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ကွန်မြူနစ်ပါတီကြေညာစာတမ်း

Published by accmelibrary, 2022-11-16 07:31:24

Description: ကွန်မြူနစ်ပါတီကြေညာစာတမ်း

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uGefjrLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf; MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY KARL MARX AND FREDERICK ENGELS A[0dk g'[email protected] &;Xme Armjynuf eG jf rLepyf gwD


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ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f a=umihf &vmonhf to;D tyiG rhf sm; jzpof n?f ‘qAdk ,D u’f ueG jf rLepuf trsKd;om;vGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ukd tm;wufoa&m axmufcH tm;ay;cJhIvnf; vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJ0if tiftm;pkrsm;. pdwfcs& aom obm0r[mrdwf jzpfvmcJhonf? e,[email protected];csif; [email protected] 'kwd,urBmppftwGif;rSm armpf wD ek ;f taw;G tac: a&@Saqmirf E_ iS hf w±wk jf ynaf wmvf eS af &; tm; }uD;vm+yD; atmifjrifcJhwm jzpfonf? ( 3 )'wk ,d urmB ppf +y;D onahf emurf pS +y;D ,ctk csed tf xd e,cf [email protected];f csi;f pprf jzpaf wmyh g? pprf jzp±f rHk u owl @dktcsi;f csi;f ueG jf rLepqf [email protected] &; twGuf pnf;vkH;rdaeonf? tar&duefukd acgif;aqmifwifxm;=u onf? [email protected] vkdvkdcsifcsif acgif;aqmifwifonf? (Oyrm t*Fvdyf) [email protected] rwwof [email protected] acgi;f aqmif wiof n?f (Oyrm jyiof p/f *smr%)D bmyjJ zpjf zpf acgi;f aqmiaf wmh wnwD nwG wf n;f wixf m;on?f ol [email protected] [email protected]&;rSm nDnGwf=uonf? Ttjzprf eS uf dk owrd jyKb/J xnrhf pO;f pm;bJ qAdk ,D uf ueG jf rL epuf “wEidk if wH n;f rmS q&dk ,S vf ppf epuf ueG jf rLeppf epof @dk cswD uEf idk f onf/ csDwufrnf”[k vkyfvkdufonf? w±kwfjynfygwDuvnf; tm;usrcH “cek vf m$ ;cswD uaf &;” vyk of n?f c±;l &uS uf qvdk #if “ri;f [email protected] udk ajrjrK‡ yof +*Kõ [yf prf ,”f txd ajymon?f aemuqf ;Hk awmh o+*Kõ [f cH&wmu qkdAD,uf jzpfoGm;onf? w±kwfjynfygwDuawmh 1970 jynfhvGefESpfawGuwnf;u wjznf;jznf; [email protected] oufomoGm;onf? jzpfpOftus,fukd ra&;awmyh g? &aJ bmrf sm;u,dk wf idk yf J avvh m=uapcsiof n?f tck wijf y csifwmuæ ™e,[email protected];csif; ppfjzpfaewkef;[email protected] atmifjrifcJh wmukd (w&m;ao,l+yD;) e,[email protected];csif; pnf;vkH;rdaecsdefrSm vkyf v#if ESmacgif;[email protected]@wwfonf? ™&efol0kdif;0kdif;vnfaecsdefrSm qkd&S,fvpfwkdif;jynfrsm;t 5


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f wGif; pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&;ukd }[email protected]&rnf? rdrdwkdif;jynfrS jynfol vlxk. pm;0wfaea&;ukd wqifhcsif; jr‡ifhwifay;ae&rnf? ™ rmuh pf 0f g'udk acwEf iS thf nD w;dk [email protected]&rn?f 21 &mpwk iG f ‘21 &mpk rmuh pf 0f g'’ udk yaHk zmEf idk =f u&rn?f acwEf iS thf nD rw;dk [email protected] f v#if w&m;aotrSm;/ qENpGJtrSm; jzpfvdrfhrnf? æ[Il jzpyf gon?f (4) 21 &mpk.xl;jcm;csufrSm e,[email protected];pktm;vkH;u tar&duefukd wnDwnGwfwnf; acgif;aqmifwifxm;onf? AkdvfvkyfcGifhay;xm; on?f tar&ud euf vn;f 21 &mpuk dk tar&ud e&f mpk jzpaf p&rnqf +dk y;D wkdif;jynfi,frsm; (txl;ojzifh waumifºuuf txD;usefjzpfaeonfh EkdifiHi,frsm;) ukd &ef&Smaeonf? 15 &mpkrS 19 &mpktxd vkyfcJhonfh e,[email protected][mif;ukd jyevf yk vf @dk r&reS ;f tar&ud euf ood n?f 'ga=umiyhf J “vwG vf yrf E_ iS hf 'Drkdua&pD” ukd wa=umfa=umfvkyfum e,[email protected] jzpfonf? tmz*efepPwefESifh tD&wfukd apmifh=unfh&ygrnf? [email protected] e,[email protected] ukdvkdeD0g'opf. pHerlemjzpfvmvdrfhrnf? (5) w±wk yf gwuD w±wk vf u%Q m&odS nhf ‘y%mr q&dk ,S vf ptf qi’hf udk vkyfaeonf? 'g[m [email protected]±kwfjynftajctaet& vkyfaeonfh ‘21 &mpk rmhufpf0g'’ }uHqcsuf[k xifygonf? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD uvnf; Armjynftajctaet& 21 &mpk rmhufpf0g'ukd vkyfaeyg onf? w±wk jf ynyf gwuD tm%m&ygwD jzpof nf? ArmjynfygwuD ajratmuf twkduftcH ygwDjzpfonf? taetxm;csif; rwlwmukd owdjyKyg? ArmjynfygwDu tdENd,uGefjrLepfygwDrsm;ESifhyif rwlyg? owl @dku ‘w&m;0i’f ygwaD wjG zpof n?f CPI (M) qvdk #if Arm jynf avmuf vlOD;a&rsm;=uonfh jynfe,f (2) ckwGif tm%m&aewm jzpfonf? [email protected];pm;ovkd/ [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] rjzpfyg? 6


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f ( 6 ) vDeifu ‘t&if;&Sifpepf. tjrifhqkH;tqifhjzpfaom e,[email protected]’ usrf;ukd 20 &mpku a&;cJhovkd 21 &mpkwGifvnf; 21 &mpkwGif wnf&Sdonfh ‘e,[email protected]’ta=umif; jyKpkoifhygonf? rmhufpf/ tdef*,[email protected]/ [email protected] pmtkyfwtkyf jyKpkrnfqkdv#if pm =unfhwkdufukd ukd,fwkdifoGm;+yD; rSwfpkxkwf&onf? +yD;rS a&;&onf? ,[email protected] uGefysLwm wvkH;&Sd+yD; tifwmeufcsdwfqufEkdifv#if xidk &f mrx trd rf mS ae&i;f pmtyk jf yKpEk idk yf gon?f Eidk if jH cm;a&muf ygwD 0ifrsm;/ ygwDvkdvm;olrsm;/ ygwDy rmhufpf0g'Drsm;ukd 21 &mpkwGif wnf&Sdonfh e,[email protected]=umif;/ *vkdb,fvkdufaZ;&Sif;t a=umif;up+yD; tawG;tac: t,ltq [lor#ukd avhvmqef;ppf aom pmapmifpmwrf;awG a&;=uapcsifonf? (Auy) A[kdokaw oeXmeu 21 pmpOwf iG f ([email protected][wk )f v;Hk csi;f pmtyk tf jzpf xwk af 0 ay;[email protected] tptD pOf &dSygon?f rsm;rsm; avhvmpl;prf;+yD; okawoepmwrf;rsm; a&;=u apcsifonf? ,[email protected] uGefjrLepfygwD0ifwkdif; ukd,fhwkdif;jynf tajctaet& u,dk vhf r;f u,dk xf iG uf m u,dk whf m0ef u,dk ,f +l y;D ‘qdk &S,[email protected]’ csDwufaeygonf? u|[email protected]; ukd,fhtm;ukd,fukd; 21 &mpk rmhufpf0g'ukd &SmazG=u&ygrnf? ( 7 ) ueG jf rLepwf @dk. aemuqf ;Hk &nrf eS ;f csurf mS vvl cl si;f ao;G pyk rf _ ui;f piaf om/ vwl e;f pm;r&adS om ueG jf rLepvf @[email protected];f xal xmi&f ef jzpof n?f Eidk if wH umh [email protected] t}uKaH wtG &qvdk #if tawm=f um=um &mpEk pS Ef iS chf s+D y;D tcsed ,f l cswD u&f rnchf &;D jzpof n?f pwd &f nS &f rn?f Z&JG &dS rn?f om;pOaf jr;quf cswD u&f rnrf mS aocsmygon?f pwd af vm [email protected] rjzpfyg? qENpGJtrSm; usL;vGefv#if a&[email protected] aemufqkwf& [email protected] jzpvf rd rhf n?f rrd wd @dktjzpuf ydk J jyeof ;Hk oy=f uapcsiof n?f vu0f J aozG aD &;rmS ;vudk /f vu,f maozG aD &;rmS ;vudk f rmS ;aecIhJ aemuqf ;Hk uwkwftxd aemufqkwfae&onf? aemufqkwfae&csdefrSm xkd;[email protected]; wzGzG [email protected] 7


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rmhufpf/ tdef*,f trSmpum; ueG jf rLepyf gwaD =unmpmwr;f pmtyk uf kd Armjynuf eG jf rLepf ygwD u ArmvdkyHkESdyfxkwfa0cJhwm [email protected]&if ESpf}udrf&Sdyg+yD? yxrO;D q;kH [email protected] pmtyk &f @Jemrnef @Jywof u+f y;D &iS ;f jyvykd gw,?f ArmjynfrSm uGefjrLepfrsm;[email protected] vuf0Jpmayavhvmolrsm; todkif;t0dkif; twGif; 'Dpmtkyfudk vG,fvG,[email protected] “uGefjrLepfa=unmpmwrf;” [email protected] ac:c=hJ uw,?f wu,hf emrntf &i;f u “ueG jf rLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f ” jzpwf ,?f ,ciuf Armjynrf mS xwk af 0cwhJ hJ “ueG jf rLepaf =unmpmwr;f ” [email protected] tcxk wk af 0whJ “ueG jf rLepyf gwaD =unmpmwr;f ” EpS cf pk v;kH [m twwl yl J jzpfygw,f? 1947 cEk pS uf ve'f eòf [email protected] usi;f ycwhJ hJ “+Awd od #tiyf g,mtwiG ;f &dS uGefjrLepfygwDrsm;uGefz&ifh” rSm qHk;jzwfcsufwck csrSwfcJhw,f? 'DqHk; jzwcf suuf awmh 1948 cEk pS [f m ueG jf rLepyf gwaD =unmpmwr;f xwk jf yef wm tESpf 100 [email protected] jzpfwJhtwGuf wwfEdkifwJh ueG jfrLepyf gwrD sm;u rrd wd @kdwikd ;f &i;f bmompum;jzihf bmomjyef yEkH ydS xf wk af 0=u&eef @J rwd LW 5 tyk rf S 10 tyk pf aD vmuuf kd ve'f eò[email protected]&dS rmuh pf tf xrd ;f trwS f Ard merf mS xm;&dS &ef qHk;jzwfchwJ ,f? 'Dtpnf;ta0;udk u|[email protected]; udk,fpm;vS,[email protected] [email protected] apv$wfcJhw,f? 'DqHk;jzwfcsuftwdkif; 1948 ckESpf tapmydkif;rSm ArmjynfuGefjrL epyf gwD A[akd umrf wuD 'pD mtyk uf kd Armbmomjye+f y;D xwk af 0cwhJ ,?f · rdwWL 10 apmifudkvnf; vef'efò[email protected]&Sd rmhufpftxdrf;[email protected] [email protected] w,f? [email protected] k&d if ueG jfrLepyf gwaD =unmpmwr;f ukd rrd wd @kdwikd ;f &i;f · Armjynuf eG jf rLepyf gw/D A[akd umrf w.D jynof @ltm%m pmyEkH ydS wf ukd /f &euf ek òf [email protected] yxrq;kH t}urd f yEkH ydS xf wk af 0cjhJci;f jzpof n?f 10


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f [email protected] rxkwfa0&ao;whJ wdkif;jynf&,[email protected] r&Sdoavmuf [email protected] ,lq&w,f? tckwcg ygwDwGif;ynmay;a&; vdktyfr_twGuf 'Dpmtkyfudk 'kwd,t}udrf xyfrH bmomjyef ykHESdyfxkwfa0vdkufygw,f? 'Dpmtkyf&[email protected] tESpfom&udkðcH=unfh&if wjcm;tcsufrsm;tjyif atmufyg wavmuvHk;qdkif&m trSefw&m;[email protected] [email protected],f? 1? 'Dpmtkyftcef; (1) yxrpma=umif;rSm azmfjyxm;wmu “,[email protected] wnf&Sdaeaom [email protected]@tpnf;tm;vHk;. ordkif;onf vwl e;f pm;wukd yf rJG sm;.orikd ;f yif jzpaf yon”f q+kd y;D vwl e;f pm;/ vwl e;f pm;yË[email protected] vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJrsm;ta=umif;udk t\"dutom;ay; a&; om; azmfjyxm;w,f? 'Dtcsuf[m tvGefyJta&;}uD;w,f? vlwef;pm;/ vlwef;pm; yËyd ueQ @J vwl e;f pm;wukd yf rGJ sm;ukd rjriwf /hJ vurf cwH /hJ rusiohf ;kH whJ val wG [m b,ef n;f [email protected] vrl 0_ Zd m… ynmukd reS uf epf mG ravvh mEikd /f rusiohf ;kH Eikd f yg? veD iof i=fum;csutf & ueG jfrLepwf a,mutf [email protected]&kd if vwl e;f pm;[email protected] vwl e;f pm;wukd yf uJG kd vucf ±H ekH @J rvakH vmu/f vwl e;f pm;[email protected] vwl e;f pm;wukd yf JG jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_w&m;t& {uefrkcs ypPnf;rJhtm%m&Sifpepfudk a&mufap vdrfhr,[email protected] vufcH,Hk=unfolrSom uGefjrLepfwa,muf jzpfEdkifr,f? OuÏU }u;D armpf wD ek ;f u xyrf +H y;D ypnP ;f rthJ m%m&iS pf epaf tmuf rSm qufvufawmfvSefa&; vkyf&r,[email protected] wdk;[email protected],f? 2? ajr,mbykH ikd qf ikd rf &_ wdS hJ a&;S bakH cwrf mS vwl e;f pm; ray:ayguf ao;yg? 'aD emurf mS xwk vf yk af &;y&ad bm*awuG kd y*k v~ ud yikd qf ikd rf t_ jzpf ay:[email protected]# vlwef;pm;awG/ aoG;[email protected] EkdifiHawmfawG qkdwm xGufay:vm&awmhwmyJ? 'ga=umifh tcktxd ay:aygufcJhwJh aoG;pkyfr_&SdwJh [email protected]@tpnf; awGjzpfwJh aus;ykdifu|efykdifpepf/ ajr&Sifya'o&[email protected] t&if;&Sifpepf 11


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f twGif;rSm vufwqkyfpm vlenf;pku xkwfvkyfa&;y&dabm*awGudk y*k v~ ud yikd yf pnP ;f awtG jzpf yikd qf ikd xf m;&+dS y;D vtl rsm;wumh trsm;p}k u;D ukd aoG;pkyfzdESdyf=uawmhw,f? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;u t&if;&[email protected] wjcm;azmufjyefwJh aoG;pkyf vlwef;pm;awGudk awmfvSefum wnfaxmifvdkufwJh/ ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; u acgif;aqmifwJh EdkifiHawmfrSmawmh trsm;wumh trsm;pk}uD;jzpfwJh ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;[email protected] vkyfom;[email protected] tkyfpdk;wJhvlwef;pm;jzpf vm+yD; t&if;&SifawG/ ajr&Sifya'o&[email protected] azmufjyefwJh vlwef;pm; awtG ay: tm%m&iS pf epf usiohf ;kH &w,?f 'g[m [email protected] ;f rmS trsm;p}k u;D u vuwf qyk pf m ten;f ptk ay: tm%m&iS pf epuf siohf ;kH whJ yxrq;kH pepf jzpfw,f? aus;ydkifu|efydkifpepfudk wufopfp ya'o&mZfvlwef;pm;u awmfvSef+yD; tm%mvk,l&mrSmvnf;aumif;/ ajr&Sifya'o&mZfpepfudk wufopfp \"e&Sifvlwef;pm;u awmfvSef+yD; tm%mvk,l&mrSmvnf; aumif;/ t&if;&Sifpepfudk ypPnf;rJhrsm;u awmfvSef+yD; tm%mvk,l&m rSmvnf;aumif; t=urf;zufwJhenf; (0g) vufeufudkifwdkufyGJenf;[email protected] om t}urd }furd f wukd yf qJG i+fy;D roS m tyk pf ;kd wvhJ wl e;f pm;top&f @J tm%m[m wn+frEJ ikd vf rd rhf ,?f rmuh pf uf xyrf oH i=f um;vukd wf mu ao;G pyk wf vhJ wl e;f pm; w&yf u wjcm;ao;G pyk wf vhJ wl e;f pm;a[mi;f w&yvf uxf uJ tm%mukd ord ;f ,l+yD;aemuf EdkifiHawmf,EW&m;udk rzsufodrf;bJ rGrf;rHjyifqif toHk;ðy c=hJ uw,?f 'gayrhJ ypnP ;f rvhJ wl e;f pm;uawmh \"e&iS vf wl e;f pm;vuxf uJ tm%mudkvk,l&mrSm aoG;rpkyfwJh vlwef;pm;u aoG;pkyfwJhvlwef;pm; a[mif;&[email protected] tm%mudk vk,[email protected] t&if;&Sifpepfu xlaxmifxm;wJh EdkifiHawmf,EW&m; ta[mif;udk ,cifaoG;pkyfwJh vlwef;pm;awGvdk rGrf;rH jyifqif toHk;csjcif;rðy&bl;? '[email protected]@usifbufyJ \"e&Sifvlwef;pm;u wnfaxmifxm;wJh AsL±dkua&pDEdkifiHawmf,EW&m;udk {uefrkcs zsufqD; ypf&r,fqdkwJh yJ&[email protected] ay;vdkufwJh [email protected]ñuHudk tav;teuf 12


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f *±kpdkuf=u&r,f? 3? [email protected] tdef*,[email protected] oif=um;cJhwmu vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJ jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_ w&m;twdkif;qdk&if t&if;&Sifpepf[m OD;pGmtm;jzifh rdrd [email protected] &&Sda&;twGuf ypPnf;rhvJ lwef;pm;udk jzpfay:apchwJ ,f? 'gayrhJ \"e&Sifvlwef;pm; rodwmuawmh 'DvdkypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;udk jzpfay:ap vukd wf [email protected] wòyief u/f rrd wd @kd \"e&iS vf wl e;f pm;[email protected] t&i;f &iS pf epuf kd ajrjrK‡ yf o+*Kõ [rf ,ohf al wuG kd ar;G zmG ;apvukd wf ,qf wkd hJ tcsuyf ?J 'g[m orikd ;f &@J tEkyËdavmrw&m; jzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJ jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_w&m;t& \"e&Sif vlwef;pm;tkyfpdk;r_udk ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;u rvGJraoGwdkufzsuf+yD; \"e&Sif vwl e;f pm;vuxf rJ S tm%mukd t=ur;f zuwf ehJ n;f [email protected] v,k ul m/ trsm;pk u ten;f puk kd tyk pf ;kd whJ Eikd if aH wmuf kd xal xmiuf m wjzn;f jzn;f vvl l csi;f ao;G pyk rf u_ i;f whJ ueG jf rLeppf epuf kd {uerf ck sxal xmiEf ikd rf mS jzpwf ,?f vlvlcsif; aoG;pkyfwJhpepf/ vlwef;pm;/ EdkifiHawmf/ ygwDqdkwJh tjcif;t&m aw[G m xwk vf yk af &;y&ad bm*awuG kd y*k v~ ud yikd qf ikd rf t_ jzpf xm;&&dS mu ay:aygufvmwmawG jzpfw,f? 'ga=umihf xwk vf yk af &;y&ad bm*awuG kd y*k v~ ud yikd qf ikd rf p_ eptf jzpf xm;&Sdr_tm; zsufodrf;EdkifrSom vlwef;pm;/ vlvlcsif; aoG;pkyfr_pepf[m yaysmufayvdrfhr,f? EdkifiHawmf/ ygwDqdkwJh tjcif;t&mawG[m wjznf; jznf;!‡dK;EGrf; uG,faysmufoGm;vdrfhr,f? 'ga=umifh uGefjrLepfavmura&mufrD aemifjzpfay:vmr,fh [email protected]@tpnf;tm;vHk;&[email protected] ordkif;[mvnf; vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJ&[email protected];yJ jzpfayvdrfhr,f? 4? 'pD mtyk tf ce;f (2) xrJ mS “Tt\"yd m` ,tf & ueG jfrLeprf sm;. oabmw&m;ukd pmwa=umi;f wn;f jzihf csKyvf ukd vf #if y*k v~ ud yikd qf ikd rf u_ dk zsufodrf;a&;yifjzpf.” [email protected],f? 'aD e&mrmS y*k v~ ud ypnP ;f zsuof rd ;f a&;qwkd m bmuqkd vkd wkd mvJ? vlwOD;csif;pDydkifwhJ aexdkifr_b0ypPnf;rsm; (Oyrm pm;0wfaea&; 13


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f twGuf [email protected]; yk*~vduydkifypPnf;rsm;) udk yk*~vduydkifypPnf; tjzpf ydkifqdkifr_ zsufodrf;ypf&ef ajymaewmr[kwf? zsufodrf;ypf&ef ajymaewmu vlvlcsif;aoG;pkyfr_udk jzpfay:apwJh/ aoG;pkyfvlwef;pm;udk jzpaf y:apw/hJ Eikd if aH wmuf kd jzpaf y:apwhJ xwk vf yk af &;y&ad bm*awG (Oyrm ajr,m/ opfawm/ puf±Hk/ tvkyf±Hk/ owWKwGif;/ vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;/ uek of ,G af &;/ b%wf ukd f tp&wdS maw)G ukd y*k v~ ud ypnP ;f tjzpf yikd qf ikd rf _ udkom zsufodrf;ypf&ef ajymaewmjzpfw,f? 5? 'Dpmtkyftcef; (3) xJrSm qdk&S,fvpf0g' twkta,mif trsKd;rsKd;udk azmfjyxm;w,f? tESpf 100 ausmfu [email protected] tdef*,[email protected] a&;om;azmfjycJhwJh qdk&S,fvpf0g' twkta,mifawG[m [email protected] &adS eao;wmyJ r[wk vf m;´ Oyrm rvwG af jrmurf D ,ciuf armB ';D ,m;u oD[mEk/ tdEdN,u tif'D&m*END/ tD*spfu emqm tp&Sdoltrsm;tjym; uvnf; [email protected];jynfawGrSm qdk&S,fvpf0g' wnfaqmufaeygw,[email protected] ajymcJh=uwmyJ r[kwfvm;´ ArmjynfrSmaum´ ae0if;/ pef;,[email protected][m ArmjynfrSm qdk&S,fvpf0g' [email protected] jynfolvlxkudk vdrfnmaewmyJ r[kwfvm;´ [email protected]=uwJh qdk&S,fvpf0g'qdkwmawG[m qdk&S,fvpf0g' twk ta,miaf woG m jzpwf ,?f rmuh pf 0f g'/ veD i0f g'/ armpf wD ek ;f taw;G tac:udk vufrcHbJ b,[email protected]+yD; qdk&S,fvpf0g'tppfudk wnfaqmuf EdkifrSmvJ´ u|[email protected] uGefjrLepfygwDtppfawGu wnfaqmufr,fh qdk&S,fvpf0g'uawmh rmhufpf0g'/ vDeif0g'/ armfpDwkef;tawG;tac: rlawGtay: tajccH+yD;/ '[email protected] rdrdwdkif;[email protected] udkufnDwJh/ 0dZ…menf;uswJh qdk&S,fvpf0g' tppfjzpfw,f? 'DuGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpmwrf;udk xkwfjyefcJhwm ESpfaygif; 129 EpS &f ydS g+y?D 'gayrhJ 'pD mtyk xf rJ mS ygwhJ tajccrH al w[G m tcxk uwf ikd f reS uf ef vsuf&Sdaewkef;yJ? uGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpwrf;[m tESpfom&rSm rSefuefeufeJ+yD;/ 14


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f o¿merf mS awmh tveG af wmuaf jymif vyS wud swhJ pum;v;kH awuG kd a&;G cs,of ;kH Ee_ ;f xm;wmukd [email protected] yf gw,?f Oyrm 'pD mtyk &f @J aemuqf ;kH ty'kd f 2 y'dk uf kd zw=f unfyh g? 'vD kad &;xm;w,f? “ueG jfrLeprf sm;onf rrd wd @kd.tjriEf iS hf &n&f ,G cf surf sm;ukd z;Hk u,G f xdrf0Sufxm;&ef rkef;wD;&GH&Sm=uonf? wnf&Sdaeaom vlr_a&;tajctae tm;vHk;udk t=urf;zufaomenf;jzifh òzcszsufqD;ypfEdkifrSom· rrd wd @kd.&nrf eS ;f csuuf kd &&EdS ikd vf rd rhf n[f k ajAmitf wtd vi;f a=unmon?f ueG jfrLepaf wmvf eS af &;ukd tyk pf ;kd aomvwl e;f pm;rsm;u xwd [email protected]+y;D a=umuf 'l;wkefae=uygap/ ypPnf;rJhrsm;twGufum; [email protected];aom aEmS ióf u;rsm;rtS y qHk;±_H;p&m[lIr&Sd? [email protected];ydkif&rnfum; wurBmvHk; yifwnf;?” “wdkif;jynftm;vHk;&Sd tvkyform;rsm; aoG;pnf;=uavmh!” u-J 'pD my'kd uf kd zwvf ukd &f [email protected]òyief uf 'pD mtyk &f @JtEpS of m& [email protected] tvGefvSywJh toGifo¿mefudk [email protected]&+yDr[kwfvm;´ uGefjrL [email protected] awmfvSefa&;orm;awGtwGuf 'Dpmydk'f[m b,favmufrsm; pwd tf m;xuof erf a_ wG wzmG ;zmG ; wuaf pygov?J awmuaf jymif aumi;f rGefwJhtem*wfudk b,favmufrsm; uGif;uGif;uGufuGuf &Sif;vif; jywf om;pmG jriEf ikd yf gapovJ´ u|eaf wmwf @kd ueG jf rLepaf weG @J ypnP ;f rhJ vwl e;f pm; vkyfom;jynfolawGuomv#if aemufqHk; atmifyGJudk qGwfcl;Edkif& r,fqdkwm ,HkrSm;oHo,jzpfzG,f&m &SdEdkifygao;ovm;´ awmfvSefa&;vkyfief;rSefor#udk aqmif&Guf&mrSm vlwef;pm;/ vlwef;pm;yËdyuQ/ vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJqdkwmudk uGefjrLepfavmu r a&mufrD uGefjrLepfwdkif;u pGJpGJ+rJ+rJqkyfudkifxm;&r,fh aomhcsufjzpfw,f qdkwm b,[email protected]? 'pD mtyk uf kd w}urd rf u t}urd af ygi;f rsm;pmG zwyf g? zw+fy;D &if av;av; eufeufpOf;pm;yg/ pOf;pm;+yD;&if [email protected] [email protected] · trmS pum;a&;o.l tav;xm;csuf 15


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f t}uHay;vdkygw,f? aemuqf ;kH [email protected] 'pD mtyk uf kd tcvk kd tcutf ctJ rsK;d rsK;d =um;xrJ S atmijfripf mG yEkH ydS xf wk af 0Eikd af tmif wm0exf r;f aqmi=fuwhJ omomjyef &JabmfawG/ pmpDykHESdyfwJh &JabmfawG/ pmwnf;jzwfwJh &[email protected] 'Dvkyfief;[email protected] &aJ bmf awGtm;vHk;udk csD;usL;*k%fðyvdkufygw,f? Armpmom wwwf hJ &aJ bmrf sm;[email protected] jynof vl xl {k &mr trsm;p}k u;D twuG f rmuh pf /f ted *f ,/f veD i/f pwmvief @J OuÏU }u;D armpf wD ek ;f [email protected] ðypk a&;om;cJhwJh usrf;}uD;usrf;i,f tapmifapmifudk qufvufyHkESdyfxkwfa0 Edkifygap? Aodef;wif OuÏU A[akd umrf wD Armjynuf eG jf rLepyf gwD 1977 cEk pS /f E0kd ibf mv 8 &uf 16


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f rmwdum 1872cEk pS f *smrebf momyEkH ydS jf ci;f e'd ge;f (18) 1882 ckESpf ±k&Sm;bmomyHkESdyfjcif;ed'gef; (21 ) 1883 cEk pS f *smrebf momyEkH ydS jf ci;f e'd ge;f (24) 1888 cEk pS f t*vF yd bf momyEkH ydS jf ci;f e'd ge;f (26) 1890 cEk pS f *smrebf momyEkH ydS jf ci;f e'd ge;f (35) (44) 1892 ckESpf ydkvefbmomyHkESdyfjcif; ed'gef; 1893 cEk pS f twD vbD momyEkH ydS jf ci;f e'd ge;f (47) uGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpmwrf; (50) tcef; (1) \"e&Sifrsm;ESifh ypPnf;rJhrsm; (52) tcef; (2) ypPnf;rJhrsm;ESifh uGefjrLepfrsm; (73) tce;f (3) q&kd ,S vf pEf iS hf ueG jf rLeppf may (88) 1? azmujf yeaf omq&kd ,S vf p0f g' (88) (u) ya'o&mZqf &kd ,S vf p0f g' (88) (c) \"e&iS af ygupf q&kd ,S vf p0f g' (91) (*) *[email protected][kwf“ppfrSefaom”qdk&S,fvpf0g' (93) 2? orm;±;kd us [email protected][wk f \"e&iS qf &kd ,S vf p0f g' (97) 3? a0zefa&; pdwful;,Ofqdk&S,fvpf0g'ESifh ueG jf rLep0f g' (99) tcef; (4) wnf&Sdaeaom [email protected] ygwtD o;D o;D tay: ueG jf rLeprf sm;. oabmxm; (104) aemuqf uwf JG (108) bmomjyetf [email protected] rwS cf suf (108) &iS ;f vi;f csuf (110) trntf !e$ ;f (121) 17


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f 1872 ckESpf *smrefbmom yHkESdyfjcif;ed'gef; xdkpOfu wnf&Sdaeonfh ta=umif;tcsufrsm;a=umifh v#[email protected] toif; wckom jzpfEdkifaom EdkifiHwumh tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk; wck jzpof nhf ueG jf rLeptf oi;f csKyof nf ve'f eòf [email protected] f 184& cEk pS f E0kd ibf mvu usif;yaomuGef*&ufY ygwD. oabmw&m;a&;ESifh [email protected] tao; pdwfvkyfief;pOfwckudk yHkESdyfxkwfa0a&;twGuf atmufwGif vufrSwf a&;x;kd xm;orl sm;tm; a&;q&JG ewf m0eaf y;tycf ahJ yon?f Tum; azmjf y rnfh a=unmpmwrf; ay:xGufvmyHkyif jzpfygonf? vufa&;rlrsm;udk azazmf0g&DawmfvSefa&;· rwdkifrD &[email protected] yHkEdSyf&eftwGuf vef'efò[email protected]@ [email protected]? OD;pGm*smrefbmomjzifh yHkESdyfcJhonf? ‚ bmomEiS yhf if *smr%jD yn/f t*vF ejf ynEf iS hf tar&ud wukd wf @kdwiG f ten;f qHk; q,Ehf pS }f urd rf # yEkH ydS jf ci;f trsK;d rsK;d jzihf jyevf nxf wk af 0cyhJ gon?f 1850 ckESpfY &uf&Dywfyvpfuif1 wGif t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh rpP[,fvif ruzf mved .f bmomjyecf suuf kd yxrq;kH t}urd f yEkH ydS xf wk af 0c+hJy;D / 1871 ckESpfwGif tar&duwdkufY rwlaombmomjyefcsuf tenf;qHk;oHk;rsKd;jzifh xwk af 0cahJ yon?f 1848 cEk pS f ZeG vf xºurr_ wikd rf uD av;rmS yif y&J pò[email protected] f jyifopfbmomjyefcsuf yxrqHk; ay:xGufvmchJ+yD;aemuf e,l;a,mufò[email protected] qdk&S,fvpf*sme,f2 xJwGif r=umao;rDu azmfjycJhjyefonf? bmomjyef qdkcsuf topfwckudkvnf; jyifqifaeqJjzpfonf? *smrefbmomESifh yxrt}udrf yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJh+yD;aemuf r=umrDrSmyif ydkvefbmomjzifh vef'efò[email protected] ay:xGufvmcJhonf? 60 pkESpfrsm;wGif ±k&Sm;bmomjzifh *sDeDAmò[email protected] yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJhonf? a=unmpmwrf; yxrqHk;ay:xGuf+yD; · jyiof pjf ynf 1848 cEk pS f azazm0f g&aD wmvf eS af &;? (t,'f wD m) 18


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f aemuf r=umrwD iG yf if 'ed ;f rwbf momjzivhf n;f bmomjyeqf vkd ukd of n?f +yD;cJhaom ESpfq,fhig;ESpfwmumvtwGif; tajctaersm;onf rnfr#yif ajymif;vJapumr_ Ta=unmpmwrf;wGif csrSwfcJhaom a,bk ,srlrsm;onf wckvHk;taejzifh ,[email protected]#mufvHk; rSefuefayonf? xkdae&m Tae&[email protected] [email protected] tao;pdwfrsm;udk ðyjyifaumif; ðyjyif &ayrn?f rrl sm;ukd vuaf [email protected] to;kH csa&;onf a=unmpmwr;f u azmjf y xm;onthf wikd ;f tcsed af e&mra&;G umvwcwk iG f wn&f adS eaom oridk ;f qkdif&m ta=umif;tcsufrsm;ay:wGif wnfayvdrfhrnf? T ta=umif; a=umihf tce;f (2) . tq;kH wiG f wijf yxm;aom awmvf eS af &; aqmi&f uG f csurf sm;EiS hf ywof uIf tx;l tav;wi;f razmjfyawmah y? ,[email protected]@kdqykd grl Tpmy'kd &f dS jy\\emtajrmutf jrm;ukd tveG uf jJG ym;jcm;em;aom pum; toHk;tE_ef;[email protected] a&;om;&ayvdrfhrnf? +yD;cJhaom ESpfq,fhig;ESpfwm umvtwGif; acwfopfpufr_vkyfief;. ajcvSrf;usJ}uD;rsm;ESifh vrS ;f wuf vmr_/ ‚ESifhtwl vdkufygvmaom tvkyform;vlwef;pm;. ygwDpnf; ±;kH a&; aumi;f reG uf s,[email protected]_ @kdukd axmu±f v_ #ivf nf;aumif;/ azazmf 0g&aD wmvf eS af &;wiG f yxrq;kH &&vdS ukd af om vuaf [email protected]@GtñuEH iS hf xrkd # ru ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;u ESpfvwdkifwdkif yxrqHk;t}udrf EdkifiHa&;tm %mudk odrf;ydkufvdkufaom yJ&[email protected] wGif ydkrdkI&&Sdvdkufonfh [email protected][email protected] axmuf±_v#ifvnf;aumif;/ [email protected];pdwfrsm;wGif Tvkyfief;pOfonf acwfrrDawmhay? [email protected] tcsufwckudk txl; oufaojyvdkufay.? ‚rSm “tvkyform;vlwef;pm;onf toifh&Sd+yD; om; Eikd if aH wm,f E&W m;ukd tv,G wf ul qyk uf ikd uf m rrd .d &n&f ,G cf surf sm;ukd xajrmufatmif toHk;ðyIrjzpfEdkifay” [lIjzpfonf? (jyifopfjynf jynfwGif;ppfyGJ/ tifwmae&Sife,f tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk; taxG axaG umipf D red @fceG ;f / ve'f eò[email protected] x±;l vyzf /f 1871 cEk pS /f pmrsuEf mS 15 wiG f Ttcsufudk qufvufjzpfay:wdk;yGm;xm;onfudk =unfhyg?) [email protected] rsufarSmufumvwGif qdk&S,fvpf0g'pmaytay: a0zefa&;onf rjynfhpHk onfrSm tvdkvdkxif&Sm;ayonf? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf ‚a0zef 19


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f a&;onf 1847 ckESpftxdom jzpfaoma=umifh yifwnf;? [email protected] ygwtD o;D o;D tay: ueG jf rLeprf sm;. oabmxm;ta=umi;f rwS cf surf sm; (tcef; 4) onfvnf; rlt& rSefuefaeqJ jzpfapumrl [email protected] acwfrrDawmhay? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf EdkifiHa&;tajctaeonf vHk;0 ajymif;vJoGm;aoma=umifh jzpfonf? [email protected] ordkif;wdk;wufvmr_u xdktcef;wGif azmfjyxm;aom EdkifiHa&;ygwD trsm;ydkif;udk urBmajrjyifrS z,f&Sm;ypfvdkufay+yD? [email protected] a=unmpmwrf;onf ordkif;qdkif&mpmwrf; jzpfvm &um; ajymif;vJypf&ef rnfonfhtcGifhta&;rS u|[email protected] r&Sday? aemitf cgwiG f 1847 cEk pS Ef iS hf ,[email protected]=um;&dS umG [ru_ kd aygi;f u;l ay;aom ed'gef;wckyg0ifonfh aemufw}udrf yHkESdyfjcif; ay:xGufvmEdkifp&m &Sday onf? [email protected] TjyefvnfyHkESdyfjcif;onf ±kwfw&uf ay:xGufvmaom a=umifh [email protected]@aom ed'gef;a&;&eftwGuf u|[email protected] tcsdefrvHk avmufawmhay? um;vfrmhufpf/ z&uf'&pf tdef*,f 1872 cEk pS f ZeG vf 24 &u/f ve'f eòf [email protected]? 20


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f 1882 ckESpf ±k&Sm;bmom yHkESdyfjcif;ed'gef; bmuleif bmomjyefqdkaom uGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpmwrf; ±k&Sm;bmom yxryHkESdyfjcif;udk udkvdkaum3 owif;pmtm; yHkESdyfonfh pmyHkESdyfwdkufu 60 pkESpfrsm;tapmydkif;· wGif xkwfa0cJhonf? xdkpOfu taemufwdkif;onf ‚ (a=unmpmwrf; ±k&Sm;bmomyHkESdyfjcif;) udk pmayavmu txl;tqef;wcktjzpfom em;vnfEdkif=uayonf? T tjrifrsKd;onf ,[email protected] rjzpfEdkifawmhay? xdktcsdef (1847 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv) u wnf&Sdaeaom ypPnf; rJhvlwef;pm; v_yf&Sm;r_e,fy,fonf rnfr#[email protected]&Sdaeonf qokd nuf kd Ta=unmpm wr;f . aemuqf ;kH tce;f &dS wikd ;f jyntf o;D o;D rS [email protected] ygwDtoD;oD;tay: uGefjrLepfrsm;. oabmxm;wGif t&Sif;vif;qHk; azmfjyvsuf&Sdonf? xdktcef;wGif ±k&Sm;jynfESifh tar&d [email protected] vHk;vHk;rygcJh=uay? xdktcsdefu ±k&Sm;jynfonf Oa&myazmujf yeaf &;tm;v;kH . aemuqf ;kH t&ewf y}f u;D jzpaf e+y;D / tar&d uejf ynaf xmipf ok nf Oa&myrS yvkd #aH om ypnP ;f rvhJ wl e;f pm; titf m;pk rsm;udk ajymif;a&[email protected];um 0g;rsKdypfaeayonf? xdkwdkif;jynf EpS jf ynpf v;kH onf Oa&mywukd of @kd uek =f ur;f ypnP ;f rsm; axmuyf +hH y;D wcsed f wnf;wGif Oa&mywdkuf. pufr_xGufukefrsm; a&mif;cs&maps;uGufrsm; vnf; jzpfcJhonf? [email protected] xdkpOfu wdkif;jynfESpfjynfpvHk;onf wnf&Sd aeaom Oa&mypep.f a'guwf ikd rf sm; wen;f r[wk f wen;f jzpcf ahJ yon?f · T&upf aJG zmjf ycsurf mS rreS uf e/f u;kd um;azmjf yxm;onhf yEkH ydS jf ci;f rmS 1869 cEk pS wf iG f ay:xuG cf ohJ n?f (t,'f wD m) 21


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f ,[email protected]#if vGefpGmuGmjcm;oGm;avpG! Oa&mywdkufu ajymif; a&[email protected]_onf ajrmuftar&duwdkuf. }uD;us,fvSaom v,f,m xkwfvkyfa&;twGuf vHk;0tH0ifcGifus jzpfapcJhonf? ajrmuftar&du wukd .f òyiqf ikd rf o_ nf Oa&my&dS ajr,mt}u;D tao;yikd qf ikd rf u_ kd t&i;f tjrprf S uikd vf y_ yf pvf ukd af wmoh n?f xrkd #ru ‚tjci;f t&mu tar &duefjynfaxmifpktm; rdrd. }uD;rm;vSaom pufr_vkyfief;a&aomuf jrpfrsm;udk tifwdkuftm;wdkuf oHk;pGJEdkifaponf? ToHk;pGJr_twdkif;twm onf taemuOf a&my tx;l ojzihf ,cxk &d adS eaom t*vF ejf yn.f purf _ vkyfief; vuf0g;}uD;tkyfr_udk tcsdeftenf;i,ftwGif;wGif rkcsyif csKd;zsuf ypvf rd rhf nf jzpof n?f tajctaeEpS &f ypf v;kH u tar&ud wukd uf kd awmvf eS f aom *,u±f ukd cf wrf _ jzpaf pjyeof n?f Eikd if aH &;taqmutf tkH wcvk ;kH . tajccHtkwfjrpfjzpfonfh ti,fpm;ESifh tvwfpm; v,f,mydkif&Sifrsm;. ajr,monf v,,f mvyk cf i;f }u;D rsm;. òyiqf ikd rf u_ kd wpwpEiS hf t±;H_ ay; vdkuf&ay+yD? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif pufr_vkyfief;a'orsm;wGif ypPnf;rJh vlwef;pm;xkESifhwuG t&if;tESD;rsm; tHhrcef;pkpnf;vmr_onfvnf; yxrqHk;t}udrf jzpfay:wdk;yGm;vmaeayonf? ,ck ±k&Sm;jynfudk [email protected]! 1848- 49 ckESpf awmfvSefa&; jzpfyGm;pOfu Oa&myrS rif;nDrif;om;rsm;omru/ Oa&my\"e&Sifrsm;uyg Edk;=um;pðyvm+yDjzpfaom ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;.vufwGif;rS ‚[email protected] u,wf iEf ikd of nhf wcwk n;f aom u,wf i&f iS rf mS ±&k mS ;jyn.f usL;ausmf puG zf urf o_ mjzpfa=umif;udk [email protected]&SdcJh=uonf? Zmbk&ifudk Oa&mywdkuf&Sd azmujfyeaf &; xyd of ;D tjzpf armi;f cwcf =hJuon?f ,[email protected] uf m; Zmb&k if onf *wfcsDem;4 wGif awmfvSefa&;. [email protected]; jzpfaeav+yD? ±k&Sm; jynfonf Oa&mywdkuf awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_. wyfOD;jzpfvmay+yD? uGefjrLepfa=unmpmwrf;u acwfopf\"e&Sifydkifqdkifr_onf rkcs ysuof Ok ;f awmrh nf jzpaf =umi;f ukd a=unm&ef &n&f ,G af yon?f [email protected] ±&k mS ;jynwf iG f vsijf repf mG jzpaf y:w;kd ymG ;vmaeaom t&i;f &iS vf nS jfh zm;rE_ iS hf pwifwdk;yGm;vmaeaom \"e&Sifajr,[email protected] v,form;rsm; 22


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f udk,fwdkif ajr,mxuf0ufausmftm; bHkydkifqdkifxm;r_ESifh xdyfwdkufjzpfae onfudk u|[email protected] [email protected]=u&onf? rsufarSmufjy\\emrSm tvGef trif; ,dk,Gif;aeapumrl a&S;OD;ajr,mbHkydkifqdkifr_o¿mefyif jzpfae ao;onfh ±k&Sm;atmhAf&SD;em;5 onf ydkrdkjrifhrm;aom uGefjrLepfbHkydkifqdkifr_ o¿[email protected] wdkuf±dkuful;ajymif;oGm;Edkifoavm? [email protected][kwf [email protected] butf m;jzihf taemuwf ikd ;f . wpwpajymi;f vaJ &; orikd ;f jzpaf y:ru_ ohJ @kd aom a=uðye;f a&; jzppf Otf wikd ;f O;D pmG jzwof e;f &rnaf vm? [lIyifjzpf.? ‚jy\\em. wcwk n;f aom tajztjzpf ,[email protected] ikd of nrf mS / tu,If ±k&Sm;awmfvSefa&;onf taemufwdkif;ypPnf;rJhawmfvSefa&;twGuf wyvf eS @fay;r_ jzpvf m+y;D / wcEk iS whf ck tjyetf veS f tm;jznahf y;vukd yf gu vu&f ±dS &k mS ;jyn.f bakH jr,myikd qf ikd rf o_ nf ueG jf rLeppf epf jzpaf y:w;kd ymG ;r_ twGuf tpcsD&mtcsufjzpfayvdrfhrnf? um;vf rmuh pf /f z&u'f &pf ted *f ,f 1882 cEk pS f Zeef 0g&vD 21 &u/f ve'f eòf [email protected]? 23


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f 1883 ckESpf *smrefbmom yHkESdyfjcif;ed'gef; Tt}udrfyHkESdyfjcif;.ed'gef;wGif u|efawmfwOD;wnf;omv#if vurf wS af &; x;kd &ayawmrh n?f Oa&myEiS hf tar&ud wukd &f dS tvyk of rm; vlwef;pm;w&yfvHk;tm; [email protected] ydkrdktusKd;ðycJhol rmhufpfonf [ikd ;f *wd of ok mewf iG f vaJ vsmi;f aeay+y?D o.l ajryxkH uwf iG f yxr jruEf k uav;rsm;yivf #if ayguIf aeav+y?D oul ,G vf eG of mG ;uwn;f u Ta=u nmpmwr;f ukd jyiqf i&f e/f [email protected];f r[wk f xyrf jH znphf uG &f ewf @kdukd pO;f pm; [email protected] ydkIenf;yg;oGm;av+yD? Ted'gef;wGif atmufygtwdkif; tav; teufxyfrHazmfjy&ef vdktyfonf[k u|efawmfxifjrif,lqygonf? a=unmpmwrf;wckvHk;. tajccHtawG;tac:rSmæordkif; acwfumvwdkif;. pD;yGm;a&;xkwfvkyfr_ESifh ‚rS rkcsay:aygufvmaom vlr_taqmufttHkonf tqdkyg acwfumv. EdkifiHa&;ESifh tod^m%f qikd &f m orikd ;f twuG f tajcctH wk f jrpjf zpaf =umi;f [email protected] (ajr,mtay: a&;S O;D bykH ikd qf ikd rf _ òyuoJG mG ;+y;D uwn;f u) orikd ;f wcvk ;kH onf vrl w_ ;kd ymG ;r_ tqifhtoD;oD;&Sd vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJrsm;.ordkif;/ aoG;pkyfcHESifh aoG;pkyfol/ tkyfpdk;cHESifh tkyfpdk;ol vlwef;pm;rsm;t=um;&Sd wdkufyGJrsm;. ordkif;jzpfcJh a=umif;/ [email protected]; TwdkufyGJonf ,cktcg aoG;pkyfzdESdyfcH&aom vlwef;pm; (ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;) u [email protected]@tpnf;wckvHk;udk aoG;pkyfr_/ zdESdyfr_ESifhwuG vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJrsm;rS xm0pOf vGwfu|wfoGm;atmif wcsdefwnf; rvkyfaqmifv#if rdrdtay: aoG;pkyfzdESdyfaom vlwef;pm; 24


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f (\"e&iS vf wl e;f pm;) vuaf tmurf S rrd ud ,kd wf ikd vf n;f vwG af jrmuEf ikd af wmh rnfr[[email protected] ,cktcgwGif a&muf&Sdvma=umif;æ[lIyif jzpfonf? TtajccHtawG;tac:udk rmhufpf wOD;wnf;uomv#if vHk;0 ydkifqdkifay.?· Ttcsufudk }udrfzefrsm;pGm u|efawmfazmfjycJh+yD; jzpfygonf? [email protected] af =unmpmwr;f . a&@Sq;kH ae&mwiG f Ttcsuyf g&adS e&ef ,ctk cg trSefyif vdktyfvSygonf? tufzf tdef*,f 1883 cEk pS /f ZeG vf 28 &u/f ve'f eòf [email protected]? · t*Fvdyfbmomjyef ed'gef;wGif “u|efawmfhxifjrifcsufrSm ZD0aA' e,yf ,wf iG f 'g0i.f oabmw&m;u tusK;d ðycohJ nthf wikd ;f T wijfycsuof nvf n;f orikd ;f a&;&mtwuG f tusK;d ðyr_ jzpyf gon?f 1845 cEk pS rf wikd rf D EpS af ygi;f [email protected] u|[email protected] Of ;D pv;kH on/f Ttcsuqf oD [email protected] wjznf;jznf; csOf;uyfvmch=J u.? Ttcsuqf oD @kd u|eaf wmf trtDS ckd ui;f pmG tb,rf # O;D wnwf uvf rS ;f omG ;cohJ nuf kd u|efawmfa&;om;cJhaom ‘t*Fvefjynf tvkyform;vlwef;pm;tajctae’ pmtyk uf taumi;f q;kH azmjf yvsu&f ydS gon?f [email protected] 1845 cEk pS f aEOG ;D umv b&yqf vJ òf [email protected] f u|eaf wmEf iS hf rmuh pf f xyrf aH [email protected] aomtcg rmuh pf of nf ‚ tcsuuf kd tqiof iðhfyp+ky;D jzpaf eon?f Ttcsuuf kd u|eaf wmxhf H wijfy&mY to;kH tEe_ ;f tm;v;kH e;D yg;yif Tae&mwiG f u|eaf wmf azmjf y xm;ouohJ @kd &iS ;f vi;f jywf om;vSygonf?” [k u|efawmfa&;om;cJhonf? (1890 ckESpf *smrefbmom yEkH ydS jf ci;f twuG f ted *f ,.f rwS cf su)f ? 25


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f 1888 ckESpf t*Fvdyfbmom yHkESdyfjcif;ed'gef; “a=unmpmwrf;” udk tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk;wckjzpfaom “uGefjrLepftoif;csKyf” .vkyfief;pOftjzpf yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJhonf? T toi;f csKyof nf tpyikd ;f wiG f *smretf oi;f csKyf ouof ujf zp+f y;D aemuyf ikd ;f wGif EdkifiHwumhtoif; jzpfvmonf? Ttoif;onf 1848 ckESpfrwdkif ruD Oa&mywukd .f Eikd if aH &;ta=umi;f tcsurf sm;atmuwf iG f rvr$J a&mS if om v#[email protected]@tpnf;wck jzpfcJhayonf? 1847 ckESpf Edk0ifbmvu vef'efò[email protected];yaom uGefjrLepftoif;csKyf. uGef*&ufY rmhufpfESifh tdef*,[email protected]; jynfhpHkaomoabmw&m;ESifh [email protected]&m ygwDvkyf ie;f pOwf &yf xwk af 0a&;twuG f jyiqf i=f u&ef wm0eaf y;tycf .hJ ? 1848 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif *smrefbmomjzifh a&;qGJcJh+yD;/ vufa&;rludk azazmf 0g&vD 24 &uaf [email protected] f jzpyf mG ;aom jyiof paf wmvf eS af &;rwikd rf D &uof wW ywtf [email protected] f ve'f eòf [email protected]&dS pmyEkH ydS wf ukd of @kd [email protected];cohJ n?f 1848 cEk pS f ZeG vf ykefuefxºur_rwdkifrDuav;rSm yJ&pfò[email protected] jyifopfbmomjyef ay:xGuf vmcJhonf? rpP[,fvifrufzmvdef. yxr t*Fvdyfbmomjyefonf 1850 ckESpf vef'efò[email protected] a*smh*sLvD,ef[mae. “&uf&Dywfyvpfuif” *sme,wf iG f yg&cdS ohJ n?f 'ed ;f rwEf iS hf yvkd ebf momrsm;jzivhf n;f xwk af 0+y;D 26


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f cJhav+yD? ypnP ;f rvhJ wl e;f pm;EiS hf \"e&iS vf wl e;f pm;[email protected] yxrt}urd f }u;D rm; onhf wukd yf jGJ zpaf om 1848 cEk pS f ZeG vf y&J pyf ek uf exf ºur_ ta&;erd ohf mG ; jci;f u Oa&mytvyk of rm;vwl e;f pm;. vrl a_ &;EiS hf Eikd if aH &;ar#mrf eS ;f csuf rsm;udk umvwckxd xyfrHI [email protected];[email protected]? xtkd csed rf S pI tay:p;D &a&; wukd yf oJG nf azazm0f g&aD wmvf eS af &; rwikd rf uD uohJ @kdyif ypnP ;f &vdS wl e;f pm;. rwal om tpwd tf yikd ;f rsm;t=um;wiG of m xyfrHjzpf yGm;cJhawmhonf? tvkyform;vlwef;pm;rSmrlum; usOf;ajrmif;vSaom EdkifiHa&;ae&m &&Sda&;twGuf wdkufcdkuf&onfh taetxm;ESifh tv,f tvwfvlwef;pm; &,f'Du,frsm;. tvGeftu|H*dk%f; taetxm;xd av#musoGm;cJh&onf? trSDcdkuif;aom ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; &iS of eaf om vu%Q mrsm; quvf ujf yoaeonhf ae&mwikd ;f wiG f t=uif emuif;rJhpGm vdkufvHzrf;qDjcif; cHcJh&onf? [email protected] udkvHk;ò[email protected] xdkpOfu tajcpdkufxm;aom uGefjrLepftoif;csKyf A[[email protected] y&yf&Sm;ykvdyf [email protected] &mS azaG [email protected]&odS mG ;+y;D [email protected] sm; tzr;f ccH &hJ on?f q,&hf pS vf wikd wf ikd f tusOf;csxm;+yD;aemuf 1852 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvrSm [email protected]; ±Hk;wifppfaq;cJhonf? xif&Sm;ausmfapmaom “udkvHk;ò[email protected] uGefjrLepftr_ ppfaq;jcif;”6 onf atmufwdkbm 4 &[email protected] Edk0ifbm 12 &[email protected] tcsdef=umjrifhcJhonf? tusOf;om;ckepfa,mufudk cHwyfwckwnf;wGif axmif'%foHk;ESpfrS ajcmufESpftxd toD;oD;tjypfay;vdkufonf? pD&if csufcs+yD;aemuf csufcsif;yif usef&pfaeaom [email protected];u toif;csKyf ukd w&m;0if zsuof rd ;f ypvf ukd =f u.? “a=unmpmwr;f ” rmS rl xtkd csed rf S p+yD; arhavsmhypfxm;jcif; cH&oavmufyifwnf;? Oa&my tvkyform;vlwef;pm;onf tkyfpdk;olvlwef;pm;rsm;udk aemufxyfwzef wdkufcdkuf&eftwGuf vHkavmufaomtiftm; jyevf nf &&vdS maomtcg tiwf mae&iS ef ,f tvyk of rm;tpn;f t±;kH ay:xuG vf m on?f [email protected] Oa&myEiS hf tar&ud wukd rf sm;&dS wukd pf wd cf ukd pf wd f xuof ef aom ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;w&yfvHk;udk wpkwpnf;wnf;jzpfatmif aygif; 27


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f pn;f &ef wud s&iS ;f vi;f aom &nrf eS ;f csujf zihf [email protected];f xm;onhf T tpn;f t±Hk;onf “a=unmpmwrf;” wGif csrSwfxm;aomrlrsm;udk csufcsif; rxwk jf yeEf ikd cf ahJ y? tiwf mae&iS ef ,of nf t*vF yd f tvyk of rm; or*r~ sm;/ jyifopf/ b,fvf*sD,H/ tDwvDESifh pydefjynf&Sd ya&muf'Gef; aemufvdkuf rsm;ESifh *smr%Djynf&Sd vmaq;0g'Drsm;· u vufcHEdkifavmufatmif us,[email protected] vkyfief;pOfw&yf &Sd&rnfjzpf.? ygwDtm;vHk;u auseyf Edkifonfh Tvkyfief;pO·f · udk a&;qGJcJhaom rmhufpfonf yl;aygif;ðyrlr_ESifh tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;[email protected] ay:xGufvm&ef aocsmaom tvkyform; vlwef;pm;. tod^m%fjzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_tay: vHk;0,Hk=unfcJh.? t&if; tESD;udk [email protected] wdkufyGJtjzpftysufrsm;ESifh twuftusrsm;/ atmifyGJrsm;xufyif ydkrdkonfhqHk;±H_;r_rsm;u [email protected]óuufjzpfaom aq;+r;D wrdk sK;d p.Hk rvakH vmurf u_ kd vtl rsm;tm; rv$rJ a&mS iof m oabm ayguvf mapon?f [email protected] tvyk of rm;vwl e;f pm; vwG af jrmuaf &;twuG f vnf; ppfrSefaom ta=umif;tcsufrsm;tm; ydkrdkjynfhpHkpGm [email protected] vrf;cif;ay;vdkuf.? rmhufpfonf rSefuefayonf? 1874 ckESpf tifwm ae&Sife,f zsufodrf;vdkufaomtcg tvkyform;rsm;rSm 1864 ckESpf wek ;f u [email protected]&&dS aom tvyk of rm;rsm;EiS hf v;kH 0rwal wmah y? jyiof pjf yn&f dS ya&muf'Gef;0g'onfvnf;aumif;/ *smr%Djynf&Sd vmaq;0g'[email protected] vnf;aumif; toufiifaeav+yD? or±dk;us t*Fvdyftvkyform;or*~ ·u|eaf wmwf @kdEiS ahf [email protected] ;f vmaq;u,kd wf ikd uf ool nrf muh pf .f wynhf &i;f jzpaf =umi;f / wyn&hf i;f yoD pmG yif “a=unmpmwr;f ” tay:wiG f &ywf ncf hJ a=umi;f tpOaf jymqakd v&h odS n?f [email protected] 1862 cEk pS rf S 1864 cEk pS tf wiG ;f o.l vxl vk @H_aqmcf suYf Eikd if aH wmaf cs;airG sm;. tutl n&D onhf or0g,rtvyk cf e;f rsm;ukd awmi;f qjkd ci;f xuyf Ikd vmaq;onf a&@Srwuaf wmah y? (ted *f ,.f rwS f csu)f ·· tiwf mae&iS ef ,f tvyk of rm;tpn;f t±;kH tziG rhf ed @fceG ;f ukd u;kd um; xm;jci;f jzpof n?f (t,'f wD m) 28


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f trsm;pkonf tcsdef=umjrifhpGmuwnf;uyif tifwmae&Sife,fESifh tqufjzwfcJh=uaomfvnf; ‚[email protected]#if “Oa&mywdkuf}uD;u qdk&S,fvpf0g'udk u|[email protected] a=umufp&m r&Sdawmhyg” [k ,cifESpfu qGrfqD;7 ò[email protected] or*~OuUÏu ajymqdkEdkifonfhtajcxd wjznf;jznf; a&muof mG ;cohJ n?f treS tf m;jzihf “a=unmpmwr;f ” . rrl sm;onf wikd ;f jynftm;vHk;&Sd tvkyform;rsm;twGif; [email protected]@oGm;cJhonfrSm trSef yif jzpfonf? [email protected] “a=unmpmwrf;” udk,fYyifv#if a&[email protected];[email protected] a&muf vmc.hJ ? 1850 cEk pS uf wn;f u *smrebf mompmrul kd qpG Zf mve/f t*vF eEf iS hf tar&ud wiG f t}urd rf sm;pmG jyevf nyf EkH ydS cf ohJ n?f 1872 cEk pS f wGif e,l;a,mufò[email protected] t*Fvdyfbmomjyefqdkum 0l;'f[m;vfESifh uvm zvif8 [email protected] tywfpOf*sme,fwGif xnfhoGif;azmfjycJhonf? Tt*F vyd bf momjyeqf ckd surf mS jyiof pbf [email protected] jyeqf ukd m e,;l a,muòf [email protected]&dS qdk&S,fvpf*sme,fwGif yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJhonf? xdktcsdefrSpI tenf; ESifhtrsm;qkdovkd jzwfawmufxm;aom t*Fvdyfbmomjyef tenf; qHk;ESpfrsKd; tar&duwGif ay:xGufcJhonf? ‚rSwrsKd;udk t*FvefjynfwGif xyfrHyHkESdyfvdkufonf? yxrqHk;aom ±k&Sm;bmomjyefudk bmuleif bmomjye+f y;D / 1863 cEk pS af vmuwf iG f [mZi.f *seD AD mò[email protected]&dS “uvkd akd um” owif;pmudk yHkESdyfonfh pmyHkESdyfwdkufrS xkwfa0vdkuf onf? 'kwd,bm omjye·f ukd &&J iahf omtrsK;d or;D b&J mZq;l vpcf sf u bmomjyeuf m 1882 ckESpfavmufwGif *sDeDAmò[email protected] ykHESdyfxkwfa0onf? 1885 ckESpfwGif ukdyifa[*ifò[email protected] 'def;rwfbmomjyeftopfudk “qdk&S,f'Drdk u&ufwpf · treS rf mS bmomjyeof ol nf yvuuf aemzh jfzp.f ? 1894 cEk pS f bmviò[email protected] xwk f tiwf mae&iS ef ,f atmph 'f uaf Agph wuf (1871- 75) wiG f yEkH ydS xf wk af 0cohJ n?f “±&k mS ;jyn&f dS vrl q_ uqf aH &;rsm;” aqmi;f yg;jznphf uG cf suwf iG f ted *f ,uf ,kd wf ikd uf ‚ubkd momjyeof rl mS yvuuf aemzh f jzpof n[f k u;kd um;azmjfyxm;on?f (t,'f D wm) 29


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f bbD vukd su”f pmpOwf iG f [email protected]&&dS on?f jyiof pf bmomjyef toprf mS 1885 cEk pS f y&J pòf [email protected] f qdk&S,fvpf *sme,fwGif yg&doS n?f ‚jyiof pbf momrS pydefbmomjyefqdkcsufudk 1886 ckESpf ruf'&pfò[email protected] jyifqifxkwfa0 cJhonf? *smrefbmomjzifh xyfrHyHkESdyf xkwfa0jcif;rsm;ukd ra&wGufEdkif awmah y? ten;f q;kH q,Ehf pS }f urd cf [email protected]&+dS y?D veG cf ahJ [email protected] ueG pf wif wED ykd ,òf [email protected] f xwk af 0&ejf zpaf om tmar;e;D ,m; bmomjyerf mS rxwk f a0jzpaf wmah y? ta=umi;f rl yEkH ydS xf wk af 0ool nf rmuh pf .f trnf yg&adS om pmtyk uf xkd wk af 0&ef a=umu&f @HGon?f bmomjyeof ul vn;f rrd vd u&f m jzpfa=umif;udk rajymvdkaoma=umifh[k u|efawmf=um;od&onf? tjcm;bmompum;rsm;jzihf bmomjyeqf rkd r_ sm;ukd =um;&aomvf n;f u|ef [email protected]&ay? [email protected] “a=unmpmwrf;” ordkif;onf acwfopf tvyk of rm;vwl e;f pm; vy_ &f mS ;ro_ rikd ;f ukd }u;D rm;aom twikd ;f twmjzihf a&mijf ye[f yjf yvukd af yon?f rsuaf rmS uuf mvwiG f a=unm pmwr;f onf q&kd ,S vf ppf may tm;v;kH xwJ iG f tus,jf [email protected];kH aom Eikd if H wumvh u%Q m taqmifqHk;aom/ qukd af A;&;D ,m;rS umvzD ;kd e;D ,m;txd oe;f aygi;f rsm; pGmaom tvkyform;rsm;u wlnDaomvkyfief;pOftjzpf todtrSwfðy xm;aom pmwr;f jzpof nrf mS oHo,jzpfzG,f&mr&Sday? [email protected] a=unmpmwr;f ukd a&;om;cphJ Ouf u|eaf wmwf @kdonf qdk&S,fvpfa=unmpmwrf;[k rac:qdkEdkifcJhay? 1847 ckESpfu em;vnf csuft&qdkv#if qdk&S,fvpfrsm;qdkonfrSm wzufwGif pdwful;,Ofpepf trsK;d rsK;d . aemuvf ukd rf sm;jzp=f uaom t*vF ejf ynuf t0kd i0f g'rD sm;/ jyif opjf ynuf z;kd &;D ,m;0g'rD sm; jzp=f uon?f owl @kdEpS rf sK;d pv;kH onf *%kd ;f tyk f [email protected] av#mus&if; wjznf;jznf; uG,faysmufoGm;ae onf? wjcm;wzufwGif t&if;tESD;ESifh tjrwftpGef;udk [email protected]# tEW &m,fray;bJ [email protected];. cHpm;epfemr_aygif;pHkudk ukoay;Edkifonf [k wwfa,mifum;enf;jzifh a[majymae=uonfh a&mifpHkvlr_a&;orm; a,mifrsm; &Sd=uonf? [email protected];pvHk;onf tvkyform;vlwef;pm; v_yf&Sm;r_tjyifbufrS vlrsm;jzpfonf? [email protected] “ynm&nf0aom” 30


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f vwl e;f pm;rsm;. axmucf rH u_ okd m &mS azaG e=uon?f Eikd if aH &; awmvf eS f r_rsm;oufoufjzifh rvHkavmufonfudk ,Hk=unfvmum vHk;0O\\Hk vlr_ajymif;vJa&;vkyf&ef vdktyfonf[k a=unmvdkuf=uaom tvkyf orm;vlwef;pm;. [email protected] tpdwftydkif;uyifjzpfap rdrdudk,fudk ueG jf rLep[f k ac:a0:=u.? ‚rmS tacsmruikd &f ao;onyhf =kH ur;f / yiuf ,kd f tood uof uf ueG jf rLep0f g' trsK;d tpm;jzpof n?f [email protected] ‚onf t&i;f ctH csuuf kd xxd rd rd d &odS nthf wuG f tvyk of rm;vwl e;f pm;twiG ;f wiG f pwd uf ;l ,Ouf eG jf rLep0f g'ukd ay:xuG vf mapontf xd titf m; }u;D rm;ayon?f jyiof pjf ynYf umbuEf iS hf *smrejDynYf 0uwf vi;f [email protected] pwd f u;l ,Ouf eG jf rLep0f g'yiwf n;f ? [email protected] 1847 cEk pS wf iG f q&kd ,S vf p0f g'onf tv,ftvwfvlwef;pm;. v_yf&Sm;r_jzpf+yD; uGefjrLepf0g'onf tvkyf orm;vlwef;pm;. v_yf&Sm;r_jzpfonf? tenf;qHk;tm;jzifh Oa&my wukd }f u;D Y q&kd ,S vf p0f g'onf “av;pm;z,G ”f jzpaf e+y;D ueG jf rLep0f g'um; ‚EiS ahf jzmiahf jzmi}hf u;D [email protected] uf jzpaf eon?f puwn;f uyif “tvyk f orm;vlwef;pm;. vGwfajrmufa&;onf tvkyform;vlwef;pm;udk,f wdkif. ðyr_aqmif&Gufcsufjzpf&rnf” [k u|[email protected] xif[yfxm;onfh twikd ;f Ttrnf EpS rf sK;d xrJ S rnof nthf rnuf kd a&;G cs,&f rnqf okd nuf kd oHo,r&SdEdkifay? [email protected] u|[email protected] xdktcsdefrS ,[email protected] T trnfudk [email protected]&ef vHk;0rpOf;pm;cJh=uay? “a=unmpmwrf;”onf u|[email protected] yl;wGJa&;om;csufjzpf aomvf n;f a=unmpmwr;f . tðrawjzpof nhf tajccuH saom azmjfycsuf udk rmhufpfydkifqdkifa=umif; u|efawmfazmfjy&rnf[k ,lqygonf? tqdkyg azmjfycsurf mS æorikd ;f acwuf mvwikd ;f Y vr$ ;f r;kd aeonhf p;D ymG ;a&; xwk vf yk f re_ n;f em/ zv,S af &;en;f emEiS hf ‚aemurf S rck svukd yf gvmaom vrl a_ &; [email protected];f ywkH @kdonf acwuf mvqikd &f mEikd f iaH &;EiS hf to^d m%of rikd ;f ukd wnf aqmufxm;onfh tajccHtkwfjrpf jzpfayonf? TtajccH tkwfjrpf wcwk n;f ay:roS m acwuf mvqidk &f m Eidk if aH &;EiS hf to^d m%f oridk ;f [email protected] &Sif;vif;azmfjy Edkifayonf? [email protected]=umifh vlom;ordkif;wckvHk; (ajr,mudk 31


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f bHkydkifqdkifaom a&S;OD;rsKd;±dk;wltkyfpk [email protected]@tpnf; òyuGJoGm;uwnf;u) onf vlwef;pm;wdkufyrGJ sm;.ordkif;/ aoG;pkyfolESifh aoG;pkyfcH rsm;t=um; tm;òyifr_/ tkyfpdk;olESifh tkyfpdk;cH&ol vlwef;pm;rsm;t=um; tm;òyifr_yif jzpfayonf? Tvlwef;pm;wdkufyGJrsm;. ordkif;wGiftqifhqifh ul;ajymif; r_rsm; tpOfwpdkuf jzpfcJhonf? ,[email protected] #if [email protected]@JGtpn;f w&yvf ;kH ukd ao;G pyk zf Ed ydS rf /_ vwl e;f pm;cjJGcm;rE_ iS hf vwl e;f pm;wukd yf rJG sm; tm;v;kH rS wòyiwf n;f vHk;0O\\Hk rvGwfajrmufapbJESifh aoG;pkyfzdESdyfcHvlwef;pm;/ ypPnf;rJh vlwef;pm;onf aoG;pkyftkyfpdk;olvlwef;pm;/ \"e&Sif vlwef;pm;. pdk;rdk;r_ atmurf S rrd .d vwG af jrmuaf &;ukd r&&EdS ikd af wmoh nhf tqiwhf cok @kd a&muf &SdcJhav+yD? u|efawmfhxifjrifcsufrSm ZD0aA'e,fy,fwGif 'g0if.oabm w&m;u tusKd;ðycJhonftwdkif; Twifjycsufonfvnf; ordkif;a&;&m twuG f tusK;d ðyr_ jzpyf gon?f 1845 cEk pS f rwikd rf D EpS af ygi;f [email protected] u|eaf wmf [email protected];pvHk;onf [email protected] wjznf;jznf; csOf;uyfvmcJh=u.? T tcsuqf oD [email protected] u|efawmf trSDtcdkuif;pGm tb,fr#OD;wnf wufvSrf;oGm; cJhonfudk u|efawmf a&;om;cJhaom “t*Fvefjynf tvkyform;vlwef; pm; tajctae”· pmtyk uf taumi;f q;kH azmjf yvsu&f ydS gon?f [email protected] 1845 cEk pS f aEOG ;D umv b&yqf vJ òf [email protected] f u|eaf wmEf iS hf rmuh pf xf yrf aH [email protected] qHkaomtcg rmhufpfonf ‚tcsufudk tqifoifhðypk+yD; jzpfaeonf? Ttcsufudk u|efawmfhxH wifjy&mY toHk;tE_ef;tm;vHk;eD;yg;yif T ae&mwGif u|efawmfazmfjyxm;[email protected] &Sif;vif;jywfom;vSygonf? 1872 ckESpf *smrefbmom yHkESdyfjcif;twGuf u|[email protected] yl;wGJ a&;om;xm;aomed'gef;rS atmufygtwdkif; u|efawmfudk;um;vdkufyg onf? · ted *f ,vf af &;om;aom “1844 cEk pS f t*vF ejfynf tvyk of rm;vwl e;f pm;tajctae” bmomjyefqdkol zavm&ifh au 0pfe,l;ZuD;/ e,l;a,muf? 'AvsL&;D (p)f / vAkd vJ -f ve'f e/f 1888? (ted *f ,.f rwS cf su)f 32


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f “+yD;chaJ om ESpqf ,hfig;ESpwf mumvtwGi;f tajctaersm;onf rnfr#yifajymif;vJapumrl Ta=unmpmwrf;wGif csrSwfchJaom a,bk ,srrl sm;onf wcvk ;kH taejzihf ,[email protected] wav#muvf ;kH reS uf eaf yon?f xakd e &m Tae&[email protected] [email protected];pwd rf sm;ukd ðyjyiaf umi;f ðyjyi&f ayrn?f rrl sm;ukd [email protected];csa&;onf a=unmpmwrf;u azmfjyxm;onfhtwkdif; tcsdefae&mra&G; umvwcktwGif; wnf&Sdaeaom orkdif;qkdif&m ta=umif;tcsufrsm;ay:wGif wnfayvdrfhrnf? Tta=umif;a=umifh tcef; (2) . tqHk;wGif wifjyxm;aom awmfvSefa&; aqmif&Gufcsuf rsm;ESifhywof uIf tx;l tav;wi;f razmjfyawmah y? ,[email protected]@kdqykd grl T pmy'kd &f dS jy\\emtajrmutf jrm;ukd tveG uf jJGym;jcm;em;aom pum;toHk; tE_ef;[email protected] a&;om;&ayvdrfhrnf? 1848 ckESpfuwnf;u· acwfopf purf v_ yk if e;f . ajcvrS ;f us}J u;D rsm;EiS hf vrS ;f wuvf mr/_ ‚EiS hf twvl ukd f ygvmaom tvyk of rm;vwl e;f pm;. ygwpD n;f ±;kH a&; aumi;f reG uf s,jf [email protected] vmrw_ @kdukd axmu±f v_ #ivf n;f aumi;f / azazm0f g&aD wmvf eS af &;wiG f yxr qHk; &&Sdvdkufaom [email protected]@tñuHESifh xrkd #ru ypnP ;f rvhJ wl e;f pm; u EpS vf wikd wf ikd f yxrq;kH t}urd f Eikd if aH &;tm%mukd ord ;f yukd vf ukd af om y&J pbf tkH [email protected] f yrkd Ikd &&vdS ukd of nhf [email protected]ñuwH @kdudk axmuf±_v#ifvnf; aumif;/ [email protected];pdwfrsm;wGif Tvkyfief;pOfonf acwfrrDawmhay? btkH [email protected] tcsuwf cuk kd tx;l ouaf ojyvukd af y.? ‚rmS “tvyk of rm; vlwef;pm;onf toifh&Sd+yD;om; EdkifiHawmf,EW&m;udk tvG,fwul qkyfudkifum rdrd. &nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk xajrmufatmif toHk;ðyI rjzpEf ikd af y” [Il jzpof n?f (“jyiof pjf ynf jynwf iG ;f ppyf /GJ tiwf mae&iS f e,f tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk; taxGaxGaumifpD [email protected];”/ vef'efò[email protected] x±;l vyzf /f 1871 cEk pS /f pmrsuEf mS 15 wiG f Ttcsuuf kd quvf ujf zpaf y: wdk;yGm;xm;onf udk =unfhyg?) ·Tpum;y'kd of nf 1872cEk pS f *smrebf momr&l i;f EiS hf ten;f i,f ujJGym; ygon?f pmrsuEf mS ( 19) u=kdunyhf g? (t,'f wD m) 33


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f [email protected] rsufarSmufumvwGif qdk&S,fvpf0g'pmaytay: a0zef a&;onf rjynphf okH nrf mS tvvkd xkd i&f mS ;ayon?f tb,af =umiqhf akd omf ‚a0zeaf &;onf 1847 cEk pS tf xod m jzpaf oma=umiyhf iwf n;f ? [email protected] buf ygwtD o;D o;D tay: ueG jfrLeprf sm;. oabmxm;ta=umi;f rwS cf surf sm; (tce;f 4) onvf n;f rtl & reS uf eaf eqjJ zpaf pumrl vuaf [email protected] f acwf rraD wmah y? tb,af =umiqhf akd omf Eikd if aH &;tajctaeonf v;kH 0ajymi;f vJ omG ;aoma=umihf jzpof n?f [email protected] orikd ;f w;kd wuvf mru_ xtkd ce;f wiG f azmfjyxm;aom Eidk fiaH &;ygwDtrsm;ydik f;ukd urmB ajrjyirf S z,&f mS ;ypfvkduf ay+y?D “[email protected] a=unmpmwrf;onf ordkif;qdkif&mpmwrf; jzpfvm& um; ajymif;vJypf&ef rnfonfhtcGifhta&;rS u|[email protected] r&Sday?” ,cbk momjyeof rl mS rpwP m q,jf rL&,rf ;kd jzpyf gon?f ool nf rmhufpf a&;om;aom “t&if;usrf;” trsm;ydkif;udk bmomjyefoljzpf.? u|eaf wmwf @kd twwl uG jyevf npf paf q;c=hJ uon?f orikd ;f u;kd um;csurf sm; tm; &Sif;vif;xm;aom [email protected] u|efawmf jznfhpGufxm;vdkuf ygonf? z&u'f &pf ted *f ,f 1888 cEk pS f Zeef 0g&vD 30 &u/f ve'f eòf [email protected]? 34


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f 1890 ckESpf *smrefbmom yHkESdyfjcif;ed'gef; txufyged'gef;· a&;om;+yD;uwnf;u a=unmpmwrf;tm; *smrebf momjzihf topyf EkH ydS &f ef xyrf IH vtkd yvf mon?f a=unmpmwr;f jzpfysufor#udkvnf; Ted'gef;wGif rSwfwrf;wif&ayrnf? bJ&mZql;vpfcsf. 'kwd, ±k&Sm;bmomjyefqdkcsufonf 1882 ckESpfwGif *sDeDAmò[email protected] ay:xGufvmonf? xdkyHkESdyfjcif;twGuf rmhufpfESifh u|efawmf ed'gef; a&;om;cJh=uonf? uHraumif; ta=umif;rvSojzifh *smrevf uaf &;rrl mS aysmuqf ;kH omG ;on?f [email protected]=umihf ±&k mS ;bmomrS xyrf H +yD; bmomjyefvdkuf&awmhonf?·· [email protected]&ojzifh e*dkpmrludk rnfonfhenf;ESifhr# aumif;rGefvmaprnf r[kwfay? “bmuleif bmomjyefqdkaom uGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpmwrf; ±k&Sm;bmom yxryHkESdyfjcif;udk udkvdkaum owif;pmtm; yHkESdyfonfh pmyHkESdyfwdkufu 60 pkESpfrsm;tapmydkif;··· wGifxkwfa0cJhonf? xdkpOfu · 1883 cEk pS f *smrebf mom yEkH ydS jfci;f twuG f a&;om;aom o.l e'd ge;f ukd ted *f ,f u;kd um;xm;jci;f jzpof n?f (t,'f wD m) ·· a=unmpmwr;f ±&k mS ;bmom yEkH ydS jf ci;f twuG f rmuh pf Ef iS hf ted *f ,wf @kd a&;om;aom aysmuqf ;kH omG ;onhf e'd ge;f . vuaf &;r&l i;f ukd jyevf naf [email protected]&cdS ohJ n?f armpf ukd rmuh pf /f ted *f ,/f veD if wuoU vkd af rmuf eG ;f wukd wf iG f xm;&odS n?f vu&f dS e'd ge;f t*vF yd f bmomjyerf mS *smref bmomr&l i;f rS jyeqf xkd m;on?f (t,'f wD m) ··· ‚ tcsuEf iS hf ywof uIf pmrsuEf mS (21) atmuyf ikd ;f &dS t,'f wD m. &iS ;f vi;f csuwf iG f =unyhf g? 35


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f taemufwdkif;onf ‚ (a=unmpmwrf; ±k&Sm;bmom yHkESdyfjcif;) udk pmayavmu txl;tqef;wcktjzpfom em;vnfEdkif=uayonf? TtjrifrsKd;onf ,[email protected] rjzpfEdkifawmhay? “xtkd csed f (1847 cEk pS f 'ZD ibf mv) u wn&f adS eaom ypnP ;f rhJ vlwef;pm; v_yf&Sm;r_e,fy,fonf rnfr#[email protected] &Sdaeonf qdk onfudk Ta=unmpmwrf;. aemufqHk;tcef;&Sd wdkif;jynftoD;oD;rS [email protected] uyf gwtD o;D o;D tay: ueG jf rLeprf sm;. oabmxm;wiG f t&iS ;f vif;qHk; azmfjyvsuf&Sdonf? xdktcef;wGif ±k&Sm;jynfESifh tar&duef jynaf xmipf wk @kdonf v;kH v;kH rygc=hJ uay? xtkd csed uf ±&k mS ;jynof nf Oa&my azmufjyefa&;tm;vHk;. aemufqHk; t&efwyf}uD; jzpfae+yD; tar&duef jynaf xmipf ok nf Oa&myrS yvkd #aH om ypnP ;f rvhJ wl e;f pm; titf m;prk sm;ukd ajymif;a&[email protected];um 0g;rsKdypfaeayonf? xdkwdkif;jynf ESpfjynfpvHk; onf Oa&[email protected] ukef=urf;ypPnf;rsm; axmufyHh+yD; wcsdefwnf;wGif Oa&mywdkuf. pufr_xGufukefrsm; a&mif;cs&m aps;uGufrsm;vnf; jzpfcJh on?f [email protected] xpkd Ouf wikd ;f jynEf pS jf ynpf v;kH onf wn&f adS eaom Oa&m ypepf. a'gufwdkifrsm; wenf;r[kwfwenf; jzpfcJhayonf? “,[email protected] #if veG pf mG umG jcm;omG ;avpG! Oa&mywukd uf ajymi;f a&[email protected]_onf ajrmuftar&duwdkuf. }uD;us,fvSaom v,f,m xkwfvkyfa&;twGuf vHk;0tH0ifcGifus jzpfapcJhonf? ajrmuftar&du wukd .f òyiqf ikd rf o_ nf Oa&my&dS ajr,mt}u;D tao; yikd qf ikd rf u_ kd t&i;f tjrpfrS udkifv_yfypfvdkufawmhonf? xdkr#ru ‚tjcif;t&mu tar&d uefjynfaxmifpktm; rdrd.}uD;rm;vSaom pufr_vkyfief; a&aomujf rpf rsm;ukd tiwf ukd tf m;wukd f o;kH pEJG ikd af pon?f T o;kH prJG _ twikd ;f twmonf taemuOf a&my tx;l ojzihf ,cxk &d adS eaom t*vF ejfyn.f purf v_ yk if e;f vuf0g;}uD;tkyfr_udk tcsdeftenf;i,ftwGif;wGif rkcsyif csKd;zsufypfvdrfh rnf jzpof n?f tajctaeEpS &f ypf v;kH u tar&ud wukd uf kd awmvf eS af om *,u±f ukd cf wrf _ jzpaf pjyeof n?f Eikd if aH &;taqmutf tkH wcvk ;kH . tajccH twk jf rpjf zpof nhf ti,pf m;EiS hf tvwpf m; v,,f myikd &f iS rf sm;. ajr,m 36


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f onf v,f,mvkyfcif;}uD;rsm;. òyifqdkifr_udk wpwpESifh t±_H;ay;vdkuf &ay+yD? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif pufr_vkyfief;a'orsm;wGif ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; xEk iS whf uG t&i;f tE;DS rsm; trhH ce;f ppk n;f vmro_ nvf n;f yxrq;kH t}urd f jzpfay:wdk;yGm;vmaeayonf? “,ck ±k&Sm;jynfudk [email protected]! 1848- 49 ckESpf awmfvSefa&; jzpfyGm;pOfu Oa&myrS rif;nDrif;om;rsm;omru Oa&my\"e&Sifrsm;uyg Edk;=um;pðyvm+yDjzpfaom ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;. vufwGif;rS ‚[email protected] u,wf iEf ikd of nhf wcwk n;f aom u,wf i&f iS rf mS ±&k mS ;jyn.f usL;ausmf pGufzufr_om jzpfa=umif;udk [email protected]&SdchJ=uonf? Zmbk&ifudk Oa&mywdkuf&Sd azmujf yeaf &; xyd of ;D tjzpf armi;f cwcf =hJ uon?f ,[email protected] uf m; Zmb&k if onf *wcf seD m;wiG f awmvf eS af &;. ppof @kHye;f jzpaf eav+y?D ±&k mS ;jynof nf Oa&mywdkuf awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_. wyfOD;jzpfvmay+yD? “ueG jf rLepaf =unmpmwr;f u acwof p\"f e&iS f yikd qf ikd rf o_ nf rck s ysuof Ok ;f awmrh nf jzpaf =umi;f ukd a=unm&ef &n&f ,G af yon?f [email protected] ±&k mS ;jynwf iG f vsijf repf mG jzpaf y:w;kd ymG ;vmaeaom t&i;f &iS vf nS jhf zm;rE_ iS hf pwifwdk;yGm;vmaeaom \"e&Sifajr,[email protected] v,form;rsm; u,kd wf ikd f ajr,m xu0f uaf usmtf m; bykH ikd qf ikd xf m;rE_ iS hf xyd wf ukd jf zpaf e onfudk u|[email protected] [email protected]=u&onf? rsufarSmufjy\\emrSm tvGef trif; ,dk,Gif;aeapumrl a&S;OD; ajr,mbHkydkifqdkifr_ o¿mefyif jzpfae ao;onfh ±k&Sm;atmhAf&SD;em;onf ydkrdkjrifhrm;aom uGefjrLepfbHkydkifqdkifr_ o¿[email protected] wdkuf±dkuful;ajymif;oGm;Edkifoavm? [email protected][kwf [email protected] buftm;jzifh taemufwdkif;. wpwpajymif;vJa&; ordkif;jzpfay:r_uJh [email protected] a=uðyef;a&;jzpfpOftwdkif; OD;pGmjzwfoef;&rnfavm? [lIyif jzpf.? “‚jy\\em. wcwk n;f aom tajztjzpf ,[email protected] ikd of nrf mS tu,If ±&k mS ;awmvf eS af &;onf taemuwf ikd ;f ypnP ;f rahJ wmvf eS af &;twuG f wyvf eS @fay;r_ jzpvf m+y;D wcEk iS whf ck tjyetf veS f tm;jznahf y;vukd yf gu vu&f dS ±&k mS ;jyn.f bakH jr,myikd qf ikd rf o_ nf ueG jfrLeppf epf jzpaf y:w;kd ymG ;rt_ wuG f 37


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f tpcsD&mtcsuf jzpfayvdrfhrnf? “um;vf rmuh pf /f z&u'f &uf ted *f ,f 1882 cEk pS f Zeef 0g&vD 21 &u/f ve'f eòf [email protected]?” xakd [email protected]&uaf vmurf mS yif *seD AD mò[email protected] yvkd ebf momjzihf topxf wk f a0aom uGefjrLepfa=unmpmwrf; ay:xGufvmonf? [email protected] 1885 ckESpf udkyifa[*ifò[email protected] qdk&S,f'Drdku&uf bDb vdkusuf rS pmpOfwcktjzpf 'def;rwfbmomjyefqdkcsuf topfwck ay:xuG vf mon?f urH aumi;f ta=umi;f rv&S um; ‚bmomjyeof nf rjynphf vkH aS y? bmomjyeqf okd tl wuG f cucf pJ &mjzpaf om ta&;}u;D onfh pmy'kd tf [email protected] csevf yS xf m;.? [email protected] [email protected]&mrsm;Y uysuuf acsmf vyk f xm;onhf vu%Q mrsm;&adS eay&m yrkd pkd wd rf csr;f [email protected]&myif jzpaf wmoh n?f bmomjyeof ul om ten;f i,f yrkd *kd ±pk ukd vf ukd yf grl taumi;f q;kH bmom jyecf suwf ck jzpvf mEikd of nuf kd o.l bmomjyecf suuf azmjfyaeayon?f 1885 ckESpf jyifopfbmomjyef topfonf yJ&pfò[email protected] qdk&S,fvpf *sme,wf iG f yg&odS n?f ,i;f bmomjyeof nf ,[email protected] taumi;f q;kH aom bmomjyefqdkcsuf jzpfonf? tqykd g jyiof pbf momjyerf S pyed bf momjyeqf ckd suuf kd xEkd pS rf mS yif ruf'&pfò[email protected] qdk&S,fvpf*sme,fwGif yxrxkwfa0+yD; um;vfrmhufpf/ z&uf'&pf tdef*,f a&; uGefjrLepfygwDa=unmpmwrf; trnfjzifh qdk&S,fvpf*sme,f tkyfcsKyfa&;Xme/ trSwf (8) [meefudkwdpfvrf;/ ruf'&pfò[email protected] pmtkyfi,ftjzpf xyfrHxkwfa0onf? pwd 0f ipf m;z,G f t&mwcuk kd u|eaf wmf azmjf y&rnqf vkd #if 1887 ckESpfwGif tmar;eD;,m;bmomjyef vufa&;rludk uGefpwifwDEdky,fò[email protected]&Sd yEkH ydS xf wk af 0oxl oH @kd ay;vukd of n?f [email protected] xokd al wmaf umi;f }u;D onf rmuh pf .f trnyf g&adS om pmtyk uf kd rxwk af 0&oJ jzihf bmomjyeof tl m; pma&;oltjzpf ‚.trnfudk azmfjy&ef t}uHay;aomfvnf; bmom jyefolu jiif;y,fvdkufonf? 38


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f tenf;ESifhtrsm; rwdusaom tar&duefbmomjyefcsufrsm;udk t*vF ejf ynwf iG f wc+k y;D wck xywf vvJ J jyevf nyf EkH ydS cf ohJ n?f aemuqf ;kH wiG f 1888 cEk pS Yf ,=kH untf m;xm;avmuaf om pmapmif wapmif ay: xGufvmcJhonf? ‚rSm u|efawmfhrdwfaqG q,fjrL&,frdk;. bmomjyef csufjzpf&m [email protected]@rD u|[email protected] twlwuG xyfrH=unfh±_ppf aq;=uonf? rsufESmzHk;wGif uGefjrLepfygwD a=unmpmwrf;/ um;vf rmuh pf /f z&u'f &pf ted *f ,f totd rwS ðf y+y;D t*vF yd bf momjyef z&u'f &pf ted *f ,uf wn;f jzw+f y;D rwS cf surf sm; a&;om;xm;on?f 1888 cEk pS f 0DvsH&D;(pf)/ trSwf 185 zvdvrf;/ tD;pD- vef'efò[email protected] [lI jzpfonf? u|efawmfu ‚yHkESdyfjcif;wGif rSwfcsufrsm; xyfrHjznfhpGufvdkufygonf? a=unmpmwrf;wGif rdrdudk,fydkif ordkif;wck&Sdayonf? a=unm pmwr;f ay:xuG vf mcsed wf iG f xpkd Ouf ta&twuG f rrsm;jym;vaS o;aom 0dZ…menf;us qdk&S,fvpf0g'. wyfOD; (‚tcsufudk yxred'gef;wGif azmfjyxm;onfh bmomjyefxm;csufrsm;u oufaojyonfhtwdkif;) . ESpfaxmif;tm;& óuqdkjcif;cH&onf? 1848 ckESpf ZGefv yJ&pftvkyf orm;rsm; ta&;edrfhr_ESifhtwl pwifcJhaom azmufjyefa&;u a=unm pmwrf;udk r=umcifrSmyif aemufuG,[email protected] twif;[email protected]? 1852 ckESpf Edk0ifbmvwGif udkvHk;ò[email protected];udk tjypf'%fay;jcif;ESifhtwl “w&m;Oya't&” [kqdkum a=unmpmwrf;udk tqHk;owf 0dkif;y,f xm;vdkuf=uonf? azazmf0g&DawmfvSefa&;ESifhtwl pwifcJhaom tvyk of rm; vy_ &f mS ;ro_ nf vtl rsm;. rsupf ad tmurf S u,G af ysmuof mG ; onfESifhwygwnf; a=unmpmwrf;onfvnf; aemufuG,[email protected] a&muf&Sd oGm;awmh.? tkyfpdk;aom vlwef;pm;rsm;. tm%mudk topfxdk;ESufwdkuf cdkufa&;twGuf Oa&my tvkyform;vlwef;pm;onf vHkavmufaom pGrf;tm; xyfrHjynfh0vmaomtcg tifwmae&Sife,f tvkyform; tpn;f t±;kH ay:xuG vf mc.hJ ? ‚ tpn;f t±;kH . &n&f ,G cf surf mS Oa&m yESifh tar&duwdkuf&Sd wdkufpdwfcdkufpdwf xufoefaom tvkyform; 39


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f vwl e;f pm;w&yvf ;kH ukd }u;D rm;vaS om wyrf awmf w&yf tjzpf aygi;f pn;f ay;&efyif jzpfonf? [email protected]=umifh tifwmae&Sife,fonf a=unmpmwrf; wGif csrSwfxm;aom rlrsm;rS tpcsDjcif; rðyEdkifcJhay? tifwmae&Sif e,fwGif t*Fvdyftvyk of rm;or*r~ sm;/ jyiof p/f b,vf *f s,D /H twD vED iS hf pyed f ya&mu'f eG ;f 0g'rD sm;EiS hf *smrevf maq;0g'·D rsm;ukd wcH g;ywd rf xm;aom vyk if e;f pOwf &yf xm;&Sdvm&ayonf? tifwmae&Sife,f. pnf;rsOf;ed'gef; jzpaf om vyk if e;f pOuf kd rmuh pf uf ajymiaf jrmupf mG a&;qcGJ &hJ m bmuel iEf iS hf ri;f r0hJ g'rD sm;uyif totd rwS f ðy=u&on?f a=unmpmwr;f wiG f csrwS xf m; aom t,tl qrsm; tq;kH owf atmijfriaf &;twuG f rmuh pf of nf wnD w!wG wf n;f aom v_yf&Sm;r_ESifh aqG;aEG;r_rS rkcsay:xGufvmrnfh tvkyf orm;vlwef;pm;. tod^m%fjzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_tay: vHk;0ESifh tºuif;rJh trSDðyxm;ayonf? t&i;f tE;DS ukd [email protected] nhf wukd yf tJG wiG ;f &dS tjzptf ysurf sm;EiS hf twuftusrsm;/ atmifyGJrsm;xufyif ydkrdkonfh qHk;±H_;r_rsm;u ae&mwumwGif [email protected] oHk;avh&Sdaom aq;+rD;wdk. rjynfhpHkr_udk wdkufyGJ [email protected]; azmfxkwfjyovdkufonf? tvkyform;vlwef;pm; vGwf ajrmufa&;ESifh ywfoufonfh ppfrSefaom ta=umif;tcsufrsm;tm; xdxda&mufa&muf em;vnfatmif vkyf&rnfjzpfa=umif;udk vufcH vmapon?f rmuh pf of nf reS uf eaf yon?f 1874 cEk pS f tiwf mae&iS ef ,f · u|[email protected]@wkdif; vmaq;ukd,fwkdifu olonf rmhufpf. wyn&hf i;f jzpaf =umi;f /\"rwR mtwidk ;f yif wyn&hf i;f yoD pmG a=unmpmwr;f tay:wiG f &ywf ncf ahJ =umi;f tpOf ajymqadk v&h odS n?f vmaq;aemuvf udk rf sm;EiS hf ywof uIf rl vkH;0jcm;em;ayonf? ‚[email protected] EdkifiHawmf acs;aiGrsm;. tultnD&onfh xwk vf yk of rl sm;. or0g,rqodk nhf vmaq;.awmi;f qcdk suxf uf rausmvf eG f =uay? [email protected] tvkyform;vlwef;pm;w&yfvkH;ukdvnf; EkdifiHawmf. tul tn,D al &;udk axmucf oH El iS hf rrd ud ,dk uf dk rrd d unl aD &;udk axmucf oH [l Il cjGJ cm; ypvf udk =fuon?f (ted *f ,.f rwS cf su)f 40


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f zsufodrf;vdkufonfhtcsdef&Sd tvkyform;vlwef;pm;onf 1864 ckESpf tifwmae&Sife,f pwif wnfaxmifvdkufpOfuESifh vHk;vHk;rwlawmhay? vuwf iwf ikd ;f jynrf sm;&dS ya&mu'f eG ;f 0g'onvf n;f aumi;f / *smr%jDynwf iG f tx;l wn&f adS eaom vmaq;0g'onfvnf;aumif; touif iaf eav+y?D or±;kd usxyd of ;D t*vF yd tf vyk of rm; or*r~ sm;onyf ivf #if 1887 cEk pS f qrG qf ;D ueG *f &uwf iG f or*r~ sm;.u,kd pf m; obmywud “Oa&mywukd }f u;D u q&kd ,S vf p0f g'ukd u|eaf wmwf @kda=umupf &m r&adS wmyh g” [k ajymqEdk ikd f onfh tqifhtxd wjznf;jznf;wufvSrf;cJhonf? 1887 cEk pS wf iG f Oa&m ywdkuf}uD;&Sd qdk&S,fvpf0g'onf a=unmpmwrf;wGif azmfjya=unm xm;onfh oabmw&m;twdkif; jzpfvkeD;yg;[email protected] a&mufaeay+yD? a=unmpmwrf;. ordkif;onf 1848 ckESpfuwnf;u acwfopftvkyf orm;vlwef;pm;. v_yf&Sm;r_ ordkif;udk wpHkwckaomtwdkif;twmtxd a&mifjyef[yfaeayonf? ‚onf rsufarSmufumv qdk&S,fvpfpmay tm;v;kH xwJ iG f tus,jf [email protected];kH xwk af [email protected]&d aom Eikd if wH umh vu%Q m taqmiqf ;kH aom pmwr;f jzp+f y;D qukd af A;&;D ,m;rS umvD z;kd e;D ,m; txd wikd ;f jyntf m;v;kH rS tvyk of rm;oe;f aygi;f rsm;pmG [email protected] wnl aD om vyk if e;f pOf jzpfonfudk oHo,&Sdp&mrvdkay? rnof @kdyijf zpaf p a=unmpmwr;f ay:xuG vf maomtcg qdk&S,f vpf a=unmpmwrf;[k u|[email protected]:a0: EdkifcJhay? 1847 ckESpfwGif vEl pS rf sK;d EpS pf m;ukd q&kd ,S vf p0f g'rD sm;[k ,ql xm;=u.? wzuwf iG f pwd uf ;l ,Opf eptf rsK;d rsK;d . aemuvf ukd rf sm; tx;l ojzihf xtkd csed uf wjzn;f jzn;f csi;f uG,faysmufoGm;rnfh *dk%f;*%[email protected] qkwf,kwfae=u+yD jzpfonfh t*Fvefjynf&Sd tdk0if0g'Drsm;/ jyifopfjynf&Sd zdk;&D;,m;0g'Drsm; &Sd=uonf? tjcm;wzufwGifum; ae&mwumY oHk;Edkifonfqdkaom [email protected] aq;+rD;wdktrsKd;rsKd;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ zmax;r_trsKd;rsKd;jzifhvnf; aumif;/ t&if;tESD;ESifh tjrwtf peG ;f ukd ten;f i,rf # rxyd g;ap&bJ vrl l a&;raumi;f rr_ sm;ukd z,&f mS ;ypvf =kduaom vrl a_ &;orm;a,mif trsK;d rsK;d &=dSuon?f T EpS rf sK;d pv;kH onf tvyk of rm;vy_ &f mS ;r_ tjyibf uwf iG f &yaf e 41


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f =uorl sm;EiS hf “ynm&n0f aom” vwl e;f pm;rsm;. axmucf pH memru_ okd m &SmazGae=uolrsm; jzpf=uonf? EdkifiHa&; awmfvSefr_ oufoufjzifh rvHk avmufa=umif;udk ,Hk=unfvmum [email protected]@tpnf;udk t&if;tjrpfrS jyefvnfwnfaqmuf&ef awmif;qdk=uonfh tvkyform;vlwef;pm; tpdwftydkif;url [email protected],fudk uGefjrLepf [kac:a0:=uonf? ‚rSm t=ur;f xnrf #omjzpaf om/ tacsmruikd &f ao;aom/ yiuf ,kd tf od ouf oufjzpfaom uGefjrLepf0g'yifwnf;? [email protected] t=urf;xnf jzpfapumrl pwd uf ;l ,Of ueG jf rLeppf epf EpS cf jk zpof nhf jyiof pjf yn&f dS umbu.f “tuD m &D,ef” uGefjrLepf0g'ESifh *smr%Djynf&Sd 0ufwvif;. uGefjrLepf0g'[email protected] jzpfay:vmapaom pGrf;tm;&SdcJhonf? 1847 ckESpfu qdk&S,fvpf0g'onf \"e&Sifvlwef;pm; v_yf&Sm;r_udkazmfjy+yD; uGefjrLepf0g'onf tvkyform; vwl e;f pm;. vy_ &f mS ;ru_ kd azmjf yon?f ten;f q;kH Oa&mywukd }f u;D Y q&kd ,S f vpf0g'onf av;pm;avmufp&myifjzpfI uGefjrLepf0g' rSmum; ‚ESifh ajzmiahf jzmi}hf u;D [email protected] ujf zpof n?f “tvyk of rm;rsm;. vwG af jrmuf a&;onf tvyk of rm;vwl e;f pm;u,kd wf ikd .f ðyral qmi&f uG cf suf jzp&f rn”f [al om tapmyikd ;f ,ql csutf wikd ;f yif u|eaf wmwf @kd ,wjd yw&f cdS ahJ y&m trnfESpfrsKd;xJrS rnfonfh trnfudk a&G;cs,f&rnfESifh ywfoufI u|ef [email protected] b,fvdkaESmifhaES;r_rSr&SdEdkif? xdktcsdefrSpI Ttjrifudk [email protected],fypf&efvnf; u|[email protected] pdwfrul;rdcJhay? ypPnf;rhJvlwef;pm;u rdrdudk,fydkifawmif;qdkcsufrsm;jzifh ay:xGuf vmcJhaom yxr yJ&pfawmfvSefa&;. tóuumvjzpfonfh vGefcJhonhf 42 ESpfwmumvu “wdkif;jynftm;vHk;&Sd tvkyform;rsm; aoG;pnf;=u avmh” [lI [email protected] u|[email protected] a=unmvdkufaomtcg [email protected] rnrf n&f & r&cdS ahJ y? [email protected] 1864 cEk pS f puwf ibf mv 28 &uaf [email protected] f O'gef;wGif&pfrnfh tifwmae&Sife,f tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk;[email protected] taemufOa&my wdkif;jynftrsm;ydkif;&Sd ypPnf;rJhrsm;onf vufwGJI yg0if vmcJh=uonf? trSefyif tifwmae&Sife,frSm oufwrf; 9 ESpfr#om wn&f cdS ohJ n?f [email protected] tiwf mae&iS ef ,uf zewf ;D cahJ om wikd ;f jyntf m; 42


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f vHk;&Sd ypPnf;rJhrsm; xm0pOfaygif;pnf;a&;onf &SifoefaeqJ cgwdkif;xuf ydkrdktm;aumif;aeqJ jzpfonfudk ,[email protected] ydkrdkaumif;onfh oufao om\"ujyp&m r&adS wmah y? tb,af =umiqhf akd omf ,[email protected] u|eaf wmf Tpm a=umif;rsm;udk a&;om;pDukH;aecsdefrSmyif Oa&myESifh tar&duef ypPnf;rJh vwl e;f pm;onf rrd .d wukd cf ukd af &; titf m;prk sm;ukd ppaf q;=un±hf a_ e=u+y?D wckwnf;aom vufwavm&nfrSef;csuftwGuf wckwnf;aom tvH atmufwGif wckwnf;aom wyfrawmftjzpf yxrqHk;t}udrf [email protected]; vdkuf=uav+yD? ‚&nfrSef;csufonfum; 1866 ckESpf *sDeDAm tiwf mae&iS ef ,f ueG *f &uEf iS hf aemuwf zef 1889 cEk pS f y&J ptf vyk of rm; uGef*&ufu a=unmvdkufonfhtwdkif; [email protected] 8 em&DpHcsdefudk w&m;Oya'tjzpf xwk jf yeaf &;yijf zp.f ? ,[email protected] wikd ;f jyntf m;v;kH &dS tvyk f orm;rsm;onf trSefyif pnf;vHk;=u+yDjzpfa=umif;udk wdkif;jynftm;vHk;u t&if;&Sifrsm;ESifh ajr&Sifrsm;tm; ,[email protected] jrifuGif;u rsufpdzGifhay;vdkufay vdrfhrnf? tu,fI TjrifuGif;udk u|efawmfESifh ,SOfwGJum oludk,fwdkif =unfh±_&ef rmhufpfom touf&Sifaevsuf&Sdygrl æ? tufzf tdef*,f 1890 cEk pS f arv 1 &u/f ve'f eòf [email protected]? 43


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f 1892 ckESpf ydkvefbmom yHkEdSyfjcif;ed'gef; uGefjrLepfa=unmpmwrf;udk ydkvefbmomjzifh topfyHkESdyfonfh tcsufonf pOf;pm;r_trsKd;rsKd;udk rv$JraoG ay:xGufvmaponf? OD;pGmtm;jzifh uGefjrLepfa=unmpmwrf;onf ,cifutwdkif;yif Oa&mywukd }fu;D wiG f t}u;D pm;purf v_ yk if e;f jzpaf y:w;kd ymG ;r._ t!e¸ ;f wck jzpfvmonfudk rSwfom;oifhayonf? wdkif;jynfwjynfwGif t}uD;pm; purf v_ yk if e;f w;kd [email protected]_ tcsK;d tpm;wikd ;f tqykd gwikd ;f jyn&f dS tvyk of rm;rsm; twGif;wGif ypPnf;&Sd vlwef;pm;rsm;ESifh tvkyform;vlwef;pm;[email protected] qufqHa&; tqifhae&mESifhywfoufI todynm zGifhay;a&; awmif;qdk csufonfvnf; wdk;yGm;vmonf? tvkyform;rsm;twGif;Y qdk&S,fvpf vy_ &f mS ;r_ [email protected]@HSvmum a=unmpmwr;f ukd awmi;f qrkd o_ nvf n;f w;kd rsm; vmawm.h ? [email protected] wikd ;f jynwf ikd ;f &dS tvyk of rm;vy_ &f mS ;r._ tajctae udkomru t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;wdk;yGm;r_ tqifh'D*&Dudkvnf; xwkd ikd ;f jyn.f bmompum;tvukd f xwk af [email protected] om a=unmpmwr;f apmiaf & ta&twuG jfzihf tawmtf wef wud spmG wikd ;f xmG =unEhf ikd af yon?f Ttwikd ;f yif yvkd ebf momjzihf topyf EkH ydS jf ci;f onf yvkd epf urf _ vyk if e;f ood od mom w;kd wurf u_ kd !e¸ jfyaeayon?f pmtyk yf EkH ydS xf wk af 0cohJ nhf veG cf ahJ om q,Ef pS uf wn;f u Tw;kd wurf _ treS wf u,f jzpaf y:vmjci;f ukd rnof @fkdr#ooH , &pdS &mrvakd y? ±&k mS ;yikd f yvkd e/f ueG *f &uyf vkd e9f onf ±&k mS ; tiyf g,m. }u;D rm;aom purf v_ yk if e;f a'o jzpvf mayon?f pipf ptf m;jzihf 44


ueG jfrLepyf gwD a=unmpmwr;f ±&k mS ;jyn.f t}u;D pm; purf v_ yk if e;f onf zivf eyf ivf ,af [email protected] nwf iG f wpwd wf yikd ;f / A[akd 'o (armpf uEkd iS hf Avm*srD ;D ò[email protected];) wiG f wjcm;wpwd f wydkif;/ yifv,feuf/ taZmhyifv,furf;±dk;wef; wav#mufESifh tjcm; ae&mrsm;wGif wwd, wpdwfwydkif;tjzpf xdkwuGufTwuGuf [email protected] usJaeonf? ydkvefpufr_vkyfief;onf E_dif;,SOfjcif;t& usOf;ajrmif;aom a'owiG f ¹ywof yd af eon?f [email protected] ppk n;f aera_ =umihf ay:ayguvf monhf omveG cf suEf iS hf csnehf @JcsuEf pS rf sK;d pv;kH ukd cpH m;&on?f òyibf ujf zpaf eaom ±&k mS ; purf _ vyk if e;f &iS rf sm;onf yvkd erf sm;ukd ±&k mS ;vrl sK;d tjzpf ajymi;f vJ yp&f ef qEjN yi;f jypmG &adS pumrl yvkd euf ek rf sm;ukd taumutf ceG wf wH ikd ;f EiS hf umuG,fay;&ef awmif;qdkvdkufjcif;jzifh10 ydkvefpufr_vkyfief;. omvGef csurf sm;ukd totd rwS ðfy&m a&muof mG ;ayon?f yvkd ef tvyk of rm;rsm; twiG f; q&kd ,S vf ptf aw;G tac:rsm; vsijfrepf mG [email protected] ;vmjci;f EiS hf a=unm pmwrf;udk awmif;qdkr_wdk;rsm;vmjcif;[email protected] ydkvefpufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm;ESifh ±&k mS ;tp;kd &twuG f xdcdkufepfemr_udk azmfjyvdkufayonf? [email protected] ±&k mS ;jynuf kd ausmvf eG cf +hJ yjD zpaf om yvkd epf urf v_ yk if e;f . vsifjrefpGmjzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_u ydkvefjynfolrsm;. rukefcef;Edkifaom pGrf; tm;udk topfwzef oufaojyvdkufonf? ‚jyif ay:ayguftHhqJqJ trsK;d om;jyefvnf ysK;d axmifa&;twGuf opvf Giaf om tmrccH sufvnf; jzpfonf? trSDcdkuif;+yD; awmifhwif;aom ydkvefjynf jyefvnfysKd;axmif a&;onf ydkveftrsKd;om;rsm;twGufomru u|[email protected];vHk; twuG vf n;f *±ðk yp&mta&; jzpaf yon?f Oa&mywukd f trsK;d om;rsm;. ajzmifhrSefaom EdkifiHwumh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_onf TtrsKd;om;w&yf prD mS rrd wd ikd ;f jynwf iG f u,kd yf ikd tf yk cf sKyrf _ tjynthf 0&rdS oS mv#if jzpEf ikd of n?f ypPnf;[email protected];pm;. atmifvHatmuf&Sd 1848 ckESpf awmfvSefa&;onf t&if;ppfvdkufv#if \"e&Sifvlwef;pm;u vkyf&rnfhtvkyfudk ypPnf;rJhvl we;f pm;tm; vyk cf ikd ;f vukd jf ci;f ouof ujf zpof n?f [email protected] aowr;f pmt& aqmi&f uG of rl sm;jzpof nhf v0l bD ekd mywEf iS hf bppf rwwf @kdrwS qihf twD v/D *smr%DESifh [efa*&Djynfrsm;udkvnf; vGwfvyfa&;&apcJhonf? ydkvef 45


rmhufpf/ tdef*,f jynrf mS rl 1792 cEk pS uf wn;f u txuaf zmjf yyg wikd ;f jynf o;kH jynf aygi;f xufyif awmfvSefa&;twGuf tusKd;ðycJhaomfvnf; 1863 ckESpfwGif rdrd xuf tiftm;q,fq omvGefonfh ±k&Sm;jynf. zdtm;atmufwGif touf±SLayguf r&onfhtqHk;Y t±_H;ay;vdkuf&onf? r–;rsKd;rwfEG,f tv$monf ydkvefjynf vGwfvyfa&;udk xdef;Ivnf;rxm;Edkif/ jyefvnf &&Sdatmifvnf; r,lEdkifay? ,[email protected] tedrfhqHk;ajym&v#if \"e&Sifvl we;f pm;onf TvwG vf yaf &;ukd tav;rxm;awmah y? rnof @kdyijf zpaf p TvGwfvyfa&;onf Oa&mytrsKd;om;rsm;. avsmfnDaom yl;aygif;r_ twGuf vdktyfcsufwck jzpfonf? ‚udk ysKdjrpfaom ydkvefypPnf;rJh vlwef;pm;uomv#if t&,lEdkif+yD; ol. vufxJwGif&SdrSvnf; tmrcH csuf&Sdonf? Oa&my&Sd usefwdkif;jynftm;vHk;rS tvkyform;rsm;twGuf q&kd aomf yvkd ef tvyk of rm;rsm;EiS hf tvm;wyl if yvkd ejf yn.f vwG vf yf a&;udk tvkd&Sd=uayownf;? tufzf tdef*,f 1892 cEk pS f azazm0f g&vD 10 &u/f ve'f eòf [email protected]? 46


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