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Home Explore 202110191-APEX-STUDENT-WORKBOOK-SOCIAL_STUDIES-G07-PART1

202110191-APEX-STUDENT-WORKBOOK-SOCIAL_STUDIES-G07-PART1

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Description: 202110191-APEX-STUDENT-WORKBOOK-SOCIAL_STUDIES-G07-PART1

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Social Workbook_7_P_1.pdf 1 10/18/19 12:06 PM 7 Part - 1 Name: ___________________________________ Section: ________________ Roll No.: _________ School: __________________________________

Table of Contents Unit Theme Content Page No. 1. Diversity on the Earth 1. Reading Maps of Different Kinds 1 2A. Rain and Rivers (Part 1) 11 2B. Rain and Rivers (Part 2) 15 3A. Tanks and Ground Water (Part 1) 28 3B. Tanks and Ground Water (Part 2) 30 5. Europe 40 6. Africa 54 Production, Exchange and 7A. Handicrafts and Handlooms 65 Livelihoods 71 2. 7B. Handicrafts and Handlooms 80 95 8. Industrial Revolution 9. Production in a Factory- A Paper Mill Project Based Questions 108 Additional Map Based Practice Questions 109

1. READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS SESSION 1 READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS – MAP SYMBOLS AND PHYSICAL MAPS 1.1 Mind Map SESSION 1. MAP SYMBOLS AND PHYSICAL MAPS 1

CHAPTER 1-READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS 1.2 Terminology 1. Map: a diagrammatic representation of an area of land or sea showing physical features, cities, roads, etc. 2. Physical maps : The maps that show plains, mountains, plateaus and deserts etc.. 3. Political maps: The maps that show countries, states etc.. 4. MSL : Mean sea level, Average of high and low sea level. 5. Atlas : A book that contains various kinds of maps. 6. Scales – Distance on the map: Actual distance on the ground. 1.3 Improve Your Learning Conceptual Understanding Q1. Why are the levels of all the seas equal in the world? [Refer to TB page 6 Q1] A. The levels of all the seas are equal in the world because : SESSION 1. MAP SYMBOLS AND PHYSICAL MAPS 2

CHAPTER 1-READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS i. The oceans or seas are connected to each other. ii. Water structure doesn’t differ based on the terrian . iii. Water maintains its own level unlike the land forms. iv. So, the water level is almost equal throughout the world. Q2. How is the sea level measured? [Refer to TB page 6 Q2] A. i. Seas have high tides and low tides. ii. The level of sea is carefully measured at regular intervals. iii. The rise in the water during the high tide, and the fall in the water during the low tide is also measured. iv. This data is used to calculate the mean level of the sea. v. The average level is known as the “Mean Sea Level”. Q3. What are the uses of maps showing heights? [Refer to TB page 6 Q3] A. Maps showing heights help us: i. To understand the terrain. ii. To know the location of mountains and valleys. iii. To know the route, while constructing roads. iv. To conclude the location of new dams. v. They also help us to guess the temperature of a place. Q4. What differences do you find between the life style of people living on high altitudes and low altitudes? [Refer to TB page 6 Q4] A. Life style of people living on high altitudes –––– i. Hard life style. ii. Accessibility to transport is less. iii. Less accessibility to water. iv. Comparatively cooler climate. Life style of people living on low altitudes– i. Comparatively easy life style. ii. Easy access to transportation. iii. Easy accessibility to water iv. Comparatively warmer climate. Q5. How are the maps helpful to people? [Refer to TB page 6 Q5] A. Maps are helpful to people: SESSION 1. MAP SYMBOLS AND PHYSICAL MAPS 3

CHAPTER 1-READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS i. To know the places and the distance between the places ii. To know the location of rivers, forests, hills, mountains etc. iii. To know the route. iv. To find the location for the construction of railways, roads etc. v. They help us to know the places of high and low altitudes. vi. They help us to know about the climate factors like temperature and rainfall of a place. vii. We can know about the crops which grow various landforms. viii. We can know the type and extension of forests. ix. We can locate the mineral resources by means of maps . x. Thus, maps help us to locate and study places. Reading the Text, Understanding and Interpretation Q1. Read the para ‘Contour Lines’ of page 5 and comment on it. [Refer to TB page 6 Q6] A. Student Response Mapping Skills Q1. Observe the physical map of Andhra Pradesh and list out the districts which are above 150 M.S.L. [Refer to TB page 6 Q7] A. Student response. 1.4 Key Concepts i. We take the help of maps to study the Earth. A map is a drawing of the Earth or any part of it. Geography is the art of map making (either physical or political or thematic). ii. The signs, symbols and colours used to represent various things on a map are together called the lan- guage of map. iii. We use symbols to show any physical object on the map. iv. Symbols on a map give correct information. They take less space than written words. v. A plain is a relatively flat and featureless low land. vi. A mountain is a mass of land considerably higher than the surrounding area. vii. A plateau is a broad and rather level of land rising sharply above some nearby land. viii. The height of an area is measured from that of the sea level. ix. Contour lines are lines that connect places of equal height. x. Maps help us to know the terrain. xi. Maps help us in the construction of roads and dams. xii. The world in which we live is full of different mountains, seas, deserts, forests, snow covered regions etc . SESSION 1. MAP SYMBOLS AND PHYSICAL MAPS 4

CHAPTER 1-READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS —— CCE Based Practice Questions —— AS1-Conceptual Understanding Column B Very Short Answer Type Questions a. Green 1. Match the following. Column A i. Water bodies ii. Deep water b. Deep brown iii. Plains c. Blue iv. Mountains d. Yellow v. Low lands e. Deep blue 2. Match the following. Column B Column A i. a. City/Town ii. b. Mosque iii. c. Bridge iv. d. Church v. e. Wells 3. Answer the following questions in one sentence. (i) How are the physical objects shown on the map? (ii) How are different heights shown on the map? (iii) How are the heights of the land calculated? (iv) On what factor does the distance between two contour lines depend? (v) In which direction is Bhopal from Hyderabad? CHAPTER 1. READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS 5

CHAPTER 1-READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS (vi) How do maps help us? (vii) In which direction is Panaji from Hyderabad? (viii) Expand MSL. (ix) What is a contour? (x) How do we measure the distance on the map? 4. Fill in the blanks. (xi) The is the model of the earth. (xii) shows natural features of earth. (xiii) is the capital of India. (xiv) shows the roads, country borders and cities. (xv) is the capital of Uttarakhand. (xvi) Location of Hyderabad in the given outline map is skill. (xvii) We can show heights on maps by the use of . (xviii) The land at the mouth of the river is called . (xix) is the line joining places with equal heights. (xx) An oasis is a place in a desert where we get . Short Answer Type Questions 5. Answer the following questions in 3-4 sentences. (i) What is Mean Sea Level? (ii) What are Contour Lines? CHAPTER 1. READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS 6

CHAPTER 1-READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS AS4-Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning Short Answer Type Questions 6. Answer the following questions in 3-4 sentences. (i) How are maps useful to us? Long Answer Type Questions 7. Answer the following questions in 6-8 sentences. (i) What is the use of the maps showing heights? AS5-Mapping Skills Long Answer Type Questions 8. Answer the following questions in 6-8 sentences. (i) Look at the map carefully and answer the following questions. < ______ CHAPTER 1. READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS 7

CHAPTER 1-READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS i. Meher went to Bhopal from Hyderabad. In which direction did he travel? ii. Ashok went to Chennai from Lucknow. In which direction did he travel? iii. Ragini went to Bhubaneshwar from Mumbai. In which direction did she travel? iv. Weprechu went to Jaipur from Kohima. In which direction did he travel? (ii) Observe the given political map of India and answer the following questions. Jammu & Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Bihar Mumbai i. Which state lies to the North of Ranchi? 8 ii. Which state lies to the South of J. & K.? CHAPTER 1. READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS

CHAPTER 1-READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS iii. What is the capital of Maharashtra? iv. Which is the Northern most state of India? Objective Questions AS1-Conceptual Understanding 9. Choose the correct answer. (i) Ramu went from Hyderabad to Bhopal. In which direction did he travel? (A) East (B) West (C) North (D) South (ii) Raju went from Lucknow to Chennai. In which direction did he travel? (A) East (B) West (C) North (D) South (iii) Brazil is in . (A) Europe (B) North America (C) South America (D) Asia (iv) A book of maps is called . (A) Globe (B) Atlas (C) World (D) Encyclopedia (v) Total number of states in India (B) 25 (A) 23 (C) 29 (D) 26 (vi) The Himalayas are towards which direction from Chennai? (A) North (B) South (C) East (D) West CHAPTER 1. READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS 9

CHAPTER 1-READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS (vii) colour is given to sea in a map. (B) Blue (A) Yellow (C) Violet (D) Pink (viii) All the heights on the land are calculated from the (A) Sea level (B) Mountain level (C) Ground level (D) None (ix) state lies towards the west of Telangana. (B) Rajasthan (A) Maharashtra (C) Tamil Nadu (D) Himachal Pradesh (x) Sahara desert is in . (A) Libya (B) Egypt (C) Asia (D) America CHAPTER 1. READING MAPS OF DIFFERENT KINDS 10

2A. RAIN AND RIVERS: PART 1 SESSION 1 RAIN AND RIVERS (PART 1) – HOW DOES RAIN OCCUR 1.1 Mind Map 1.2 Terminology 1. Rivers : Large body of flowing water, which forms when small streams join together. 2. Tributaries : Streams which join a larger river when they flow. 3. Annual rainfall : Total rainfall at a place, during a year. SESSION 1. HOW DOES RAIN OCCUR 11

CHAPTER 2A-RAIN AND RIVERS (PART 1) 1.3 Improve Your Learning Conceptual Understanding Q1. Where does evaporation and cloud formation take place on a large scale? [Refer to TB page 21 Q1] A. Maximum evaporation and cloud formation takes place on the surface of the oceans i. Clouds are tiny droplets of water hanging in the air above. ii. Clouds are generally formed in the sky. iii. Clouds are being formed all over. Q2. Explain how water changes into water vapour and also how clouds are formed from water vapour? [Refer to TB page 21 Q1] A. i. Water vapour in the air comes mainly through evaporation from lakes, ponds, seas and other water bodies. ii. When water changes into gaseous state the process is known as evaporation. iii. Evaporation occurs at all times and in all places. iv. Water vapour present in the air varies from place to place. v. When water vapour rises with hot air and reaches high up in the sky, it gets cooled. vi. With the cooling, water vapour is transformed into tiny water droplets. vii. These droplets gather around minute dust or smoke particles in the air and gradually increase in size. viii. These small drops of water gather to form clouds. ix. If they get heavier it gets more difficult to remain in the air and fall down as rain drops . 1.4 Key Concepts i. Over 70% of the earth’s surface is covered with water. ii. After the hot summer of April, May and June comes the rainy season. iii. Water which evaporates becomes vapour and later it condenses into water after being cooled. iv. When water is not boiling there is still evaporation. v. Change of water into vapour is known as evaporation. vi. The process in which water vapour changes into water is called condensation. vii. The amount of invisible water vapour present in the atmosphere is known as humidity. viii. Oceans are the vast water bodies extending up to thousands of kilometers. ix. There are various water bodies like ponds, rivers, lakes, seas and oceans on the surface of the earth. SESSION 1. HOW DOES RAIN OCCUR 12

SESSION 2 RAIN AND RIVERS (PART 1) – RAINFALL IN ANDHRA PRADESH 2.1 Mind Map 2.2 Terminology 1. Flood plain : Tree less bed is known as flood plain. 2. Precipitation : Different forms of condensation of water vapour is called precipitation. Ex : Dew, fog etc. 3. Humidity : The amount of invisible water vapour present in the atmosphere. SESSION 2. RAINFALL IN ANDHRA PRADESH 13

CHAPTER 2A-RAIN AND RIVERS (PART 1) 2.3 Key Concepts i. The South—west monsoon winds blow only in the summer. ii. The South—west monsoon winds reach Rayalaseema districts of Chittoor and Kurnool first, in A.P. iii. The South—west monsoon brings a lots of rain to the Telangana districts. iv. From May to October cyclones form in Bay of Bengal, so coastal and inland Andhra Pradesh get rainfall. v. Due to North—east monsoon or the return monsoon, Coastal A.P. will receive rainfall and moderate rains occur in Rayalaseema and Telangana districts. vi. An instrument by which the rainfall is measured is known as Rain Gauge. SESSION 2. RAINFALL IN ANDHRA PRADESH 14

SESSION 1 2B. RAIN AND RIVERS: PART 2 RAIN AND RIVERS (PART 2) – RIVERS 1.1 Mind Map 1.2 Terminology 1. Monsoon winds : The winds that carry rain clouds in a fixed season. India gets rainfall through a) South –West monsoon and b) North –East monsoon SESSION 1. RIVERS 15

CHAPTER 2B-RAIN AND RIVERS (PART 2) 1.3 Improve Your Learning Conceptual Understanding Q1. How do the clouds reach deep inland? [Refer to TB page 21 Q3] A. Seasonal winds called monsoon winds carry the rain bearing clouds to the inland. i. Air brings the clouds to travel for thousands of kilometers. ii. These clouds travel to bring rains to us. iii. Clouds travel inland for thousands of kilometers. iv. Clouds during summer months travel in south–west direction and in winter month’s in north–east direction and brings heavy rainfall. Q2. Where does it rain maximum? Choose the right option. [Refer to TB page 21 Q4] a) Sea coasts that are in the direction of the winds b) Mountains that are in the direction of the winds c) Lands far away from the seas. A. (b) mountains that are in the direction of winds. Q3. Describe the main stages of the water cycle. [Refer to TB page 21 Q7] A. The main stages of water cycle are: i. Evaporation: Due to the heat of the sun water evaporates from the water bodies like oceans, seas, rivers etc. ii. Formation of clouds: When this water goes up it forms clouds. iii. Raining: As the clouds condense the water drops formed fall to the earth as rain. iv. Reaching the water sources: Through streams and rivers the rain water again reaches the water sources. Again the evaporation takes places. Q4. Fill in the blanks choosing the correct options (bank, tributaries, flood–plain, river valley): [ Refer to TB Page 21 Q.5] i. A river flows through the . ii. Streams or rivers joining a larger river are called the of the main river. iii. The entire valley, of a river which is filled with water during the floods is called the of the river. A. i. A river flows through the River valley. ii. Streams or rivers joining a larger river are called the tributaries of the main river . iii. The entire valley, of a river which is filled with water during the floods is called the Flood plain. SESSION 1. RIVERS 16

CHAPTER 2B-RAIN AND RIVERS (PART 2) Q5. The Godavari flows from the west to the east. Why? [ Refer to TB Page 21 Q.6] A. Because the slope of Andhra Pradesh is from west to east. We know that the river flows in the same direction as that of the slope, so Godavari flows from west to east. 1.4 Key Concepts i. Rain causes small streams along the mountains, over their slopes. ii. The rivers are the cause for formation of plains. iii. Towards the end of its journey to the sea, a river forms a delta. iv. If the surface of the land is covered with vegetation then soil erosion is greatly reduced. v. Rivers or streams which join a larger river are called tributaries. vi. The south–west monsoon sets around June and it brings most of the rainfall to Telangana, Rayalaseema and coastal areas. vii. The retreating or North–East Monsoon sets after october and brings a little rain to Rayalaseema and Telangana districts and more to Coastal Andhra. SESSION 1. RIVERS 17

SESSION 2 RAIN AND RIVERS (PART 2) – FLOOD - PLAINS AND FLOODS 2.1 Mind Map 2.2 Terminology 1. Cyclones : Heavy, Strong winds which blows in a circular way and causes heavy rain. 2. Rainguage : Instrument to measure rainfall at a place. 3. Disasters : Calamities which can cause great damage and loss. 2.3 Improve Your Learning Information Skills Q1. There may be streams and rivers flowing near your village or town. Find out about them and fill in the table given in page 21 of textbook. [Refer to TB page 21 Q8] SESSION 2. FLOOD - PLAINS AND FLOODS 18

CHAPTER 2B-RAIN AND RIVERS (PART 2) A. S.no. Name Source Which river does it Which sea does it join? meet? 1. Godavari Western Ghats Krishna Bay of Bengal Bay of Bengal 2. Krishna Western Ghats Godavari Bay of Bengal Bay of Bengal 3. Penna Nandidurga hills Longulya Bay of Bengal Bay of Bengal 4. Tungabhadra Varaha hills Godavari Bay of Bengal Bay of Bengal 5. Manjeera Balaghat hills Krishna Bay of Bengal Bay of Bengal 6. Nagavali Eastern Ghats Krishna 7 Sabari Eastern Ghats Godavari 8 Munneru Deccan plateau Krishna 9 Paleru Deccan plateau Krishna 10 Musi Deccan plateau Krishna Q2. Collect the pictures showing cyclones and floods and prepare an album.[Refer to TB page 21 Q11] A. Student response. Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning Q1. Do the rivers in your area contain water throughout the year? Find out from your elders if they had more water in earlier times. [Refer to TB page 21 Q9] A. No, the rivers in Andhra Pradesh contain water only during rainy season except two rivers Krishna and Godavari. Ex: In Swarnamukhi and Musi we can see water only during rainy days. But according to our elders, they had more water in ancient times Q2. How can the people be prepared to face the disasters? A. People can get prepared to face the disaster by following ways: SESSION 2. FLOOD - PLAINS AND FLOODS 19

CHAPTER 2B-RAIN AND RIVERS (PART 2) • Generating awareness about type of disaster likable to occur in the area of residence. • Conducting mock drills for better preparedness of disaster. • Installing proper alarm system consisting of radios and other communication channels to warn people when disaster occurs. • Setting up resettlement and rehabilation options post–disaster. Appreciation and Sensitivity Q1. Make a poster on the floods devastation. [Refer to TB page 21 Q12] A. Student response. 2.4 Key Concepts i. There are two large rivers flowing through our state, the Krishna and the Godavari. These are Perennial Rivers. ii. Some rivers have land area, alongside which will be flooded during heavy rains. iii. Though floods cause severe damage, flood plains are very fertile. iv. Floods can be controlled by natural vegetation. v. To meet the challenge of disaster, we must be ready by taking several measures. SESSION 2. FLOOD - PLAINS AND FLOODS 20

CHAPTER 2A, 2B-RAIN AND RIVERS —— CCE Based Practice Questions —— AS1-Conceptual Understanding Column B Very Short Answer Type Questions a. Below 60cm 1. Match the following. Column A i. Monsoons ii. Narmada b. Seasonal iii. Krishna c. Rain gauge iv. Anantapur d. West flowing v. Rainfall measured e. East flowing 2. Match the following. Column B Column A a. Filter gradually through a porous surface. i. Condense ii. Moisture b. Change of gas to liquid iii. Silt c. Water vapour present in air iv. Percolate d. Moving downwards v. Descend e. Sediment deposited by water in channel 3. Answer the following questions in one sentence. (i) What is evaporation? (ii) Where do you see maximum cloud formation? (iii) What are the different water bodies? (iv) What are monsoon winds? (v) When does the process of evaporation speedup? (vi) In which month does our state get affected with the cyclones? CHAPTER 2A, 2B. RAIN AND RIVERS 21

CHAPTER 2A, 2B-RAIN AND RIVERS (vii) What is precipitation? (viii) What are ‘tributaries’? (ix) What is Humidity? (x) Which are the two large rivers of our state? 4. Fill in the blanks. (xi) and rivers start from Western Ghats. (xii) are the vast water bodies. (xiii) The monsoons bring normal rains to Telangana. (xiv) Streams or rivers joining a large river are called the of the main river. (xv) monsoon winds blow in summer. (xvi) The entire trough of the river which is filled with water during the floods is called the of the river. (xvii) Rain caused by whirling storm is called . (xviii) The process of evaporation speeds up with the increase in . (xix) In a cyclone, winds blow in from every side towards the of it. (xx) The evaporation is more in season. Short Answer Type Questions 5. Answer the following questions in 3-4 sentences. (i) How are clouds formed? (ii) What is Cyclonic Rain? (iii) What is meant by Precipitation? (iv) Describe the main stages of water cycle. CHAPTER 2A, 2B. RAIN AND RIVERS 22

CHAPTER 2A, 2B-RAIN AND RIVERS (v) What is Humidity? Long Answer Type Questions 6. Answer the following questions in 6-8 sentences. (i) Read the following paragraph and answer the following questions: When the South West Monsoons set in around the beginning of June, the wind scarrying the clouds reach Telangana. The SouthWest Monsoons bring normal rains to Telangana. The North and Eastern parts of Telangana receive heavy rainfall. Large areas in the Telangana Plateau receive low rainfall. Mahaboobnagar district receives very little rainfall in Telangana state. i. When does the South West Monsoon set in? ii. Which parts of Telangana receive heavy rainfall? iii. How is the rainfall in large areas of the Telangana Plateau? iv. Which districts receive very little rainfall in Telangana? v. Which monsoons bringing rains to Telangana? AS4-Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning Long Answer Type Questions 7. Answer the following questions in 6-8 sentences. (i) How can people meet the challenges of disasters like cyclones and floods effectively? CHAPTER 2A, 2B. RAIN AND RIVERS 23

CHAPTER 2A, 2B-RAIN AND RIVERS AS5-Mapping Skills Long Answer Type Questions 8. Answer the following questions in 6-8 sentences. (i) Locate the rivers: (a) Godavari River (b) Krishna River (c)Thungabhadra (d) Penna River (e) Musi River CHAPTER 2A, 2B. RAIN AND RIVERS 24

CHAPTER 2A, 2B-RAIN AND RIVERS (ii) Look at the physical map of India and anwer the following questions. i. In which direction of A.P. are the Eastern Ghats? 25 ii. In which states is Malwa plateu and chotanagpur plateau located? iii. In which states are Mahadeo and Aravali hills spread? iv. In which state Satpura range is located? v. Name the Hills that lie to the North of Deccan plateau. CHAPTER 2A, 2B. RAIN AND RIVERS

CHAPTER 2A, 2B-RAIN AND RIVERS Objective Questions AS1-Conceptual Understanding 9. Choose the correct answer. (i) The percentage of the earth’s surface covered with water is___ . (A) 50% (B) 60% (C) 70% (D) 80% (ii) Change of water into vapour is called (B) Humidity (A) Evaporation (C) Precipitation (D) Rain (iii) Krishna flows towards____________ . (B) South (A) North (C) East (D) West (iv) _________________is an example of Perennial River. (A) Ganga (B) Penna (C) Godavari (D) Mahanandi (v) __________was one of the reasons for floods of Ganga in recent days. (A) Deforestation (B) Heavy rains (C) No rains (D) Construction of Dams (vi) Narmada flows towards____. (B) South (A) North (C) East (D) West (vii) The process of water evaporating, forming clouds and coming down as rain and then again evaporating is called_______________ (A) Precipitation  (B) Water Cycle (C) Evaporation (D) Drought CHAPTER 2A, 2B. RAIN AND RIVERS 26

CHAPTER 2A, 2B-RAIN AND RIVERS (viii) Among the districts in Andhra Pradesh receives moderate rainfall. (A) Kurnool (B) Vishakhapatnam (C) Guntur (D) Ananthapur (ix) Drought occurs due to___________ . (B) No rains (A) Heavy rains (C) Moderate rains (D) Above 150cm rains (x) ___________ winds reverse their direction with the change ofseason. (A) Planetary winds (B) Prevailing winds (C) Monsoon (D) None of these (xi) We sweat when the _________________ in the air is high. (A) Humidity (B) Precipitation (C) Evaporation (D) Clouds (xii) Monsoon winds blow from the _____________ direction. (A) North western (B) Western (C) South western (D) Eastern CHAPTER 2A, 2B. RAIN AND RIVERS 27

3A. TANKS AND GROUND WATER: PART 1 SESSION 1 TANKS AND GROUND WATER (PART 1) – TANKS 1.1 Mind Map 1.2 Improve Your Learning 28 Conceptual Understanding Q1. Read the third para of page 57 and write a comment on it. [Refer to TB page 29 Q9] A. Student response. SESSION 1. TANKS

CHAPTER 3A-TANKS AND GROUND WATER (PART 1) Reading the Text, Understanding and Interpretation Q1. Observe the picture 3.1 (a) and compare with your locality. [Refer to TB page 29 Q7] A. i. We do not have tanks in our region. ii. We have canals. iii. They are basically for irrigation. iv. They are also used for other water based needs except drinking. v. They do not have water throughout the year. 1.3 Key Concepts i. Kakatiya, Vijayanagara kings and Nayakas built a large number of tanks in Telangana and Rayalaseema. ii. Tanks helped to prevent the run off rain water and the erosion of top soils and to cultivate fields. iii. Tank silt is used as fertilizer to the soil. iv. The layer of water which accumulates under the ground among rocks is called acquifers. v. Tanks are built to store rain water for agriculture or drinking . vi. Tanks were built by constructing a strong wall across a stream to form an artificial lake. SESSION 1. TANKS 29

3B. TANKS AND GROUND WATER: PART 2 SESSION 1 TANKS AND GROUND WATER (PART 2) – GROUND WATER 1.1 Mind Map SESSION 1. GROUND WATER 30

CHAPTER 3B-TANKS AND GROUND WATER (PART 2) 1.2 Improve Your Learning Conceptual Understanding Q1. The wells shown in this figure are situated on the plains of the Godavari. But there seems to be a mistake in the figure. Can you correct it? [Refer to TB page 29 Q2] A. There is a mistake in the picture. i. Water should be available at the same depth in all the wells. ii. As the wells are close to each other, the water level in the wells must be the same. Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning Q1. Think about the ways to restore the ground water in your area. [Refer to TB page 29 Q6] A. We can restore ground water by the following ways: i. Percolation tanks are the best way. ii. Avoiding concrete flooring around the house also could help to a great extent. iii. Growing more trees and plants also could help in the percolation of water Q2. In areas where there is shortage of groundwater, should there be any restrictions on digging tube wells? Why? [Refer to TB page 29 Q5] A. Yes, digging of tube wells should be restricted in the areas where there is shortage of ground water. This is because of the following reasons: i. In the deeper tube wells, we will not have any water left to pump . ii. We should give it to the future generation just as we received it. iii. Otherwise future generations will have destructive wars over water and we will be responsible for it. iv. As a result, the wells in the neighbourhood will go dry. v. Today’s generation has received water from the past as a sacred asset. vi. We should also develop ways of using arid conserving water in a restrained manner. SESSION 1. GROUND WATER 31

CHAPTER 3B-TANKS AND GROUND WATER (PART 2) Mapping Skills Q1. Draw the map of your village and locate the water resources of your village in it. [Refer to TB page 29 Q8] A. Student response. 1.3 Key Concepts i. The level of ground water is also called the water table. ii. Grass is planted on the hill slopes from where a stream starts to store the water for a longer time. iii. In our state we are over using the ground water. iv. Vegetation like trees, grass and bunds are used to enhance ground water. v. Under watershed development projects, trees and grass are planted on hill slopes. vi. Small check dams are also built across streams to store water. vii. Ground water is usually mixed with many minerals. viii. Depending upon the minerals which mix with the water, the taste and nature of water changes. ix. Water is polluted due to the excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides. x. Rocks which have pores or cracks are called previous rocks and which do not have pores are called imprevious rock. xi. (A) Promoting vegetation, (B) building bunds, (C) building check dames etc. helps to increase or recharge of ground mater. xii. ”Over usage” of the wells leads to declining of the ground water level. SESSION 1. GROUND WATER 32

SESSION 2 TANKS AND GROUND WATER (PART 2) – QUALITY AND RECHARGING OF GROUND WATER 2.1 Mind Map 2.2 Terminology 33 1. Percolation : Seeping through the ground. 2. Extension : Covering a very large area. 2.3 Improve Your Learning Conceptual Understanding Q1. Correct the incorrect sentences: [Refer to TB page 29 Q1] a) Water flows from the plains to the plateau. b) There is a thick deposit of sand and gravel in the plains. c) Ground water will never dry. d) It is easy to dig wells in Rajahmundry A. a)Water flows from the plateaus to the plains. b) The sentence is correct. c) Ground water dries up when there is less rain fall. d) It is easy to dig a well in Rajahmundry because of sand and silt. SESSION 2. QUALITY AND RECHARGING OF GROUND WATER

CHAPTER 3B-TANKS AND GROUND WATER (PART 2) Reading the Text, Understanding and Interpretation Q1. In which of these places do you expect maximum percolation to take place? [Refer to TB page 29 Q3] A. The maximum percolation takes place into the soil which has more trees and weathered rock–1, that is 3rd picture. Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning Q1. When the owners of some wells in Pallerla started using high–power motors to draw water from the wells the owners of other wells noticed that their wells were drying up. Discuss the possible solution to the problem. [Refer to TB page 29 Q4] A. The solution for this problem is to use the ground water as a non–renewable resource and in a restrained manner so that we can ensure that everyone is benefited. The owners of the other wells should consult the owners who are using high–powered motors. They should also consult the authorities if the owners ignore them, the authorities should respond and see that the owner takes necessary measures like storing the rain water and not wasting water etc. 2.4 Key Concepts i. Ground water is usually mixed up with many minerals. ii. Depending upon the minerals which mix with the water, the taste and nature of water changes. iii. Water is polluted due to the excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides. iv. The layers of water which accumulates under the ground among the rocks is called “aquifers” SESSION 2. QUALITY AND RECHARGING OF GROUND WATER 34

CHAPTER 3A, 3B-TANKS AND GROUND WATER —— CCE Based Practice Questions —— AS1-Conceptual Understanding Column B Very Short Answer Type Questions a. Delta 1. Match the following. Column A i. Khammam district ii. Mission Kakatiya b. Granite iii. Godavari c. Minute holes iv. Water pollution d. Revival of tanks v. Crack or pore e. Fluoride 2. Match the following. Column A Column B i. Vegetation a. Chemicals used for killing insects ii. Irrigation b. The plant life of a region iii. Layers c. Done quickly iv. Swiftly d. Quantity or Thickness v. Pesticides e. Supply of water to agriculture land 3. Answer the following questions in one sentence. (i) How does a tank help in soil conservation? (ii) Is the water level stable throughout the year? (iii) What is an aquifer? (iv) How are vegetations like trees and grass used? (v) What kind of rocks do we find in our state? (vi) What are watershed projects? CHAPTER 3A, 3B. TANKS AND GROUND WATER 35

CHAPTER 3A, 3B-TANKS AND GROUND WATER (vii) What are the reasons for the water pollution? (viii) Why did the groundwater in recent years decline? (ix) What are pervious rocks? (x) What are impervious rocks? 4. Fill in the blanks. (xi) The tanks are built by a strong wall of stone and mud across a . (xii) are also built across the stream to store water for a longer time. (xiii) Farmers use the tank silt as a . (xiv) minerals are the main cause for sweet and salty taste of water. (xv) Most of the rocks under the soil in Telangana consist of . (xvi) Drinking containing water is not good for health. (xvii) Trees, grasses and buds are used to enhance . (xviii) Water is polluted due to excessive use of and . (xix) Watershed management in India started in . (xx) The person who regulates the usage of water from a tank is called . Short Answer Type Questions 5. Answer the following questions in 3-4 sentences. (i) What is water table? (ii) How can groundwater be recharged? (iii) Why were tanks constructed? CHAPTER 3A, 3B. TANKS AND GROUND WATER 36

CHAPTER 3A, 3B-TANKS AND GROUND WATER Long Answer Type Questions 6. Answer the following questions in 6-8 sentences. (i) The agriculture in villages depends on tanks or‘cheruvus’. What are the benefits of cheruvus? AS4-Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning Long Answer Type Questions 7. Answer the following questions in 6-8 sentences. (i) Give reasons for the decline of water tanks in our times? AS5-Mapping Skills Long Answer Type Questions 8. Answer the following questions in 6-8 sentences. (i) Locate the following places ongiven map. a) Telangana b) Coastal Andhra c) Rayalaseema CHAPTER 3A, 3B. TANKS AND GROUND WATER 37

CHAPTER 3A, 3B-TANKS AND GROUND WATER Objective Questions AS1-Conceptual Understanding 9. Choose the correct answer. (i) Tube wells benefit__________ . (B) All the villagers (A) A few people (C) Rich villagers (D) Poor People (ii) Availability of ground water is determined by --------------. (A) Thickness of aquifer (B) Nearness of river (C) Presence of adequate vegetation (D) Absence of chemicals (iii) Rocks which have cracks in them and contain water are called-------------. (A) Pervious rocks (B) Impervious rocks (C) Granite (D) Limestone (iv) In which district of A.P. do we find pervious rocks? (A) Guntur (B) Prakasam (C) Kurnool (D) Kadapa (v) ------------------ kings built a large number of tanks in Telangana. (A) Mughal (B) Chahamanas (C) Rashtrakutas (D) Kakatiya (vi) Which of the following occupations is not supported by a tank? (A) Farmer (B) Water carrier (C) Banker (D) Fisherman (vii) The layer of water which accumulates underground among rocks is called___________ . (A) Aquifer (B) Purifier (C) De–purifier (D) None CHAPTER 3A, 3B. TANKS AND GROUND WATER 38

CHAPTER 3A, 3B-TANKS AND GROUND WATER (viii) Tank silt is used as to the soil (A) Fertilizer (B) Hybridizer (C) Waste (D) Poisonous content (ix) A watershed development project includes __________. (A) Setting up borewells (B) Harvesting rain water (C) Removing harmful minerals from water (D) Polluting water (x) is used to enhance groundwater. (B) Plantation (A) Vegetation (D) None (C) Both A and B CHAPTER 3A, 3B. TANKS AND GROUND WATER 39

5. EUROPE SESSION 1 EUROPE – LOCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES 1.1 Mind Map SESSION 1. LOCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES 40

CHAPTER 5-EUROPE 1.2 Terminology 1. Pennisula : Land which is surrounded by water on three sides. Eg : –Italy. 2. Island : Land which is surrounded by water on all sides. Eg : –Great Britain. 3. Bay : A part of a sea, where land curves in wards with a wide mouth. Eg : –Bay of bengal. 1.3 Improve Your Learning Conceptual Understanding Q1. What are the factors that limit European agriculture? [Refer to TB page 54 Q8] A. i. Large part of Europe is mountainous. ii. In Eastern Europe, the winter is very severe. iii. Some countries have very little agricultural land. iv. Short harvesting season. Q2. Name the important crops of Southern Europe. [Refer to TB page 54 Q9] A. Wheat, fruits like grapes, barley, oats, sugar–beet, potato etc. Q3. How is agriculture similar or different in Europe from that of our country? [Refer to TB page 54 Q12] A. Agriculture in Europe is different from our country in following ways: • The climatic conditions in Europe and India are very different. India has tropical type of climate, whereas Europe has mediterranean climate. • India has longer cultivation seasons whereas Europe has shorter cultivation season. • Availability of land for cultivation is more in India as compared to Europe. Reading the Text, Understanding and Interpretation Q1. What are the characteristics of a Mediterranean climate? Name the countries which have a Mediterranean climate. [Refer to TB page 54 Q7] A. i. The average temperature ranges from 8° — 12° in January and 22° — 24°C in July. ii. Mediterranean summers are dry with no rainfall. iii. It rains only during the winter. Winter rainfall ranges from 80 cm to 130 cm. iv. In this climatic region January is the coolest month. v. The Mediterranean type of climate is found in Southern part of Europe. This climate is very good for growing fruits. Mediterranean climate is found in Spain, France, Italy, Switzer- land etc. Several regions in other continents also have a Mediterranean climate. SESSION 1. LOCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES 41

CHAPTER 5-EUROPE Mapping Skills Q1. Answer these questions with the help of the maps given in the lesson : Which of the following is not a landlocked (surrounded by land) country - (Hun- gary/Romania/Poland/Switzerland)? [Refer to TB page 54 Q2] A. Romania and Poland are not landlocked countries. Q2. Which mountains lie between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea? (Alps / Caucasus mountains) A. Caucasus Q3. Which countries are on the shores of the Arctic Ocean? A. Russia and Norway. Q4. Can a ship sail from the Black Sea to the Atlantic Ocean? If yes, trace the route it will have to take. A. Yes, a ship can sail from the Black sea to Atlantic Ocean, —>Black Sea —>Bosporus Strait —> Sea of Marmara —>Dardanelles —>Aegean Sea —>Mediterranean Sea –––>Atlantic Ocean. 1.4 Key Concepts i. Europe is one of the five continents in the world. ii. Boundaries: North — Arctic Ocean, East — Ural Mountains. iii. South — Mediterranean Sea, West — Atlantic Ocean. iv. Asia and Europe together are known as Eurasia. v. The Alps and the Caucasian are the important mountain ranges. vi. Eastern Europe is a vast plain with heavy snowfall during winter. vii. Rhine Dnieper, Volga etc are the important rivers that flow through different countries. viii. There are Peninsulas, Islands and bays in Europe. Italy is a peninsula, Great Britain is an island and Baltic Sea is a large gulf. SESSION 1. LOCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES 42

SESSION 2 EUROPE – FACTORS EFFECTING THE CLIMATE OF EUROPE 2.1 Mind Map 2.2 Improve Your Learning 43 Conceptual Understanding Q1. Why are the harbours built in deep gulfs and bays? [Refer to TB page 54 Q3] A. Harbours are built in deep gulfs and bays because: SESSION 2. FACTORS EFFECTING THE CLIMATE OF EUROPE

CHAPTER 5-EUROPE i. Gulfs and Bays are well protected from storms. So, ships can be easily harboured there. ii. They will be safe there as well. iii. Deep Bays and Gulfs have deep water as well. iv. So, even large ships can be anchored there. Q2. Name the four countries on the coast of the Black Sea. [Refer to TB page 54 Q5] A. Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Russia and Ukraine. Q3. How do the Westerlies benefit the people of Western Europe? [Refer to TB page 54 Q6] A. i. Westeries are warm winds blowing from the Atlantic Ocean. ii. They keep the climate of Western Europe much warmer than that of other parts of Europe. iii. They do help in making agriculture possible throughout the year. iv. The skies are usually clouded and pleasant. v. They bring showers throughout the year. Information Skills Q1. The Atlantic Ocean has a deep impact on the climate of Europe as well as on the life and livelihood of the people of Europe. Collect relevant information and write an essay on the theme. [Refer to TB page 54 Q1] A. Europe has four dominant types of climate–maritime in the south and mountain in the lands. The maritime climate has moderate temperatures in both summer and winter. The climate of west Europe is far more moderate due to the marine influences of the relatively warm waters of the North Atlantic Drift, which are brought on shore by the prevailing Westerly winds. The major air pressure systems include the Icelandic low, dominant in winter but influential all year, which is the origin of cyclonic storms, so it has itsimpact in the changing weather conditions in western and northern Europe. The North Atlantic drift brings warmer weather to Europe. Temperatures on the European continent are about 15°F warmer than other areas of same latitude. 2.3 Key Concepts 1. The climate of Europe is comparatively cooler than our country’s climate and it is influenced by various reasons. (i) Distance from the equator. (ii) The Atlantic Ocean. (iii) Westerlies. (iv) Warm ocean currents. 2. Westerlies are the warm winds which affect the climate of Europe . 3. North Atlantic Drifts is the warm ocean current which keeps the western Europe warmer. 4. In the western Europe ,it showers all the year round . 5. “Dogger Bank” is the part of the north sea where fishery is well developed. 6. In the southern Europe, there is the Mediterranean climate which is suitable for juicy fruits. SESSION 2. FACTORS EFFECTING THE CLIMATE OF EUROPE 44

SESSION 3 EUROPE – IMPACT OF CLIMATE 3.1 Mind Map 3.2 Terminology 1. Polder : The land reclaimed by building dykes. 2. Dykes : Embarkments built to reclaim a small portion of land from the sea. They are built in Netherlands. 3. Climate : The conditions of weather during a long period of time. SESSION 3. IMPACT OF CLIMATE 45

CHAPTER 5-EUROPE 3.3 Improve Your Learning Conceptual Understanding Q1. Why are the winters less severe in Western Europe than in Eastern Europe? [Refer to TB page 54 Q4] A. i. Western Europe has the Atlantic Ocean nearer. ii. Westerlies are warm winds blowing from the Atlantic Ocean. iii. So, the Western Europe is warmer than the Eastern Europe. iv. North Atlantic drift, the ocean current which blows along the western coast of Europe is warm through- out the year. v. In western Europe it showers throughout the year. Reading the Text, Understanding and Interpretation Q1. Read the last para of this lesson and comment on it. [Refer to TB page 54 Q11] A. Student response. 3.4 Key Concepts i. The plains and river valleys are very fertile. They are suitable for agriculture. ii. The discovery of sea routes to various parts of the world was the most accomplishing development that Europe has achieved. iii. This has helped them to develop much during the Industrial Revolution too. iv. Wheat, barley oats, sugar–beets, friuts like grapes are grown well v. Colombus reached the American continent while travelling in the west direction to reach India. vi. Westerlies and trade winds helped the ships to travel from America to Europe and Europe to America simulationeously. vii. Industrial revolution started in great Britian. SESSION 3. IMPACT OF CLIMATE 46

CHAPTER 5-EUROPE —— CCE Based Practice Questions —— AS1-Conceptual Understanding Column B Very Short Answer Type Questions a. North Sea 1. Match the following. Column A i. Volga ii. Danube b. Caspian Sea iii. Vistula c. Black Sea iv. Rhine d. Baltic Sea v. Seine e. Atlantic Ocean 2. Match the following. Column A Column B i. Summer a. Famous for wines ii. Winter b. Trees shed their leaves iii. Autumn c. Leaves turn red and yellow iv. Building embankments d. Agriculture v. Mediterranean countries e. Dikes 3. Answer the following questions in one sentence. (i) Where did the Industrial revolution first take place? (ii) Where do you find harbours? (iii) Which ocean separates the two continents of Europe and North America? (iv) Name the ocean located in the north of Europe? (v) Which sea is also called as “Middle of the world”? (vi) How many years ago did the people of Europe discover the sea route to America? CHAPTER 5. EUROPE 47

CHAPTER 5-EUROPE (vii) What is Eurasia? (viii) Name the mountain that separates Europe and Asia? (ix) Name the landmass that is surrounded by the sea on three sides and connected to the mainland on the fourth side? (x) Name the river that flows through several countries and empties itself into the North Sea? 4. Fill in the blanks. (xi) The sea coast of Europe is very . (xii) Europe has a climate than ours. (xiii) is surrounded on three sides by the sea. (xiv) is the season of agriculture in Europe. (xv) transport is easy and less expensive. (xvi) cultivation is prominent in southern Europe. (xvii) is a narrow inlet of the sea and has a narrow mouth. (xviii) is the main crop in European plains. (xix) Ships need water. (xx) Columbus set out in three ships in . Short Answer Type Questions 5. Answer the following questions in 3-4 sentences. (i) Why is Mediterranean Sea called as middle of the world? Long Answer Type Questions 6. Answer the following questions in 6-8 sentences. (i) Write few important physical features of European continent? (ii) Europeans have been extensively using sea routes since ancient times, why? CHAPTER 5. EUROPE 48


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