriTadad, raionebidan Tbi­lisSi an sxva did qalaqebSi Cadis – rogoricaa rusTavi, quTaisi,baTumi, sadac dasaqmebis ukeTesi perspeqtivebi da cxovrebis maRalidone egulebaT.Sida migraciasTan mimarTebiT, xSirad saubroben urbanizaciisprocesze, romelic gulisxmobs qveynis mosaxleobis saerToricxovnobaSi qalaqis mosaxleobis xvedriTi wilis zrdas. es procesi,Cveulebriv, qveynis industriul ganviTarebas axlavs. saqarTvelosuaxles istoriaSi, yofili sabWoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi yofnisas,roca mosaxleobis teritoriuli gadaadgileba – gansakuTrebiT,soflidan dedaqalaqSi – sakmaod SezRuduli iyo, urbanizaciisprocesi sxvadasxvanairad viTardeboda. migrantebi, romlebic 1930-ani wlebidan masobrivad Semodiodnen ruseTidan saqarTveloSi,ZiriTadad qalaqebSi mkvidrdebodnen, sadac imdroindel industriulmSeneblobebs sWirdeboda damatebiTi muSaxeli. iyo SemTxvevebi,rodesac romelime regionis intensiur industriul ganviTarebasaxali qalaqebis daarseba an arsebuli soflebis qalaqebad gardaqmnamohyveboda. ase moxda, magaliTad, WiaTurisa da tyibulis SemTxvevaSi,xolo saqarTveloSi giganturi metalurgiuli mSeneblobis Sedegad,1944 wels axali qalaqi, rusTavi, daarsda. saqarTvelos qalaqadmcxovrebi mosaxleobis ricxovnoba izrdeboda didi qalaqebismimdebared ganlagebul sofelTa mierTebis xarjzec. da bolos,urbanizaciis procesi saqarTveloSi mimdinareobda didi soflebisqalaqis tipis dasaxlebad gardaqmnis gziTac, anu e.w. administraciul-teritoriuli cvlilebebis xarjze.sabWoTa periodSi arsebuli SezRudvebis miuxedavad, soflis mosax­leoba TbilisSi moedineboda: axalgazrdebi saswavlad Camodiodnenda swavlis dasrulebis Semdeg axerxebdnen dedaqalaqSi damkvidrebas;zogierTi maTgani ojaxs qmnida TbilisSi, zogic iseT sawarmoSiiwyebda muSaobas, sadac saxelmwifo TbilisSi binis riggareSemiRebis perspeqtiviT izidavda damatebiT muSaxels raionebidan.am procesebis gamo saqarTveloSi rigi soflebi, gan­sakuTrebiTmaRalmTian raionebSi, axalgazrdebisgan daicala, ramac garkveuliwlebis Semdeg gamoiwvia zogierTi regionis depopulacia – iqmcxovrebi mosaxleobis raodenobrivi kleba. urbanizaciis procesisSedegad, soflis mosaxleobis wili saqarTvelos mosaxleobaSimkveTrad daeca: 1939-1989 wlebSi is 70%-dan 44%-mde Semcirda.65 Simon Bell, Susana Alves, Eva Silveirinha de Oliveira and Affonso Zuin, Migration and Land Use Change in Europe: A Review, ix. krebulSi Living Reviews in Landscape Research, tomi 4, 2010, gv. 18. nana­ xia 12.05.2017 w. http://lrlr.landscapeonline.de/Articles/lrlr-2010-2/.6 saqstati, demografiuli viTareba saqarTveloSi, 2013. gv. 6.38 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


amasTan dakavSirebiT unda aRiniSnos, rom erTxans saqarTveloSiSeiniSneboda sapirispiro tendenciac: qalaqis mosaxleobis migraciasoflebSi. 1990-ian wlebSi, qveyanaSi mZime ekonomikuri krizisisada masobrivi umuSevrobis fonze, sasoflo-sameurneo produqciismoyvana sakuTari moxmarebisaTvis bevr ojaxs eqca ekonomikursiduxWiresTan gamklavebis erT-erT saSualebad. 1993 wels qveyanaSiganxorcielebuli miwis privatizaciis Sedegad bevri Tbiliselidabrunda mSobliur sofelSi da bedi scada kerZo meurneobaSi7.Sedegad, soflis mosaxleobis wili odnav gaizarda (47.6%-mde 2002wels)8, Tumca, Semdgom qveynis urbanizaciis procesi kvlav gagrZeldada amJamad soflis mosaxleobis wili saqarTvelos mosaxleobissaerTo raodenobaSi 42.6%-ia9.Sida migracia SeiZleba iZulebiTic iyos, gamowveuli Sida Seiara­Rebuli konfliqtebiT, bunebrivi movlenebiT an klimatis cvlilebiT.am SemTxvevaSi warmoiqmneba migrantTa ori kategoria: iZulebiTgadaadgilebuli pirebi (devnilebi) da ekologiuri migrantebi.iZulebiTi gadaadgilebis monitoringis centris (IDMC) boloinformaciiT, SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebis Sedegad, msof­ lioSi 38 mlnadamiania iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli, aqedan 19.3 mln-ma datova Tavisisacxovrebeli adgili da gadasaxlda qveynis sxva regionSi ekologiurikatastrofebis gamo.10 IDMC-is SefasebiT saqarT­ veloSi 232,700 adamianiiZulebiT gadaadgilebuli piria. maTi umetesoba 1990-iani wlebisdros gadaadgilda, afxazeTsa da cxin­valis regionSi (yofili samxreToseTis avtonomiuri olqis teri­toriebi) momxdari SeiaraRebulikonfliqtebis Sedegad; 2008 wels ruseTis federaciasTan omis SemdegdevnilTa kategorias saqarTveloSi SeuerTda ojaxebis SedarebiTmcire raodenoba. iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa raodenobasaqarTveloSi izrdeba iqidan gamomdinarec, rom maT ojaxebSidabadebul bavSvebsac eniWebaT es statusi (IDMC).11mosaxleobis Sida migracias, zogadad, didi gavlena aqvs qveynisdemografiul mdgomareobaze; masSi, Cveulebriv, mosaxleobis ufrodidi nawilia CarTuli, vidre gare migraciul procesebSi. magaliTad,saqarTveloSi amJamad yoveli meoTxe adamiani im dasaxlebul punqtSiar cxovrobs, sadac daibada, xolo Tbilisis yoveli mesame mcxovrebidedaqalaqSi sxva dasaxlebuli punqtidanaa Camosuli.127 mirian tuxaSvili, saqarTvelos mosaxleobis migracia, Tbilisi: 1996, gv. 33.8 iqve.9 saqstati, saqarTvelos statistikuri weliwdeuli: 2014, nanaxia 15.12.2016 w.10 http://www.internal-displacement.org, nanaxia 12.05.2017.11 migrantTa am kategoriebze ufro detaluri informacia warmodgenilia me-4 qveTavSi.12 Irina Badurashvili and Mamuka Nadareishvili, Social Impact of Emigration and Rural-Urban Migration in Central and Eastern Europe, Final Country Report. European Union and GVG. 2012, gv. 8.მიგრაციის ფორმები 39


3.2.2. saerTaSoriso migraciasaerTaSoriso migracia gulisxmobs moqalaqeTa mier qveynissaxelmwifo sazRvrebis gadakveTas. mas ukavSirdeba emigraciisa daimigraciis cnebebi, romlebic, konkretul qveyanasTan mimarTebiT,sapirispiro procesebs gulisxmobs – kerZod, qveyanaSi migrantebisSesvlasa da gasvlas. Sesabamisad, pirs, romelic qveyanaSi Sedismudmivad an droebiT sacxovreblad, ewodeba imigranti, xolo vincqveyanas tovebs – emigranti.saerTaSoriso migracia globalizaciis epoqisaTvis damaxasiaTebelimovlenaa. am procesSi CarTuli adamianebis raodenoba ganuxreladizrdeba, rac gamowveulia mravali – maT Soris, ekonomikuri,demografiuli, socialuri, politikuri da a.S. – mizeziT, omiTda sxva faqtorebiT. mecnierTa azriT, msoflio amJamad imyofeba`migraciis epoqaSi~13.gaero saerTaSoriso migrants gansazRvravs, rogorc pirs, romelicar imyofeba warmoSobis an Cveuli binadrobis qveyanaSi, sul cota,erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi. am midgomis mixedviT, 2015 wels msoflioSi244 mln saerTaSoriso migranti iyo.14 es ricxvi odnav CamorCebamsoflioSi mosaxleobis sididiT meoTxe qveynis, indoneziismcxovrebTa raodenobas da aRemateba braziliis mosaxleobas,romelic udides saxelmwifoebs Soris mexuTe adgils ikavebs. gaeroszemoT moyvanili gansazRvrebis Sesabamisad, amJamad dedamiwazemcxovrebi yoveli 33-e adamiani saerTaSoriso migrantia.gaeros monacemebiT, saerTaSoriso migrantTa raodenoba msoflioSi1960-2013 wlebSi gasammagda, xolo 2000 wlidan dRemde gaizarda 71milioniT, anu 41%-iT.15 maT zrdaze gansakuTrebuli zegavlena iqoniayofili sabWoTa kavSiris daSlam da aRmosavleT evropis qveynebisintegraciam evrokavSirSi. gamorCeulad ki is mainc XXI saukunisdasawyisSi SeimCneoda: 2000-2010 wlebSi saerTaSoriso migrantTaricxvs yovelwliurad emateboda, saSualod, 4.6 mln adamiani,16 racmkveTrad aRemateba saqarTvelos mosaxleobis amJamindel raodenobas(3.7 mln17).gaeros monacemTa analizi aseve gviCvenebs, rom Tu adre saerTaSorisomigrantTa umravlesoba e.w. ganviTarebad qveynebSi cxovrobda, 1980-13 Stephen Castles and Mark J. Miller, The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.14 UNDESA, International Migration Report 2015, gv. 1. nanaxia 10.10.2015 w. http://bit.ly/1RQIond.15 iqve.16 UNDESA, International Migration Report 2013, gv. 1, nanaxia 10.10.2015 w. http://bit.ly/1Y3JPlO.17 http://geostat.ge/?action=page&p_id=151&lang=geo, nanaxia 10.10.2015 w.40 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


iani wlebidan viTareba mkveTrad Seicvala da sul ufro meti maTganimiemarTeba ganviTarebuli saxelmwifoebisaken, romlebmac 1990-2013wlebSi saerTaSoriso migrantTa, daaxloebiT, 70% miiRes; amJamadmaTi didi nawili (59%) swored aseT qveynebSi cxovrobs.18miuxedavad imisa, rom migraciis geografiuli areali, zogadad,farTovdeba, saerTaSoriso migrantTa naxevari koncentrirebuliamsoflios 10 qveyanaSi, xolo mesamedi – mxolod oTx saxelmwifoSi:aSS-Si, ruseTSi, germaniasa da saudis arabeTSi (ix. cxrili 1).msoflios yoveli mexuTe migranti aSS-Si cxovrobs, qveyanaSi, sadacyovelwliurad, saSualod, milioni migranti Cadis. cxrili 1. msoflios udidesi qveynebi imigrantTa raodenobis mixedviT192021qveynebi 1990 w. 2000 w. 2010 w. 2013 w.aSS mln % mln % mln % mln %ruseTigermania 23.3 15.1 34.8 19.9 44.2 20.0 45.8 19.8saudis arabeTisaamiroebi20 11.5 7.5 11.9 6.8 11.2 5.1 11.0 4.8didi britaneTisafrangeTi 5.9 3.9 9.0 5.2 9.7 4.4 9.8 4.3kanadaavstralia 5.0 3.2 5.3 3.0 8.4 3.8 9.1 3.9espaneTiitalia 1.3 0.8 2.4 1.4 7.3 3.3 7.8 3.4indoeTiukraina 3.6 2.4 4.7 2.7 7.0 3.2 7.8 3.4pakistanitailandi 5.9 3.8 6.3 3.6 7.2 3.3 7.4 3.2iraniyazaxeTi 4.5 2.9 5.6 3.2 7.0 3.2 7.3 3.1iordaniahonkongi21 3.9 2.5 4.4 2.5 6.0 2.7 6.5 2.8danarCeni qveynebimTeli msoflio 0.8 0.5 1.7 0.9 6.2 2.8 6.5 2.8 1.4 0.9 2.1 1.2 4.8 2.2 5.7 2.5 7.5 4.9 6.4 3.7 5.4 2.5 5.3 2.3 6.9 4.5 5.5 3.2 5.2 2.4 5.2 2.2 6.6 4.3 4.2 2.4 4.3 1.9 4.1 1.8 0.5 0.3 1.3 0.7 3.2 1.5 3.7 1.6 4.3 2.8 2.8 1.6 2.7 1.2 2.6 1.1 3.6 2.3 2.9 1.6 3.3 1.5 3.5 1.5 1.1 0.7 1.9 1.1 2.7 1.2 2.9 1.3 2.2 1.4 2.7 1.5 2.8 1.3 2.8 1.2 59.4 38.5 67.0 38.4 88.0 39.9 93.9 40.6 154.2 100.0 174.5 100.0 220.7 100.0 231.5 100.018 UNDESA, International Migration Report 2013: gv. 119 Sedgenilia Semdeg monacemTa bazis safuZvelze: Data on International Migrants Stock: United Nations Population Division: http://bit.ly/1JuxU3q20 arabTa gaerTianebuli saemiroebi.21 CineTis saxalxo respublikis honkongis specialuri administraciuli regioni.მიგრაციის ფორმები 41


gaeros midgoma – saerTaSoriso migrantTaTvis qveyanaSi yofniserTwliani periodis gansazRvra – srulebiT gamarTlebuliademografiuli aRricxvis TvalsazrisiT, radgan qveynebis mosaxleobadaiangariSeba, ZiriTadad, kalendaruli wlis periodulobiT. gardaamisa, iTvleba, rom qveyanaSi erTi wliT yofnis Semdeg daniSnulebisqveyana, faqtobrivad, migrantTa axali, Cveuli binadrobis adgilixdeba.magram am SemTxvevaSi migrantTa kategoriis miRma gvrCeba uamraviadamiani, romlebic migraciaSi imyofebian weliwadze nakleb xans.maT moklevadian migrantebs uwodeben, grZelvadian migrantebSiki igulisxmebian pirebi, romlebic ucxoeTSi weliwadi da ufro metixani imyofebian.3.3. migraciis xangrZlivobazogadad, drois faqtoris mixedviT, mosaxleobis migracia – rogorcSida, ise saerTaSoriso – ganixileba or ZiriTad kategoriad:droebiTi da mudmivi migracia. orive, moklevadiani da grZel­vadiani migrantebi (5 wlamde periodiT), droebiT migrantTakategoriaSi Sedis, xolo migracia xangrZlivi droiT (5-10 wlisSemdeg da ganusazRvreli vadiT) ganixileba, rogorc mudmivi.moklevadiani migraciis qveda zRvars gaero samTviani periodiTgansazRvravs.22 Sesabamisad, am vadaze naklebi xniT qveyanaSi Sesulimigrantebi, turistebis msgavsad, vizitorebad iTvlebian.23 amavedros, migraciis formebis tipologiaSi, migraciis periodis mixedviT,Sesabamisi adgili aqvs miCenili xanmokle migraciebsac (yoveldRiuri,yovelkvireuli an epizoduri, maT Soris cirkularuli, migraciebi).piris yoveldRiur gadaadgilebas samuSaod sacxovrebeli adgilidansxva dasaxlebul punqtSi qanqarisebur migracias uwodeben.magaliTad, saqarTveloSi uamravi adamiani dadis samuSaodrusTavidan TbilisSi da saRamos brundeba Sin. aseve, soflis bevrimcxovrebi mimdebare qalaqebSia dasaqmebuli. zog SemTxvevaSiqanqarisebur migracias SeiZleba hqondes yovelkvireuli saxe –magaliTad, TbilisSi dasaqmebuli raionebis mcxovrebni SabaT-kvirasbrundebian sakuTar ojaxebSi.22 UNDESA, Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration, Revision 1, 1998.23 UNECE and UNFPA, Statistics on International Migration. A Practical Guide for Countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 2011. gv. 1842 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


qanqariseburi migracia SeiZleba iyos saerTaSorisoc. am SemTxvevaSimas sazRvrispira migracias uwodeben. es is SemTxvevaa, rodesacsazRvarTan mcxovrebi pirebi samuSaod gadadian mezobel qveyanaSi.magaliTad, cnobilia, rom aWarasa da samcxe-javaxeTSi, TurqeTismosazRvre teritoriaze mcxovrebi pirebi TurqeTSi gadadiansavaWrod an samuSaod. am migracias SeiZleba hqondes regularuli(yoveldRiuri, yovelkvireuli), an araregularuli (epizoduri)saxe. epizoduri migraciis yvelaze gavrcelebuli formaa e.w.cirkularuli migracia. igi gulisxmobs iseTi tipis ganmeorebiTmigraciebs, rodesac migranti-muSakebi garkveuli periodiT (romelicar aris gansazRvruli) miemgzavrebian ucxoeTSi samuSaod, Semdegbrundebian Sin da maleve isev midian. aseTi tipis migracia amJamadfarTodaa gavrcelebuli mTel msoflioSi.cirkularuli migracia saqarTvelos zogierT regionSi (qvemoqarTlsa da samcxe-javaxeTSi) mcxovrebi mosaxleobisaTvisekonomikuri qcevis ZiriTad modelad Camoyalibda: yoveli wlisgazafxulze am regionebSi kompaqturad dasaxlebul eTnikurumciresobaTa warmomadgenlebi, azerbaijaneli da somexi mamakacebi,ucxoeTSi (ZiriTadad ruseTSi) midian samuSaod, zamTris pirasbrundebian ojaxebSi da maleve kvlav toveben saqarTvelos. wlebia,rac migraciisas miRebuli anazRaureba maTi ojaxebisaTvis ara mxolodSemosavlis ZiriTad wyarod, aramed keTildReobis gaumjobesebisefeqtian saSualebadac iqca.24 ruseTis, ukrainasa da dsT-s sxvaqveynebis mimarTulebiT cirkularul migraciaSi amJamad aqtiuradmonawileoben saqarTvelos danarCen regionTa mcxovrebnic. amgvarmigracias miekuTvneba saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis TurqeTSi samuSaodgamgzavrebac, sadac maT uvizo mimosvlis pirobebSi ganuwyvetladmxolod 3 Tvemde vadiT SeuZliaT yofna. mezobeli TurqeTidanmigrantebi advilad Camodian ojaxis mosanaxuleblad da garkveulixnis Semdeg kvlav ubrundebian samuSaos.epizoduri migracia SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes zogierT qveyanaSidamatebiT muSaxelze moTxovnilebis gazrdas wlis garkveulperiodSi, magaliTad, Semodgomisas – soflis meurneobaSi dazafxulobiT - turizmSi. amitomac, aseTi tipis migracias sezonursuwodeben. sezonuri migracia SeiZleba iyos saerTaSorisoc daSidac. Tavis mxriv, saerTaSoriso sezonur migracias SeiZlebasazRvrispira saxe hqondes.24 Badurashvili and Nadareishvili, Social Impact of Emigration and Rural-Urban Migration in Central and Eastern Europe, gv. 11.მიგრაციის ფორმები 43


3.4. migraciis mizeziam indikatoris mixedviT, migraciis formebi klasificirebuliaim ZiriTadi faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT, romelmac gadaawyvetinaadamians sacxovrebeli adgilis Secvla - migraciis mTavari mizeziT,Tumca, aRsaniSnavia, rom TiToeul adamians SeiZleba ramdenime mizezihqondes migraciisaTvis – magaliTad, sxvadasxva moqalaqeobis mqoneojaxis wevrebis gaerTianeba, rogorc wesi, xdeba im qveyanaSi, sadacmaT dasaqmebis an maRali anazRaurebis meti SesaZlebloba egulebaT.agreTve, raki migraciis mizezi xSirad dakavSirebulia migrantTasxva maxasiaTeblebTanac (maTi profesiuli kvalifikacia, unar-Cvevebi, sqesi da a.S.), am qveTavSi ganvixilavT migraciuli nakadebisSemadgenlobasac.3.4.1. SromiTi migraciamigraciis yvela zemoT CamoTvlili forma, amavdroulad, mosaxleobisSromiTi migraciac aris, rac gulisxmobs adamianTa teritoriulgadaadgilebas dasaqmebis mizniT.25 am tipis migraciaSi monawileadamianebs SromiT migrantebs uwodeben. specialistTa azriT, XXsaukunis meore naxevridan msoflio migraciul procesebSi mkveTraddominirebs saerTaSoriso migraciis sami tipi: SromiTi (aralegalurimigraciis CaTvliT), iZulebiTi da pensionerTa migraciebi.26vinaidanSromiT migrantTa ucxoeTSi wasvlis ZiriTadi mizani samSobloSiojaxis ekonomikuri mdgomareobis gaumjobesebaa, am tipis migraciasxSirad ekonomikurs uwodeben. migrantebi toveben sakuTar qveyanasda midian iq, sadac Sromis ufro maRali anazRaurebis SesaZleblobaegulebaT. amis gamo SromiT migrantTa nakadebi, ZiriTadad, ufroganviTarebuli qveynebiskenaa mimarTuli.saqarTvelodanac migrantebi, ZiriTadad, midian emigraciaSi saz­Rvar­gareT, raTa ukeTesi da maRalanazRaurebadi samsaxuri moi­Zion. amitom, Cveulebriv, Cvenze ganviTarebuli qveynebisaken mieSu­re­bian. Tumca, saqarTveloSi Catarebuli migraciis kvlevebidanCans, rom daniSnulebis qveynis arCevisas SromiTi migrantebisxvad­asxva faqtors iTvaliswineben. ekonomikuri mimzidvelobisgarda, mniSvnelovania migraciis qveynis teritoriuli siaxlovesamSobl­ osTan, sazRvarze legalurad gadasvlis simartive, mimRebqveyanaSi nacnobebis yola, saxelmwifo enis codna da iq mcxovreb25 migraciis sakiTxTa samTavrobo komisia, migraciis terminTa ganmartebiTi leqsi­ koni, 2014: gv. 53.26 Bell et al., Migration and Land Use Change in Europe, gv. 16.44 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


mosax­leobasTan kulturuli siaxlove, rac uiolebs migrantebsaxal garemoSi adaptaciasa da integracias. zustad amis gamosaqar­Tvelodan SromiTi migrantebis umravlesoba midis ruseTSi,TurqeTsa da saberZneTSi.27 Tumca, bolo dros saqarTvelo-ruseTsSoris urTierTobaTa gauaresebam da Cveni moqalaqeebisaTvisruseTSi legalurad Sesvlis SezRudvam mkveTrad Seamcira aqedanruseTisaken mimaval migrantTa nakadebi.28 SromiTi migrantebi, imisdamixedviT, ra unar-Cvevebs floben, or ZiriTad kategoriad iyofian:kvalificirebuli da arakvalificirebuli migrantebi. es dayofa,erTi SexedviT, hgavs dasaqmebulTa klasifikacias maT mier miRebuliganaTlebis mixedviT: maRalkvalificiuri, saSualo kvalifikaciismqone da arakvalificiuri muSakebi. magram SromiT migrantebisSemTxvevaSi es mTlad imaves ar niSnavs. magaliTad, saqarTvelodanSromiT migrantTa umravlesobas (87%) umaRlesi an saSualoprofesiuli ganaTleba aqvs,29 magram im samuSaodan gamomdinare,rasac isini ucxoeTSi yofnisas asruleben (zogierTi gamonaklisisgarda), maTi didi nawili arakvalificirebul migrantTa kategoriasganekuTvneba.oficialuri ganmartebiT, kvalificirebuli migranti ganisazRvreba,rogorc `SromiTi migranti, romelic Tavisi unar-Cvevebisgamo eqvemdebareba mimReb qveyanaSi daSvebis gamartivebulprocedurebs~.30 am tipis migracias xSirad inteleqtualursacuwo­deben. zogierTi saxelmwifo, maRalkvalificiur specialistTamisa­zidad, sagangebo saimigracio politikas axorcielebs. espolitika tardeba ori mizniT: adgilobriv SromiT bazarze gark­ veulspecialistTa deficitis Sesavsebad da qveynis saerTo inteleq­tualuri kapitalis gasaZliereblad. migrantTa mimRebi qveyana asezogavs maRalkvalificiuri specialistebis momzadebisaTvis saWiroresursebs. inteleqtualuri migraciis Sedegad, migrantebs uCndebaTprofesiuli zrdisa da ekonomikuri warmatebis perspeqtivebi, racSemdgom, xSirad, warmoSobis qveyanasac xmardeba. magram profesionalikadrebis gadinebiT migrantTa warmoSobis qveyana realurad kargavsmaT ganaTlebaSi Cadebul investiciebs, riTac sustdeba misiadamianuri kapitali. amgvar migraciasTan mimarTebiT, `inteleqtisgadinebisa~ da adgilobriv SromiT bazarze garkveul specialistTadeficitis problemebze saubroben. magaliTad, eqimebisa da eqTanebis27 ETF and BCG-Research, Migration and Skills in Georgia, 2013, gv. 4.28 Badurashvili and Nadareishvili, Social Impact of Emigration and Rural-Urban Migration in Central and Eastern Europe, gv. 5.29 ETF and BCG-Research, Migration and Skills in Georgia, 2013, gv. 25.30 migraciis sakiTxTa samTavrobo komisia, migraciis terminTa ganmartebiTi leq­si­ koni, 2014, gv. 82.მიგრაციის ფორმები 45


dasavleTSi migraciis gamo bevri qveyana aRmosavleT evropaSi amJamadsamedicino muSakebis naklebobas ganicdis.31ucxoel specialistTa misazidad 1980-iani wlebidan aqtiursaimigracio politikas atareben aSS, kanada da avstralia, bolo droski _ zogierTi evropuli da aziuri saxelmwifoc. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia,rom zogadad msoflio migraciul nakadebSi kvalificirebulmigrantTa xvedriTi wili Zalze mwiria da SromiTi migrantebisumetesoba arakvalificirebul kategorias ganekuTvneba; maTi didinawili aralegaluri migrantia da amgvari statusis gamo xSiradaraprestiJul, dabalanazRaurebad samuSaos asrulebs.zogadad, aralegaluri migracia farTo cnebaa da ar Semoifarglebamxolod qveynis sazRvris aralegaluri gadakveTiT. xSir SemTxvevaSi,migranti saxelmwifoSi Sedis legalurad – magaliTad, turistuliviziT – da rCeba ucxoeTSi samuSaod. daniSnulebis qveynisTvalTaxedviT, turistuli vizis vadis gasvlisas aseT pirebsqveyanaSi darCenisa da muSaobis samarTlebrivi safuZveli ar gaaCniaTda aralegalur migrantTa kategoriaSi ganixilebian. zogierTimaTgani droTa ganmavlobaSi axerxebs kanonieri statusis miRebas,magaliTad, TavSesafris maZieblis, ltolvilis, sabuTiani migrantis,qveyanaSi droebiT yofnisa da muSaobis uflebiT, xolo vinc Tavisistatusis legalizacias ver axerxebs, nebismier dros SeiZlebagamoaZevon, rogorc am teritoriaze samarTlebrivi safuZvlisgareSe myofi piri. kvlevebidan Cans, rom saqarTvelodan samuSaodwasul migrantTa umravlesoba ucxoeTSi aralegalurad imyofeba.32Tumca, unda gvaxsovdes, rom saerTaSoriso samarTalSi aralegalurimigrantis cneba, pirvel rigSi, sazRvrebis ukanono gadakveTasa daqveyanaSi aralegalur Sesvlas ukavSirdeba. zogadad, specialistTamosazrebiT, msoflioSi aralegaluri migraciis zrdas ganapirobebsis garemoeba, rom ganviTarebuli qveynebi zRudaven legaluriimigraciis SesaZleblobebs, maSin, rodesac izrdeba iq CasvlismsurvelTa ricxvi.33 amasTanave, sasurvel qveyanaSi nebismieri gziTmoxvedrisa da dasaqmebis msurvelTa raodenobis zrdas mohyvebasazRvarze ukanonod gadayvanis faqtebi da Tanamedrove migraciisyvelaze maxinji forma, trefikingi - adamianebiT vaWroba. trefikingismsxverplad miiCnevian pirebi, romlebic iZulebiT, motyuebiT,TaRliTobiT, Zalauflebis an piris umweobis borotad gamoyenebiTan raime sxva saSualebiT - moitaces, gadaibires Semdgomi gayidvis31 European Commission and GVG, Social Impact of Emigration and Rural-Urban Migration in Central and Eastern Europe, 2012, gv. 3.32 Badurashvili and Nadareishvili, Social Impact of Emigration and Rural-Urban Migration in Central and Eastern Europe, gv. 5.33 Khalid Koser, International Migration: A Very Short Introduction, 2007, gv. 54.46 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


an eqspluataciis mizniT. Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciis monace­mebiT, amJamad msoflioSi 2.4 mln adamiani SeiZleba CaiTvalos trefi­kingis msxverplad.34 aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom trefikingis danaSauliukavSirdeba gadaadgilebis Tavisuflebis SezRudvas, rogorc qveynisSigniT aseve qveynis farglebs gareT migraciisas.3.4.2. ojaxis gaerTianebaojaxis ganuyoflobis ufleba – ojaxis wevrebis ufleba –icxovron erTad saerTaSoriso samarTliT daculi fundamenturiprincipia,35 magaliTad, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciisme-8 muxliT. Sesabamisad, saxelmwifoTa umetesoba cnobs sxvadasxvaqveyanaSi mcxovreb ojaxis wevrTa gaerTianebis uflebas, Tumca,gansxvavebuli midgomebi aqvT ojaxis im wevrebis gansazRvrisas,romlebzec vrceldeba es ufleba (damokidebuli mSoblebi,meuRle, arasrulwlovani Svilebi, da a.S.), aseve, am moTxovnasTandakavSirebuli garemoebebis Taobazec (Seiqmna Tu ara ojaximigraciamde; mimReb qveyanaSi cxovrebis garkveuli periodi ojaxisgaerTianebis uflebis mopovebamde da a.S.).ojaxi erTiandeba Semdeg SemTxvevebSi:• e.w. qorwinebiTi migraciis dros, rodesac qorwindebian sxvadasxva moqalaqeobis mqone pirebi da erT-erTi maTgani gadadis sacxov­ reblad (qorwinebamde an qorwinebis Semdeg) meuRlis warmoSobis qveyanaSi;• ojaxis erT-erTi wevri imyofeba migraciaSi (sxvadasxva mizeziT: rogorc SromiTi migranti, ltolvili da a.S.) da danarCen wevrebs mimReb qveyanaSi iwvevs, ojaxis gaerTianebis mizniT.am tipis migraciaSi ZiriTadad qalebi da bavSvebi monawileoben.socialuri mizezebiT gamowveuli qalebisa da bavSvebis migraciiszemoT aRwerili forma unda ganvasxvaoT qalTa migraciisagan,romelic SromiTi migraciis Semadgeneli nawilia da gulisxmobsmigrant qalTa damoukideblad gamgzavrebas ucxoeTSi samuSaod.qalTa raodenobrivi da xvedriTi wilis zrda saerTaSorisomigraciebSi, e.w. migraciuli nakadebis feminizacia globaluri feno­menia da damaxasiaTebelia saqarTvelosTvisac. qalebis migraciuliaqtivoba ukavSirdeba msoflios ganviTarebul qveynebSi gazrdilmoTxovnilebas saSinao momsaxurebaze, aseve, moxucebisa da bavSvebis34 ILO, Report of the Director General: The cost of coercion. Global Report under the Follow-up to ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, 2009: gv.1.35 migrantTa uflebebis Sesaxeb detalurad ixileT me-6 Tavi.მიგრაციის ფორმები 47


movlaze. SeiZleba iTqvas, saqarTveloSi amJamad qalebi iseveaqtiurad monawileoben migraciul procesebSi, rogorc mamakacebi,zogierTi qveynis migraciul nakadebSi ki maTi wili mamakacebzemetia.36 ekonomikuri siduxWiris gamo bevri qarTveli qali tovebssakuTar ojaxs da Svilebs da midis ucxoeTSi sxvebis mosavlelad,xSirad sakmaod didi xniT. zogierTi kvleva gviCvenebs, rom ucxoeTSimomuSave migrant qalTa 37%-s saqarTveloSi datovebuli hyavsSvilebi.373.4.3. saganmanaTleblo migraciamigraciis gamomwvev mizezebs Soris mniSvnelovan adgilzeaucxoeTSi ganaTlebis miReba, rac warmoSobs kidev erT formas -saganmanaTlebo migracias. am tipis migraciaSi, msoflio masStabiT,uamravi axalgazrdaa CarTuli. saqarTvelodanac bevri midis ucxo­eTSi saswavlad, ukeTesi ganaTlebis miRebis mizniT. iTvleba,rom swavlis dasrulebis Semdeg studenti-migrantebi brundebiansamSobloSi, Tumca, rogorc cnobilia, dasaqmebis ukeTesi pirobebisada karieruli zrdisaTvis, bevri maTgani rCeba iq, sadac swavlobda,an sxva qveyanaSi poulobs samuSaos.3.5. migraciaze gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesizemoT CamoTvlili sxvadasxva mizeziT (dasaqmeba, ojaxis sxvawevrebTan gaerTianeba, ganaTlebis miReba da a.S.) ganpirobebulinebismieri teritoriuli gadaadgileba nebayoflobiTi migraciisformebia, gansxvavebuli iZulebiTi migraciisagan, rodesacadamianebs sacxovrebeli adgilis datoveba uwevT garkveulimizezebis – omis, eTnikuri, religiuri an politikuri niSniT devnis,ekologiuri situaciis mkveTri gauaresebis da a.S. – gamo. iZulebiTimigracia migrantTa Semdeg kategoriebs warmoqmnis: TavSesafrismaZieblebi, ltolvilebi, iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebi,ekolog­ iuri migrantebi, iZulebiT gadasaxlebuli pirebi darepatriantebi.aRsaniSnavia, rom am bolo dros msoflioSi SesamCnevad gaizardaiZulebiT migraciaSi myofi pirebis (ltolvilebis, TavSesafris36 Badurashvili and Nadareishvili, Social Impact of Emigration and Rural-Urban Migration in Central and Eastern Europe, gv. 10.37 Charita Jashi, Gender Paradigms of Labour Migration in Georgia, 2010, gv. 3.48 მიგრაციის სახელმძღვანელო


maZieblebisa da qveynis SigniT iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebis -devnilebis) raodenoba. 2014 wels msoflioSi dafiqsirda iZulebiTmigrantTa ricxvis uprecedento zrda (8.3 mln-iT, 2013 welTanSedarebiT) da 2015 wels maTma saerTo raodenobam 65.3 mln-s miaRwia.38unda aRiniSnos, rom jer kidev 1950-ian wlebSi iZulebiT migrantTaricxvi msoflioSi ar aRemateboda 2 mln-s. gaeros ltolvilTaumaRlesi komisariatis bolo monacemebiT, amJamad msoflioSiregistrirebulia 21.3 mln ltolvili,39 kidev 2.0 mln adamianisamSobloSi devnis gamo ucxo qveyanaSi imyofeba TavSesafrismaZieblis statusiT,40 38.2 mln ki devnilad iTvleba sakuTarqveyanaSi.41 ltolvilTa da TavSesafris maZiebelTa umravlesoba(86%) warmoSobiT ganviTarebadi qveynebidan aris, maTgan naxevarzemeti (54%) sami qveynis - siriis, avRaneTisa da somalis moqalaqea.42ltolvilTa mimRebi qveynebis geografia ufro farToa, magramiZulebiT migrantTa umravlesoba (86%) dRes ganviTarebadqveynebSi cxovrobs, maSin, rodesac, 10 wlis winaT es cifri 70%-sar aRemateboda; 3.6 mln ltolvili msoflios dabalganviTarebulqveynebSi imyofeba. ltolvilTa mimReb qveynebs Soris liderobenTurqeTi da pakistani, sadac, Sesabamisad, 1.59 da 1.51 mln ltolviliimyofeba, Semdeg mohyveba libani (1.15 mln ltolviliT) da irani (982aTasi ltolviliT), aseve, eTiopia da iordania, sadac, Sesabamisad,659.5 da 654.1 aTasi ltolvili cxovrobs.43cxadia, ltolvilTa miRebaSi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebenmezobeli qveynebi. mosaxleoba, romelic iZulebulia datovossamSoblo, droebiT mainc mosazRvre qveynebs afarebs Tavs. sworedamiT aixsneba TurqeTisa da pakistanis mowinave pozicia ltolvilTamimReb qveynebs Soris: orive qveyanam TavSesafari misca asi aTasobiTltolvils siriidan da avRaneTidan.mezobel saxelmwifoSi droebiTi ganTavsebis Semdeg ltolvilTanawili sacxovreblad ganviTarebul qveynebSi gadasvlisaken iswrafv­is, Tumca, evropa cdilobs am procesebis efeqtianad marTvas.ganviTarebuli qveynebis umravlesoba didi xnis ganmavlobaSi iRebdaltolvilebs msoflios sxvadasxva regionidan. magaliTad, am 10 wlis38 UNHCR, Global Trends: Forced Displacement in 2015, gv. 1, nanaxia 10.10.2015 w. http://bit.ly/2aa1vbu.39 iqve.40 iqve.41 UNHCR, Global Trends: Forced Displacment in 2014, gv. 2. nanaxia 12.04.2017 w. http://www.unhcr.org/556725e69.pdf.42 UNHCR, Global Trends: Forced Displacement in 2015, gv. 1, nanaxia 10.10.2015 w. http://www.unhcr.org/statistics/unhcrstats/576408cd7/unhcr-global-trends-2015.html.43 iqve, gv. 2.მიგრაციის ფორმები 49


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