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ENGLISH TEXTBOOK Class 5 Name: ___________________________________ Section: ________________ Roll No.: _________ School: __________________________________

Preface IMAX partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. IMAX presents the latest version of the Passport series – updated and revised after considering the perceptive feedback and comments shared by our experienced reviewers and users. Designed specifically for CBSE schools, the Passport series endeavours to be faithful to the spirit of the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005. Therefore, our books strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. NCF 2005 asserts that listening, speaking, reading and writing (LSRW) are all generalised skills, and students’ mastery over them is key to success at school. All these skills frequently need to be used together. Therefore, the Passport English textbooks and workbooks strive to provide adequate opportunities for students to practise all the four LSRW skills. To this effect, the Passport English textbooks and workbooks for CBSE schools offer the following features:  T hemes recommended by the NCF across grades 1–5 in the literature pieces  Samples of Indian writing in English as well as popular English literature pieces from western countries  P ictures for word meanings in each lesson to help students with visual clues for new or difficult words  N on-detailed lessons to enable additional reading  A speaking project and two reading comprehension passages in each unit to further hone speaking and reading skills  Horizontal and vertical progression across grades for the grammar concepts covered in the workbooks, providing a spiral of cumulative learning  Samples of format-based writing to provide for scaffolding of learning of formal writing Overall, the IMAX Passport English textbooks, workbooks and teacher companion books aim to generate greater engagement with and enhance fluency in English language communication and empower students to develop a genuine appreciation of the language and its literature.  – The Authors

Textbook Features Let Us Start Warm Up Activities and questions to Interesting questions to prepare students to focus on arouse curiosity about the pronunciation and help lesson teachers to introduce the lesson I Understand I Read Questions to check Variety of literature pieces comprehension of the literature (prose/poetry/drama) piece Questions after the literature – 'Literature comprehension' piece for quick check of under- and 'Value-based questions' standing are only a part of detailed lessons. Language Game Games to improve language I Speak and enhance fluency Activities for students to speak individually or in pairs or clAeosmsnonuneltitcdoCtissPooctnthOiphneEeleinGrtcMhastReurtySbmhseAjeeecDcMototsfiottisMnhnethAaRt groups on a theme-related order to enable SstuTdOenRtsIEtoS topic relate better to it A Note to Parent To engage a parent in the WORD MEANINGS out-of-classroom learning LANGUAGE GAMES of their child and conducting activities to reinforce WRITING the learnt concepts

Contents Class 5 Theme 1: Peace and Harmony Theme 4: Imagination and 1 David Copperfield ��������������������� 2 Adventure 2 The Happy Prince ���������������������� 9 3 Community Peace ������������������ 14 10 Rip Van Winkle ������������������������� 68 11 Bina and the Music System Rocket ��������������������������������������� 74 S1 Speaking Project ��������������������� 19 12 Six and Out ������������������������������� 80 R1 Reading Comprehension ������� 20 S4 Speaking Project ��������������������� 87 Theme 2: Life Around Us R4 Reading Comprehension ������� 88 4 Three Questions �����������������������24 Theme 5: Exploring the World 5 A Lesson in Addition ���������������� 30 13 The Mountain Railways ����������� 92 (Drama) 14 Oh! The Places You’ll Go... ���� 100 6 Days with Kiki ��������������������������� 35 S2 Speaking Project ��������������������� 40 15 The World from a Railway Carriage ��������������������������������� 105 R2 Reading Comprehension ������� 41 S5 Speaking Project ������������������� 111 Theme 3: Art and Culture 7 The Story of Eklavya ���������������� 45 R5 Reading Comprehension ����� 112 8 Little Women ����������������������������� 51 9 The Coromandel Fishers � ��������� 57 Theme 6: The Wonders of Science S3 Speaking Project ��������������������� 63 16 Scientists and Inventors R3 Reading Comprehension ������� 64 Who Changed the World ������ 117 Eureka! Eupreokeagm!r�s���a���m�����m����a����r��124 17 18 On the Grasshopper and Cricket ������s���t���o���r����i�e���s�����130 S6 Speaking Pwroojercdt ���m����e����a���n���i�n� 1g3s7 GRlo6 ss aRreya�d��i�n��g����lC���oa��m�n��p�g��r�eu��h�a�e��n�g��s�ei�o��n�g��w���a��r����m�� 11it34ei81nsg

Why are we studying this theme? History teaches us that we should spread peace and love, not war and hate. Everything begins with us. Each one of us can make a difference in a small way to make the world a better place. We can do this by being peaceful and loving to everyone around us. Let us read two stories and a poem that teach us something about the importance of peace and harmony.

Lesson David Copperfield 1 Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Words that end in -ic (stress the second-to-last syllable) metallic geographic fantastic ecstatic patriotic academic historic classic Warm Up • Imagine that you went to a relative’s or a friend’s house and they didn’t treat you well. How would you feel? • What would your reaction be like? A boy named David Copperfield was very sad when his mother died. His stepfather sent him to work at an unsuitable place. David decided to run away to his father’s aunt. She was so disappointed that he had not been born a girl that she never visited him after his birth. Read on to know what happened next! 2

I Read ‘Go away!’ said Miss Betsey, shaking her head. ‘Go along! No boys here!’ stooped I watched her as she marched to a corner of her garden and stooped to dig up some more. Then, without a scrap of courage but with a great deal of desperation, I went and stood beside her. ‘If you please, ma’am’, I began. desperation She started and looked up. ‘If you please, aunt.’ ‘Eh?’ exclaimed Miss Betsey in a tone of amazement that I had never heard before. ‘If you please, aunt, I am your nephew.’ amazement ‘Oh, Lord!’ said my aunt and sat flat down on the garden path. ‘I am David Copperfield. You had come on the night when I was born and seen my dear mama. I have been very unhappy since she died. I have been taught nothing and put to work that is not fit for me. It made me run away to you. I was robbed when I first set out and have walked all the way.’ Here, I broke into a fit of crying. My aunt sat on the gravel, staring at me. Then she got up in a great hurry and took me into the parlour. I was unable to control my sobs. parlour sobs She placed me on the sofa gravel with a shawl under my head and the handkerchief from her own head under my feet so that I would not dirty the cover. After a while, she rang the bell. ‘Janet’, said my aunt when her servant came in. ‘Go upstairs and tell Mr Dick that I wish to speak to him.’ Janet looked a little surprised to see me lying stiffly on the sofa. My aunt, with her hands behind her, walked up and down the room until a gentleman came in laughing. ‘Mr Dick,’ said my aunt, ‘Don’t be a fool, because nobody can be more discreet than you can when you choose. We all know that.’ David Copperfield 3

The gentleman was serious immediately and looked at me. ‘Mr Dick,’ said my aunt, ‘you have heard me mention David Copperfield? Now don’t pretend not to have a memory.’ ‘David Copperfield?’ asked Mr Dick, who did not appear to remember much about him. ‘David Copperfield? Oh yes!’ ‘Well,’ said my aunt, ‘this is his boy – his son.’ ‘His son?’ asked Mr Dick. ‘David’s son? Indeed!’ ‘Well then,’ returned my aunt, ‘here you see young David Copperfield, and the question I put to you is, what shall I do with him?’ ‘Why, if I were you,’ said Mr Dick, looking at me, ‘I would...’ The sight of me seemed to inspire him, and he added briskly, ‘I should wash him!’ ‘Janet,’ said my aunt, ‘Heat the bath!’ – Adapted from David Copperfield by Charles Dickens Let Us Discuss 1) Why did Miss Betsey say ‘Go away!’? 2) What was Miss Betsey doing in the garden? 3) Where did Miss Betsey take David to? 4) Who did Miss Betsey ask Janet to call from upstairs? I Understand Meaning Exercise 1: New words Word disappointed stooped scrap of courage a great deal desperation 4

Word Meaning started amazement fit gravel parlour sobs stiffly discreet briskly Exercise 2: Literature comprehension 1) Why had David’s aunt never visited him after his birth? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2) How was David related to Aunt Betsey? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3) What happened to David after the death of his mother? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4) What did Miss Betsey put under David’s head and feet? Why? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ David Copperfield 5

Exercise 3: Value-based questions – Judgement and appreciation 1) Do you feel that David’s aunt treated him well? Explain your answer. Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) If you were in some trouble and could not reach your parents, which relative would you go to for help? Why? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ I Speak Role play Make groups of four. Divide the roles of David, Miss Betsey, Mr Dick and Janet among yourselves. Imagine what would have happened to David at his aunt’s house. Create the next part of the story and perform it in the form of a role play. Group discussion David’s aunt did not visit him after his birth as he was born a boy and not a girl as she had hoped. Make groups and discuss whether it was correct on Miss Betsey’s part to behave in this manner. Also, discuss whether it is correct for people to change their behaviour towards others based on factors that they have no control over. 6

Use the hints given below to guide your discussion. Hints: • It was not David’s choice to be born as a boy. • H is aunt shouldn’t have differentiated between a boy and a girl and should have loved the child irrespective of his or her gender. • We should not treat boys or girls differently. • We should accept others irrespective of their nationality, religion, gender or caste. Language Game Can you correct this? Read the following paragraph on the life of David Copperfield. There are a few errors in the paragraph. Make pairs and correct all the errors. The pair that finishes first will win. David Copperfield was a orphan. His mother died when he was very younger. His stepfather did not treet him well. He rans away from home and went to his aunt named miss betsy! She took him inn and let him stay with her. Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Connect the Dots Maths Fun Miss Betsey took David in and made him help her in the garden. She asked him to dig holes in the ground and plant seeds. David planted 42 seeds in 7 hours. How many seeds would he plant in 5 hours? David Copperfield 7

Social Studies Fun Charles Dickens had worked in many places in his lifetime. a factory in London that He started by working at a boot-blacking factory. He then Charles Dickens worked in progressed to being an office boy. Soon, he started freelance reporting at the law courts of London. He also worked as a freelance sketch artist under the pseudonym ‘Boz’. He was a publisher and, of course, a famous author. He faced many obstacles in his childhood, and many of his pieces reflect those hardships. A Note to Parent David Copperfield is the story of a boy who did not receive much love in his childhood. This lack deeply saddened him. Ensure that you make your child feel loved and secure. Tell them how important they are to you. Respect your child’s wishes as you would anyone else’s. 8

Lesson The Happy 2 Prince Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Words swallow sorrow sapphire gathering strength migrating gratitude precious Warm Up • Does helping others make you happy? Why or why not? • Have you helped anyone? Has anyone helped you? Share an experience. Let us read a story about a prince and a swallow who tried to make others happy. 9

I Read The statue of the happy prince stood high above the city. It ruby was covered with gold, its eyes were of sapphire, and a ruby migrating hung from its waist. One day, a swallow migrating to distant lands swallow sapphire for the winter stopped at the foot of the statue to rest. However, as he put his head under his wing, a large drop of water fell on him. He looked up and saw the eyes of the happy prince filled with tears. ‘Who are you?’ asked the swallow. ‘I am the happy prince.’ ‘Then why are you crying?’ asked the swallow. ‘When I was alive,’ said the prince, ‘I lived in a palace where there was no sadness. I played and danced with my friends in the garden. There was a high wall, and I did not know what lay on the other side. I was called “the happy prince”. Now I am dead, and they have put me up here. I can see all the unhappiness around me now.’ ‘Far away,’ said the prince, ‘I can see a woman. Her face is thin, hands rough and red. Her little boy is very ill. Will you take my red ruby to her?’ The swallow took the red ruby, put it on the table and flew back to the prince. ‘It’s strange’, the swallow said. ‘It is very cold, but I feel quite warm.’ ‘That is because you’ve done a good thing.’ ‘Across the city, I can see a writer who is very cold, weak and hungry. Give him one of my eyes’, said the prince. ‘He can sell it and buy wood and food.’ The swallow took out the prince’s eye, flew to the young man and left the jewel on the floor. ‘A little girl is standing there in the square below. She has no money. Take out my other eye and give it to her’, said the prince. ‘I cannot take out your other eye. You will not be able to see’, said the square swallow. ‘Do as I say, please’, replied the prince. The bird took out the prince’s eye, flew to the girl and put the jewel in her hand. 10

The prince now depended on the swallow to describe whatever he saw. Whenever the prince heard of some suffering, he asked the swallow to take off one piece of gold from his body and give it away. Winter set in, but the swallow stayed back. It grew colder and colder. Nevertheless, the swallow did not leave. One day, gathering up his last bit of strength, the swallow flew up, said goodbye to the prince and fell dead at his feet. The people noticed the statue, bare of all the jewels, and pulled it down and threw it along with the dead swallow. However, those who had received help had love and gratitude in their hearts for the happy prince and the swallow. Real happiness is found in making others happy. Nothing is more precious than a heart that cares for others. – Adapted from ‘The Happy Prince’ by Oscar Wilde Let Us Discuss 1) What was the prince’s statue made of? 2) Who came to rest at the foot of the statue one day? 3) Why was the prince called ‘the happy prince’? 4) What did the people of the city do when they saw the bare statue? I Understand Meaning Exercise 1: New words Word sapphire ruby swallow migrating square gathering The Happy Prince 11

Word Meaning gratitude precious I Speak Pair discussion Divide your class into pairs. Sit with your partner and discuss how you can help each other. Discuss further how you would like to help the people around you. Make a list and then share it with your class. Group discussion Divide your class into groups of four. Discuss the following questions. Then, share your thoughts with the rest of the class. • The prince helped other people without being asked to do so. Do you think that he did the right thing? Give reasons and examples to support your answer. • D o you think that we should help others without expecting anything in return? Discuss. Language Game Actual word Jumbled words Unscramble the given words from the story. Jumbled word NICEPR RSWORO WASLWLO PHRISEAP WOSN BURY 12

Connect the Dots Maths Fun If a swallow flies 56 km in a day, how much distance will it cover in 36 days? Science Fun Arctic tern Have you ever seen a flock of birds flying in the sky? Have you wondered where they are going? Some of these birds may be migrating to lands with warmer climates. A bird named Arctic tern has the longest-known migration route. A Note to Parent Teach your child to care for their elderly relatives or younger siblings. Selflessly caring for others is an important quality that should be inculcated in children from a young age. The Happy Prince 13

Lesson Community Peace 3 Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Rhyming word Word Rhyming word unity relations nations Word starts community enjoyed hearts – mind – avoid find Warm Up • When you hear the word ‘peace’, what thoughts cross your mind? • Is it important to have peace around us? Why or why not? Let us read a poem on how to achieve peace in society. 14

I Read harmony When there’s harmony, there is peace, community conflict Joy on Earth does increase. For peace to grow in your community, The first step is social unity. We all know that healthy relations relations Are the keys to peaceful nations. War and conflict, we must avoid, So that beauty of life may be enjoyed. We just need to open our hearts, embrace That’s where peace clearly starts. It’s not that difficult to embrace and find, With a caring heart and open mind. (Source: Let Us Discuss 1) What is the poem about? 2) Which two things go together? 3) What is the key to peaceful nations? 4) Where does peace start? I Understand Meaning Exercise 1: New words Word harmony community relations conflict embrace Community Peace 15

Exercise 2: Literature comprehension 1) When does the joy on Earth increase? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2) What do you think the poet means by the term ‘social unity’? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Why should we avoid war and conflict? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4) How can we embrace and find peace? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Exercise 3: Value-based questions – Judgement and appreciation 1) What is the first step towards achieving peace in a community? Explain why. Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) What are the things that can disturb peace in a community? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 16

I Speak ABC Recitation (Group) In groups, recite M.K. Gandhi’s ‘Prayer of Peace’. I offer you peace. I offer you love. I offer you friendship. I see your beauty. I hear your need. I feel your feelings. My wisdom flows from the highest source. I salute that source in you. Let us work together. For unity and peace. Role play Divide your class into groups of three. Each group makes three sentences that describe an act of peace and three sentences that describe an act that does not reflect peace. For example: We should share food with our friends. (act of peace) We should not play with everyone. (does not reflect peace) Each group reads out their sentences, and the class guesses whether it is an act of peace. Language Game Dumb charades Write down a word from the poem or related to peace on a slip of paper. Then, divide the class into two groups. One member of a group comes forward, picks up a slip and, without speaking, enacts the word for his or her team to guess. The groups take turns and the group that correctly guesses the most words wins. Community Peace 17

Connect the Dots Maths Fun Samyukta sat down to write a poem on peaceful living at 5:30 a.m. She took a 10-minute break at 6:15 a.m. and completed the poem at 7:15 a.m. How much time did she take to write the poem? Social Studies Fun the United Nations logo Have you heard of an organisation called the United Nations? It was formed after World War II to ensure good relationships among countries and to bring about peace and security in the world. A Note to Parent Encourage your child to play with their friends in harmony. Try to avoid getting involved in their small differences. Stay away when you know that your involvement will only make matters worse. Allow them to solve their problems as a group. 18

S1 Speaking Project Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by Alfred Nobel, the Swedish industrialist, inventor and weapons manufacturer. The other prizes are in Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Physics and Literature. Divide your class into four groups. Each group will be given the task of finding information about a topic. Each group should research and present its topic. Group 1 – Nobel Peace Prize a) When and why was this award created? b) Who gives this award? c) To whom is it given? d) Why is it given? Group 2 – Nobel Peace Prize a) How many people have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize so far? b) Who are they? c) Which countries do they belong to? d) Why were they awarded? e) A re these awards inspiring? Why or why not? Nelson Mandela after winning the Group 3 – Nobel Laureates Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, 1993. Laureates: Leymah Gbowee, Aung San Suu Kyi and Nelson Mandela a) When were they awarded the Nobel Peace Prize? Which countries do they come from? b) Why were they honoured with the award? Discuss their work in detail. Group 4 – Nobel Laureates: Mother Teresa and Kailash Satyarthi a) W hen were they awarded the Nobel Peace Prize? Which countries do they come from? b) Why were they honoured with the award? Discuss their work in detail. 19

R1 Reading Comprehension Passage 1 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. Long ago, in a distant land, there was a Queen named Rukmini. She had a large kingdom. The people of the kingdom loved and respected her a lot. One day, it was her daughter’s birthday. A lot of people, friends and relatives were invited to the party. The king and queen received them graciously. The children played happily as everyone interacted with each other. All except one child. He was very well dressed but went around bullying and picking fights with the other children. No one scolded him or tried to stop him. At one point, he pushed a small girl. She fell and started crying. At this point, princess Onkara came and stood right in front of him. ‘You have no right to do that, apologise to the girl’, she said. ‘Apologise to a girl, never!’ was the reply. ‘This is not acceptable’, said Onkara firmly. Nobody had spoken to the boy like this. He got scared and ran to his father who was the king of an equally powerful kingdom. His father asked him what the matter was. The boy narrated the incident as the king listened keenly. Then he spoke out loud and clear, ‘Go and apologise to the small girl and the princess. You cannot talk and behave like this with anyone.’ The boy sheepishly walked up to the girls and apologised. 1) Why were the people invited? Ans.   2) What did the king ask his son to do? Ans.   20

3) Write the past tense forms of these words from the passage. a) invite – ______________________________________________ b) is – ______________________________________________ c) reply – ______________________________________________ 4) The meaning of the word ‘apologise’ is   . 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) sheepishly a) polite and respectful 2) gracious b) overpowering; dominating 3) bullying c) with shame Passage 2 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. Edward Lear was an illustrator, landscape painter, author and poet. Lear is still remembered for his ‘nonsense poetry’ for children, known as ‘limericks’ today. Before Lear’s writings, most literature for children was filled with ‘common sense’ instruction. Edward Lear was a pioneer of short and funny poetic rhymes. For this reason, Edward Lear has become a truly evergreen author, fondly nicknamed as the ‘Father of Limericks’. Edward Lear’s nonsense poems and drawings enabled a much-needed comic relief for the rigid society of Victorian England. Children were raised very strictly in the Victorian times, and their education excluded humour or laughter. Imagine the sheer delight that the children must have felt upon reading Lear’s works, in which the most ridiculous and absurd situations were presented as rhymes! Lear’s limericks are genuinely meaningless and lacked any punchline or purpose. Regardless of this, they were a desirable source of entertainment and escape from the repressive norms of the Victorian society. Despite being born and raised in England, Lear travelled abroad for most of his adult life. During his travels, he loved to draw animals and landscapes. He especially liked birds. Lear adored his friends and his dear cat named Sanreno. Reading Comprehension 21

He eventually built the house of his dreams in Italy, where he passed away at the age of 75 in 1888. (Source: 1) What kind of children’s literature was common before the writings of Lear? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2) What did Lear love to do during his travels? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3) Write the simple past tenses of the words given in brackets. a) Edward Lear ____________________ (be) an illustrator, landscape painter, author and poet. b) Children ____________________ (feel) sheer delight upon reading Lear’s works. c) Lear eventually ____________________ (build) his dream house in Italy. 4) ‘Lear’s limericks are genuinely meaningless and lacked any punchline or purpose.’ What does ‘punchline’ mean in this sentence? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� . 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) illustrator a) strict and severe 2) evergreen b) a person who draws pictures for publications 3) repressive c) forever remembered 22

Why are we studying this theme? The world is a fascinating place. All things around us tell us stories if we are willing to hear them. Writers and poets give us a slice of life through their writing. Let us read a story, a play and a poem to enjoy more of the wonderful world we live in.

Lesson Three Questions 4 Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Try these tongue twisters. • A tiny tiger thinks tough thoughts. • If two witches were watching two watches, which witch would watch which watch? • Each Easter, Eddie eats eighty eggs. Warm Up • People mostly like and admire funny people. Why do you think it is so? • C an you think of a rib-tickling joke that you have heard recently? Share it with your classmates. Let us read a story about a clever court jester who helped the king. 24

I Read Clowns and court jesters appear funny. Nevertheless, at the same time, they can convey serious messages that can make us think. Akio was one such witty court jester. He was considerate, self-confident and one of the king’s favourite members of the court. Everyone loved and court jester respected him. One day, a man decided to test Akio. He said, ‘Akio, I was sleeping with my mouth open last night. A rat entered and disappeared into my stomach. What should I do now?’ Akio replied promptly, ‘My dear friend! You can only do one thing. Bring a cat and swallow it alive.’ Everyone laughed. The man fell silent. Another day, Akio was enjoying a feast with his friend. He spotted a fat man eating sweets and putting some away in his pocket. Akio got up and poured a jug of coffee in the man’s pocket. feast ‘How dare you pour coffee in my pocket?’ yelled the man angrily. Akio calmly replied, ‘Since your pocket has eaten so many sweets, I thought it might be thirsty. So, I gave it some coffee.’ Once, three explorers came to see the king. They asked the king three questions to which nobody had answers. The king was confident of Akio’s wisdom and wit. Therefore, he called him to the palace. Akio came riding a donkey with a stick in one hand. Akio requested the first explorer to ask his question. The explorer asked, ‘Where is the centre of the Earth?’ Without any hesitation, Akio pointed his stick towards his donkey. ‘Look, it is here, near the donkey’s right leg.’ The explorer looked surprised. He asked, ‘How can you confidently say that the centre of the Earth is there and not anywhere else?’ Akio said, ‘If you think my answer is wrong, find someone who can prove me wrong.’ The explorer was confused and remained quiet. Akio then requested the second explorer to ask his question. The second explorer asked, ‘Akio, how many stars are there in the sky?’ Three Questions 25

‘That is an easy question’, Akio immediately replied. ‘It is the same as the hairs on my donkey’s body. No more, no less.’ The explorer asked how he could prove it. Akio said, ‘If you think my answer is wrong, why don’t you count the hair on my donkey. Then, match it with the number of stars and prove me wrong.’ The explorer was puzzled. Now, Akio requested the third explorer to ask his question. The third explorer had a long, white beard. He asked, ‘Akio, can you count the number of hairs in my beard?’ puzzled Akio said, ‘I repeat, it is the same as the number of hairs on my donkey’s body.’ The explorer decided not to question Akio any further. Finally, the three explorers left the country. The king was very pleased with Akio’s witty responses. He appointed him as one of the chief ministers of his court. – a Japanese folktale Let Us Discuss 1) Who was Akio? 2) Who had come to meet the king? 3) What did Akio tell the man with a rat in his stomach? 4) Why did Akio pour coffee into the fat man’s pocket? I Understand Meaning Exercise 1: New words Word court jesters witty considerate promptly feast hesitation puzzled 26

Exercise 2: Literature comprehension 1) What kind of a person was Akio? What did people think of him? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2) Why did the king call Akio to the palace? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) What were the questions asked by the three explorers? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4) What did the king do after listening to Akio’s witty responses? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Exercise 3: Value-based questions – Judgement and appreciation 1) Why do you think the third explorer did not question Akio about his answer? Would it have been wise to do so? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Have you ever come across a witty person like Akio? Describe the person who reminds you of Akio, the witty court jester. Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ Three Questions 27

I Speak Interview Nowadays, we mostly see clowns in circuses and comedians in shows or on TV. They perform for large audiences and entertain everyone. Have you ever tried to speak to clowns or the other members of a circus? What do you think motivates them to entertain and put up shows for the public? Try to interview a person who entertains others. It could be a clown, comedian, storyteller, magician, trapeze artist or a tightrope walker. Share this interview with your classmates. A few questions that you can ask are as follows: What got you interested Since when have you been in this art? working in this field? Why do you like to Who taught you entertain people? this art? Role play Divide the class into groups of three or four. Each group prepares an act in which all the members of the group act like clowns and present short jokes or stories individually. 28

Language Game Question game Have you ever thought of how the world would be if we only talked using questions? Have a conversation with your partner using questions only. Do not use declarative, imperative or exclamatory sentences. Only interrogative sentences! Did the conversation make sense? Was it difficult? How did you feel? Connect the Dots Science Fun the core of the Earth One of the explorers asked Akio about the centre of the Earth. Here are a few interesting facts about the innermost part of the Earth. • The innermost part of the Earth is called the core. • It is made of hot metals such as iron and nickel. • The core can be divided into the inner and outer core. • T he outer core is made of molten metals because it is hot. • T he inner core is made of solid metal because the pressure is great. Social Studies Fun Here are a few interesting facts about Japan: • T he Japanese, like the people of many South Asian countries, use chopsticks to eat their meals. • The Japanese take their tea very seriously, often having a ceremony called the Tea Ceremony before their meals. • A traditional Japanese garment is the Kimono. It resembles a full- length robe. A Note to Parent Tell your child stories about other witty fictional characters. Use stories like Chacha Chaudhary by Pran Kumar Sharma and The Common Man by R.K. Laxman. Three Questions 29

Lesson A Lesson in 5 Addition Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Try this fun tongue twister. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, where are the pickled peppers Peter Piper picked? Warm Up • Do you like to share things with your friends? • D o you think that sharing is important? How do you feel when you share things? Let us read a play about Rohit, a very thoughtful and caring boy who likes to share his things with others. 30

I Read Setting: The play is set in a classroom. There are colourful charts on the walls. The teacher’s desk and a blackboard are on one side. Cast: Anjali Ma’am – a young, enthusiastic teacher who is very gentle towards her students A class of twenty students, including Rohit, Ayan and Shreya Anjali Ma’am : (with a cheerful smile) Good morning, children! Class: Good morning, Ma’am. Anjali Ma’am : Do you remember what we learnt yesterday? Class : Yes, Ma’am. We learnt to count and add things. Anjali Ma’am : D o you know why we need to count? Imagine that you have a few sheep. Every morning, you let them out, and every evening, you see them safely back in. How do you know you’ve got them all back? Class : W e will count the sheep when they go out and then count them when they come back. Anjali Ma’am : T hat’s good. Now, if you have five sheep and five dogs, how many animals do you have in all? Class : (holding up both hands and wiggling their fingers) We will have five sheep and five dogs, so that makes it ten animals. Anjali Ma’am : V ery good. Shreya, if I give you two mangoes and then two more, how many mangoes will you have? Shreya : Four mangoes, Ma’am. Anjali Ma’am : E xcellent! Ayan, if you have two oranges and I give you six more, how many oranges will you have? Ayan : Eight oranges, Ma’am. Anjali Ma’am : C orrect. I am very happy with the class today. One more question. Rohit, if I give you four apples and then four more, how many apples will you have? Rohit : (counts on his fingers, thinks and answers confidently) Four. The teacher is disappointed. A Lesson in Addition 31

Anjali Ma’am : P erhaps you did not hear properly. Listen carefully, Rohit. It’s very simple. If I give you four apples and then four more, how many apples will you have? Rohit sees her expression and realises that his answer is not what she expected. Rohit : (hesitatingly) Four? A thought occurs to the teacher. Possibly, Rohit does not like apples, and so he cannot focus on the sum. She thinks of a different approach. Anjali Ma’am : Wait a minute. I know you love cherries, don’t you, Rohit? Rohit : (smiling) Yes, Ma’am. Anjali Ma’am : (with exaggerated excitement and twinkling eyes, victoriously wanting Rohit to answer correctly) Let’s change the fruit. If I give you four red cherries and then four more, how many red cherries will you have? Rohit : (again counting on his fingers, says confidently) Eight. The teacher is happy and smiles victoriously. Anjali Ma’am : W onderful! That is right. Now, if I give you four apples and four more, how many apples will you have? Rohit : Four. Anjali Ma’am : (disappointed) But, how? If four cherries and four more make eight, how can four apples and four more make up four? Can you explain your answer, Rohit? Rohit : (softly) Yes, Ma’am. I live nearby, and Kamla didi drops me to school every day. Her son, Jignesh, goes to another school that is on the way. We walk to our schools together. Today, he was crying as he wanted to eat apples, and didi said that they were very expensive and she could not buy them. If I get apples, I will definitely share them with him. So, if I have eight apples, I will give half to him. I will then be left with four apples. The teacher is very touched by this reply. Anjali Ma’am : Class, let’s clap for Rohit for sharing his apples. Class applauds loudly. Anjali Ma’am : I hope all of you will share your things with your friends like Rohit. – Manjula Shukla 32

Let Us Discuss 1) Why was Anjali Ma’am disappointed? 2) Which fruit did Anjali Ma’am know Rohit loved? 3) Who did Rohit want to share his apples with? Why? 4) Why did Anjali Ma’am ask the class to applaud Rohit? I Understand Meaning Exercise 1: New words Word approach exaggerated victoriously touched applauds I Speak Public speaking What are the things that you share? When was the last time that you shared something that was precious to you? Talk to your classmates about it. Pair discussion Divide your class into pairs. Tell your partner about your favourite teacher. Explain the qualities that you like in him or her. Ask your partner to share who their favourite teacher is and why. A Lesson in Addition 33

Language Game Spell that! Stand in a circle with the rest of your classmates. Your teacher will stand at the centre of the circle. The teacher will point to any student and say a word from the play that you have just read. The student will have to spell out the word. This student will then point to somebody else, and the teacher will give the next word to spell out. Connect the Dots Maths Fun Anjali Ma’am organised a study tour for the class. Each person had to pay ` 1750 for the tour. As Rohit didn’t have any money, Shreya and Ayan paid his fees. If Shreya paid ` 2500 and Ayan paid ` 2250, how much did they pay in total? Was the amount sufficient? Science Fun Did you know that some animals can also do simple mathematical operations such as addition and subtraction? Monkeys, horses and lions can count. Dogs can count too but not as well as these other animals. A Note to Parent Find out about the ‘Joy of Giving Week’. Ask your child to pack old toys and clothes, which are still in good condition, to give away to the less privileged. By doing this, you are encouraging your child to share. 34

Lesson Days with Kiki 6 Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Words delicately creations gasping patter afresh wonderfully curiously padded Warm Up • H ave you ever observed dogs and cats? Which of their habits do you find interesting? • D oes the sight of a pet or an animal cheer you up? Is there something else in nature that you look forward to seeing? Now, read a poem that describes a delightful dog named Kiki. 35

I Read delicately Her wet tongue pokes out of her red mouth, Her paws patter delicately, curiously. Her eyes are bright in wonder, At nature’s creations given. Crooked, crushed, gasping, purple flowers That everyone can see, Are greeted every morning by her Curiously and very lovingly. With dark nose and padded feet, She barks softly and delicately. Every day is a new day for her, Lived afresh and wonderfully. – Sruti Sarathy and Manjula Shukla Let Us Discuss 1) Which animal does the poem describe? 2) What pokes out of her red mouth? 3) How do Kiki’s paws patter? 4) What does Kiki greet every day? I Understand Meaning Exercise 1: New words Word delicately gasping 36

Exercise 2: Literature comprehension 1) What are Kiki’s eyes bright with wonder at? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2) How does Kiki greet the purple flowers? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) How does Kiki live each day? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4) How do the poets describe Kiki? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� Exercise 3: Value-based questions – Judgement and appreciation 1) Write about a positive thing that we can learn from Kiki. Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Do you think it is good to have a pet? Give reasons for your answer. Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Days with Kiki 37

I Speak Recitation (Individual) Learn this poem and recite it in class with appropriate expressions. A Pet A pet is a cuddly little thing, Joy and laughter it will bring. If your pet has way too much fur, Expect it to bark or maybe just purr. A pet could become a very close friend, Treat it nice, lots of love it shall send. It has the potential to cheer you up, Right from the start, just like a pup. Pets are wonderful, they’re all unique, They understand you, make sure you speak. Don’t forget to love them dearly, They’ll love you back, lots and sincerely. (Source: Group activity Poems are a wonderful way of expressing feelings through words. Usually, poems have a fixed rhyming pattern that makes it easy to remember the verses. However, many poems have no rhyme pattern and are called ‘free verse’. Get into groups of four and try to write a poem about an animal of your choice. It could be a pet or a wild animal. Use the tips given below. • Think about what the animal looks like. • Use adjectives to describe the animal. • Use feeling words to describe how the animal makes you feel. • Think of any other words that come to your mind when you think of the animal. • Your poem may or may not have rhyming words. However, do try to use words that sound good. Recite your poem as a group with appropriate expressions and actions. 38

Language Game Keep that letter going… Choose an animal. Pick the letter that the animal’s name begins with. Now, make a sentence by only using words that begin with that letter. Example: Orangutans own oranges. How long was your sentence? Connect the Dots Science Fun Did you know that dogs, and a few other animals like horses, can do Maths? Scientists have discovered that dogs can count and do simple addition and subtraction! Social Studies Fun You must have heard that dogs are humans’ best friends. There is a reason why they are called so. Dogs belong to the wolf family. The Eurasian grey wolves were the first animals to be domesticated by human beings. This means that dogs and humans have been friends for more than 15,000 years now! A Note to Parent Tell your child about the importance of being kind to animals. Explain that animals are unlikely to trouble us if we don’t harm them. Being friendly with animals helps children to develop compassion. Encourage your child to befriend and engage with animals and birds. Days with Kiki 39

S2 Speaking Project Indian sports personalities Given below are pictures of a few famous Indian sports personalities who won medals in international sporting events and made India proud. Get into groups of four, choose a sportsperson and collect information about him or her. Then, make a presentation in front of the class. Hints: • Name the person. • What sport or game does the person play? • Share their story. • In which international events did the person represent India? • In which events did the person win medals or awards? • How does this person inspire you? 40

R2 Reading Comprehension Passage 1 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. The kingfisher is a small- to medium-sized, colourful bird, generally found close to water bodies. There are nearly 100 different species of kingfishers around the world. Kingfishers feed mainly on fish but also eat insects, frogs and crayfish. Kingfisher species that live in the woodlands occasionally eat reptiles, birds and even small mammals. There are three main types of kingfishers around the globe: river kingfishers, tree kingfishers and water kingfishers. All of them have large heads, long, sharp and pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails. Kingfishers are well known for their brightly coloured feathers that range in colour from black to red to green. Some species of kingfisher have tufts of feathers on their heads that stick upwards, although many species of kingfishers have smooth, flat feathers that cover their bodies. Due to their generally small size, kingfishers have many predators wherever they exist around the world. The main predators of the kingfishers are foxes, raccoons, cats and snakes, but kingfishers are also preyed upon by other small mammals and large birds. Many species of kingfisher are considered to be threatened species, as their numbers have been declining due to habitat loss. These threatened kingfisher species inhabit woodlands and forests. Their habitat is being destroyed due to the deforestation that occurs in many areas around the world. (Source: 1) What do kingfishers mainly feed on? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41

2) Who are the main predators of kingfishers? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3) Write the comparative form of each of the adjectives given in brackets. a) Kingfishers are _________________________ than eagles. (small) b) Kingfishers have _________________________ heads than many other birds. (large) c) Kingfishers have ________________________ feathers than many other birds. (bright) 4) The meaning of ‘habitat’ is __________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) species a) sometimes 2) occasionally b) an animal that hunts other animals 3) predators c) type or kind Passage 2 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. Joginder sat comfortably on a chair and said, ‘Well, well. One question at a time, dear. Let me begin by saying that Abraham Lincoln was one of the greatest leaders of America. He was the 16th President of the United States, from 1861 to 1865.’ Sarita bent forward and said, ‘Daddy, was his father also a President?’ ‘No, he wasn’t. In fact, Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin in Kentucky to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. Abraham had an older sister and a younger brother who died in their infancy. The Lincolns moved from Kentucky to Indiana due to some land problems in 1817. They made a living by hunting and farming on a small plot of land. When Abraham was nine years old, his mother passed away due to “milk sickness”. After a few months, his father remarried. Abraham’s stepmother was a strong and affectionate woman named Sarah Bush Johnson. She had three children of her own. Abraham Lincoln grew close to her, and she encouraged him to read.’ Sarita looked shocked. ‘But do you mean to say that he never went to school?’ 42

‘He was mainly self-educated. He received formal education for just about eighteen months, maybe a few days or weeks at a time. You will be amazed to know that he was very fond of reading. He would often walk miles to borrow books from others.’ ‘What kind of books did he like to read?’ ‘He read all the popular books at that time, such as Aesop’s Fables, Robinson Crusoe, Pilgrim’s Progress and, of course, the family Bible.’ 1) How did the Lincolns make a living? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2) What kind of books did Abraham Lincoln like to read? Ans. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3) Fill in the blanks with the correct possessive adjectives. a) I need a pencil. Can you lend me _________________________ pencil? b) W e cannot meet you tomorrow. It is _________________________ father’s birthday. c) I don’t know the time because I can’t find _________________________ watch. 4) The meaning of ‘encouraged’ is ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) infancy a) proper 2) affectionate b) early childhood 3) formal c) loving Reading Comprehension 43

Why are we studying this theme? Art and culture decorate human lives. They also include traditions that have been carried on for centuries. To be open-minded, we must learn not only about our own culture, but also about many other cultures. Let us read two stories and a poem that tell us about art and culture and the rich heritage of our past and present.

Lesson The Story of 7 Eklavya Let Us Start Listen and say aloud Words that end in -ion (stress the second-to-last syllable) nation examination discussion satisfaction solution admiration companion conclusion Warm Up • What are the qualities that you think a student should have? • What are the qualities that you think a teacher should have? Let us read a story from the famous Indian epic Mahabharata about a student named Eklavya. 45

I Read Long ago, in the forests of the kingdom of Hastinapura lived a boy named Eklavya. Eklavya was the son of the tribal chief and was loved by all. However, he often remained sad as he wanted to learn archery. So, one day, he decided to go to Dronacharya, a master archery of military arts. He bowed and introduced himself to the Guru and said, ‘I am Eklavya, son of the tribal chief from the western part of the forests of Hastinapura. I want to be your disciple. Please accept me military arts and teach me the wonderful art of archery.’ Drona sighed and said, ‘Eklavya, as a teacher of the members of the royal family, I am not allowed to teach the art of archery to anybody else. I am forbidden from making anyone as powerful as the princes for the safety of the state’, he said. Eklavya was deeply hurt by Dronacharya’s refusal to teach him. He went to the forest, took some mud from a nearby river and made a statue of Dronacharya. Every day, Eklavya practised archery with sincerity and dedication and dedication became the best archer. One day, while Eklavya was practising, he heard a dog barking. He ignored it for some time, but the dog’s continuous barking distracted him. He turned around and fired seven arrows in rapid succession to fill the dog’s mouth without injuring it. As a result of this, the dog started to roam about the forests with its mouth open. It went to the same forest where Dronacharya was instructing the Pandavas, the members of the royal family, about a few finer points of archery. Everyone noticed the dog with arrows in his mouth. Guru Dronacharya was amazed and wondered, ‘Who could have pulled off such a feat of archery?’ They saw a boy dressed in tribal clothes. It was Eklavya. Dronacharya praised Eklavya and asked him, ‘Who taught you archery?’ Eklavya was thrilled to hear Drona’s praises. ‘From you my Master. You are my Guru’, Eklavya replied humbly. ‘Your Guru? How can I be your Guru? I have never seen you before!’ Drona exclaimed in surprise. ‘Dronacharya’, replied the boy. ‘I made your statue and worshipped it every day. Thanks to it, I have become a good archer.’ Hearing this, Dronacharya became silent. He had promised the king to make Arjuna the best archer in the world. After some thought, he asked, ‘Where is your guru dakshina? You have to give me a gift for your training.’ ‘Dronacharya, you are my Guru. I will offer whatever you ask for’, replied Eklavya. 46

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