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Paper-1, Booklet-2, Society And Culture

Published by aspireiasmainskunji, 2019-08-22 08:51:12

Description: Paper-1, Booklet-2, Society And Culture 105 Pages

Keywords: indian society,social issues,paper 1 gs,upsc gs 1,indian culture,culture upsc,architecture upsc,paintings,martial arts,indian music,indian heritage and culture,indus valley civilization,buddhist architecture,gandhar school of art,stupa


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PRESENTS THE KEY TO UPSC MAINS 2019 PAPER 1 Copyright © Aspire IAS All rights are reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of Aspire IAS.


PAST YEAR QUESTIONS Safeguarding the Indian art heritage is the need of the moment. Comment. (UPSC 2018) Assess the importance of the accounts of the Chinese and Arab travellers in the reconstruction of the history of India. (UPSC 2018) “Caste system is assuming new identities and associational forms. Hence, caste system cannot be eradicated in India.” Comment. (UPSC 2018) „Women‟s movement in India has not addressed the issues of women of lower social strata.‟ Substantiate your view. (UPSC 2018) „Globalisation is generally said to promote cultural homogenisation but due to this cultural specificities appear to be strengthened in the Indian society.‟ Elucidate. (UPSC 2018) „Communalism arises either due to power struggle or relative deprivation.‟ Argue by giving suitable illustrations. (UPSC 2018) How do you justify the view that the level of excellence of the Gupta numismatic art is not at all noticeable in later times? (UPSC 2017) In the context of the diversity of India, can it be said that the regions form cultural units rather than the States? Give reasons with examples for your view point. (UPSC 2017) What are the two major legal initiatives by the State since Independence addressing discrimination against Scheduled Tribes (STs)? (UPSC 2017) The spirit of tolerance and love is not only an interesting feature of Indian society from very early times, but it is also playing an important part at the present. Elaborate. (UPSC 2017) Distinguish between religiousness/religiosity and communalism giving one example of how the former has got transformed into the latter in independent India. (UPSC 2017) “The growth of cities as I.T. hubs has opened up new avenues of employment, but has also created new problems”. Substantiate this statement with examples. (UPSC 2017) Early Buddhist Stupa-art, while depicting folk motifs and narratives, successfully expounds Buddhist ideals. Elucidate. (UPSC 2016) 3

Krishnadeva Raya, the king of Vijayanagar, was not only an accomplished scholar himself but was a also a great patron of learning and literature. Discuss. (UPSC 2016) To what extent globalisation has influenced the core of cultural diversity in India? Explain. (UPSC 2016) “An essential condition to eradicate poverty is to liberate the poor from the process of deprivation.” Substantiate this statement with suitable examples. (UPSC 2016) Why are the tribals in India referred to as „the Scheduled Tribes‟? Indicate the major provisions enshrined in the Constitution of India for their upliftment. (UPSC 2016) With a brief background of quality of urban life in India, introduce the objectives and strategy of the „Smart City Programme.” (UPSC 2016) What is the basis of regionalism? Is it that unequal distribution of benefits of development on regional basis eventually promotes regionalism? Substantiate your answer. (UPSC 2016) The ancient civilization in Indian sub continent differed from those of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece in that its culture and traditions have been preserved without breakdown to the present day. Comment. (UPSC 2015) Mesolithic rock cut architecture of India not only reflects the cultural life of the times but also a fine aesthetic sense comparable to modern painting. Critically evaluate this comment. (UPSC 2015) Describe any four cultural elements of diversity in India and rate their relative significance in building a national identity. (UPSC 2015) How do you explain the statistics that show that the sex ratio in Tribes in India is more favourable to women than the sex ratio among Scheduled Castes? (UPSC 2015) Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on women in India? (UPSC 2015) Debate the issue whether and how contemporary movements for assertion of Dalit identity work towards annihilation of caste. (UPSC 2015) Smart cities in India cannot sustain without smart villages. Discuss this statement in the backdrop of rural urban integration. (UPSC 2015) 4

To what extent has the urban planning and culture of the Indus Valley Civilization provided inputs to the present day urbanization? Discuss. (UPSC 2014) Gandhara sculpture owed as much to the Romans as to the Greeks. Explain. (UPSC 2014) Taxila university was one of the oldest universities of the world with which were associated a number of renowned learned personalities of different disciplines. Its strategic location caused its fame to flourish, but unlike Nalanda, it is not considered as a university in the modern sense. Discuss. (UPSC 2014) How does patriarchy impact the position of a middle class working woman in India? (UPSC 2014) Why do some of the most prosperous regions of India have an adverse sex ratio for women? Give your arguments. (UPSC 2014) The life cycle of a joint family depends on economic factors rather than social values. Discuss. (UPSC 2014) Discuss the various economic and socio-cultural forces that are driving increasing feminization of agriculture in India. (UPSC 2014) How do the Indian debates on secularism differ from the debates in the West? (UPSC 2014) GUESS PAPER - TOPICS EXPECTED TO BE ASKED IN THIS YEAR‟S EXAM, BASED ON CONTEMPORARY ISSUES AND PAST YEARS‟ PATTERN, HAVE BEEN COVERED IN DETAIL. 5


URBANISATION Urban areas have been recognized as “engines of inclusive economic growth”. Of the 121 crore Indians, 83.3 crore live in rural areas while 37.7 crore stay in urban areas, i.e approx 32 % of the population. The Census of India, 2011 defines urban settlement as :- All the places which have municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee are considered urban areas. They are known as Statutory town. These towns are notified under law by respective State/UT government and have local bodies like municipal corporation, municipality, etc, irrespective of demographic characteristics. For example- Vadodara (Municipal corporation), Shimla (Municipal corporation) All the other places which satisfy following criteria, are also included: a. A minimum population of 5000 persons; b. At least 75 % of male main working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and c. A density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometer. Such places are called Census Towns. These were identified on the basis of census 2001 data. Cities are urban areas with more than 100,000 population. Urban areas below 100,000 are called towns in India. Similarly Census of India also defines:- Urban Agglomeration (UA): An urban agglomeration is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining outgrowths (OGs), or two or more physically contiguous towns together with or without outgrowths of such towns. An Urban Agglomeration must consist of at least a statutory town and its total population (i.e. all the constituents put together) should not be less than 20,000 as per the 2001 Census. In varying local conditions, there were similar other combinations which have been treated as urban agglomerations satisfying the basic condition of contiguity. Examples: Greater Mumbai UA, Delhi UA, etc. Out Growths (OG): An Out Growth (OG) is a viable unit such as a village or a hamlet or an enumeration block made up of such village or hamlet and clearly identifiable in terms of its 7

boundaries and location. Some of the examples are railway colony, university campus, port area, military camps, etc., which have come up near a statutory town outside its statutory limits but within the revenue limits of a village or villages contiguous to the town. While determining the outgrowth of a town, it has been ensured that it possesses the urban features in terms of infrastructure and amenities such as pucca roads, electricity, taps, drainage system for disposal of waste water etc. educational institutions, post offices, medical facilities, banks etc. and physically contiguous with the core town of the UA. Examples: Central Railway Colony (OG), Triveni Nagar (N.E.C.S.W.) (OG), etc. At the central level, nodal agency which looks after program and policies for urban development is the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA). Urban development is a state subject. At state level there are respective ministries, but according to 74th Constitutional Amendment act, 1992, it is mandatory for every state to form ULBs and devolve power, conduct regular election, etc. Under 12 schedule of Indian constitution, 18 such functions have been defined which are to be performed by ULBs and for that states should support the ULBs through finances and decentralization of power, for more autonomy. But this is not uniform throughout all the states and still more is need to be done to empower ULBs in India. There are eight types of urban local government in India- municipal corporation municipality, notified area committee, town area committee, cantonment board, township, port trust and special purpose agencies. Migration is the key process underlying growth of urbanisation; and the process of urbanization is closely related with rural to urban migration of people. In most developing countries of the world where rate of urban growth is relatively higher the urban-ward migration is usually high. Rural to urban migration is by far the major component of urbanization. 8

URBANISATION AND FIVE YEAR PLANS First two plans focused on institution and organization building and same was instructed to the states to do. For ex. Delhi Development Authority, Town and Country Planning organization came during this period. Third plan (1961-66) was turning point in urban planning history, as it emphasized on importance of towns and cities in balanced regional development. So, it advised urban planning to adopt regional approach. It also emphasized the need for urban land regulation, checking of urban land prices, preparation of master plan, etc. Forth plan (1969-74), continued with the theme of third plan and development plans for 72 urban areas were undertaken. Regional studies in respect of metropolitan regions around Delhi, Mumbai and Calcutta were initiated. During fifth plan, Urban Land Ceiling Act was passed in 1976. It also advised the state governments to create metropolitan planning regions to take care of the growing areas outside administrative city limits. It also emphasized the urban and industrial decentralization. The sixth five year (1978-83) plan stressed the need to develop small and medium sized towns (less than 1 lakh), and a scheme of Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns (IDSMT) was launched in 1979 by central government. During the seventh plan, some important institutional developments were done, which shaped the urban development policy and planning. The National Commission on Urbanization submitted its report in 1988 and 65th constitutional amendment was introduced in Lok Sabha in 1989, this was first attempt to give urban local bodies a constitutional status with three tier federal structure. But it was not passed and was finally passed in 1992 as 74th Constitutional Amendment Act and came into force in 1993. During Eighth plan, the Mega city scheme was introduced in 1993-94 covering five mega cities of Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad. Also IDSMT scheme was revamped through it infrastructural development programs for boosting employment generation for diverting migration from big cities to the small and medium towns. The ninth plan continued with the schemes of the eighth plan and also emphasized on decentralization and financial autonomy of urban local bodies. A new program called Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojna (SJSRY) in 1997 with two sub plans– 9

1. Urban self-employment program, and 2. Urban wage employment programme, i.e. targeting for urban poverty reduction and employment. It was decided by central government to revamp SJSRY in 2013 as National Urban Livelihood Mission (NULM). The Tenth plan (2002-07) recognized the fact that urbanization played a key role in accelerating the economic growth in 1980s and 1990s as a result of the economic liberalization and also stressed that without strengthening the urban local bodies, the goal of urbanization cannot be achieved. The eleventh plan (2007-2012) introduced some innovative changes through capacity building, increasing the efficiency and productivity of the cities, dismantling the monopoly of public sector over urban infrastructure, using technology as a tool for rapid urbanization.  In this direction major initiative launched by central government was JNNURM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission) in 2005 for focused and integrated development of the urban infrastructure and services, initially for 63 cities. This program was to be continued till 2012, but it has been extended, covering more number of cities. Focus of JNNURM was on provisions for urban poor, including housing, water supply and sanitation, urban transport, road network, and the development of inner/old city areas, etc. The earlier programs, as mentioned above like Mega city, IDSMT, etc. were merged with it. Under JNNURM it was made mandatory for each cities to formulate City Development Plan (CDP) for long term vision of development. It also aimed to make private players part of urban development through PPP (Public Private Partnership).  Rajiv Awas Yojana, was launched in 2011 for creating “slum free India” as a pilot project for two years. But now it has been extended till 2022. It is applicable to all slums in the city whether notified or non-notified. It is also applicable to urban homeless and pavement dwellers.  The 2011 Census was the first one that collected data on people living in slums that have become commonplace in a rapidly urbanizing India. It found that around one out of every six households in urban India (17.4%) is in a slum, and that well over one-third of all slum households in the country (38%) are in cities with a population in excess of a million. The twelfth five year plan (2012-2017) proposed to consolidate JNNURM and envisaged its wider role in urban reforms. During twelfth plan, the components of JNNURM are:- 10

1. Urban infrastructure governance(UIG) 2. Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) 3. Slum rehabilitation in cities not covered under RAY 4. Capacity building The plan has also highlighted the reasons which are acting as hurdles in the success of the program as:- 5. Failure to mainstream the urban planning 6. Incomplete reform and slow progress in project implementation 7. Delay in securing land for projects 8. Delay in getting approval from various regulators 11

PROBLEMS OF URBANISATION After independence, urbanization in India is increasing at very high pace, but at the same time there are some problems, which are becoming barriers for balance, equitable and inclusive development. INSTITUTIONAL Urban Governance - 74th amendment act has been implemented half- CHALLENGES heartedly by the states, which has not fully empowered the Urban local bodies (ULBs). At present urban governance needs improvement for urban development, which can be done by enhancing technology, administrative and managerial capacity of ULBs. Planning - Planning is mainly centralized and till now the state planning boards and commissions have not come out with any specific planning strategies. In fact for big cities the plans have become outdated and do not reflect the concern of urban local dwellers. This needs to be taken care of by Metropolitan planning committee as per provisions of 74th Amendment Act. Also there is lack of human resource for undertaking planning on full scale. State planning departments and national planning institutions lack qualified planning professional. Finances - Major challenge is of revenue generation with the ULBs. This problem can be analyzed form two perspectives. First, the states have not given enough autonomy to ULBs to generate revenues and second, in some case the ULBs have failed to utilize even those tax and fee powers that they have been vested with. Regulator - There is exponential increase in the real estate, encroaching upon the agricultural lands. Also the rates are very high, which are not affordable and other irregularities are also in practice. INFRASTRUCTURAL Housing - The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements CHALLENGES (UNCHS) introduced the concept of “Housing Poverty” which includes “Individuals and households who lack safe, secure and healthy shelter, with basic infrastructure such as piped water and adequate provision for sanitation, drainage and the removal of household waste”. Safe Drinking Water - The safe drinking water sources are also found to 12

OTHER be contaminated because of water in the cities are inadequate and in the CHALLENGES future, the expected population cannot be accommodated without a drastic improvement in the availability of water. The expenses on water treatment and reuse will grow manifold. Sanitation - The poor sanitation condition is another gloomy feature in urban areas and particularly in slums and unauthorized colonies of urban areas. This unsanitary conditions lead to many sanitation related diseases such as diahorrea and malaria. Unsafe garbage disposal is one of the critical problems in urban areas and garbage management always remained a major challenge. Health conditions - The health condition of urban poor in some areas are even more adverse compared to rural areas. As many as 20 million children in the developing countries are dying consequent to drinking water. About 6, 00,000 persons are losing their lives on account of indoor air pollution . Urban public transport - As high income individual are buying more private vehicle and use less public transport, such huge number of vehicles in cities is causing more traffic jam, which in turn decreases the efficiency of public transport. Also the penetration of public transport is less, which makes people use private vehicle. Environmental concern - Vulnerability to risk posed by the increasing man-made and natural disasters. According to UNDP 70 % of Indian population is at risk to floods and 60% susceptible to earthquakes. The risks are higher in urban areas owing to density and overcrowding. Urban areas are becoming heat islands, ground water is not being recharged and water crisis is persistent. Urban Crime - The mega cities are facing increased criminal activities on account of unchecked migration, illegal settlements and diverse socio- cultural disparities, organized groups, gangsters, professional criminals for wishing a lavish life in metropolis. Poverty - Roughly a third of the urban population today lives below the poverty line. There is rise in urban inequality, as per UN habitat report, 2010, urban inequality in India rose from 34 to 38 % based on 13

consumption in period of 1995 to 2005. Provision of Employment - It is generally observed that the literate and semi-literate migrants are absorbed with minimal works, carrying lower wage and more hour of work. OTHER GOVERNMENT EFFRORTS 1. National Urban Transport Policy, 2006: Its main purpose is to provide affordable, comfortable, safe and rapid, reliable and sustainable urban transport system, for the growing number of city resident to jobs, education and recreation and such other needs within our cities. The policy focus is on moving people rather than vehicles. It encourages integrated land use and transport planning in all cities so that travel distances are minimized and access to livelihoods, education, and other social needs, especially for the marginal segments of the urban population is improved. 2. National Urban Renewal Mission (NURM), 2005 The primary objective of the JNNURM is to create economically productive, efficient, equitable and responsive cities. The JNNURM consists of two sub-missions - Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG) and Basic Services for Urban Poor (BSUP). The Mission focuses on:  Integrated development of infrastructure services  securing linkages between asset creation and maintenance for long run project sustainability  accelerating the flow of investment into urban infrastructure services  planned development of cities including the peri-urban areas, out growths, and urban corridors  renewal and re-development of inner city areas  universalisation of urban services so as to ensure their availability to the urban poor. 3. Introduction to Metro trains in Delhi, Kolkata, Bangalore etc. are part of above mentioned initiatives. Now one million plus cities can go for metro project according to new urban policy. 14

4. India‟s first monorail It will be thrown open to the public, eight years after it was first proposed, with the Maharashtra government. With this, India will join countries like the U.S., Germany, China, Japan, Australia and Malaysia that run monorails. 5. Smart Cities Mission In the budget, 2014, it was projected for „one hundred Smart cities‟, as satellite towns of larger cities and modernizing the existing mid- sized cities. Though there is no clear definition of smart cities, but it may include creative, cyber, digital, e-governed, entrepreneurial, intelligent, knowledge, harnessing the power of Information and communication technology (ICT). Smartness has to be there with respect to governance and service delivery. Its features are :-  e-governance (through Digital India initiative, National e-governance plan, National Optical fiber network, e-panchayat project of MRD)  Continuous improvements in design and management  Climate oriented development  Mass transit oriented development  People centric technological applications (m-health, e- learning )  Planning can be bottom up for future urbanization  Smart PDS rationing  Social inclusive and economically diverse. 6. Swachh Bharat Clean urban areas will attract tourists and can increase the economic diversity of the urban dwellers and it will be also source for revenue generation for ULB. 15

CONCLUSION Urban planning mechanisms need an overhaul to unify land record keeping, integrate land use with transport planning, and embed municipal plans into district and regional plans.  local bodies should fill vacancies  time tested master plans should be strengthen instead of preparing quick fix City development plans  populist policies and reforms should have their logical conclusion and should be not done in great haste.  land development should be the part of planning of urban development  project management skills needs to be enhanced = timely completion of projects  more PPP projects  green building concepts should be implemented Models like Kudumbashree model for micro credit, Chhattisgarh PDS model, solid waste management in Okhla, etc. must be replicated all over the country with suitability studies. Urbanization has undermined old forms of political mobilization based on caste and religious identities and favors local issues to be resolved on right based approach. Urbanisation has its impact on all aspects of day-to-day life. Family structure has also been influenced by urbanisation. In the rural society the concept of family living is different from that in the urban society. In the urban society usually the families are nuclear, a very small percentage of households‟ have joint families, whereas in rural society most of the households have joint families. This change in family structure is a direct result of urbanisation. In urban areas, especially in the metropolitan cities, people of extremely divergent cultures live together. This has a positive impact. People come to know about each other‟s culture and they exchange their ideas, breaking the barriers which earlier used to exist between them. This results in cultural hybridisation. 16

WOMEN Development is a process that signifies a state of evolvement, maturity, completeness, improvement and positive change transiting to a desirable higher level of quality of life. As we know, women have the subordinate status and position in the gender relationship, and therefore they experience social structural inequalities and injustices in their everyday lives. This is the reason that women are given special treatment in the development process and women‟s development becomes the prime concern in policies and programmes. It helps the women to strengthen their capacities and overcome the barriers experienced by them because of their sex. It recognizes both the productive and reproductive contributions of women to the society. Swami Vivekananda, a spiritual leader and great social reformer has said about the importance of women development long times ago that “There is no chance for welfare of world unless the condition of women is improved. It is not possible for a bird to fly on only one wing”. HISTORICAL STATUS OF WOMEN IN INDIA Historically Indian women are equal to men. The concept of woman as Shakti, the primal energy force, finds expression in the famous epic MAHABARATHA. In this epic woman is glorified as a “light of the house, mother of the universe and supporter of the earth and all its forests”. In earlier Vedic age, a woman held higher and honored situation in gender relationship. Manu in his MANUSMRITI, who was the first to codify the laws in India, also write about this, “Where women are verily honored, there the gods rejoice, where, however, they are not honored, there all sacred rites prove useless”. The most important issues that formed the base of social reforms during the freedom struggle were the abolition of sati, widow remarriages, and restraint on child marriages and women‟s education. Thus, history tells us that the freedom struggle was interwoven around the question of gender equality and free India incorporated this principle in the constitution in 1950. The term „development‟ assumes a greater significance in the specific context of woman with the secondary position at all levels, in spite of her inherent strengths and capabilities. 17

INITIATIVES FOR WOMEN DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA Each five year plan devotes a special section on the schemes and projects designed especially for women. Reservation of 33% seats was made in all elected offices of the local bodies in rural and urban areas. The introduction of 73rd and 74th amendments to the constitution ensures women‟s participation in politics, at least at the level of grass root democracy. It is an enabling provision for ensuring equity and justice. Education, health and women‟s welfare were identified three major areas for women‟s development. The focus is to provide welfare services and opportunities such as education, health, and maternity and child welfare to women. India has also ratified various international conventions and human rights instruments committing to secure equal rights for women. Key among them is the, Ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW 1979) in 1993. The convention provides the basis for realizing equality between women and men through ensuring women‟s equal access to, and equal opportunities in, political and public life- including the right to vote and to stand for election-as well as education, health and employment and making women‟s rights as human rights. FIRST FIVE For women‟s development voluntary Social Welfare Board at the centre and YEAR PLAN in the states were set up. Major indicatives are: SECOND  To support enrolment and mobilization of girls in schools at the primary level and at the university stage, emphasize was on vocational THIRD education, to take up employment immediately.  To make efforts of education so that women become better mothers and manage their household in an economical and efficient manner.  To encourage training of women doctors, midwives and dais to provide better childbirth and health services for women.  To develop the employability of women through technical training. This duration did not enunciate any new goals of development for women. However, stress was:  To promote girl‟s education through parents and to make education more relevant to girl‟s needs and employment of women teachers.  To improve maternal and child health but the emphasis was more on children.  To take care of women‟s physical and biological disabilities at the work place while allotting types of work in the field of labor. This plan continued to lay emphasis on the welfare aspect of women. Increased allocation for the central social welfare board, which was the main instrument of state activity, was also recommended. Increased assistance to voluntary organizations working in this field was encouraged. Approach of women development during third plan was 18

FOURTH AND  To link health, the maternal and child welfare services with the FIFTH general health facilities and referral institutions. SIXTH  To encourage family planning by adoption of the oral pill, a relatively SEVENTH new method of family planning at that time. EIGHTH No new initiatives were indicated. The policy parameters continued to stress on an approach, through the social welfare board, of assisting voluntary organizations dealing with the welfare of women. It stressed that the main strategy for women‟s development in the previous plans was three-fold-education, employment and health. Approach to women development during Sixth Five Year Plan was:  To increase enrolment of girls at the elementary level, promotion of functional literacy and encouraging the promotion of education for women in backward areas and  To improve health and family welfare, maternal and child welfare services and attention was paid to women‟s nutrition needs.  To generate more skilled and unskilled employment through vocational training and support services. However, on agriculture and industry side no new schemes for the employment of women were made however, Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was launched. The Seventh Five Year Plan (1986-1991) targeted concepts of equity and empowerment propagated globally by the United Nations Decade for Women, it emphasized.  To empower women by generating awareness of their rights and privileges.  To train women for more productive economic activity.  To develop support services to reduce the excessive daily burden of domestic work on women.  To enhance women‟s access to science and technology to promote their participation in creation of a sustainable environment.  To promote women‟s corporations for every state with the centre and state governments participation, at 50:50 funding.  The plan further commented upon the implementation of the Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWACRA) programme. The Department of Women and Child Development also prepared a plan of action for women for 1989-2000 and set up the Shram Shakti commission for evaluating the functioning of women in the informal sector and for suggesting steps for ameliorating their condition. 19

NINTH „Empowerment of Women‟ being one of the primary objectives of the ninth plan, every effort will be made to create an enabling environment where TENTH women can freely exercise their rights both within and outside home, as equal ELEVENTH partners, along with men. This will be realized through early finalization and adoption of the „national policy for empowerment of women‟ which laid down definite goals, targets and policy prescriptions along with a well-defined gender development index to monitor the impact of its implementation in raising the status of women from time to time. It also includes the expansion of economic and social opportunities for all individuals and groups, reduction in disparities and a greater participation in the decision making process. In the eleventh plan, for the first time, women are recognized not just as equal citizens but as agents of economic and social growth. The approach to gender equity is based on the recognition that interventions in favour of women must be multi-pronged and they must be : 1) provide women with basic entitlements 2) address the reality of globalization and its impact on women by prioritizing economic empowerment 3) ensure an environment free from all forms of violence against women (VAW)- physical, economic, social, psychological etc. 20

SCHEMES AND OTHER INTERVENTIONS 1. SWADHAR GREH: Swadhar Scheme was launched in year 2001-02 as a Central Sector Scheme for the benefit of women in difficult circumstances. Objectives of the scheme:  To provide primary need of shelter, food, clothing and care to the marginalized women/girls living in difficult circumstances who are without any social and economic support.  To provide emotional support and counselling to such women.  To provide for help line or other facilities to such women in distress. Swadhar scheme is being implemented through implementing agencies i.e. Social Welfare/Women and Child Welfare Departments of State Governments, Women‟s Development Corporations, Urban Local Bodies, reputed Public/Private Trusts or Voluntary organisations. 2. Hostel for Working Women (WWH):  The Scheme introduced in 1972-73 as a Central Sector Scheme, envisages provision of safe and affordable Hostel accommodation to Working, Single Working Women, Women Working at places away from their hometown and for women being trained for employment.  Under the Scheme Government provides financial assistance for Audio/Video construction of Hostel / Building on Public Land (75% of the total cost of construction), for rent of hostels run in rented premises. Provision of day care centre for children of the inmates of the Hostel is an important aspect of the scheme. 3. Support to Training and Employment Programme (STEP):  STEP Scheme was launched as Central Sector Scheme in 1986-87 with a view to make significant impact on women by upgrading skills for employment on sustainable basis and income generation for marginalized and asset-less rural and urban women especially those in SC/ST households and families below poverty line.  The key strategies include training for skill development, mobilizing women in viable groups, arranging for marketing linkages and access to credit. The scheme covers ten sectors of employment i.e. agriculture, animal husbandry, dairying, fisheries, handlooms, handicrafts, khadi and village industries, sericulture, waste land development and socio-forestry. The Government of India share is 90% of the cost project. 21

4. Comprehensive Scheme for Combating Trafficking (UJJAWALA):  Ujjawala is a Comprehensive Central Sector Scheme to combat trafficking, launched on 4th December, 2007.  The Scheme has five components viz., Prevention, Rescue, Rehabilitation and Re-Integration of Victims of Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation”.  The fund under the scheme is released to the implementing agencies which mainly include NGOs. The Government of India share is 90% of the total cost of the project. 5. Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (SABLA):  SABLA, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme was introduced in 2010-11 for holistic development of adolescent girls (11-18 years) making them self-reliant by improving their health and nutrition status and facilitating access to learning and public services through various interventions such as Health, Education, Vocational Training and counselling & guidance at AWC.  Under Nutrition Girls (14-18 years) are provided supplementary Nutrition and under Non- Nutrition component, out of school AGs (11-18 years) are provided IFA Supplementation, Health Check-up and Referral services, Counselling/ Guidance on Family Welfare etc.  Anganwadi Center is the focal point of the delivery of services. Nearly 100 lakh adolescent girls per annum are benefitted under the scheme. 6. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP): The scheme aims to address the issue of Child Sex Ratio (CSR) through a National level strategy focusing on mass campaign for improving CSR and promote education in 100 gender critical districts through multi-sectoral action. Objectives of the scheme are: • Prevent Gender biased sex selective elements • Ensure survival and protection of girl child. • Ensure education of the girl child. 22

7. National Mission for Empowerment of Women (NMEW):  Government of India (GoI) on International Women‟s Day in 2010 with the aim to strengthen overall processes that promotes all-round development of women.  It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence, facilitate the process of coordinating all the women‟s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments.  The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries.  The National Resource Center for Women has been set up which functions as a national convergence center for all schemes and programmes for women.  It acts as a central repository of knowledge, information, research and data on all gender related issues and is the main body servicing the National and State Mission Authority.  Poorna Shakti Kendra (PSK) is a model dedicated to helping women access the NMEW benefits made available to them through various government programmes.  Village coordinators at the Kendras would reach out to the women with the motto “HUM SUNENGE NAARI KI BAAT”. 8. New Passport Rules: In a major progressive move, on insistence of WCD Ministry, the Ministry of External Affairs has issued new Passport Rules on 23rd December, 2016 for the benefit of single/divorced mothers and their children as well as adopted/adoptable children as follows:  The online passport application form now requires the applicant to provide the name of father or mother or legal guardian, i.e., only one parent and not both. This would enable single parents to apply for passports for their children and to also issue passports where the name of either the father or the mother is not required to be printed at the request of the applicant.  The Passport application form does not require the applicant to provide the name of her/his spouse in case of separated or divorced persons. Such applicants for passports would not be required to provide even the Divorce Decree. 23

9. Panic Button on Mobile Phones:  The Ministry of Women and Child Development had taken up the issue of installation of physical panic button on mobile phones as one of the initiatives since June 2014. Based on extensive stakeholder consultations initiated by WCD Ministry, the „Panic Button and Global Positioning System in Mobile Phone Handsets Rules 2016‟ have been notified by the Department of Telecommunications.  Under these rules, all new feature phones will have the facility of panic button configured to the numeric key 5 or 9 and all smart phones will have the panic button configured to three times short pressing of the On-off button from the new year onwards. Further, all new mobile phones will be required to have the facility of identifying the location through satellite based GPS. 10. Implementation of Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act 2013:  After ensuring the establishment of Internal Complaints Committees in all Ministries/Departments of Government of India, the Ministry of WCD this year set up an Inter-Ministerial Committee headed by a senior official of the WCD Ministry to oversee the implementation of the Act in the Government.  The inter ministerial committee will create a panel of resource persons from which ICCs can take the external members. The training programmes of all services will have a module on the Act and DoPT will issue necessary instructions for this. 11. Expansion of One Stop Centres Scheme: To facilitate access to an integrated range of services including medical, legal, and psychological support to women affected by violence to be funded through Nirbhaya Fund. 24

12. National Policy on Women: Draft National Policy for Women 2016, framed by the MoWCD, prescribes the operational strategies for implementation of the policy. These include:  framing of Action Plans at the national, State and local level  strengthening gender institutional architecture  enacting new legislations and reviewing/ harmonizing legislations  engaging with stakeholders for advocacy and awareness generation  strengthening institutionalization of gender budgeting  creating an effective gender based data base. The policy looks into the entire life-cycle continuum of women‟s issues and encompasses a wide spectrum ranging from discrimination against women to the expectations of new emerging inspirational woman. 13. Launch of Mahila e-Haat: The Ministry of Women & Child Development launched Mahila e-Haat, a unique direct online digital marketing platform for women entrepreneurs/SHGs/NGOs in March 2016. It also aims at financial inclusion and economic empowerment of women. Mahila e-Haat facilitates direct contact between the vendor and buyer. The unique features of Mahila E-haat not available on other e-commerce portals are: a) Sharing of contact details of vendors b) E-learning services c) Pitara (Hamari Baat) conversations d) Services - Mahila e-Haat is a bilingual portal and has received over 14.50 lakh visitors/hits. 25

14. Gender Budgeting:  The first Gender Budget Statement appeared in the Union Budget 2005-06 and included 10 demands for grants. Ten states in India have also introduced gender budgeting but the lack of a standardised nomenclature for the various schemes has made it difficult to replicate or assess them.  The Government of India has adopted Gender Budgeting as a tool for gender mainstreaming at all levels and stages of budgetary process.  The GB Statement prepared by the Ministry of Finance reflects 30% and above allocations made for women by different Ministries/Departments. Schemes and programmes having less than 30% allocation which benefit women across sectors are not reflected in the Gender Budget Statement. There are also other schemes and programmes benefiting women which are not quantifiable and are not reflected in the GB Statement. CONCLUSION Recent developments like the Triple Talaq Bill and other existing initiatives involve a huge investment of men and money, yet large number of women, especially in rural areas, continue to remain vulnerable. Sexual abuse, domestic violence and emerging threats due to social media and cybercrime, make women even more vulnerable, in urban as well as rural areas. It is rightly said that an empowered women can build an empowered household, which in turn leads to an empowered nation. So, we must work towards increasing awareness, self defence training, assisting women in breaking the glass ceiling at the workplace and lastly teach the men to respect the women rather than schooling women on how they should behave. 26

CHILD India is home to the largest child population in the world. The Constitution of India guarantees Fundamental Rights to all children in the country and empowers the State to make special provisions for children. The Directive Principles of State Policy in the Constitution specifically guide the State in securing the tender age of children from abuse and ensuring that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner in conditions of freedom and dignity. The State is responsible for ensuring that childhood is protected from exploitation and moral and material abandonment. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child defines child as \"a human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier\". India ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child in the year 1992. The CRC draws attention to the four sets of civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights of the child:  The Right to Survival: includes the right to life, the highest attainable standard of health, nutrition and adequate standard of living. It also includes the right to name and nationality.  The Right to Protection: includes freedom from all forms of exploitation, abuses, inhuman or degrading treatment and negligence including the right to special protection in situation of emergency and armed conflicts.  The Right to Development: consists of the rights to education, support for early childhood, development and care, social security and right to leisure, recreation and cultural activities.  The Right to Participation: includes respect for the views of the child, freedom of expression, access to appropriate information and freedom of thought, consensus and religion. 27

CHILD ABUSE According to UNICEF violence against children can be \"physical and mental abuse and injury, neglect or negligent treatment, exploitation and sexual abuse. 1. Physical Abuse: Physical abuse is the inflicting of physical injury upon a child. 2. Sexual Abuse: Sexual abuse is inappropriate sexual behaviour with a child.  It is the act of engaging a child in any sexual activity that he/she does not understand or cannot give informed consent for or is not physically, mentally or emotionally prepared for.  It includes inappropriate touching, intercourse, incest, rape, sodomy, sexual exploitation, using a child for pornography, sexual materials, prostitution 3. Emotional Abuse: Emotional abuse is also known as verbal abuse, mental abuse, and psychological maltreatment. It includes acts or the failures to act by parents or caretakers that have caused or could cause, serious behavioural, cognitive, emotional, or mental trauma. 4. Neglect: It is the failure to provide for the child's basic needs. Neglect can be physical, educational, or emotional IMPACT OF CHILD ABUSE: 1. Can result in death and lead to injuries. 2. Impair brain and nervous system development: Exposure to violence at an early age can impair brain development and damage other parts of the nervous system. Violence against children can negatively affect cognitive development and results in educational and vocational under-achievement. 3. Result in negative coping and health risk behaviours: Children exposed to violence and other adversities are substantially more likely to smoke, misuse alcohol and drugs, and engage in high-risk sexual behaviour. 4. Mental health: Children exposed to violence have higher rates of anxiety, depression, other mental health problems and suicide. 5. Child sexual abuse can lead to unintended pregnancies, induced abortions, gynaecological problems, and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. 28

6. Violence contributes to a wide range of non-communicable diseases as children grow older. 7. Impact opportunities and future generations: Children exposed to violence and other adversities are more likely to drop out of school and have difficulty in employment. Violence may also affect future familial relations and impact future generations. FIGURE: CRIMES AGAINST CHILDREN 29

GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES a) Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) It was launched in 1975 with the following objectives: 1. To improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age-group 0-6 years 2. To lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child 3. To reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropout. It provides supplementary nutrition, immunization, regular health check-up, pre-school non-formal education and nutrition & health education. b) The Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS)  It is a centrally sponsored scheme aimed at building a protective environment for children in difficult circumstances, as well as other vulnerable children, through Government- Civil Society Partnership.  ICPS brings together multiple existing child protection schemes of the MoWCD under one comprehensive umbrella, and integrates additional interventions for protecting children and preventing harm.  ICPS, therefore, would institutionalize essential services and strengthen structures, enhance capacities at all levels, create database and knowledge base for child protection services, strengthen child protection at family and community level, ensure appropriate inter- sectoral response at all levels.  The scheme would set up a child protection data management system to formulate and implement effective intervention strategies and monitor their outcomes.  Regular evaluation of the programmes and structures would be conducted and course correction would be undertaken. d) Mid-Day Meal Scheme (MDMS):  This scheme launched in 1995, aims to enhance enrolment, retention, and attendance of children in schools apart from improving their nutritional levels. 30

 As part of this scheme, cooked meals with a minimum content of 450 calories and 12 grams of protein are to be provided to children in school.  The Scheme was extended, with effect from October 1, 2007, to children in the upper primary stage of education in Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs).  The scheme is implemented through the States/Union Terrorities. MDMS now includes madrasas and maktabs supported under the SSA as well as children under the National Child Labour Projects. e) Integrated Programme for Juvenile Justice The programme is being implemented by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment with a view to providing carte to children in difficult circumstances and children in conflict with the law through Government institutions and through NGOs. Some special features of the scheme areas: 1. Establishment of a National Advisory Board on Juvenile Justice. 2. Creation of a Juvenile Justice Fund. 3. Training, orientation and sensitization of judicial, administrative police and NGOs responsible for implementation of JJ Act. 4. Financial assistance to bring about a qualitative improvement in the existing infrastructure. 5. Expansion of non-institutional services such as sponsorship, foster care, probation etc. as and an alternate to institutional care. f) Elimination of Child Labour  It is being implemented by the Ministry of Labour which sanctions projects for rehabilitation of working children and for elimination of child labour.  Under the project based Action Plan of the Policy, National Child Labour Projects (NCLPs) have been set up in different areas to rehabilitate child labour.  A major activity undertaken under the NCLP is the establishment of special schools to provide non-formal education, vocational training, supplementary nutrition etc. to children withdrawn from employment. 31

g) Prevention of Offences against Children After wide consultations a draft Bill for offences Against Children has been prepared and circulated to the State Governments for their comments and views. After obtaining the comments of the State governments and concerned Ministries and Departments a draft has been prepared and circulated to the concerned Ministries and Departments for their comments and use. h) Child Budgeting  The key objectives of the endeavor would be to analyze budgetary provisions on social sector, to identify the magnitude of budgetary allocations made by the Centre/State Governments on schemes meant for addressing specific needs of children, to examine the trend in child specific expenditure etc.  Identify methods for tracking expenditure and monitoring performance to ensure that outlays translate into outcomes for children. i) Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP):  BBBP seeks to improve the declining trend of Child Sex Ratio (CSR) in 100 selected districts in every State/ UT from the current level of 918 by preventing gender- biased sex selection and ensuring survival, protection and education of the girl child. It is a flagship program of MoWCD.  Multi-sectoral District Action Plans have been operationalized in all states. District Collectors are leading the initiative.  The objectives of this initiative are: Prevention of gender biased sex selective elimination; Ensuring survival & protection of the girl child and Ensuring education and participation of the girl child. j) Engendering Young Boys and Girls in Educational Institutions through Gender Champions:  To sensitize young boys and girls on gender equality issues, the scheme of Gender Champions has been introduced from the school level itself. UGC has requested Colleges and Universities to implement Gender Champions., this programme has been started for all educational institutions where selected boys and girls will be recognized as Gender Champions. 32

 Gender Champions are envisaged as responsible leaders who will facilitate an enabling environment within their schools/colleges/academic institutions where girls are treated with dignity and respect.  Gender Champions can be both boys and girls above 16 years of age enrolled in educational institutions. k) Khoya Paya Portal: • The web portal „Khoya-Paya‟ will have information of missing and sighted children. The information will be shared in real time with police and state authorities, who are mandated to register the complaint and investigate the case. l) National Nutrition Mission:  A new Mission to tackle the problem of malnutrition has been launched in March 2016 so that supplementary nutrition can be provided in a targeted manner with real-time IT based monitoring at ground level.  It has put in place a comprehensive set of measures and activities that will address pivotal and complex issues of malnutrition and focus on outcome monitoring, training and capacity building. m) CHILDLINE India It is a project of Ministry of Women and Child Development. The Childline India foundation, a NGO, operates a telephone helpline called Childline, for children in distress. CONCLUSION Today, despite large number of schemes and laws for protection of children, they continue to remain a vulnerable population in the country. Lack of awareness, database and mutual trust in the system accompanied with lack of accessibility to public servants like police officials add to the trouble. We must thus, reframe laws according to changing times (to prevent their misuse) and spread awareness about the same. 33

PROTECTION OF CHILDREN FROM SEXUAL OFFENCES ACT (POCSO ACT), 2012 The Act was established to protect the children against offences like sexual abuse, sexual harassment and pornography. It was formed to provide a child-friendly system for trial and punishment perpetrators. Salient features:  Definition of child: Any person below eighteen years of age. Thus, it is a gender neutral act.  Sexual abuse: Sexual abuse includes penetrative and non-penetrative assault. It also involves sexual harassment, pornography, etc.  It deems a sexual assault to be “aggravated” under certain circumstances, such as when the abused child is mentally ill or when the abuse is committed by a person in a position of trust or authority vis-à-vis the child, like a family member, police officer, teacher, or doctor.  People who traffic children for sexual purposes are also punishable under the provisions relating to abetment in the Act.  The Act prescribes stringent punishment graded as per the gravity of the offence, with a maximum term of rigorous imprisonment for life, and fine.  The Act provides for the establishment of Special Courts for trial of offences under the Act, keeping the best interest of the child as of paramount importance at every stage of the judicial process.  The Act incorporates child friendly procedures for reporting, recording of evidence, investigation and trial of offences. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN POCSO:  In 2018, the Centre cleared the ordinance on POCSO act whereby death penalty will be given to those convicted of raping a child up to 12 years of age  In October 2018, the Union ministry of Law and Justice ratified a proposal by the Women and Child Development (WCD) ministry to scrap the time limit for reporting child abuse cases. The move has been applauded by activists on the grounds that this would enable victims to disclose such incidents when they gain the courage to report the matter as adults 34

YOUTH The Youth represent the most dynamic and vibrant segment of the population. India is one of the youngest nations in the World, with about 65 per cent of the population being under 35 years of age. The youth in the age group of 15-29 years comprise 27.5 per cent of the population. India is expected to become the 4th largest economy by 2025, only after the United States, China and Japan, contributing about 5.5 per cent-6 per cent to the world GDP. While most of these developed countries face the risk of an ageing workforce, India is expected to have a very favourable demographic profile. This „demographic dividend‟ offers a great opportunity. However, in order to capture this demographic dividend, it is essential that the economy has the ability to support the increase in the labour force and the youth have the appropriate education, skills, health awareness and other enablers to productively contribute to the economy. To achieve this, a number of initiatives have been taken by all stakeholders. The need for empowering youth arises due to the following reasons:-  To enable youth to acquire such knowledge, skills and techniques which will help them in their personal and social growth as well as foster in them sensitivity towards problems in the society.  To promote national integration and international understanding by developing youth leadership and providing a forum for youth from diverse background.  To promote regional co-operation and exchange between people of various countries.  To foster initiatives for unfolding the potential of youth through a constant process of self evaluation and self -exploration.  To promote research in youth work. 35

PROBLEMS FACED BY YOUTH  Large scale unemployment in India, due to poor vocational education and employability.  Drug abuse and health consequences, because of easy availability, especially in states like Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, etc.  Lack of psychological support services to deal with emotional and mental challenges like anxiety, depression, etc. which continue to remain a taboo in the country.  Social media prevalence has led to newer challenges related to peer pressure, privacy, etc. It has also increased chances of radicalization.  Generation gap and related conflicts take a toll on mental and physical health of the youth.  Sports and extra-curricular activities remain out of reach for want of infrastructure and coaches. 36

GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES a) Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS):  Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS), launched in 1972, is one of the largest youth organisations in the world.  The objective of the Programme is to develop the personality and leadership qualities of the youth and to engage them in nation-building activities.  The areas of focus of the NYKS activities include literacy and education, health and family welfare, sanitation and cleanliness, environment conservation, awareness on social issues, women empowerment, rural development, skill development and self-employment, entrepreneurship development, civic education, disaster relief and rehabilitation, etc. b) National Service Scheme (NSS):  National Service Scheme (NSS) was introduced in 1969 with the primary objective of developing the personality and character of the student youth through voluntary community service. An NSS volunteer places the „community before self‟.  NSS aims at developing the following qualities/ competencies among the volunteers: (i) to understand the community in which the NSS volunteers work and to understand themselves in relation to their community; (ii) to identify the needs and problems of the community and involve themselves in problem-solving exercise; (iii) to develop among themselves a sense of social and civic responsibility; (iv) to utilize their knowledge in finding practical solutions to individual and community problems; (v) to gain skills in mobilizing community participation; (vi) to acquire leadership qualities and democratic values; (vii) to develop capacity to meet emergencies and natural disasters; and (viii) to practice national integration and social harmony. NSS attempts to establish meaningful linkages between „Campus and Community‟, „College and Village‟ and „Knowledge and Action‟. c) National Programme for Youth and Adolescent Development (NPYAD):  NPYAD is an umbrella scheme for providing support to Government/ non-Government organisations for undertaking activities for adolescent and the youth. 37

 It also organises National Youth Festival. Large numbers of youth participate in the Festival.  Department of Youth Affairs partners with Ministry of External Affairs for organisation of Youth Pravasi Bharatiya Divas. d) National Young Leaders Programme (NYLP): In pursuance to the Budget announcement during 2014-15, a new Scheme, namely, „National Young Leaders Programme (NYLP)‟ was launched in December, 2014 in order to develop leadership qualities among the youth. Some significant achivements during the year are as follows:  Neighbourhood Youth Parliament Programmes are being organised by involving NYKS- affiliated youth clubs with the objective of developing leadership qualities of the youth by involving them in debate/ discussions on contemporary issues.  Youth for Development: The Programme is being organised, through NYKS and NSS, to develop leadership qualities of the youth by involving them in Shramadaan activities. Awards are given to youth clubs/ NSS units doing outstanding work. e) National Youth Policy 2014: The new policy of youth to be in the age group of 15-29 years to empower youth of the country to achieve their full potential , and through them enable India to find its rightful place in the community of nations. Objectives: i. Create a productive workforce that can make a sustainable contribution to india‟s economic development. ii. Develop a strong and healthy generation equipped to take on future challenges. iii. Instil social values and promote community service to build national ownership. iv. Facilitate participation and civic engagement at levels of governance. v. Support youth at risk and create equitable opportunity for all disadvantaged and marginalized youth. The NYP 2014 will be implemented in four steps – 1. GOI will formulate an action plan within 6 months for the implementation of the policy across all the concerned ministries and department. 38

2. The MYAS also constituted a Youth Council consisting of exceptional youth from across the country to oversee the implementation of the policy. 3. A set of short-term and long-term indicators for measuring the success of the policy. 4. The youth are encouraged to engage their elected representatives and the government if there is any shortcomings in the implementation of youth oriented schemes as outlined in the NYP. Youth Development Index will include the indices viz. Youth Health Index, Youth Education Index, Youth Work Index, Youth Amenities Index, and Youth Participation Index. f) Scouting and Guiding  The Department provides financial assistance to the Scouting and Guiding Organisations, with a view to promoting the Scouts and Guides movement in the country.  Scouts and Guides movement is an international movement aimed at building character, confidence, idealism and spirit of patriotism and service among young boys and girls.  Scouting and Guiding also seeks to promote balanced physical and mental development among the boys and girls.  The activities, inter alia, include programmes related to adult literacy, environment conservation, community service, health awareness and promotion of hygiene and sanitation. CONCLUSION Young people in all countries are both a major human resource for development and key agents for social change, economic development and technological innovation. Their imagination, ideals, considerable energies and vision are essential for the continuing development of the societies in which they live. The problems that young people face as well as their vision and aspiration are essential components of the challenges and prospects of today‟s societies and future generations. Hence, Identifying the challenges faced by today‟s youth and suggesting strategies and recommendations for uprooting them and attempts at creating such a nation where women are considered equally respectful and dominant as men is paramount wake. There is also a critical need to involve young people in decisions that will affect them. We cannot talk about sustainable development without the active involvement of youth, these ideas forward to harness the demographic dividend, holding human rights, gender equality, human capital, and dignity at the center of all our investments. 39

OLD AGE Ageing is a continuous, irreversible, universal process, which starts from conception till the death of an individual. However, the age at which one‟s productive contribution declines and one tends to be economically dependent can probably be treated as the onset of the aged stage of life. National Elderly Policy defines person of 60+ age group as elderly. According to Population Census 2011, there are nearly 104 million elderly persons in India. It has increased from 5.5% in 1951 to 8.6% in 2011 and a rise of upto 19% by 2050 is projected. As regards rural and urban areas, more than 73 million persons i.e. 71% of elderly population resides in rural areas while 31 million or 29% of elderly population are in urban area. IMPORTANT CONTIBUTION OF THE ELDERLY  Elderly people carry immense experience of their personal and professional life and the society at large. There is a need to channelise that experience for a better tomorrow. Countries like Japan, Singapore, etc. have best utilised their talent.  They can provide a vital generational link for upcoming generations. It provides support and stability to families and society at large.  Grandparents in joint families provide a crucial link for transferring values and morals to the younger generation in their initial years, thereby contributing towards upbringing of better human beings and responsible citizens.  Acknowledging seniors‟ contributions would help to make ours a more age-inclusive society that does not pit one generation against the other.  Their deep cultural impressions and social experiences provide the necessary buffer against intolerance, violence and hate crimes which provides stability in society especially in the era of hate and crime. 40

PROBLEMS OF THE ELDERLY SOCIAL  Rapid transformation in Indian society has led to the erosion of traditional values and institutions, resulting in the weakening of intergenerational ties that were the hallmark of the traditional family.  Industrialization has replaced the simple family production units by the mass production and the factory.  Negligence by kids towards their old parents.  Disillusionment due to retirement.  Feeling of powerlessness, loneliness, uselessness and isolation in elderly.  Generational gap. FINANCIAL  Retirement and dependence of elderly on their child even for basic necessities, especially because of lack of pension and other retirement benefits for most of our population.  Sudden increase in out of pocket expenses on treatment.  Migration of young working-age persons from rural area has negative impacts on the elderly, living alone or with only the spouse usually poverty and distress.  Insufficient housing facility. HEALTH  Multiple disabilities among the elders in old age. Health issues like blindness, locomotor disabilities and deafness are most prevalent.  Mental illness arising from senility and neurosis.  Absence of geriatric care facilities at hospitals, more so in rural area. FEMINISATION  The sex ratio of the elderly has increased from 938 women to 1,000 OF OLD AGE men in 1971 to 1,033 in 2011 and is projected to increase to 1,060 by 2026.  It is also noted that between 2000 and 2050, the population of 80-plus people would have grown 700% “with a predominance of widowed and highly dependent very old women” and so the special needs of such old women would need significant focus of policy and programmes.  Example: poor living conditions of widows in Vrindavan. 41

GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES INTEGRATED  The main objective of the scheme is to improve the quality of life PROGRAMME FOR of older persons by providing basic amenities like shelter, food, OLDER PERSONS medical care and entertainment opportunities, etc. (IPOP) RASHTRIYA  This scheme is run by the Ministry of Social Justice and VAYOSHRI YOJANA Empowerment. This is a central sector scheme funded from the (RVY) Senior Citizens‟ Welfare Fund. All unclaimed amounts from small savings accounts, PPF and EPF are to be transferred to this fund. INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OLD AGE  Under the RVY scheme, aids and assistive living devices are PENSION SCHEME provided to senior citizens belonging to BPL category who suffer (IGNOAPS) from age-related disabilities such as low vision, hearing impairment, loss of teeth and locomotor disabilities. The aids and assistive devices, viz walking sticks, elbow crutches, walkers/crutches, tripods/quad pods, hearing aids, wheelchairs, artificial dentures and spectacles are provided to eligible beneficiaries.  The scheme is being implemented by Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation of India (ALIMCO), which is a public sector undertaking under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.  The Ministry of Rural Development runs the National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) that extends social assistance for poor households for the aged, widows, disabled, and in cases of death where the breadwinner has passed away.  Under this scheme, financial assistance is provided to person of 60 years and above and belonging to family living below poverty line as per the criteria prescribed by Government of India. Central assistance of Rs 200 per month is provided to person in the age group of 60-79 years and Rs 500 per month to persons of 80 years and above. 42

VARISHTHA PENSION  This scheme is run by the Ministry of Finance. It is a social BIMA YOJANA (VPBY) security scheme for senior citizens intended to give an assured minimum pension on a guaranteed minimum return on the THE PRADHAN subscription amount. MANTRI VAYA VANDANA YOJANA  It is a simplified version of the VPBY and will be implemented by the Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) of India. VAYOSHRESHTHA SAMMAN  Under the scheme, on payment of an initial lump sum amount ranging from Rs 1,50,000 for a minimum pension of Rs 1000 per LEGAL BACKINGS month to a maximum of Rs 7,50,000/- for a maximum pension of Rs 5,000 per month, subscribers will get an assured pension based on a guaranteed rate of return of 8% per annum payable monthly/quarterly/half-yearly/annually.  The Centre will bear 75 percent of the total budget and the state government will contribute 25 percent of the budget, for activities up to district level.  Conferred as a National award, and given to eminent senior citizens & institutions under various categories for their contributions on International day of Older Persons on 1st October.  Article 41 and Article 46 are the constitutional provisions for elderly persons. Although directive principles are not enforceable under the law, but it creates a positive obligation towards the state while making any law.  Section 20 of Hindu Marriage and Adoption Act, 1956 makes it obligatory to maintain aged parents.  Under Section 125 of Criminal Procedure Code, the elder parents can claim maintenance from their children.  The Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007, seeks to make it legal for the children or heirs to maintain their parents or senior citizens of the family.  Convention on the Rights of Older Persons is proposed in United Nation.  In 1982, the Report of the World Assembly on Ageing (also known as \"the International Plan on Ageing\") was published, which represented the first international debate on the rights of 43

older persons and presented a plan for their implementation.  The UN Population Fund was tasked with implementing the Plan of the Second World Assembly which adopted “Madrid International Plan” on ageing in 2002. SUGGESTIONS  Increasing the monthly pension of elderly to minimum of Rs 2,000 per month. Insurance and pension must be promoted to ensure future planning, stability and security.  Under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana, Housing for the aged, particularly the aged poor, must be a priority.  Assisted living facilities for indigent elderly, particularly those with age-related issues like dementia, needs policy focus. Infrastructure development like old age homes is a must, considering the changing demography of the country.  More tax benefits, or at least removing tax on deposit interest for seniors.  Enhancing the geriatric healthcare infrastructure especially in rural area.  Allocation of special budget for elderly population at both levels.  Providing entertainment facilities like libraries and clubs at panchayat level.  Appreciations for the contributions of the elderly at village level. CONCLUSION Social security is the concurrent responsibility of the central and state governments, as mandated under the Indian constitution. In this regard, National Policy on Senior Citizen, 2011 was framed. For the welfare and care for the older persons, we must focus on the protection of already existing social support systems/traditional social institutions such as family and kinship, neighbourhood bonding, community bonding and community participation must be revived and kins should show sensitivity towards elderly citizens. 44

NATIONAL POLICY ON SENIOR CITIZEN, 2011 The Policy accords priority to the needs of senior citizens aged 80 years and above, elderly women, and the rural poor. Some of the salient policy objectives are to:  Mainstream the concerns of senior citizens, especially older women, and bring them into the national development debate.  Promote income security, homecare services, old age pension, healthcare insurance schemes, housing and other programmes/ services.  Promote care of senior citizens within the family and to consider institutional care as a last resort.  Work towards an inclusive, barrier-free and age-friendly society.  Recognize senior citizens as a valuable resource for the country, protect their rights and ensure their full participation in society.  Promote long term savings instruments and credit activities in both rural and urban areas.  Encourage employment in income generating activities after superannuation.  Support organizations that provide counselling, career guidance and training services; etc. 45

TRIBALS There are 370 million indigenous people in the world. In Indian the indigenous people are recognised constitutionally as Scheduled Tribes under Article 342 and the word „scheduled tribe‟ is defined in Art 366(25) of the of Indian Constitution. As per 2001 census, 104 million such scheduled tribals are there in India constituting 8.6 % of country‟s population. Tribal development has been the main agenda of governance since from the fifth five year plan where the Tribal Sub Plan concept was introduced in the year 1974-75. Accordingly the special administrative attention was drawn to channelize the financial resources to invigorate the socio- economically vulnerable Scheduled Tribe communities across the country. The scheduled areas declared as so by the President of India under Article 244 of constitution are given special attention in few states by way of forming Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA). ITDA constitutes a block of area with Scheduled Tribe population of more than 50% and administered by a designated officer. In the country there are 194 such ITDA‟s (ITDP‟s) covering the states of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra etc. The Governor of such state will have the plenary power to regulate the operation of state acts and rules in these agency areas there by safeguarding the interests of tribals, their culture and customs. 46


ISSUES In spite of constitutional mandates and legislative obligations to safeguard and promote the tribal development, few stumbling blocks are constantly scourging the progress at the ground level. The major challenges in the tribal areas are:  Remoteness: The tribal hamlets and habitations are located either in a valley or on the hill tops in most of the places. Due to which they are excludes from major developmental activities, improved cultivation practices, education and health facilities.  Exploitation: The agriculture produces, local non timber forest produce and other valuable forest resources are being siphoned out by the middlemen from the innocent tribals for the paltry prices thus leaving the tribals exploited financially.  Superstition: Poverty, health issues, illiteracy and under development is often ascribed to the fate, star and supernatural events. Even preventable deaths are sometimes construed as may be due to bad omen; the scientific temper is a remotest aspiration. Hence the mainstream thinking and developmental spirit has seldom percolated down.  Road and Telecom Connectivity: Due to tough terrain and difficult areas of tribal locations, it requires huge resources to establish connectivity to all the habitation. The contractors are not coming forward to take up works as their profit margin reduces. Further, the habitations are largely located in the forests hence forest clearance remain bottle neck to establish the connectivity. The telecom connectivity is also as sparse as the roads. Hence the penetration of digital literacy is hampered in typical tribal areas.  Lack of health awareness: Unscientific practices, local beliefs, self medication, customary doctor etc have deprived them from availing the institutional health facilities.  Illiteracy: It is the main hurdle in improving living standards of tribals in the tribal belts. The spill over effect of illiteracy is „lack of confidence‟ to adopt progressive steps.  Primitive agriculture: the traditional areas where tribal live are mostly forests and hill terrains, having no proper potential for the adoption of modern agriculture on a large scale. Even now the PVTG‟s are practicing shifting cultivation (Podu farming) on the hill slopes of eastern states.  Small holdings: due to their subsistence agriculture, the land holdings if any are very small and just to meet the family need. Hence the penetration of improved agricultural practices and commercial crops is poor.  Unemployment: Inability to catch up with the skilled jobs in the open market due to lack of exposure to formal skill training, the unemployment is haunting the qualified tribal youths. 48

GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Grant in Aid under Art 275(i) The central government provides grants in aid charged on consolidated fund of India for the development of additional education infrastructure, residential schools, hostels, health infrastructure strengthening and augmenting agriculture income and water conservation. Conservation-cum Development-Plan (CCDP) For the development of PVTG‟s state government has to prepare Conservation cum development plan. As per which, the central government funds are allocated for housing, land distribution, land development, agricultural growth, cattle development, connectivity, installation of nonconventional sources of energy for lighting purpose, social security or any other innovative activity meant for the comprehensive socioeconomic development of PVTGs. Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub Plan (SCA to TSP) Those states who have passed Tribal Sub Plan legislation for earmarking the funds for tribal development will get central assistance for tribal education, health, agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, fisheries, dairy and other income generating schemes to augment tribal household economy; For improving administrative structure, institutional framework & research studies of tribals. Special Developmental Package (SDP) Government of India provides funds under SDP for the development of backward districts in the state. The infrastructure projects, Soil and water conservation projects, tourism and other income generation activities, health and educational infrastructural activities can be developed in such backward districts. Integrated Action Plan (IAP) The erstwhile Left Wing Extremism affected areas are treated under IAP with the funds received in coordination with the Ministry of Home Affairs for establishing critical infrastructure in the remote and inaccessible tribal areas. 49

National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation (NSTFDC) Under the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, the corporation provides concessional term loans for the economic upliftment of the PVTG‟s. The income generating activities, small entrepreneurial initiatives, allied agricultural activities, service sector activities are being financed. State Scheduled Tribes Cooperative Finance Corporation Limited (TRICOR) The corporation is mainly implementing the economic support schemes and livelihood activities to the tribals of below poverty line in all sectors including Agri, Horti, Animal husbandry, Service sector and Skill development. The bank linkage subsidy schemes are sponsored for all the tribals. The portion of investment is given as TRICOR subsidy, a portion as loan from the nationalised banks and a portion has to be incurred by the beneficiary himself. The number of such loans allotted to each district is proportionate to the ST population in that district. Scheme for Minor Forest Produce The price of MFP is very often determined by traders rather than by demand and supply because of skewed information. The scheme is initially implemented in States having areas under fifth Schedule of the Constitution for 12 MFPs namely (i) Tendu Leaves (ii) Bamboo (iii) Mahua seed (iv) Sal Leaf (v) Sal Seed (vi) Lac (vii) Chironjee (viii) Wild Honey (ix) Myrobalan (x) Tamarind (xi) Gums (Gum Karaya) and (xii) Karanj. The Ministry‟s agency, TRIFED has hosted „MFPNET‟, a web-based portal through which current price of MFPs can be known across important Mandis of different States. Implementation of Forest Rights Act The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 is a landmark legislation to recognize the pre-existing rights of tribals and other traditional forest dwellers who are in occupation of forest land, but whose rights could not be recorded. Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana In order to achieve comprehensive development of tribals, Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana (VKY) is being implemented by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs which focuses on convergence of different schemes of development. VKY also envisages a shift in working character and rather than focusing merely on physical and financial achievements. For example, instead of number of schools, it will see the number of students who have passed with distinction. The proposed intervention is aimed at adopting a holistic approach commensurate to the Gujarat Model for overall development of the tribal people with sustainability. 50

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