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Human Needs

Published by Patiphol YODSURANG, 2021-09-04 15:29:42

Description: Human Needs, a cooperative project between students of Faculty of Architecture and Planning, Vienna University of Technology and Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University. The design studio searches for an “affordable architecture” under a core question “How much and what kind of space does a person need for living without wasting space?”


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THE HUMAN NEEDS How much and what kind of space does a person need for living without wasting space, using holistic approach and design it according to a ordable low costs, in Bangkok. Experimental Designstudio, max. 25 students working in teams Visiting Professor : Marlies Breuss, HOLODECK architects with with Architecture Faculty Kasetsart University / Bangkok SS 2019 Q.Nuntanasirivikrom, K.Kakaew, R.Pakarnseree, S.Mallikamarl PORTFOLIO HAND IN : HB2 SEKRETARIAT < 12.2.2019 LVA 253.D14 (BAC) und LVA 253.D15 (MAS), TU Wien INSTITUT FÜR ARCHITEKTUR UND ENTWERFEN FORSCHNGSBEREICH HOCHBAU – KONSTRUKTION UND ENTWERFEN E 253/5 FORSCHUNGSLEITER: UNIV.PROF. MAG.ARCH. ARCH. GERHARD STEIXNER

Table of Contents 2-3 Foreword I 28,4° ... Saithiwa Ramasoot I Gerhard Steixner 4-5 The Human Needs designstudio concept & method ... Marlies Breuss 6-7 a humanitarianism approach towards architecture ... Quijxote Nuntanasirivikrom 8-9 Human Needs’ Site In Broader Context ... Suchon Mallikamarl 10-13 Merged ... Mona Zawosta, Patit Jainkittivong, Siraphop Hongsakul 14-23 Re:think Bamboo ... Natnon Pornvoraphat, Nut Thumumnuaysook, Sarah Gold 24-33 Symbiosis+ ... Auckanee Jarupokawat Fei, Thunpicha Uchupuj Sai, Viola Kryza 34-43 Shelf Village ... Katarina Sesic, Pichcha Suwannawong 44-53 Move to Improve ... Karnthida Weerasaiand, Nongnaphat Seanruk, Theresa Brandstätter 54-63 Niran ... Nutnicha kitjaorapin, Sofia Lichvarova, Tawan Ittarat 64-73 Wall + Roof ... Achiraya Nuangjumnong, Beatrice Aimée, Chanikan Wichanphon, Netchanok Sungkhow 74-83 Unprivate House ... Aurora Zordan, Nattapong Dumrongsatien, Pitsanu Aupan 84-93 A Windy Wall ... Chonticha Srinin, Hathaichanok Jeawkok, Philipp Oberkofler 94-103 Shy Thai ... Aleksandra Bogdanovic, Tistaya Thuspittaya, Watsamon Jangdee 104-113 On The Autonomous Space ... Emma K. Kaufman-Laduc, Makawat Chuenchom, Nannapat Areesawate 114-123 Sharing Space ... Iulia Petcu, Natha Jittiprawat, Veeraya Namkaew 124-131 Living Bamboo ... Kritsana Duangnin, Laura Sánchez Fernández, Warisara Chutrakul 132-141 The Human Needs... ... Susanne Zottl, Norbert Steiner 142-143 living in between cultures ... Eldar Hajdarevic 144-145 Imprint ... Acknowledgements 146-147

Saithiwa Ramasoot I Gerhard Steixner Foreword to the cooperation TU Wien & KU Bangkok Architectural design in fast-moving present era is a global matter, unbounded by specific locality, technology and communication. Contemporary design issues, techniques and styles are often shared between distant parts of the world in order to push forward the academic and practical dimensions of the discipline. Opportunities to learn from unfamiliar situations and to collaborate with partners from different backgrounds could therefore stimulate exchanges and advancement of knowledge as well as design creativity and problem-solving skills of an architectural learner. “‘The Human Needs: from Conceptual Prototype to Affordable Site-Specific Housing Design” Project was the first academic collaboration between Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University (KU Bangkok) and Department of Building Construction and Design 2 (HB2) at Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien), which was also supported as one of the events to celebrate the 150 years of friendship between Thailand and Austria. It aimed to rethink conventional designs by challenging student participants to question basic needs in spatial design using several informal communities in Bangkok as project sites. KU’s third-year students and Undergraduate as well as Master’s students from TU Wien were asked to work together in small groups to gather necessary information from site and research, and later propose design alternatives. At the same time, they also struggled to negotiate working process through complicated communications and diverse design methods learnt from different schools. As the Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University strives towards well-being and sustainable development goal through holistic designs of built environment, our 5-year Bachelor of Architecture Program principally employs problem-based learning as a fundamental method to stimulate critical thinking and formulation of design questions, ideas and design process. In addition to design studios and courseworks, the study program encourages architectural learning through non-curricular activities wherever possible, which include lecture series, workshops and special projects based on real-life situations and current issues. The “Human Needs” project approach thus supports our learning methodology to increase students’ experiences and allow opportunities to reexamine existing building typology and investigate diverse programming and holistic design interpretations. The project proposals also reflect young designers’ ideas for alternative approach towards site-specific dwelling designs for essential needs in life with sensitive context and constraints from local and foreigner’s points of view that bring interesting dimensions to the schemes. The designs will be exhibited in Vienna and Bangkok as a final part of the project. The Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University, feels honoured to participate in the “Human Needs” project. On behalf of the Department, I would like to express my gratitude to Marlies Breuss of HOLODECK architects and visiting professor at HB2 at TU Wien who initiated this collaborative project and invited us to be a part of it. Her advice and contributions on the project development and reviews both in Vienna and Bangkok were significant for its success. I also would like to thank the co-organizers, Assistant Professor Kijchot Nuntanasirivikrom and Dr. Suchon Mallikamarl, who represented KU to guide the project and ensure the quality of the final results from our side. I hope that the “Human Needs” project will not only contribute to KU Bangkok and TU Wien students’ development in architectural thinking but others would find the proposed visions and ideas inspiring for the real-life design issues as well. Saithiwa Ramasoot Head of the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University (KU Bangkok)

28,4° A roof over their head, that protects from rain and gives shade. Taps for drinking, cooking and washing, toilets and (renewable) energy. Space for bed and privacy and for the community, flooded with air. Contact with nature. How much space does a human being need, if living functions can be outsourced into public spaces, creating collective awareness. Will it be living at the bare minimum? How much space do we allow inhabitants? How much space do we give to our own? Essential questions are posed by ‘The Human Needs’ designstudio. Beyond topics like building laws, regulations and provisions there had to be found answers to that. To develop prototypes and adapt them to site specific demands. Results are (not) surprising. Most of the students decided to minimize space. This maybe owed to cultural context or nature of the international social situation where human habitat is threatened to turn into luxury goods. Practiced exchange of students from the Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) and Kasetsart University of Bangkok (KU Bangkok), to whom I would like to express my gratitude for their readiness to cooperate, could be intensified in the sense of a profound understanding in social and cultural particularities. Marlies Breuss, our Visiting Professor, gets my gratitude for ‘the human needs’ and for the connections to the faculty of architecture at Kasetsart University. Gerhard Steixner Head of Department of Building Construction and Design 2, Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) 0 yearly average temperature in Bangkok 5

Marlies Breuss The Human Needs designstudio concept and method ‘The human needs’. An experimental design studio to research affordable but pleasant living conditions for people. What kind of housing do we designate as human condition when we orientate ourselves towards basic and specific needs. Now housing is mostly defined by economic values, laws, regulations, security and costs. To test other forms of living together based on common and individual areas we perform this design studio with students from different cultural backgrounds, traditions and habits to create various prototypes of housing units. Our particular relations with architects and students from Thailand started in 2017, when The Association of Siamese Architects under Royal Patronage (asa) asked us to give a workshop for students from Universities in Thailand. This invitation followed good responses to our lecture given at the Austrian Embassy in Bangkok, which was built according to our winning design, based on tradition and innovation. ‘Contemplative Dialogues’ workshop was intended by us to be a study as students had to experience new surroundings, research local conditions and find innovative approaches to apply and combine common materials existing in their country. Mentors from young but well known offices practicing in Bangkok guided students through their design and modelmaking periods until the final presentation at Thailand Cultural Design Center (TCDC) in Bangkok. The results were extraordinary in their creativity, simplicity, usability and social awareness. A little more than one year later I was invited by Professor Gerhard Steixner to take a visiting professorship at the Ddepartment of Building Construction and Design 2 (HB2). We decided to perform an experimental design studio with teams composed of students from Vienna and Bangkok. IFnasctiutulttyeooffAArrcchhititeeccttuurreeaanndd PDleansniginng, especially HB2 at Technical University in Vienna (TU Wien) and Faculty of Architecture at Kasetsart University (KU Bangkok) strongly supported this idea of cooperation, starting January 2019 with Marlies Breuss, Suchon Mallikamarl and Quijxote Nuntanasirivikrom, being assisted by Eldar Hajdarevic, Kuanchai Kakaew and Rathphum Pakarnseree. Because Summer Semester in Thailand starts in January but begins in March for Austrian students, besides different time zones we had to manage varying study periods next to geographical distances. Students participating in this studio were asked for their attitude towards architectural design and their social awareness as we concentrated on ‘human needs’ asking the question ‘How much and what kind of space does a person need for living without wasting space, using holistic approach and design it according to affordable low costs, in Bangkok.’ Another important topic ‘the climate’ we integrated in our studio using natural forces as wind, sun, rain, plants and ‘no footprint shall be left’. Teamwork within groups of students from Bangkok and Vienna was performed based on internet communication, but without flights by them. The Design Process for this studio started with reading books and watching films. The Book ‘Seven Decades of Houses in Thailand 1946 – 2016’ with basic information about ecological, political and social history in Thailand and Films like ‘Microtopia’ and ‘The Human Scale’ were the begin of analysis. ‘Wholistic thinking’ in this publication refers to the conclusions of each student group to these themes. Thai students researched for possible sites in traditional areas in Bangkok including information about infrastructure, surrounding buildings, natural context, descriptions of inhabitants, smells, sounds, public areas, common sense as basis for law rules as well as photo documentation.

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BSytundoewntwgerowuapnstptoretsheanntkedouthr egiur epsrtocjercititcsstwGiecrehtaordinSvtiteeixdncerri,tiScsaiitnhiBwanRgakmokaasonodt,VKieannnoak.wBaencTaruaskeuloyfinthgecharoen, TcommDiatmnneenctktoer,leSaavveit‘rni oBifmooPtpariisnat’lwparettsaennat,aJtiaoknusbwGearerdhoolinldsksie, pSaursaatenlnyefrZoomttlT, Nhaoirbaenrdt SAtuesintreiar,nEsldtuadreHnatsjd. arevic aBnydnMowetwhueswSarnistutochtahratnfokrotuhregiruinespt icrrinitgicscoGmemrheanrdtsSotneitxhneers,tuSdaeitnhtiwparoRjeacmtsadsuoroint,gKthaenockrwitsa.n Trakulyingcharoen, Tom Dannecker, Savitri Bim Paisalwattana, Jakub Gardolinski, Susanne Zottl, Norbert Steiner, Eldar Hajdarevic FanindaMllye, tIhwusouSldrisliukcehtaortefxopr rtehsesir minysppireinrsgocnoaml amnednstspeocniathl ethsatnukdsentot pGreojrehcatrsdd, uSruincghothne, Qcruitisjx. ote and each single student from Austria, Bosnia Herzegowina, Bulgaria, Germany, Italy, Slovakia, Spain, Romania, AFimnaelrliyc,aI wanodulTdhliakielatnode. 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Quijxote Nuntanasirivikrom a humanitarianism approach towards architecture Among plenty approaches to architecture via architectural design and architectural design process, there are some concerns on promoting the issue of human welfare above the conventional issue in architecture. Once architecture has to pay its higher attention to human, it will, then, deal with a more complex and delicate issue which is subjective one. Transforming the subjective one into a more objective one, in order to do so, there are topics in relations to the other arts, especially on, Humanity, Sociology, Politics and Economics that should be put to test. This is to formulate the way in which architecture should be interrogated in term of its humanitarian issue. The questions are, firstly, at which point architecture should make statement in term of humanitarian issue. Secondly, scope the dimension in term of responsive design under humanitarian issue in architecture that architecture, itself, should cover. Literally and radically, these are what do people need from architecture and in return how does architecture should perform, especially, on providing people with certain affordable extent that architecture needs to serve. The project ‘human needs: affordable architecture’ is an exploration on intermediacy between the two incompatible basis, the Austrian’s and the Thai’s. The set of criteria and conditions of architectural design that comprises all the elements contained in these two basis are the content that the project intends to cover. In there, there are pairs of differences where the project belongs to, ranging from physical commodification which is tangible to norm, social value and cultural value which are abstract and intangible. There are plenty of differences in various degree of limitations that project onto set of materials and resources used in the project, for example, cost of living and labour, construction methods and technique, allowance and acceptance from users’ point of view, etc. The project takes the differences for grant. The Worst Worth Working with and Worth Taking Risk One of the most difficult task that architects and architecture are afraid to ask and to work with is the issue that deals with subjectivity. It is not only the subjectivity that is exposed onto the architectural design process formulated by its user but also the subjectivities that are exposed by each party prior to the design execution. There are plenty of conflict interests in there where people meet and negotiate for their best beneficial gain. The project works under its stimulating conditions that is worsted by the differences, in language, in time zone, in background, in achievement, etc. The differences in locations where the two groups of people defined by nationality that they belong to and by the two groups of people defined by their duty: the architect and the user have simulated a complex issue, at the same time, under a radical scenario. The encased relations where these differences have covered could, therefore, portray the more solidified idea on humanitarianism. It reflects where social conditions are expressed in formal and conventional situation. Accordingly, these sensitive issue within project’s humanitarianism approach toward architecture is covered in order to generate radical discussions, fair negotiations, and rational problematising for architectural design and its design methods. humanitarianism and socio politico economic Under conditions where architectural design should meet humanitarianism, for architecture, there are the other arts’ involvement, always. Objectified commodification in architectural design process ties architecture merely to how a desirable object could be constructed under this superficial conditions. Referring to the other arts, it could, then, raise awareness in architectural design process with criteria for architectural design methods topic by topic. Human needs and being affordable to him or her, at the same time, require the more substantial integration inbetween those other arts. This integration provides the more vigorous dimension for

radical discussion between those other arts and architecture. It will also lay the common agenda with sharing platform where people from different party, different background and different interest could, then discuss their architectural issue based on their needs and, in return, draw out their affordable effort to architectural design. The architectural issues raised by the other arts, in this case, social science / political science / economics, so called, socio-politico-economic in the book ‘Seven Decades of Houses in Thailand 1946-2016’ formulate a humanitarianism approach toward architecture. What has been raised by one art towards the other arts and vice versa via the spatial configuration that they have shared also encases the agreement on humanitarianism approaches towards architecture. They are: “Let’s talk about the social aspect, both in the big picture and how people’s lives have changed. I like to conceptualise key elements like people’s livelihood, life changes, or economic changes. I usually start with the big picture first, then, boil down to an individual’s s life to see how they are connected” socio “Why do scholars like to use the term ‘space’? Because it contains more conceptual connotations to its subtext. But everyday people do not use this term. From the socio perspective, when asked where do they live, they do not refer to its as space, but more of a place. But from a scholar’s point of view, they tend to transform these thing into a more conceptual idea. I think in architecture domain, it is necessary to do so. Because architects need to be able to see what the possibilities are and start with that before evaluating factual environment to see if the possibilities they have in mind can be realised. That is my understanding of how architectural studies work. And that is why in the architectural world, a place has become space. It takes a lot of work from design composition, management, weight-bearing calculation and all sorts of thing. People who are not in the profession usually do not concern themselves with three things. It is more of an academic ideas that we use to explain the concept.” politico “If you are going to connect economics with architecture, some of the first questions you should ask are these; what are the materials, how much and how many? And this includes your thinking resources as well. One thing that you don’t pay attention to is technology. Technology keeps changing all the time.” economics The closer encounter to the humanitarianism issue is initiated and conducted through various conditions in the project. The differences of conditions that the project has worked with are, therefore, simulating the clearer understanding on how to cover the issue of subjectivity that take place in common human needs. Accordingly, the encased conditions under this subject matter, then problematise architectural design pro- cess, especially on, practical and affordable responding to the needs. The responsive methods to this humanitarianism issue would, then, be tied to the architectural process, incrementally. The differences in various manners initiate the cross discipline with solidified methods responding to the conditions of humanitarianism. The relations between architecture and humanitarianism is redefined in a clearer and more tangible scale. Asstistant Professor PhD, Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University Bangkok Quijxote Nuntanasirivikrom Assistant Professor and Professional Architect, Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University Bangkok 9

Human Needs’ Site In Broader Context Human Needs programme explores several possibilities in dealing with existing fabrics of Bangkok from historical settings to new city center. The programme itself suggests not to completely start new ground of construction. The planning should be integrated into an existing structure whether of a building or of the city. Me, myself as a Bangkokian find fascination by this given criteria. We already have had excessive numbers of new construction site and people are suffering from polluted environment resulting from them. A construction work in Bangkok mostly begins with the demolition of existing structure in order to fully cope with new requirement that keep emerging day by day. Rem Koolhaas once calls Bangkok an-under- construction-city. The Bangkok city is falling into the cycle of tearing down and erecting up every since. The compromise between old and a new could not be made easily. If we let such cycle to proceed, we would one day lose our remembrance of the city, or have we already lost them? Existing fabrics always come along with prerequisite conditions. Working on them are rather demanding. We shall be aware that we cannot deal with an existing structure by simply employ conventional planning mean. In order to fully incorporate to them, the planning and design has to bring up with a tailor made system. It is intriguing to study several different attempts from and their result student works which are experimental in spirit resulting froma single specific location. Students’ works are imaginative by nature because they have not yet been blinded by dominant conventional practice. The collections of their works in this book are evi- dent and self-explain, therefore it does not need any further explanation from my side. A fruitful contribution here would be to contextualize selected sites in Human Needs programme into larger domain of Bangkok. Although each selected site expresses their specific condition and challenge us with their uniqueness, but if we disregard its geometry and physical setting, we may discover that they are governed by typical condi- tions, comparable components and even considered as a representative typology of Bangkok urban fabric. Our attitude toward such typical conditions result into an action to environment that is the agreed norm of conventional practice, a core area of practice that is questioned by Human Needs’ studio and our participant students challenged them once again by coming up with their experimental idea. SITE#1situates close to the Chao Phaya, the main river of Bangkok. The site consists of old brick bearing wall and a great Banyan tree. We should be well aware that by geographical setting, Bangkok is located in tropical region flourishing by plantation and tree. A species like Banyan tree could grow naturally everywhere. We may learn in architectural school that a good architecture should coexist with its environment, especially with an existing tree. But in which degree our conventional construction practice allows that? Since we tend to use standard piling system that often create conflict with the tree root. Maybe we shall seek a new construction scheme that is more compromise. Suchon Mallikamarl

SITE#2 also situates along Chao Phaya River, at the dead end of small walkway in between two buildings. The site is defined as an extension of these buildings seeking to fully utilize anempty space above them. Before the arrival of vehicle, water way was main transportation route. The city had grown along the river and channel network, but back then, we did not expect that Bangkok would become this dense, thus did not really regulate (e.g. an open access to river front) or provide the future plan for our city. Nevertheless, it was the false of no one. In nowadays situation, we shall ponder how we can provide living space for growing city in spite of respecting such an old fabric. SITE#3 and 4, the setting of this site is not precisely the same as the previous one, since it locates exactly on water. If we compare our traditional construction system with our everyday practice, we may observe some degree of regression. In order to respond to such amphibian setting, our conventional practice nowadays tend to use invasive approach employing massive construction which is devastated in comparison to the traditional one. Needless to refer to floating type of structure that might be the smartest, an elevated piling construction is prefabricate and digestible since all of components are made of organic material. If I am allowed to make an assumption regarding the current construction ideology, I would address a problem resulting from the constituting of the concept of permanence-ness in architecture. Do we really need to build a building in order to let it last forever? Or we shall accept the deteriorated nature of things and touch our earth more gently. 11

SITE#5 locates at the central of Chinese community in an old quarter of Bangkok. Their building type is characterized by shophouse. Network of circulation is of narrow road that cannot be accessed by a car. Let us imagine if we had introduced a concrete construction in such setting as we are so familiar and find ourselves convenience, a nice neighborhood community would be turned into a dusty ground. It is a responsibility of architect and planner to foresee such consequence. SITE#6 the setting and condition of this site is differed from the rest of selection. Siam Square is the city center for commercial and trendy zone of Bangkok, established since 1960s. The building type in Siam Square is a row of blockhouse planned following the modern paradigm of architectural design. Each building block has vivid frontal façade for inviting customer and the backside, as we call “back of the house”for hiding all service section and building system. Two sides of the back of the house are arranged facing each other in order to control service section out of public commercial zone. As a consequence of planning, the situation became worsen day by day as the accumulation of “unwanted” grow. Such space calls for an intervention as immediate act. Maybe, we shall combine humanistic idea into our planning practice. SITE#7 and SITE#9 are construction voids situating in old Chinese textile market that still function until nowadays. The density during peak hours is relatively high creating hot and uncomfortable atmosphere. The most easiest and common way dealing with such atmosphere is the usage of air conditioning. We tend to ignore that in fact air condition also producing heat that heating up the whole environment significantly.

Do we have a better way handling such situation? SDomweetihmaevewea rbeeatctetrtowaanyuhpafnrodnlitnsgitsuuactihonsittouoathioans?ty wSoithmoeuttimtheinwkiengretaocittstocoannsuepqfuroentcsei.tuation too hasty Bwaitdhoeuntvtirhoinkminegntoailtssocdonasmeaqgueesncoeu.r economic in Bmaicdreonlevvireol.nmEaecnht afalsmoildyahmasagtoesspoeunrdecthoenior msaicvining for imnsictarolllienvgeal.irEfailtcehr,favmeniltyilahtaiosntoansdpecnodoltihnegiresqauvipinmgefnotr. Ainlstoalwlineghaaivrefilltoesr,t vaepnotirlatiotionnoaf nodurcsoaollainryg feoqrucioppminegnt. Awlistho ewlechtraicvebillol.sDt oa wpoerteiovnerosf uomuritsaulpa?ryHfowr cmopuicnhg weithspeelencttroicn bthilli.sDmoawtteer.eSveITrEs#u9mthiteupd?ebHrioswbemtwucehen bwueildspinegnst roensuthltiisngmfarottmer.aSsIThEop#9hothuesedethbaritshbaedtwdeieedn obutil.dDinigffesrreenstulletivneglsfrofmolad sbheoapmhsoruusnenitnhgatahcarodsdsiethde sopuat.cDeifcfeorueldntwleevlleslserovfeoalds bgeivaemnssrtruuncntuinrgalafcarborsics. tWhee ospftaecnefocuonudldswuechll sceornvdeitaiosnginiveonldsmtruacrktuerta. lNfeavberirct.hWeleess, iotfdteenpefonudnsdhsouwchsmcoanrtdwitieontaikninogldambaernkefti.t Nouetveorfththeisless, sitedtteinpge.nds how smart we taking a benefit out of this setting. SITE#8 represents a sample of small abandon space in old cSoITmEm#u8nrietypriensBeanntsgakoska.mIfpwleeocfosumldalilmapbraonvdeotnhespeafcfiecieinncoyld ocof mlamndunuistye,init Bwaonugldkoakc.cIofmwme ocdoautlde immoprreovpeubthliec aenffdicipernivcayte osef clatonrd. Tuhse,riet swtroicutlidonacfrcoommmbuoilddainteg mguoirdeeplinueblaicnadncdopnrsitvratient soef ctoonr.sTtrhuectiroenstmricigtihotnlifmroimt obuur ilmdiangingautiidoenl.inWeeancadncodnesatlrawiintht tohfecolanttsetruacstipoencmt uigshintglimthiet osuarmime acgoinnsaitdioenra. tWione acasnaldreadl wy ith dthisecluasttseerdaisnpSecITt Eus#i5n.gBthutefsoar mthee cfiorsntsaidsepreactito, nit amsaaylrceaalldfyor mdisocreusssoepdhinstiScaITteE#m5e. aBnuet .fgo.r athpeufbirlsict ahespaerinctg, pitrmocaeysscafollrfor dmisocruesssoinpghiastgicuaidteelmine.aAnrech.git.eactpsuhbalicll sheeakrinbgalparnocesins for idmispcruosvsininggaa lgivuinidgelqinuea.liAtyrcohfitiencdtivsidhuaalllsweheiklebmalainnctaeinining quality of individual while maintaining public interest. SPuhcDh,oFnaMcualtllyikoafmAarcrlhitecture, Kasetsart University Bangkok PhD, Faculty of Architecture, Kasetsart University Bangkok A map of Bangkok with the position of Specific Sites #1 to #9 cAamn abpe ofof uBnadngakt othkeweitnhdthoef tphoesBitiooonko. f Specific Sites #1 to #9 can be found at the end of the Book. 13 13

Siraphop Hongsakul Mona Zawosta Patit Jainkittivong My name is Siraphop Hong- My name is Mona Zawosta My name is Patit Jainkittivong sakul and I am studying in the and I am studying in the third and I am studying in the third third year of architecture at year of my bachelor, facaulty year of architecture at the Ka- the Kasetsart University Bang- of Architecture at the Techni- setsart University Bangkok. kok. cal University of Vienna. First of all, I like to question I used to connect architectu- First of all, I didn‘t expect everything around me whe- re with a building. But during much from my architecture re architecture is an answer. my studies I realized that it is studies. I thought architecture From the various questions much more than a building. to be something between art we get from design, the ans- The most important approach and logic but after I experien- wer need not be straightfor- to architecture for me is to ced it, I realized architecture ward like in engineering but focus on the people and the is more than that. Architec- varying different, depending surroundings. The ideas and ture is about methods and on the context and concept of dealing with the environment system within buildings in the designer. This makes me must focus on the future. If I the most effective way for its interested in architecture. connect these parts with de- users. The learning process sign and technology, I can to achieve that caused me to OmeNrTgeHdE AUTONOMOUS establish an architecture in a think outside the box, realize SPACE: A CASE STUDY smaller or a bigger scale. my potential and make me understand how things work. I think everyone has their own ways to achieve it, making us unique.

wholistic thinking wholistic thinking „The human and their basic needs have to be in focus.“ - film „the human scale“ „The human needs light, air, water, food, sleep, protection and time for interests.“ - experiences from other people „This simplicity is another form of living. In the future it should be environmentally friendly, affordable, intelligent and flexible.“ - film „microtopia“ 135

combinations from interviews thai thai austrian compare the needs austrian thai bed: 180x200cm mattress: 100x200cm b a s clothes rail: 120x60cm kitchen: 200x60cm i c bathroom: 300x200cm bathroom: 250x250cm s outdoor area: 200x200cm green area p e c fitness area: 250x250cm sales food area i f i playing area: 120x70cm chess table: 120x70cm c relaxation area: 200x100cm tuk tuk place: 300x150cm

BASIC NEEDS needs basic and specific needs basic and specific SPECIFIC NEEDS 䘀䄀一 䰀伀唀一䜀䔀 吀嘀 匀吀唀䐀夀 䄀刀䔀䄀 䜀䄀刀䐀䔀一 combination thai + austrian 圀䄀匀䠀䔀刀 䌀伀䴀䴀唀一䤀吀夀 䘀䤀匀䠀䤀一䜀 匀吀伀刀䄀䜀䔀 䈀䄀吀䠀 匀吀唀䐀夀 䄀刀䔀䄀 䜀䄀刀䐀䔀一 basic needs table - chair - bed - bathroom - storage - kitchen - plants 䘀䄀一 䰀伀唀一䜀䔀 吀嘀 specific needs 圀䄀匀䠀䔀刀 䌀伀䴀䴀唀一䤀吀夀 comm䘀 䤀u匀n䠀iht䤀yo一am䜀reeafr-ornetlaax匀rae吀tai伀o-n刀oa䄀urt䜀eda䔀o-osrpaarecae -fo䈀sra䄀lte吀usk䠀atureka- sport area - - .. 157

holistic approach public semi public private (specific) (specific) (basic) „Holism is the connection of merged everything with everything. It is important to merge different merged parts together, then the who- leness arises. With this who- public leness, something new arises (specific) with a higher intelligence. The creation of a cozy home semi public in a small space, including (specific) private with basic needs and special (basic) elements. Connected to the surrounding society or family. Usable for everyone. Afforda- ble for everyone.“ sustainable, flexible and multifunctional elements P materials on the site teng wood for trees and plants glass for the fi- roofing tile for the brick from the from context for xed window in roof existing wall the construction sun protection, the dry room dust and sound fil- (old structure) it‘s (columns, win- ter, .. independent from dows, doors, sun the new structure protectors, ..)

prototype prototype fixed outer limits for 1-2 users %&' ()* +' ,- . /0)* + 0.30 rainwater water tank air Version conditioner 4.80 meters 2.20 installation and rainwater space urban farming 0.20 vertical gardening air conditioner 2.20 dry room 0.20 for sleeping and working SEMI- PUBLIC AREA folding bed sliding doors - merge the areas PRIVATE AREA INTIMATE- PRIVATE AREA PUBLIC AREA 0 0,5 1 2 179

working model construction model construction wall construction installation space


expanded ground floor horizontality in bangkok? public private traditional streets and ways place semi public public public place semi public private section public place more shadow food market relax area public place gardening tuk tuk place homefront area community area shady space sale area traditional thai streets

site specificSmall site specificMAP chao phraya river walking way north + 10.08 ⴀ㈀⸀  ⴀ㄀⸀㄀  ⬀ⴀ ⸀  level 3 + 7.88 level 2 + 5.48 level 1 + 3.08 level 0 + 0.42 +- 0.00 1213

RE:THINK BAMBOO Natnon Pornvoraphat Third year Student, Kasetsart University, Bangkok Architecture is not only building, but a lifestyle that changes constantly. In the globalized world, there is a fast movement that architecture must keep with. So which architecture has sustainability and longevity? Architecture must support each environment to improve the quality of life. Using sustainable materials in architecture, and adapting the lifestyle of people in a particular area allows for use day after day and year after year. Nut Thumumnuaysook Third year Student, Kasetsart University, Bangkok I started studying at the Faculty of Architecture in 2016 at Kasetsart University. The first time I was presented with new places, styles and technologies, I didn‘t understand. Once one told me „everything has been designed; it is almost im- possible to design something new.“ But I do not mind. I will build my architectu- re to understand the community and create well-being for others. Sarah Gold Masters student, Technical University, Vienna For almost ten years I focused on architecture during my education, finishing my high school degree at a polytechnic institute for building construction and completed my Bachelor degree at Technical University, Vienna. Working in the field of architecture combines for me design tasks that need their tailored answers, new ideas through theoretical training, as well as solutions through discourse and analysis. It is always on my mind that architects change the world with their work and contribute something important to the society. Even if only in a small scale, but also in bigger terms, being an architect creates the living environment and habitat for every living being. The harmony and the connection between human, nature and architecture is required in every project, and was an important aim in the Human Needs Design Studio.

»To heal the whole ecology of the world by using wholistic thinking trash.« Rickart Sowa, Microtopia »Find what you want that everyone else wants. Create change and meet unmet needs.« Yves Béhar, 7 Principles of Holistic Product Design »Whatever touches or enters into sustained rela- tions with human life immediately assumes the character of a condition of human existence.« Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition »What kind of life would you like to have?« Jan Gehl, The Human Scale »It’s so cheap to be sweet to people in city planning.« Jan Gehl, The Human Scale 235

austrian interview space to osnpeasceelffor space to snack boulder space to space for DAY hear lectures home office space to study space to 14:00 space to drink coffee enjoy nature lecture lecture snack walk walk walk guontioversity lecture lecture greenjeonyisnpgace homeooffffiicceebouldbeorulbdeorrgiuirlnedleieendejnstenoehcrysseitakpnbhpaailgtekceeeeehafc|voirehtmoohyheoommoefmmfeeiofcfoeiffciece coffee going home home studying disgoictaiall escaptehefrocimty interactions have time coffee for oneself gernejeonyisnpgace studying interaction coffee social 14:00 studying get up snack b2o0ul:d0se0orpcriaedlpiiannrtinnergeacrfotioodngernejeonyisnpggagrcroeeepncerjeneorypysiapnsarghicndoegpipnfoinnogderps2pr0ea:p0c0aerteofood studying yspoaucrseetlofsthcocolihlweceeaotesc|fnrfktteuoemosdttuahydilybsisitnrnuud|ggysinhngienwg s sleep sleep sleep 08:00 coffeeDAY sleep sleep sleep sleep ELEMENTS get up SUNDAY WORKING 08:00 eat onlgidinanigtemeidtriaanieglctistetioraoaclnicastoliocnial FUNCTIONAL sleep sleep slee sleep sle 26, Student, Vienna idnitgeirtaacl tsioocnial game online ep sleep sleep sleep game sleep sleep sleep sleep sleepsleepp sleep sleep shotwoeilret ognalimneegoanmlgineaemonelioncnleelaisnhneionwger sleep sleep sleep sleep sleep 02:00 read a book go to space for sleep sleep sleep sleep sleep sleep sleep sleep sleep read game online sleep sleep sleep sleep sleep sleep bed toilet a book space to clean read a book yourself 02:00 space to read space to sleep NIGHT DAILY NEEDS ROUTINE thai interviews Through the interviews in Thailand and Austria the basic and specific needs, marked with icons, of the different users were shown. The next step was to cate- gorize them in hierarchy of space. Private space for ba- sic needs, semi-public space for shareable needs and public space with an added value to the bigger picture. This forms the design prin- cipals for the prototype.

(hmygayiebnees|hatoreilde?tt)e space for oneself needs basic and specific space to sleep PRIVATE BASIC NEEDS space to space to read garden space to study space to craft space to SEMI-PRIVATE space to eat sew together „SHAREABLE NEEDS“ …looking for the same need | function space to space to cook lodge enjoy nature space to drink coffee space to space to play practice yoga space for social interaction PUBLIC space to go fishing ADDED VALUE TO THE BIGGER PICTURER space to hear lectures space to space to space to drink together boulder feed fish 257

shared kitchen canopy prototype sources: Recalibrating the new thai vernacular architecture by Poomchai Punpairoj green space; URBAN FISH schwimmende Siedlungen in den Städten by Andriy Lemishko, p. 76 inbetween divides private units small private units transforming ruen thai connecting units moveable wall adding space »kitchen module« - expandable? minimal step heigt difference to show privacy Sketches Concept Sketches »breathing« »open space« air circulation hammock shade net open | »breathing« small private balcony - plants »green zone« - shade + dust filter Sketches Concepatir circulation + shade closed sliding walls SkeStkcehtecShsekCseoCtncohcnpeecepesrptfCotroantecdept - wood, glass - depends on use close open sound pollution Sketches Concept Prototype concept PRIVATE UNITS CONNECTING PLATTFORMS | SEMI PRIVATE „BASE“ 279 COMMON AREA MULTIFUNCTIONAL SPACE PUBLIC SPACE Sketches Concept The Human Scale Concept

pbvapbmpvaambpnoabeonolefowrlafiwtrmhaitmeh e pbbpvavampmpabanboneooelofwlrfwairtamihtmhee bamboo stair collums - useable for railing canvas awning cacnavnavsasawawninnigng rhoahroloaffoilbnffaigbnm:agm:boboosothrsiorhacotoalkifoflciffbsnikbangsamg: m:bboooostsitcikckss canvas awning wooden paletts canvas awning floor lwawlaayaetyeetrerr(rfp(ofproiolri)otle)tectcitoionn rorooof fppiticthch B | construction detail GSEducationalVersion C | construction detail roroofopfiptcithch stairs connecting platform no riser step private unit to provide visual DD| |ccoonnsstrturucctitoionnddeetatailil SeScetcilwtoainoalwynaetayeretr(erfpro(rfpiool)rtioel)tcetciotinon bbaammbboooobbeeaamm Section connections roroooffpprirvivaateteuunnitit GSEdmucatmionaalVeraisionn instsrtuructcuturere rope or bamboo floor wood „nails“ ø 3-4cm Section øø1100cmcm Section møbabøm1ama0i1anmcb0isnmocbtosmroutborceubtacuefemotferxauortexmrratraraeiarfirrcfaricramicrmuceulealatitoionn hrohraooalfofliffbnibangamg: m:bboooostsitcikckss feoxefrtoxraratirarfaircrafirrcmcairumecluaeltaiotinonøbmbmbøab1aaam1aa5mimn5micbnbmcsbobomtsoorootourcowucocwtcaolultalluullrlumelrme bamboo beam sub structure hroahroloaffoilbnffaigbnm:agm:boboosotsictkicsks babmamboboowo awlal ll ø 15cm ømbambø1ama5i1anmcb5imsnocbtomsroutcorcouctlcuolutlrulmeurme rope ø 2cm bamboo collum main structure ø 15cm bamboo beam stair structure ø 10cm Construction Details Stairs plants as 2nd skin CCoonnssttrruuccttiioonnDDeettaaiillssPPrrivivaatteeUUnnitit as dust / light filter CCoonnsstrtruucctitoionnDDeetatailislsPPrrivivaateteUUnnitit bamboo construction Arbeitsblatt GSEducationalVersion common base flexible boxes for »specific needs« space for »special needs« like: shared kitchen, food stall or depending on the time during the day craftmens space

canvas awning extra frame PV panels Section for air circulation canopy for bamboo floor bamboo wall shading privat units bamboo beam water tank for wooden paletts height difference sub structure rainwater floor to show privacy ø 15cm bamboo collum main structure »open walls ø 15cm at the top« air circulation private units Construction DetailssPreivlaft-e sUnuitfficient foldable elemts | foldable wall 1:50 AB-06 outdoor bathroom Arbeitsblatt (1) with mboo as visual cover plants for canopy for natural shade shading stairway up semi private A2 balcony flexible furniture canvas awning (folding table) stairway down private balcony ! \" # $%&' ()* +' ,- . /0)* + ! \" # $%&' ()* +' ,- . /0)* + ! \" # $%&' ()* +' ,- . /0)* + foldable elemAts| c|ofnosldtraubclteiown daelltail ladder to second level A2 foundation connecting platforms Section AB-06 Arbeitsblatt 1:50 GSEducationalVersion A1 | foundation A1 bamboo column ø15cm hard wood hard wood soil 391 GSEducationalVersion

Small site specific new structure new structure eexxiisxtitnignbguiblduiniglding exixting cultcuurleturaeraereaa berexusisiidtliednngitnibagul ihloduinsge residential building A-A A-A Site Specific Design Existing | New Structure semi private 2nd2ndfflloooroprrivapteruniivtsate units shared space private units onprivate units on different levels specific needs 1:50 AB-06 Arbeitsblatt (1) basic needs space to occupysemi private shared space different levelsflexible furniture (table, ladder,…) special needs basic needs space to occupy flexible furniture Arbeitsblatt (table, ladder,…) GSEducationalVersion GSEducationalVersion sharsehadred kkiticthecnhen Site Specific Design Private Units 2nd floor | 1:100 privat units on top shared kitchen pv panels basic needs on every privat unit canvas canopy light filter foldable walls to extend the small unit splitlevel semi privat enjoying shadow and nature flexible furniture plants view connection floating element semi privat as light & dust filter open riverside recycled plastic bottles crafting area or ibc tank space to sit and relax floating platform floating platform thai kitchen | food stall gadget to clean semi privat drinking, eating, the river feed fish, fishing, playing together makes it easier relaxing to collect trash 1313

Auckanee Jarupokawat Thunpicha Uchupuj Viola Kryza Fei Sai Viola is in her sixth semester of her Auckanee is an architecture student Thunpicha has been studying architectural studies at the at the Kasetart University in architecture for three years at the Kasetart University in Bangkok. Technical University of Vienna. Bangkok. She is interested in ‘the She is interested in the experimental In general she is interested in the human needs’, because of the design studio because of the new human needs and to design and interpretation of the living system relation to the diversity of human plan with the focus on holism, needs in Austria and Thailand and and to work with foreigners. people and their interests. to design and to fulfill the needs in It was a good opportunity to different cultures, materials, socials, develop herself and a great The experimental design studio users, environments and contexts. experience to work and design ‘the human needs’ was a great spaces together with her partners. experience. She was able to gain valuable cultural experience and symbiosis+ expand her international horizon of architecture. symbiosis

wholistic thinking Life is organic. It arises there where you will not expect it. THE HUMAN SCALE As soon as the human being is in focus emerges an alive city. To focus on people’s basic needs. The bigger the better, or the smaller the smarter? MICROTOPIA “We have been taught that there is no objectice difference between good buildings and bad, good towns and bad. The fact is that the difference between a good building and a bad building, between a good town and a bad town, is an objective matter.” Christopher Alexander, The Timeless Way of Building “Where we feel welcome, we will start living.” 335

MINIMAL FUNCTIONAL NEEDS ADDITIONAL SPECIFIC NEEDS AUSTRIAN 04.00 05.00 06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 ELDER GETTING UP BREAKFAST MEDITATION, READING WORKING (8H/DAY) BREAK (30 MIN) DINNER WITH FAMILY/FRIENDS WALKING, BICYCLING, RUNNING, TRAINING SLEEPING TIME BED, SHOWER, PLACE TO RETREAT NATURE, OUTDOOR RELAXING, ACTIVE WALKING STUDENT GETTING UP AFTER 00.00 HYGIENE AFTER 00.00 BREAKFAST/LUNCH AFTER 00.00 WORKING (10H/WEEK) UNIVERSITY TECHNOLOGY YOGA AFTER 00.00 SLEEPING TIME BED, TOOTHBRUSH, COSMETICS GETTING UP BREAKFAST WORKING (25H/WEEK) BREAK (30MIN) WEDNESDAY YOGA DINNER FAMILY/FRIENDS WALKING, BICYCLING, RUNNING, TRAINING SLEEPING TIME WORKER SHOWER, FOOD SUN, PLANTS, SPACE FOR THE FAMILY, FAMILY COHESION THAI 04.00 05.00 06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 GETTING UP RELAXING, RESTING WORKING DINNER, REST SLEEPING TIME AQUANAUT BED, SHOWER ASTRO- GETTING UP READING BOOKS LOGER WORKING, WATCHING TV SLEEPING TIME BED, BATHROOM THE GETTING UP WATCHING TV SHRINE PREPARE INCENSE WORK, INTRODUCE PEOPLE TO WORSHIP DINNER, WATCH TV SLEEPING TIME MATTRESS, BATHROOM CONCLUSION 04.00 05.00 06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 GSEducationalVersion sleeping GSEducationalVersion GSEducationalVersion wake up hygiene, breakfast GSEducationalVersion working from 06.00 till 18.00 o’clock resting starts at 16.00 o’clock sleeping 06.00 to 09.00 am from 16.00 to 22.00 o’clock contemporaneous free

needs basic and specific basic and specific needs functional basic needs additional specific needs austrian thai austrian and thai together 2X1M 2.5 X 2.5 M family cohesion plants 2X2M relaxing space 2.4 X 0.6 M 1.2 X 0.6 M technology working space 2 X 0.9 M 2X1M playground art fitness vehicle 357

holistic approach The system is not to understand by the assembly of individual parts. Its functional role are all parts together. Every living being is its own individual with different needs and interests. symbiosis greek συμβιοuν (symbioun) “living together” .. is the socialization of different individuals with an advantage for each. symbiosis+ minimal additional functional specific sustainability to heal the ecology of the planet prototype symbiosis about bangkok sun rain chao phraya wind 883 m3/s mai - october 1.8 h/d 20 days/month 11 km/h 4 days/month 8 km/h november - april 6.5 h/d sustainability to heal the ecology of the planet flowing water rain water ventilation efeutute photovoltaic reflection allows to operate will be to planGSEducationalVersion removes toxins solar cells prevents the water turbine collected in favorable from the convert sun light overheating as efficiently as ibc containers for natural and reused as ventilation atmosphere and into electricity possible gray water cools the climate, used as dirt and dust filter material concept GSEducationalVersion tabak wood efeutute GSEducationalVersion ibc container photovoltaic GSEducationalVersion (lagerstroemia (epipremnum glass rain water collector top GSEducationalVersion floribuna jack) pinnatum) roof sun protection construction green walls field of view beams breathing columns walls floors

the human is in focus prototype every individual percieves individual space and design private space for the minimal functional needs shared space for additional specific needs basic specific bed bath kitchen nature is the basic requirement basic specific added system basic specific basic specific basic specific keep the familiar, social communication be flexible and stay unique sustainparboiltitoyttyopheeaslythme becioosloigsy of the planet symbiosis prototype design 379

prototype symbiosis photovoltaic panels greens outside outside kitchen bathroom green wall wooden slats wooden thin steel wooden slats construction efeutute tabak wood beams cables ‘double wall’ ibc container moving privacy protection water tank breathing rain water collector view protection natural ventilation to get off humidity air pipe wooden construction columns beams walls floors glass natural ventilation wooden columns water turbine 16 200 16 115 16 16 115 16 200 16 16 +4.5 +3.0 324 +1.0 16 +0.0 180 16 -3.0 324 16 364 16 200 16 16 364 SECTION GROUNDFLOOR

7° natural ventilation 5 CM wooden movable wall 2 CM PV panel 8 CM wooden primary beam overgrown with greens 14 CM ventilation layer 16 CM wooden column moved by human power PV panel bearings wooden primary beam 1 CM membrane 8 CM wooden covering plate air pipe 18 CM wooden covering plate 1 CM wooden vertical battens wooden secondary beam 7 CM wooden covering plate 4 CM swupopolydferenshbaairttens 1 CM 18 CM wooden secondary beam 2 CM wooden parquet anchored with C profiles 5 CM sound absorption 10 CM wooden movable floor 1 CM wooden covering plate 18 CM wooden secondary beam 16 CM wooden column anchored with steel 30 CM concrete foundation natural ventilation overflow movable bed rainwater collector movable natural ventilation green wall supply of fresh air air pipe movable floor TONG CONSTRUCTION 491

expanded private hygiene room HORIZONTAL EXPANSION selling area humidity gets out art prototype for one user relaxing space plants regardless of age dirt and dust filter playground prototype for two user lanterns for extra light family cohesion movable wall/floor shared kitchen exercising yoga double prototype shared hygiene room VERTICAL EXPANSION + 0.00 M + 3.00 M + 6.00 M + 9.00 M GSEduGcSaEtdioucnaatiolVnaelVresrisoionn

private space for minimal functional needs site specific shared space for additional specific needs exercise user I VI cook watch TV II + III user IV user V relax read a book private space to create a view view unit I shared space to chao phraya riverto merge the added sharedatsripuemcific space view unit II + 0.00 M + 2.50 M + 5.70 M - 0.32 M + 1.54 M + 4.70 M green walls extract dioxide energy production with from the atmosphere, help for natural cooling and shading photovoltaic roof and work as dust and dirt filter wooden construction movable relax wall shared exercise kitchen view meet platform and GSEducationalVersion greet 1413 GSEducationalVersion

Katarina Šešić was born in 1995 in Germany and later moved to Bosnia & Herzegowina, where she attended elementary and high school. She spent her junior year in Houston, USA as a foreign exchange student. After finishing her primal education, she enrolled at the Technical University of Vienna, currently being a master student and working for an architecture and urbanism studio. During her recent travel to Thailand, where she visited her friend whom she met during her exchange year, she was amazed by the energy and culture of the people and so got interested in exploring the architecture and psychology of the country even more. Pichcha Suwannawong was born in 1997 in Sattahip, a little seaside town in Thailand. She graduated from Singsamut School and went to study architecture in Kasetsart University in Bangkok. This project caught her attention because of a proposition that talked about human needs and how humans can interact with specific sites. When she started doing the user interviews, she found it interesting to learn something really delicate about them, such as their routines, their past or their wishes for the future. People always need something and architecture should respond to that. SHELF VILLAGE

wholistic thinking 435

䄀唀匀吀刀䤀䄀 䰀椀猀愀Ⰰ ㌀㈀ 䠀攀椀搀椀Ⰰ 㠀㔀 䄀渀愀Ⰰ ㈀㌀ ㄀⸀ 㔀㈀洀㈀ 䄀爀挀栀椀琀攀挀琀 刀攀琀椀爀攀搀 匀琀甀搀攀渀琀 ㈀⸀ ㌀㘀 洀㈀ 䴀爀⸀ 䌀栀愀洀氀攀愀爀渀  䴀爀⸀ 倀爀愀猀椀琀  䴀 爀⸀   一 愀 琀 琀 愀 眀 甀 琀 ㌀⸀ 㔀 洀㈀ 㔀㌀Ⰰ 䄀焀甀愀渀愀甀琀 㜀㈀Ⰰ 䈀氀愀挀欀猀洀椀琀栀 匀琀甀搀攀渀琀 吀䠀䄀䤀䰀䄀一䐀 ㄀⸀ ㈀⸀ ㌀⸀

BASIC NEEDS needs basic and specific SPECIFIC NEEDS 䘀䄀一 䰀伀唀一䜀䔀 吀嘀 匀吀唀䐀夀 䄀刀䔀䄀 䜀䄀刀䐀䔀一 圀䄀匀䠀䔀刀 䌀伀䴀䴀唀一䤀吀夀 䘀䤀匀䠀䤀一䜀 匀吀伀刀䄀䜀䔀 䈀䄀吀䠀 䘀䄀一 䰀伀唀一䜀䔀 吀嘀 匀吀唀䐀夀 䄀刀䔀䄀 䜀䄀刀䐀䔀一 圀䄀匀䠀䔀刀 䌀伀䴀䴀唀一䤀吀夀 䘀䤀匀䠀䤀一䜀 匀吀伀刀䄀䜀䔀 䈀䄀吀䠀 䴀椀渀椀洀愀氀 瀀爀椀瘀愀琀攀 猀瀀愀挀攀 匀栀愀爀攀搀 渀攀攀搀猀 䴀椀渀椀洀愀氀 瀀爀椀瘀愀琀攀 猀瀀愀挀攀 457

holistic approach

prototype 䘀椀砀攀搀 洀椀渀椀洀愀氀 猀瀀愀挀攀 愀渀搀 ˻攀砀椀戀氀攀 挀漀洀洀漀渀 愀爀攀愀猀 䴀椀渀椀洀愀氀 瀀爀椀瘀愀琀攀 爀漀漀洀猀 匀栀愀爀攀搀 戀愀琀栀爀漀漀洀 䘀氀攀砀椀戀氀攀 猀栀攀氀昀 猀礀猀琀攀洀 愀猀  氀椀瘀椀渀最 愀爀攀愀 匀瀀氀椀琀 氀攀瘀攀氀猀 眀椀琀栀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀椀渀最 瘀椀攀眀猀 䜀爀攀攀渀 昀愀挀愀搀攀 漀渀 琀栀攀 猀椀搀攀 䴀漀瘀愀戀氀攀 瀀愀渀攀氀猀 昀漀爀 猀栀愀搀椀渀最 䐀漀甀戀氀攀 戀愀洀戀漀漀 昀愀挀愀搀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 挀氀漀猀攀搀 爀漀漀洀猀 479

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