Important Announcement
PubHTML5 Scheduled Server Maintenance on (GMT) Sunday, June 26th, 2:00 am - 8:00 am.
PubHTML5 site will be inoperative during the times indicated!

Home Explore မြန်မာ့စွယ်စုံကျမ်း အတွဲ(၁) က

မြန်မာ့စွယ်စုံကျမ်း အတွဲ(၁) က

Published by accmelibrary, 2022-11-15 07:49:10

Description: မြန်မာ့စွယ်စုံကျမ်း အတွဲ(၁) က

Search

Read the Text Version

www.foreverspace.com.mm


www.foreverspace.com.mm


www.foreverspace.com.mm


www.foreverspace.com.mm


www.foreverspace.com.mm jrefrmAsnf; 33v;kH wGif u onf tptQ7mjzpfonf? u/c/*/•/i [al om u 0*wf iG yf g0iIf u toH.jzpf7mXmerSm u!Xmef vnaf csmif;t7yfjzpof n?f tQ 7m.t7,G fukdvdkuIf ‘u-uD;’ [k trnwf iG fonf? u/•/+/} [al om -uD;av;-uD; wGif yg0iof n?f u ta7;tom;.rvl rmS jAm¦tD Q7m jzpof n?f jAm¦D rS ukoe *kW yœ0g odk\\tqifhqifhajymi;f vJvmjyD;aemuf/ yk*Hausmufpm rsm;wGif ESihfaypmrsm;wGif [k a7;om;onfudkawG\\7onf? -uufajc o!mef7SdaomjA¦Dta7;tom; wGif uef\\vef\\jzwfrsOf;onf wjznf;jznf; atmufzufodk\\ukyfvmonf? axmivf dkufrsOf;onf OD;acgif;aysmufonftxd wpwp wdkIvmonf? Todk\\jzifh,ckacwfjrerf m u tQ7m ay: xGef;vmonfudk atmuwf Gif tpOftwdkif; ,SOfwGIJ jyxm;onf? uuwpf? ?uuwpfonf jrerf mEikd if H ur;f &dk;wpf jzpaf wmrf ol n?f xjdkrwpf mG b7k m;. tCom0u wynhf av~muYf aw\\7G aom ta7;-u;D onhf pm;ig; wprf sK;d jzpf EpS yf g;um; 7iS 0f \"d 7l EiS fh 7iS of Vd 0D w\\djkzpof n?f tvyk tf I vlord sm;on?f Tig;onf yg+aA' tvdkt7 au`; (wynfh)um; 7iS Af <k ad Zm jzpfonf? iawmuwf /l uojri;f / ipipf yf ponwf \\Edk iS tfh wl ‘ygp'D ’kd xjkdrwpf mG b7k m;.Om+af wmtf jrihof ntf awmiaf v; rsK;d 7i;f wiG f yg0iof n?f uuwp.f u,kd of nf jym;I q,f jzpf.? ouaf wmf tEpS of ;Hk aomif;EpS af xmifwiG f tenf;i,f 7Snvf sm;on?f ESmwwH kdI atmufar; acrm&HkY y7ded¤mefjyKawmfrl7m/ -uGi;f aom\"mwaf wmf a7\\oS a\\kd igxuG af eon?f acgi;f .ab; wpzf uwf pcf suf wiG f tpuk Xkd myemI wp*f g0wk jfriafh om apwaD wmuf dk wnf -u;D rm;aom rsufvHk;ESpfvH;k 7Sdonf? ausmq;l awmif xm; ud;k uG,-f uon?f xktd cg vwl dk\\.ouwf r;f rmS ESpfckygI a7S\\q;l awmifwGif rmausmaom q;l &kd;rsm; 4 aomif;jzp.f ? yg7Sdonf? tjr;D rmS xdy0f dki;f rsK;d jzpf.? ta-u;rsm;rmS r-uD;ri,fjzpfI tem;-urf;ta-u;rsKd; jzpfon?f vlodrsm;onfh uuwpf Tig;. ta7mirf Sm rjGJ yma7mif jzpfI/ ausmydki;f wiG f tprd f;a7mif 0rf;yukd wf paf v~mufwGif tjzLa7mif oef; aeon?f uuwpfonf omretf m;jzifh wpfaycGJom 7adS omvf n;f / wpcf gwp7f H t7nS f 5 ay tav;csed f 55 y©d mcef\\txd 7EdS idk of n?f Tig;. pnaf zmi;f rsm;rS t awmtf oihf aumif;rGefaom ig; pnfazmi;f aumfudk jyKvyk 7f 7ESd ikd of n[f k o7d on?f uukoejfrwpf Gmb7k m;? ? bk7m;ig;qyl iG f7h m Tb] uul7H ? ? uu7k oH nf yivf ,if g;rsK;d jzpIf 7cidk jfynf uBmtwGif; yGihfawmfrlcJhjyD; bk7m;av;qlteuf zuwf iG f ivucf mG [›k i;f / xm;0,zf uYf iu,JG i[f ›k i;f yxrqk;H yiG hfawmrf al om b7k m;7Sijfzpfonf? wiG of n?f Eikd if jHcm;wiG rf l tNd ,d qmre[f k ac:av7h -dSu on?f yg+aA' tvtkd 7 uu7l oH nf iy#k m;EiS tfh wl acrjHynrf S tC'd šy#k m;EiS fh 0od mcgyak #;rw\\.dk om; ‘ay:vDeDr'D ’kd rsK;d 7i;f wGif yg0iIf / Tig;ESprf sK;d vH;k yif jzp.f ? t7,G af 7muaf omf oijhfrwaf om ow\\kdor;D EiS hf jrerf mEkdiif HY vl-udKufrsm;ojzifh ta7mi;f 7 wGif vufxyxf rd ;f jrm;.? om;awmOf W7udk zmG ;jrijf y;D us,favonf? aemuf avmuD pn;f prd fukd peG \\fy,uf m awmxGuaf wmf rlon?f 7pS vf -umr~ 'Uk 7p7,d m usiafh wmfrljy;D aemuf uu7k oH nf ajcmuaf y ausmaf usmtf xd 7nS Ef ikd of n?f uUk KdaAm\"yd i7f i;f 0,f o£nKwOm+af wmuf 7kd I b7k m; EmS a,mifyIG 0ikd ;f on?f rsuvf ;kH -u;D on?f yg;py-fu;D I 1


www.foreverspace.com.mm uu7l H uau;tdkyif yg;pyaf yguf euof n?f ausmq;l awmif EpS cf yk gI xif 7mS ;ay:viG of n?f tjr;D ceG uof n?f tem;-ur;f rsK;d jzpf onhf ta-u;rsm;rmS ao;i,If axmivf ukd af yguaf om q;l awmizf sm; txyd if zHk;tkyfaewwof n?f Tig;. ta7mirf mS tprd ;f EiS fh aiaG 7mif a7mpyxf m;aom ta7mif rsK;d jzpIf uk,d ef Hab;EiS hf 0r;f ykud yf ikd ;f wGif jzL0ga7mif o\\dk ajymi;f omG ;on?f ausmESifh tjr;D q;l awmifxyd zf sm; w\\dkrmS rn;f I ao;i,faom trn;f ajymuf uav;rsm; ygon?f 0r;f EiS fh ptqdk ;l awmiwf \\.dk tem;wpaf v~muf rmS t0gEak 7mif oe;f ae.? yg;[uzf ;kH ay:wiG f trn;f uGuf wpfckpD yg7Sod n?f uuk7Hukd tqyd tf awmuf ui;f onfqukd m vzl sm;vlemrsm; pm;ok;H Eikd af om ig;rsK;d pm7if;wGif xnhof iG ;f xm;on?f uu7k Hukd jrerf mEkid if H yivf ,rf S tajrmutf jrm; zr;f q;D 7rad v7h odS nthf widk ;f / vwfvwf a7mi;f cs7exf uf ykvd ~Haeaom ig;rsm;ukd ig;ykyaf jcmurf sm; ig;ajcmufrsm; jyKvkyIf a7mif;cs pm;aomuaf v7h -Sduon?f uau;tkyd if? ?pydefvlrsKd;rsm; tar7duwudk of d\\kOD; yifpnYf oD;aeaom uau;tdkoD;rsm;? x;l jcm;onrf mS uau; pmG a7mufpOfu rUquD edk ,frS wdki;f 7i;f om;wkd\\onf todk ;D w\\dkonf yifpnfEiS tfh uidk ;f rsm;wiG f ,cifut7uG fxGujfyD; uau;tykd irf S7aom taphre= fjziahf zsmxf m;onhf t7nf cg;cg;udk aomufoHk;vsuf7Sda-umif; awG\\7onf? ae7mrsm;rS oD;-u.? xkdwikd f;7if;om;wd\\ku Tt7nfcg;udk acsmuvuf[k ysKd;ww-f u on?f uau;tdk tyGihfESihftoD;rsm;onf ac:I uau;tdkyifrS7a-umi;f ajymjyojzifh ,ae\\ yipf nrf vS n;f aumi;f / tuikd f;7i-hfu;D rsm;rvS nf;aumi;f wkdif xdtk yifudk uau;tydk if[lIvnf;aumif;/ xkd xGuIf yGif-huoD;-uon?f tyif.toD;rS 77Sad omtaprh e= fESihf o-um;a7mpyf xm;onuf kd acsmuvu[f lIvn;f aumi;f trnf to;D rsm;rmS ocmG ;o;D ti,pf m;t7,G 7f IdS r\\=do;D uohJ hkd toD;awmihrf smjzpfonf? tpyxrwiG f toD;rsm; wiG vf suf7Sdayonf? vufzuf ajcmufwd\\kuJhok\\d rSmta7mifpdrf;aeI rSnhfvmonfhtcg 0gnpfnpf vlwk\\daomufoHk;-uaom ukdukd;r=ef\\rmS uau;tkdoD; ta7mifokd\\ajymif;oGm;onf? uau;tdkcif;xJwGif taprh =efrsm;yijfzpof n?f (uduk dk;· &?= ) toD;rsm;rSnfhcsdefonf tvkyftrsm;qH;k tcsdejf zpf.? toD;rSnhfrsm;udk vdkufvHIqGwfc;l olwdk\\onf vuf uau;tkyd ifrsm;. rvl ayguaf 7mu7f mt7yfrmS t vSrf;rrDaom toD;rsm;udk wHcsLjzifh csL,l-uonf? uau;tdok ;D cHGudck mG vduk fv~if t7omcsKad om twGif; ar7ud wudk ,f Opf eG ;f we;f rsm;twiG ;f 7Sd yjlyi;f pwG pf akd om om;tESpfaysmhxJY uau;tdak phaygi;f 29 aprh S 50 a'orsm;jzpof nf? xkdt7yfa'orSwpqf ihf tmz7du xd 7wdS wfonf? uau;tadk prh sm;onf Ag'raf pht wukd f EiS fh tm7wS ukd 7f dS yjlyi;f aomtyikd ;f w\\wkd iG f uau;tkd 7,G cf e\\f jzpof n?f tEpS zf wfrsm; w,G uf yaf eaom t aph rsm;ukd 3 7ucf e\\fpyk IkH xm;-u.? TtawmtwiG ;f yiuf kd pukd yf sK;d vmc-hJuon?f ,ctk cgwiG f tmz7ud wukd f taprh sm; uaZmfaygufvmojzihf t7om cg;ouf Y uau;tkyd iuf dk tajrmutf rsm; pkud yf sKd;vsuf 7daS v ouf jzpvf mon?f 37ufu ausmfvGevf mv~if xkd on?f uau;tykd irf mS q,Ehf pS 7f mopD rd ;f ve;f aom tjrJ taprh sm;ukd aeyxl wJ iG fjze\\fI tajcmuvf Sr;f -uonf? prd ;f yifjzpof n?f tjriahf y 20rS ay40 tx7d dIS wpEf pS f ywvf H;k tyGirhf sm; yGifhon?f uau;tdkyiuf dktjcm;t yi-f u;D rsm;u umu,G f xm;rSomv~if oD;or~toD; wkid f; atmijfrirf nf jzpf ojzihf tcsdK\\ uau;tdjkcrH sm; wGif iuS faysmyifrsm;ukd t7dy7f ap7ef a7mIpdkuf 2


www.foreverspace.com.mm uau;tykd if rkd;rsm;vGef;aom t7yfa'orsm;Yrl zkdrsm;wGif taph twGif;om;cGjJ yxm;aom uau;tdok ;D rsm;udk tajcmucf xH m; -uonf? uduk dk;/ od\\kr[wk f acsmuvufjyKvyk frnhf pu&f kHrsm;7d7S mt7yof d\\k rwifyd\\k qtD ytkd wuG f uukd ;kd re= \\frsm;rS 7or~quD pkd ujfzihf wpzf ef -uwd nf p| ,f l -u7jyeof n?f ,i;f o\\k7d 7adS omquD kd trsm; rD uau;tdkaphrsm;udk aumif;pGmajcmufao\\Gatmif tm;jzif hacsmuvuf jyKvky7f mYtoHk;cs-uon?f od\\k jyKvkyf7onf? ,if;odk\\ rjyKvkyfcJhv~if vrf;c7;D wGif aomf wd7>mef tpmEiS hfa7arF;uhJodk\\ tarF;t-uKd if uau;tdak phrsm; r=dwuf wwof n?f puf&Hrk sm;okd\\ yPn;f rsm; jyK vyk 7f mYvn;f xqdk uD dtk oHk;cs-uon?f a7muof nthf cg xdk taprh sm;ukd tre= \\fjzpaf tmi-fuwd If aq; zufESiohf uqf ikd of nhf qDwprf sK;d uykd if xkud duk k;d qD jzifh jyKvyk -fuon?f vuzf uaf jcmuEf iS fh umzrD e= \\fw\\kud ohJ \\kd ukdud;k r=ef\\ acsmuvuf ponf wkd\\jyKvkyf-uonf? udkukd;r=efudtk ok;H rsm;-u.? pu&f rHk sm;wiG f O;D pmG yxruau;takd puh kd z;kH xm;aom uau;tdkyifrsm;udkysKd;cif;rsm;wGif yxrysKd; tcyHG g;ukd cmG ypvf kud of n?f uau;takd prh sm;wiG f vwl \\dk axmifIpkud 7f onf? tyiof uf5 ESpcf e\\f7rdS S to;D rsm; o;D on?f uau;tykd itf -u;D tus,pf ukd fysK;d onwhf idk ;f twuG f tm[7\"gwuf kd tx;l jzpaf pEikd of nhf qwD prf sK;d Eikd if H w\\dkrmS rUquD /kd tuuf mG a'g/ Aief ;D Z;DG vm;/ A7mZ;D / yg7oSd n?f xqkd aD -umifh acsmuvuof nf vwl \\kdtwuG f usL;Ag;/yGg;wdk7Dukd;/ a[;wD;/ 'dkrifeDuef7DywfAvpf/ tm[m7EiS jfhynpfh okH nhf tpm;tpmwp7f yjfzpaf wmoh n?f x7if;eD'uf/*sar;um;/*d;k vudk\\/ ay:w*l D ta7\\Stm xqdk .D ta7mirf mS nKdnpnf pjfzpof n?f acsmuvuwf iG f z7ud e,Ef iS fh o[D }kd uf `e;f rsm;jzpf -uon?f TuJhod\\k tm[m7\"gwfjynhfpHkpGm yg7Sod jzihf/ ppof m; rsm;ESihf a7opfajropf 7mS azoG rl sm;tzdk\\ tvGef toHk; usaomtpmwpf 7yjfzpfayon?f ,ciaf cwtf cgu vwl k\\dpm;o;kH vsuf7dSaomacsm u vurf Sm uau;tkad phrS7aom tr=e\\fudk e*ktd cg;\"gwf aysmujf y,foGm;atmifo-um;udk vdok r~ a7mpyfI jyKvkyfxm;onhf tpmr~om jzpfonf? odk\\aomf ,ck acwwf Gicf sK7d i;f pqGJ Dtjyif csKdcsOcf zJ G,f vkyfowl \\dkonf acsmuvuwf iG f uduk kd;qtD ydkudk aqmif;Ixn-fhu avonf? (acsmhuvuf· &=? ) xkda-umihf tcsKd\\ acsmuvurf sm;rmS tpma-uEikd cf Jon?f TuohJ \\kd acsm uvuf vkyif e;f wGif ukdudk;qDukd toHk;rsm;vmonfh tavsmuf udku;dk r=e\\fvyk if e;f rSmvnf; yrkd dkI -u;D us,f vmawmoh n?f ta-umi;f qakd omf omrefuukd k;d r=e\\fwGif uukd ;kd qrD sm;veG ;f ojzihf uukd ;kd azsm7f nYf qaD 0h aeonuf kd aw\\G7ayrn?f xadk csmuvujfyKvkyf7mY vrkd nhf ukud d;k uuau;tdkjcwH pfjcH. wpfpdwfwpfa'o awmiftar7duwdkuf tufumG a'gEkdfifiHY pdkpGwfI ajr-oZmaumif;onfha'owGif uau;tkjd cHrsm;ukd txuyf gtwidk ;f pduk fysK;d xm;-u.? ajr-oZmaumi;f aoma-umihf tukid f;rsm;ukd csKd;pdkuf&Hkjzihf vdkovkd xyfrHwkd;yGm;apEkdifayon/f ? 3


www.foreverspace.com.mm jrefrmhtEkynmwpf7yfjzpfaomZmwof bifrS EpS fyg;omG ; tu ESpfyg;omG ;tcef;onf jrefrmZmwof bifwGif ta7;-u;D [email protected]? EkdifiHausmf bk7m;'g,um OD;zk;d pdeEf Sihf 'kw,d ,dk',m; roed f;arwkd\\onf ESpfyg;oGm;tuukd Tok\\dykdifEkdif,Ofaus;pGm tokH;awmfcH-uon?f 4


www.foreverspace.com.mm xm0pOfwnfjroJ nfoh ck krynmw7yf ,Oaf us;onjfzpaf p/ &ikd ;f pikd ;f onjfzpaf p/rnof nvhf rl sK;d wiG rf qkd rrd wd k\\d.pwd wf iG ;f [email protected] dk tujziahf z:jyonhf \"av7h adS yon?f Tta-umi;f 7ywf iG f uckejfci;f .t\"_d g,/f vtl rsKd;rsK;d w\\dk. uyukH en;f rsmEiS fh ujcif;.tusK;d aus;Z;l rsm;udk az:jyxm;on?f uckefjcif;? ?ucek fjci;f qkod nfrmS u,dk tf *g® tpdwf vGifwwvf su/f wpfcgwp7f wH Gifrl trsm;ESifha7maEmS tydik f;rsm;ukd tcsufusus v=yf7mS ;jcif;jzpfIxkdodk\\ qufqHro= nf ydkIay:viG wf wfavonf? odk\\7mwiG f vy= 7f Sm;rw= ikd ;f wGif oabmo&kyft\"_d g,tf rsK;d rsK;d yg7Sd rsm;aomtm;jzihf xtdk csuEf Sp7f yfpv;Hk yiuf r= cek frw= \\dkY avonf?uckefonhftcg aw;oDcsi;f rsm;ukdoDqdjk yD; tusK;H 0ivf su7f odS jzi/fh qN-u;D EpS fcpk v;kH ukd wp-furd f wn;f ESifhyif jznphf Gr;f Eidk fonof mjzpaf von?f o\\dktm; v~ivf ufckyvf uf0g;wD;I pnf;csuvf kduaf y;7on?f avsmfpGmvlwkd\\. qNvkdbjynf0h ru= kd ay;pGrf;aom o\\krd [kwf w7l ,d m*wD rsm; wD;rw= af y;7on?f tcsK\\daom uckefjci;f onf v\\lavmuwGif a7S;ya0+aD cwfrSpI a7;S acwtf utcek wf \\dkwGif acgi;f ajcaxmu/f ausm/cg;/ ,ae\\wikd af tmif acwpf m;vsu7f daS eawmoh n?f vuaf rmi;f /vuaf csmi;f ponhf u,kd tf *g® tpwd tf yikd ;f uckefjcif;onf jrL;wl; aysmf7iF fr=udk t7if;cH tm;v;kH uvkd y= 7f mS ;I wyiwf ye;f vrd af umucf ek af yguuf xm;on[f k qcdk ahJ omvf n;f tcsK\\daom ucek jfci;f w\\dok nf -u7.? tcsKd\\aomtursm;wiG uf m; ajcvurf sm;udk umr*k+ftm&Hkpwd uf kd ododomom v=H\\aqmaf y;.? vy= f onqf &kd rkH ~vy= 7f avon?f a7;S acwf ucek jfci;f w\\wdk iG f ,i;f rmS iSurf sm;/ w7d >merf sm;wiG f aw\\Gjrif-u7onhf tutckefrsm;udk twk,l xm;[ef wlavonf? -unhf oEl pS of urf 7= 7exf uf uol aysm7f iF af useyrf 7= 7erf mS om\"u jy7aomf -opa-w;v;D,m;wudk Ef iS fh e,;l*i;feD u`e;fpyf t\"ud tcsufyifjzpof n?f tNd d,Ekid if H ta7S\\ykdif;rS pkHwGJtuursKd; wGzJ uIf ujcif;tavoh nf taemufEidk firH sm;wGif ydkI acwpf m;vm7um; uckefjci;f onf zdkrquf qaH 7;EiS ofh m v;Hk 0quof ,G af eon[f k tcsK\\du xijfrif -uon?f xdk xijfricf surf mS ;,iG ;f a-umi;f ukd uBmay:&dS vrl sK;d to;D o;D w\\dk.ucek rf \"= avxh ;kH prH sm;ukd avvh mjci;f jzihf o7d dS Eidk of n?f tutcek [f ol a7\\GwiG f zrkd quqf aH 7; oabm jzpfaom umr*k+ftm&Hpk dwfvH\\=aqmfrr= sm; rui;f aomfvn;f xdvk \\=Haqmrf =rSm ta-umif;7if;r[kw/f tq,G tf ymG ; tjci;f t7mwp7f yof mv~if jzpaf cson?f om\"ujy7aomf rif;om; ri;f orD;ESpf yg;oGm;tu rsm;wGif zdkrqufqHa7; oabmrsm; ouf0ifyg 7dSaomfvnf; t\"dutm;jzifh -unhf oluolESpfzuf faomvlwdk\\ pdwfayghyg;7FifjrL;jcif; twGif; oMmefudk ay:viG af paom trtl 7mwp7f yfyifjzpof n?f vwl ikd ;f vwl ikd ;f wiG uf ;D rm;aomqNEpS cf 7k 7dS m/ wpf crk mS xiaf y:vdkaomqNjzpIf tjcm;wpcf rk mS vltrsm;ESifh a7maESmqufqHvdkaomqNjzpfonf?uckefjcif;onf vwl pOf ;D wpaf ,mutf m; xqdk N-u;D EpS cf pk v;kHukd wpjfyKdif wnf;jynf0h apEikd fon?f tb,af -umifqh dkaomf uacs onwf pOf ;D onf y7od waf 7\\SwiG f rrd .d tprG ;f ujkdyojci;f jzihf rdrdukd,fudkxifay:atmif jyKvkyfEdkifonf\\enf; wl/ trsm;EiS fh a7maESmjcif;jzifhvnf; xifay:r=udk 77dS Eikd af yon?f wpcf gwp7f H u,kd fx;D tprG ;f jyro= nyf Ikd ay: 5


www.foreverspace.com.mm uckejf cif; udk,f[efrl7mjzihf o&kyfazmfonhf A,af vtu AmvDu`ef;tuwpfrsK;d rS oZl mtysKdEiS hfr>d maumif qGD'iEf kid fiH pawmh[krf;jrdK\\7Sd tyef;ajzyef;jcwH pfcktwGif;rS ,ae\\wkid fr&dk;Edkifaom acwfa[mif;a7S;&k;d tu 6


www.foreverspace.com.mm uckejf cif; -um;7Sd awm7uf a7vu-f um;rSuGse;f pkrsm;wGif xl; qe;f aom a7;S &dk;xHk;pwH pfc7k d.S ?xxdk k;H prH mS red ;f rysKud av;rsm;onf vyl sKwd ppf uk cek af e-uonuf akd pmi-hfunfh -ujyD;aemuf/rdrdwkd\\oabmusoludk a7G;cs,fvsuf yc;kH ukvd ufESiwfh d\\kI ac:,ol Gm;aomxHk;pHyijf zpof n?f xdkr~ruao;vlwkd\\onfwd7>mefrsm;ukdtwk,lI uckejf cif;jyKww-f u.xkud Jhokd\\aom tursKd;ukdjref rmZmwyf JrG sm;wiG f aw\\Gjri-fu7ayon?f w7d >mefuoJh k\\d u7mwiG rf suEf mS z;kH rsm;upkd yG If vn;f aumi;f ;qikd 7f mw7d >mef EiS hwf al tmif jyKvkyxf m;aom uk,d cf ¶mtwxk Jo\\kd0ifI (tay:) jrefrmuav;wpfpk. aysmfrqH;k onhf tk;d pn0f kdif; (vuf0J) pnf;yHk vnf-um 'Gm'7mwpfpHkjzihf jrefrmtrsKd;orD;ud³mtu vnf;aumif;;ujyu.?wpfcgwpf7Hwd7>mefESihf ,;dk ',m;Zmwfobijf ycef;wpfcef;rS ,Orf i;f ysKdESihf ukd,Qwk\\d. a7;S rlrysuf wlatmif jyKvkyf7ef yPnf;r7Sdonfhtcg trl [efa7;jypwkH JtG u t7mEiS fyh if wd 7>meEf iS whf al tmijfyKvkyIf ujy-u ao;onf? bDvl;u/arsmuuf /[om® u/vdyjfymu/ ud³7muwkd;e7m;u paomtursm;rmS jrerf mwk\\d twuG f w7d >mefrsm;rS twck ;kd onthf ursm; jzp-fu on?f *sm;Ag; usGe;f ol usGe;f om;rsm;vn;f w7d >mef twck ;kd onfh tursm;udk ucek af v7h -dSu.? wAd uf Eikd if EH iS fh w&kwfEdkifiHrsm;wiG uf m; raumi;f q;kd7mG ; tursm;ukd ucek wf w-fuon?f ta7\\Swikd ;f tursm;onf t\"_d m,ef uef J I pdwfyg0ifpm;z,G f7m aumif;avon?f aysm&f Fif rt= wuG of mv~if r[wk bf J omoema7; ta-umi;f rsm;udk o&kyfaz:um Zmwfvrf;ZmwftdrfzGJ\\I ci;f usif; jyavh7aSd von?f omoema7;tursm;rS tqifqh iahf jymi;f vJ ay:xGef;vmaom vlrsKd;qdkif7 tursm; onf ta7\\Swkdif;rsm;wGifomru taemufEdkifiH rsm;Yvn;f awG\\7dSEdkifayonf? odk\\tm;jzifh Adk[;D 7


www.foreverspace.com.mm uckejf ci;f twGi;f ok\\d a7muf7Svd mcJh7m/ ,;kd ',m; uajconrf sm; EiS fh ,;dk ',m; tuynmvn;f yg0iaf von?f ,cak cwf wdik fatmif jrefrm*DwESifh ZmwfobifavmuwGif acwpf m;vsu7f adS om ,;kd ',m;ocD si;f / w;D v;Hk / w;D uuG /f tuponfwd\\krmS ,dk;',m;vlrsKd;rsm; xHrS77Scd Jhonfh ,Oaf us; rt= artG EpS rf sm;yif jzpaf yonf? ,dk;',m;uajconfwpfO;D . wyifwkdiftu jrefrmt7yfoul av;rsm;,drf; jrefrmuajconfwpfOD;. wyifwdkiftu r;D ,m;/ [eaf *7/D twD v/D pyed /f yvkd e/f t*v® epf aom taemufEkid firH sm;wiG f a7;S &k;d tursm;onf aus;vuf a'orsm;wiG f ,cwk dik af tmif acwpf m;vsu7f -dSu.? taemufEikd if rH sm;wGif o&yk af z:tu ‘A,af v’rmS 157mpEk Spwf Gifay:ayguaf cwfpm;coJh nf?(A,fav„7= ),cak cwpf m;vsu7f adS om a0gZh pwkH uJG en;f rmS eyvkd ,D ef vufxuwf GifrS xif7Sm;vmcJoh nf? ,cak cwfwGif uBmt7y7f yYf acwpf m;vsu7f adS om taemuEf ikd if pH wkH JG uenf;rsm;rSm azghpxa7mh/wef*dk/ 7Grf;Ag;/ *spfwmAwfpaom uenf;rsm;jzp-fu.? Eikd if jHcm;rsm;rmS uohJ \\kyd if jrerf mtuynmonvf n;f a7S;acwfvlwdk\\. omoema7; tursm;rS ay:ayguf vmaomobirf = wp7f yjfzpaf yon?f ,Oaf us;re= ,yf ,f us,f0ef;vmcJoh nfESihftr~/ jrefrmh,Ofaus;r=onf taemuzf u7f dS tNd ,d Ekdiif H. ,Ofaus;rE= Siahf ygi;f pyfrd avonf?ok\\d7mwiG f jrefrmh,Ofaus;r=. r7l i;f toGif tjyifrSmum; aysmufuG,foGm;jci;f r7Scd Jhacs? jrefrm tuynmonvf nf; jrerf myyD Dyif wn7f dcS haJ yon?f 16 7mpEk pS tf wiG ;f p;kd pcHuahJ aoum;tbkdyi7k f ihaf emivf uxf uf EiS fh 18 7mpEk pS tf wGif; pk;d pcH aJh om tavmi;f bk7m;vuf xuwf kd\\wGifjzpfyGm;cJhaom,dk;',m;„jrefrmppfyGJrsm; a-umif\\,;dk ',m; ,Oaf us;rr= sm;onf jrefrmEikd if aH wmf 8


www.foreverspace.com.mm uckejf ci;f (tay:) *syeftrsKd;orD;cs,f7,D rd f; (tv,f„0)J AmvuD `ef;ol,rd f; (tv,f„,m) Zif;r,ftrsK;d orD;,drf; (atmuf) tar7duefausmif;o,l rd ;f 9


www.foreverspace.com.mm jrerf mEkid if aH wm.f ajrmuzf uwf cH g;r 77J iahf jzmirhf wvf sufoPmo;kH aomppfom;aumif;w\\kdxeG f;um;onuhf csifvrl sK;d w\\dktwuG of ;D jcm;jynef ,fudk jrefrmEdkifiH vGwfvyf a7;7jyD;aemuf 7utf enf;i,ftwiG f; xal xmifvmchJayonf?ucsifjynfe,f obm0yPn;f w\\dkjzijfhynEhf uS vf su7f odS ntfh widk ;f jynaf xmipf kjrerf mEikd fi.H tm;xm;7ma'ojzpaf vonf? ucsijfynef ,?f ?ajrmufzuf orydik ;f ZkeftwiG f; rsm;wdk\\jzifjh ynf\\ESufae7um; ukef;vr;f c7D;oGm;7ef cJ jynaf xmipf k jrefrmEdkifiHajrmufzsm;wiG f wnf7Sdaom ,Of;vSaomfvnf; txufwiG fqdkchJaom jrpfacsmif; ucsijfynfe,rf Sm {7m0wED iS fh csi;f wGif;jrpfzsm;jrp0f Sr;f rsm;. taetxm;wk\\da-umifh awmifESifah jrmufodk\\ a'oajrjye\\f rsm;ESifhawmawmif a7mjyrG f;vsuf7doS nfh vn;f aumi;f / ta7\\ES iS thf aemuof \\vkd n;f aumi;f / a7vr;f jynef ,wf pcf jkzpof n?f jrihfrm;ndK\\rd=if;aom awmif c7;DwiG f aviS ,rf sm;jzihuf l;v;l quof G,fEdik f-uon?f xGwfawmifwef;-uD;rsm; eu&f id= ;f aom xxl yaf omopf awm-u;D rsm;/ -unvf iaf t;jraom jrpaf csmi;f a7wcH eG rf sm;/ jynaf xmipf k jrerf mEikd if aH wmwf iG f t-u;D q;Hkjzpaf om ti;f tkdif-u;D rsm;EiS fh weqf mqixf m;vsu7f Sd ay7m tvsm;14rikd f te^H rikd 7f dS ti;f awm-fu;D tkid of nf Tjynf obm0tm;jzipfh rd ;f ve;f om,mvaS yon?f e,tf wiG ;f r;kd aumi;f acsmi;f zsm;c7H mY7adS yon?f ( ti;f awm-fu;D 7)= csi;f wiG ;f jrp.f jrpzf sm;c7H m [;l aumi;f ajrmubf uvf WwD 'G f 'D*72D 33^EiS fh 2825ta7\\S ajrjye\\f/ rvdcjrp.f jrpfzsm;cH7m ylwmtakd jrjyef\\wk\\drS bufavmif*sDwG'f 'D*7D96 H4^ wdk\\.t-um;/ wyg;jynef ,.f useaf 'ow\\rdk mS awmixf xl yvf su7f .dS ? ajrmubf uEf iS tfh a7\\bS uwf iG f w&wk Ef idk if H taemubf uwf iG f tx;l ojziahf rcEiS fh rvcd jrp2f o,G pf y-fum;&dS -w*d He,f uomc&dki/f txufcsif;wGif;c&dik f em*awmifwe;f rSmjrihrf m;vaS om awmiwf e;f -u;D rsm; 77dS um;vol l t EiS fh tmoHjynwf \\kd 0e;f 7Hvsufwn&f odS n?f jynfe,tf a7mutf ayguf en;f yg;on?f val 7aS us;vuf wppf wd f wGif;wGifjrpfuD;em;c&dkifESihfAef;armfc&dkifwkd\\yg0iIf wpaf 'oEiS hf -w*d eH ,[f ;l aumi;f awmi-uf m;w\\krd mS veG cf hJ tus,tf 0e;f rmS pw7k e;f rikd af ygi;f 39900ce\\f7odS n?f onfh ESptf enf;i,tf wGif;urS tyk cf sKyrf p= n;f 0idk ;f twiG ;f o\\kd a7mu7f vdS m-uavon?f ajrrsufESmjyifESi7fh moOD wk ucsifjynfe,frSm uke;f jrifah 'ojzpfonf\\tavsmuf vOl ;D a7ESivhf rl sK;d prk sm; yifv,fa7jyifxuf ysrf;r~ay3000cef\\jrifhonf? 1941ckESpf oef;acgifpm7if;t7 ucsifjynfe,f. wpfEpS vf ~iyf srf;r~ r;dk a7csdefvurf 80ce\\f7mG oeG ;f on?f vOl ;D a7rmS 428000ce\\fjzpf.? ysH\\ES\\HaexdkifykHrmS jrp-fu;D jynef ,.f ajrmuzf uyf ikd ;f r;kd trsm;q;Hk aom a'orsm; em;c&idk fwGif pw7k e;f wpfrdik fv~if14a,mu/f Ae;f armf rSmwpEf Spfv~if vufr160 xd7GmoGef;on?f tylqkH; c&kdifY29 a,mufr~pD jzpf.? jynfe,ftwGif;wGif tcsed wf iG f zg7i[f duk 9f 8'*D 7 D tat;qkH;tcsed fwGizf g ucsi/f 7rS ;f /vvkd rkd qkd kd /jrerf m /jrerf mw\\kd.a7;S tE,G rf sm;/ 7i[f ukd 5f 5'*D 7D7IdS 7moOD wrk Smr~wayon?f oufvlrsKd;rsm;aexdki-fuonf? 1948ckESpfoe;f jynef ,.f ajrmubf utf peG af 'ormS {7m0wjDrpEf iS hf acgifpm7if; rsm;t7 ucsiftrsKd;om; OD;a7rSm csi;f wiG ;f jrpwf \\dk jrpfzsm;c7H ma'ojzpof n?f ta7hbS uf 220000 ausmf7Sd a-umif;od7on?f usefvlrsKd;prk sm; yidk f;wGif {7m0wDjrp.f vuwf ufrsm;jzp-f uaom ar . OD;a7udkrl 1931ckESpf oef;acgifpm7if; t7om EiS hf rvcd jrpwf o\\kd nvf n;f aumi;ftaemubf uf wiG cf si;fwiG ;f od7Sd7on?f xdkpm7i;f t7 7rS f;trsKd; om;100000eD; jrpEf iS ,hf i;f. vuwf ujzf pf aomO&ak csmi;fonvf n;faumi;f/ yg; /jrefrmEiS htf ZD/ v7/DS rm&;l /rikd ;f om/zGefpaom jrefrm ajrmubf urf S awmibf uof \\kpd ;D qi;f vm-uon?f er;f wdk\\. a7S;tEG,frsm; ^0000ausmf/ vdkvdkrdkqkd wyuaf csmi;f EiS f wh yed jfrpfwk\\donf ta7\\Sburf mS jrpzf sm; 8000eD;yg;/ ouftpk0ifrsm; 4000r~/w7kwf cIH {7m0wjDrpxf oJ \\kd p;D 0i-fuon?f r;kdaumi;f acsmi;f EiS hf 7000r~7odS nf[ok d7onf? (csivf lrsK;d 7= ) aumuaf u\\aG csmi;f w\\okd nf taemubf urf mS jrpzf sm;cIH {7m0wDjrpfxJodk\\ pD;0if-uonf? Tjynfe,frSm orikd f;tusOf;csKyf awmixf Gwfawmifur;f yg;-u;D rsm;v~dK-uD;ajrmif-uD; ucsifvlrsKd;wdk\\rSm wdAufjrefrmtE,G f0ifrsm;jzpfI 10


www.foreverspace.com.mm


www.foreverspace.com.mm ucsifjynef ,f jrpf-uD;em;c&dkif ti;f awmf-uD;wGif -unfnKd zG,f7mzl;ar~m7f aom a7Fr¢LapwD jrerf mwkd\\ESifh wEG,wf nf;rS qif;oufvmolrsm;jzpf jAdwdo~w\\dk ord ;f jy;D aemuf1885 ck 'ZD ifbmvtjyD;28 -uon?f wAd ufjrerf m tEG,f0iwf \\dkonf jrefrmEdik fiH 7ufae\\wGif Aef;armjfrKd\\ukd odr;f yukd cf oJh n?f xpdk Ouf jynef ,fa'otwiG ;f 7Sd jrerf m/7rS f; ucsiwf \\kd wiG ;f o\\dk wowk jfy;D wowk f a&\\Fajymi;f qi;f oufvm7m y;l aygi;f um jAwd od ~w\\k.d tyk cf sKyrf u= kd umvtwe-uf m 117mpkESpftwGif;u jrefrmEkid fiH ajrmufzsm;tpGef;odk\\ awmvf Sewf ukd cf kud fcJ-h uonf? cikd fjrpJ mG zdEydS ftkycf sKyfEdkif a7muf7dSvm-uI 15 7mpEk Spwf iG f jynfe,ftwGif;odk\\ a7;twuG f jAdwod ~w\\dok nf 1895cEk pS f 'DZibf mvtxd 10EpS rf ~ wudk cf ufdk cf \\J7on?f xakd emuaf omf ucsivf rl sK;d a7muvf m tajcpdkuf-uon[f k ,ql z,G 7f m7doS nf? wkd\\tm; e,fjcm;a'otyk cf sKyaf 7;pepaf tmuwf iG f xm; y*k aH cwftwGi;f u ucsijf ynfe,fwGif yg0iaf om coJh jzifh jynfrtyk cf sKyfa7;ESihf uJjGym;cahJ von?f a'ow\\kdrmS y*k aH cwjfrerf mEikd if tH wiG ;f yg0icf .hJ ? wm; xtkd yk cf sKyaf 7;pepwf iG f jrerf mjynbf 7k icf uH wukd f wm;wdk\\0iaf 7muf wdkucf duk If y*k Hri;f quyf sujf yKe;f &kduftkyfcsKyfI txufwef;t7m7Sdrsm;udkrl t*‡vef aomtcg Tjynef ,af 'o wpf0ukd wf iG farm7rS ;f w\\kd-u;D jyn7f dS tNd ,d Eidk if qH idk 7f m twiG ;f 0euf ce\\ftyaf von?f ucsifawmiwf ef;a'o tygt0if 7Sr;f jynaf jrmuyf kdif; p;kd cohJ n?f awmiif al cwrf a7murf D acwvf ,wf paf v~muf a'oudk 7rS ;f jynaf jrmuyf idk ;f e,jfcm;0eaf xmuuf tyk f vkH; arm7rS f;wkd\\rmS Tjynef ,f a'oomrutquf csKy7f avon?f ucsiaf wmiwf e;f a'o tkyfcsKyaf 7; jzpaf om taemufykdif;7Sda'orsm;ud kvn;f -uD;pdk;Edik fchJ Oya'rsm;rSm ,if;\"avhxkH;pHrsm;tay:rSD;I a7; on?f wcgw7H awmizf uf jrerf mEikd if wH iG ;f o\\vkd n;af umi;f qGxJ m;aom pn;f rsOf;rsm;jzpfavonf? 1930jynfh ESpwf iG xf wk jfyeaf om ‘ucsiaf wmiwf e;f om;rsm;qidk 7f m ta7\\zS uf w&wk jfyntf wiG ;f o\\kvd n;f aumi;f 0iaf 7muf pn;f rsOf;Oya'rsm;’EiS f ‘h ucsijfynef ,vf upf GJ ’pmtyk f wukd cf ukd tf m+m jze\\cf -hJuojzif -hu;D us,af om pprf a= 7;7m rsm;rmS xi7f mS ;aomOya' pmtyk rf sm; jzp-fuonf? rsm;ukd ay:aygufapcJhonf? xdkpOfuarm7Srf;wdk\\ yivf nkH vD mcH tcsuf tcsma'ormS rdk;aumif;jzpfonf? 1536cEk Spf 194^ ckEpS fwiG f Akvd cf sKyfatmiqf e;f acgif;aqmif avmuwf iG f awmiif rl aS eI jrerf mEikd if H jyevf npf n;f vkH;xal xmifpOuf / ucsijf ynfe,f a'owpf0dkufrSm jrefrmEikd if EH iS hf wy;l waygi;f wn;f jyevf njfzpcf ohJ n?f xdk aemuaf omf ucsijfynef ,af 'ormS jrerf mEikd if tH wiG f; wpn;f w&;Hk wn;f wnwf hyH g0icf .hJ ? jrerf mEkid fiuH kd 11


www.foreverspace.com.mm ucsifjynef ,f aom zqyvtpd;k 7tzGJ\\wufvmaomtcg/oD;jcm; *syfckwf7ufuef; 7ufaeaom ucsiftrsKd;orD; ui;f vGwfaeaom awmifwe;f a'orsm;udk jrerf mjynf r-uD; twGi;f odk\\ odr;f oGif;vdok jzihf awmifwef;om; pktwiG ;f rS cxGJ uG fEdik cf Gi7fh adS omvf n;f ucsijfynef ,rf mS rsm;EiS hf pum;urf;vSrf;chJavonf? odk\\jzifh 194^ ck xdkuJ\\ odk\\cJxG GufEkid fcGifhtm+mrsm; r,xl m;acs? azazm0f g7vD 12 7uaf e\\wiG f yivf jHkrKd\\Y usi;f yaomyif vkH nvD mc-H uD;wGif awmifwef;a'acgif;aqmif-uD; xuG uf ek fyPn;f rsm; rsm;ESifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; trŒ;jyKaomjrefrm ucsifjynef ,rf Sm ajray:ajratmuf o,HZmw acgi;f aqmif-uD;wk\\donf awmiwf ef;a'orsm;tm; jref yPn;f wkd\\ ukHvk-H u,G f0aom jynfe,jf zpof n?f pdr;f pdk rmjynrf -u;D ESifh yl;aygi;f 7efukd wnDwnwG fwn;f qkH; xlxyfaom opaf wm-uD;rsm;rmS tzdk;weaf omusGef; jzw-f uavonf? (yifvkHnvD mcH „ &)= opfrsm;/ tjcm;opfrmrsm;tjyif opaf wmxGuyf Pn;f rsm;7Sdon?f wd,uBmpprf jzpfruD opfawm-uK;d 0ikd ;f tqdkyg oabmwlnDcsuft7 194^ZGefv 17uf tjzpof wfrSwfum opfrsm;udkarG;jrLxm;onhf ajr ae\\wiG f pwiuf sif;yaom wikd ;f jynjf yKvwF af wmfrSa7; {uaygif; 12000ausmf&Sdavonf? Aef;armf qtJG wnjfyKay;cohJ nf h Eidk if aH wmzf \\JpG n;f tyk cf sKyyf kH tajccH c7dik frxS Guaf om uGsef;opfw\\kdonf tjcm;a'orsm;rS Oya' tcef;(1)tykd'f(6)wGif jrpf-uD;em;ESifhAef; xGufaom uGsef;opwf \\kdxuf ydkrkdaf umif;rGetf zdk;xdkuf armcf &idk rf sm;[lI ,cifuac:wGifchJaom e,af jrrsm; weaf yon?f jynfe,ftwGif; v,f,mpukd yf sK;d cJhaom ukd jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHtwGi;f wiG f jynfaxmifpk ajr{uaygif;rSm 156000r~7Sdonf? pdkuyf sK;d vufp tz\\JG0iwf pcf k tjzpzf \\JpG n;f 7rn?f xjkdynaf xmifpktz\\J0G if 7SdvsufESifh rpdkufyJxm;cJhaom {uaygif;rSm 33000 udk TrSaemiftzd\\kwiG f‘ ucsijf ynfe,f ’[kac:7rnf r~ 7dSon?f ysrf;r~jcif;tm;jzifh ESpfpOEf pS fwkid f; pyg; [lI twtd vi;f a7;om; az:jyxm;ayon?f wecf sed f 84000r~ xuG 7f doS jzifh jynef ,ftwiG f;7dS vlOD;a7twGuf vkHavmu&f Hok mru ydkvsuf7Sdonuf kd 1948ckZeef 0g7Dv4 7uaf e\\wGif jrefrmEikd fiHvGwf aw\\7G ayon?f jynef ,tf wiG ;f v,,f mrsm;uvdk n;faumi;f/ vyaf 7; 77Sjdy;D aemuZf efe0g7Dv10 7uaf e\\wiG f ucsif opaf wmrsm;uvkd n;f aumi;f w;kd cs\\vJ yk uf ikd rf nqf vkd ~i{f u jynef ,uf pdk wizf \\JGpn;f vukd af von?f aygi;f ajrmujfrm;pmG uykd if w;kd cs\\vJ yk uf ikd Ef idk af o;on?f jynf e,rf xS uG faom ajratmuf o,ZH mwtzdk;wefyPn;f tyk cf sKyaf 7; rsm;rSm ausmupf dr;f / y,i;f jr/evD m/jrdKipf de/f yWjrm;EiS fh ucsijfynef ,uf kd tyk cf sKy7f erf qJ Nt7 a&;G aumuf a&Fwkd\\jzp-f uon?f xkdyPn;f wdk\\udk acwfrpD epjf zihwf l; wiaf jrm| uof nhf jynof l\\uk,d pf m;vS,frsm; yg0iaf om az:xkwf,ljcif; r7Sdao;ay? y,if;udk[l;aumif; ucsijfynef ,af umipf wD pcf 7k .dS ? xdak umipf wD iG tf rwf ajrjyef\\ESifh rdkif;uGrf;wdk\\wGifawG\\7onf? ausmupf dr;f 19OD;7SdI ucsivf rl sK;d r[kwfaom uk,d fpm;v,S rf sm; wGi;f rsm;rSm jrp-fu;D em; ta7\\Sajrmubf uf7Sd armv;Hk / vnf; yg0ifon?f ucsijf ynef ,af umifp.D axmuf cifuefpDESifh -wd*He,frsm;wiG f7Sdonf? ausmufeD ESifh ccH suft7 ucsitf rsK;d om;trwwf pfOD;udk Edkiif aH wmf oRw-uD;u ucsifjynef ,f0e-fu;D tjzpcf ef\\tyxf m; onf? ucsijfynef ,0f e-fu;D onf ucsijfynef ,Of UX vn;f jzpof nf? olonuf csifjynef ,f p7D itf yk fcsKyf a7;udPwkd\\ udkwm0e,f laqmif&Guf7onf? ucsif trsK;d om; r[wk of rl sm;EiS hf oufqidk af om udPrsm;ukd aqmif&uG 7f mY ucsiftrsKd;om;r[kwaf om u,dk pf m; v,S rf sm;. qNuodk ;D jcm;7,jly;D roS m aqmi&f uG af von?f ucsifjynfe,f zGJ\\pnf;xm;ykHwGif tjcm;e,frsm; zJG\\pn;f xm;yHkESifh rwlyJ xl;jcm;aom tcsufwpfckrmS tjcm;tjcm; jynfe,frsm;onf zGJ\\pnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccOH ya' tm+mwnjfy;D 10 EpS tf veG Yf jynaf xmif 12


www.foreverspace.com.mm ucsifjynef ,f ywjrm;w\\rkd mS ee;f ,mqyd af 'orS xuG af omvf n;f ,ck r7bSd J tcsKd\\ukefpnfrsm;ukd xkwfcGifh/ oGi;f cGihfrsm;ay; tcgY w;l az:jcif;r7dSacs? jynfe,ftwiG f;7Sd jrpf Eikd favon?f acsmi;f rsm;rS a&FudkusifI 7Ekdifaomfvnf; pD;yGm;a7; vkyfief; vkyfudkifEkdifavmufatmif rrsm;vSay? acwof pfucsijfynef ,f ucsijfynef ,tf p;kd 7onf \"gwof WKw;l az:vyk uf idk af 7; jynfe,fwGif vrl sm;pjkzpfaom ucsivf rl sK;d rsm;onf ukd z\\HjGzKd;ap7e7f nof eIf \"gwof WK7mS azwG ;l az:a7;tz\\JG wdk;wuf-uD;yGm;vdak ompwd 7f SdI ovd G,fwwfajrmuf wpcf zk \\GJpnf;jy;D v~if \"gwof WKw;l az: a7;vkyif ef;rsm; vG,faom vrl sKd;rsm;jzpf-uonf? ucsifvrl sKd;wdk\\rSm ukd pepwf usjyKvyk f 7epf rD pH kid f;jyif;vsuf 7Sad vonf? tpOftvmtm;jzifh ewfudk;uG,faom vlrsKd;rsm; jzpfaomvf n;f veG cf ahJ omEpS ften;f i,uf A<k t,0l g' vr;f ye;f quof ,G fa7;EiS uhf l;oef;a7mi;f 0,fa7; EiS cfh 7p,f meft,0l g'rsm;o\\kd tawmftoihf u;l ajymif; jynef ,tf wiG ;f wpfae7mrwS pfae7mo\\kd omG ;vm7ef vm-uon?f c7p,f meof moemjyKyCk Kvd wf \\kod nf ucsif vrf;aumi;f rsm; vkHavmufpGmr7dSacs? vm;odk\\r[kwf jynfe,of k\\d 1856 5^ cEk pS favmuuf yif pwif qirf sm;rmS u;l oef;omG ;vmolrsm;twuG f orm;&;kd us a7mu7f cdS h-Juavonf? uek wf if oW0grsm;jzpfonf? jrpf-uD;em;jrKd \\rmS rM ucsifvlrsKd;rsm;wGif bmompum;om7SdIpm av;jrdK\\ESifh rD;7xm;vrf;rdik faygi;f 33^ rdkif a0;uGmI ayrsm;r7SdcJhacs? ,cktcgc7pf,mefomoemjyK r;D oab‡mrsm;tjrJwap 0ifxGufoGm;vmaeaomjrKd \\ ykCKdvfrsm;u a7mrtQ7mrsm;jzifh ucsifpmayudk jzpof n?f jrp-fuD;em;jrKd\\rqS ifbodk \\kd oabm‡ jziohf mG ;vm wxD iG af y;xm;onf? c7pf,mefomoemjyKq7m [if Eidk af o;onf? jrpf-u;D em;/ Ae;f armEf Sihyf wl mtjkd rKd\\rsm; qefqdkolu ucsift*‡vdyf tbd\"mefwpftkyfukd wiG f avqyd rf sm;77dS m 7euf ek jfrKd\\EiS f 7h uof Wwpyf wvf ~if jyKpkxm;caJh von?f 2-urd uf squof ,G yf sHoef;vsuf7doS nf? ucsijfynef ,tf p;kd 7tz\\JGwGif jynef ,Of UXtjyif 0ef a7vrf;/ avvrf;rsm;tjyif ta7;-uD;tokH;0if -u;D 3O;D 7adS o;on?f [email protected];EiS thf ceG af wmXf me0e-fu;D / aom awmi-f um;vrf;rsm;vn;f 7Sdao;on?f jrpf-uD; ynma7;/ use;f rma7;EiS hjfynof \\l0exf rf;Xme0e-fu;D ESi\\f em;rrS ;kd aumi;f / rikd ;f urG ;f w\\kud jkdzwIf tNd ,d Eikd if tH wiG ;f 7dS v,f,mpdkufysKd;a7;/ opfawma7;ESifhvrf; v'D jkrd Kd\\ov\\kd n;faumi;f/ jrp-fu;Dem;rS qeG yf 7mbuHk kd jzwIf ywl mtkd ye;f quof ,G fa7; 0e-fuD;rsm;jzpfon?f ucsijfynfe,f o\\kvd n;f aumi;f / w&wk Ef idk if eH ,pf ytf e;D 7adS om a0gjrKd\\o\\kd twiG ;f txufwef;ausmif;rsm; tv,fwef;ausmif; vn;f aumi;f / awmi-fum;vr;f rsm;&dS onf? Aef;armfjrdK\\rS wydefjrpf 0Srf; vrf;pOjf zifh w&kwfEdkifioH \\kd a7mu7f EdS idk of n?f xkdodk\\ awmif-um;vrf; c7D;rsm;jzifh w&kwfEdkifiH/ tdNd ,EkdifiHrsm;odk\\ qufoG,fEdkif onfhtavsmuf ucsifjynf e,fwGif ukef;vrf; ul;oef; a7mif;0,fr=rsm; wjznf; jznf; zGH\\jzdK;Ivmonf? xGuf ukef 0ifukefuef\\owfa7;Oy a'rsm;udk Tjynfe,ftwGuf tenf;i,f av~mhayghI jyif qifxm;7um; c&kdif0efrsm; u aiGvJvS,fjcif;pHepf aiG azmifzGJ\\I ar~mcsvmaom ucsifjynef ,fxGuf tzk;d wef u`ef;opfrsm; ajymif;vFJay;jcif;pHepfrsm; 13


www.foreverspace.com.mm ucsifjynef ,f rsm; trsm;tjym;jyif wnaf xmijfy;D on\\f tjyiqf 7mjzpf -um; vsu&f 7dS m r-umrtD wGi;f usef;rma7;prD uH ed ;f rsm; oiof _d aH usmi;f wpcf uk dk yijfrpf-u;D em;jrdK\\Y pwifziG fh vpS vf ukd jfyjDzp.f ? vxl yk nma7;uvkd n;f pwiaf qmif udk taumif txnfaz:Eikd fayawmrh n?f &uG af eavjyD? ynma7;EiS phf yvf sO;f I 1951 52 cEk pS f ucsijf ynef ,fwGif jynfawmfompDrHudef;t7 a7; wiG f tokH;p7dwf7efyakH iG 120^280 owfrwS xf m; cJhon?f 1952 53ckEpS wf iG f 19^3630txdw;kd jri| fh qGJxm;aom vyk fief;aqmifwmwdk\\rSm tx;l yifpdwf owfrwS f xm;cJhavonf? 0ifpm;p7maumi;f voS nf? TprD uH def;t7 opxf kwf jyevf nxf al xmiaf 7; vyk if e;f rsm;wiG f v,,f mpukd f ysKd;a7;EiS hf w7d >mefar;G jrLa7;vkyfie;f rsm;onf ta7; vkyfa7;tzJG\\ \"gwfoWKwl;az:vkyfuidk fa7;tz\\JG purf = ygt7ma7mufonfhtavsmuf v,,f mpukd fysK;d a7;ESifh vufr= xeG ;f um;a7;tzJ\\Gtp7adS om tz\\GJi,uf av; w7d d>meaf r;G jrLa7;twuG f ucsifjynef ,tf pdk;7u EpS f pOfESpfwdkif; trawmfaiGrsm; xkwaf cs;cJah vonf? rsm;udkzJG\\pn;f vsuf ajray:ajratmuf yPn;f rsm;ukd 1951 52cEk pS f twiG ;f wiG f v,,f mpkud yf sK;d a7;twuG f trawmfa-u;aiG 2odef;r~acs;cJhI wd7>mef arG; pepwf us xwk vf kyfa7mi;f csjy;D v~iaf cwrf aD omjynf jrLa7;twuG f aiaG ygi;f 48000r~ acs;imS ;cahJ von?f e,tf jzpf xal xmi7f ejfzpof n?f ,cjkrp-fu;D em;jrKd\\Y o use;f rma7; vyk if e;f rsm;EiS hf pyvf sO;f I jrp-uf ;D em;/ Aef;armfESifh ylwmtdkjrdK\\rsm;wiG f jynfol\\aq;&kHrsm;7Sd -um;puwf pfcEk iS hf vufry= nmoiwf e;f wpcf k ziG vhf pS f onthf jyif umvom;a7m*g wukd zf suaf 7;t z\\JwG pzf \\JEG iS hf use;f rma7; tzJG\\i,uf av;wpcf wk \\dkrmS Ae;f armjf rKd\\ xm;jci;f rmS vyk if e;f tpysK;d jci;f r~om7daS o;on?f wiG f pwiaf qmi&f Gufvsuf7doS n?f xrdk wS pfyg; jynef ,tf E\\SHtjym;wiG f pmoiaf usmi;f 7efukefjrdK\\Y zGifvh Spfoif-um;vsuf7Sdaom vuf rsm;zGivhf pS af 7;/ aq;&kHaq;cef;rsm;ziG vfh pS af 7;/ vr;f axmuuf se;f rma7;r;Πoiwf e;f ausmi;f / oel mjyKq7mr a-umif;rsm;azmuvf yk af 7; uPd wkd\\ukvd n;f wygwn;f twwof iwf e;f / ausmuxf ;kd q7moiwf e;f rsm;o\\kd u csijfynfe,rf S ausmi;f om;rsm; tywpf Oaf pvwF of if pwif aqmi&f uG vf su7f adS yon?f ,ctk cgjrerf mjynrf 7Sd rW7mt7yrf S Ae;f armof \\kd armaf wmuf m;vr;f azmuf vkyaf wmrh nfjzp7f m/ ,ciuf rMav;ESifhAef;armfrmS 7rS ;f jynef ,fburf S armaf wmuf m;vr;f t7 378rikd fr~ umG a0;chaJ omvf n;f Tvrf;-u;D jyD;ajrmuaf omtcg 265rikd rf ~om umG a0;ayawmrh n?f qckd ahJ omprD uH ed ;f rsm; a-umihf ucsijfynef ,rf mS ae\\jci;f njci;f yif wu,f acwrf wD ;kd wuaf om jynef ,fwpfck jzpvf mawmrh n[f k ,-Hkun7f avawmhon?f O;D b7Sif Ae;f armfESifh a7*F ljrKd \\t-um;wiG f cef\\nm;pGm wn7f Sdonh{f 7m0wDjrpf. 'kwd,jrpfusOf; 14


www.foreverspace.com.mm ucsifjynef ,f ucsifvlrsdK; ? ?jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; a7F\\ajymi;f aexikd vf mykH ucsifvrl sK;d w\\kd aexidk 7f mtcsutf csma'ormS csi;f wiG f; awmibf uf a'orsm;od\\k a7F\\ajymif;vm-u7mwGif jrpfzsm;ESihf {7m0wDjrpfzsm;wkd\\jzwfoef;pD;qif; 7m ucsiwf \\dkonfw&wk /jfrerf m/wAd ufEiS fh tmojHynwf d\\k. a'wpf0dkufjzpf.? ajrmufzufvWDwG'f23H3^'D*7D EiS fh 282H 5'*D 7Dwkd\\t-um; ta7\\Sbuf avmi*f sDw'G f e,fpyfrsm;qH7k m awmawmifxlxyfvSaom a'o 96'D*7ED Sihf 98H4^'D*7D t-um;jzpfaom tmoHjynf wpf0kdufwGif a7muf7dSvmjy;D aemuf/ xkda'orStciG fh ta7\\Sajrmuyf ikd ;f ESifh jrerf mEikd if Hajrmuyf kid ;f w&wk fjrerf m omv~if omonhftavsmuf awmifbufjrerf mEdkifiH e,pf yf tveG f a'orsm;wiG f ys\\HE\\HSaexidk -uf on?f ucsif twiG ;f o\\kd wjzn;f jzn;f a7\\Fajymi;f vmc-hJu[ef wol n?f wkd\\. vlOD;a7rSm wjznf;jznf;w;dk wufrsm;jym;vm chJ7m rdk;ukwfe,f ud;k awmifa'o a7FvDjrpf0Srf;a'o owl \\d.k a7\\Fajymi;f 7mc7;D vr;f rmS cucf vJ IS wpaf -umi;f / vm;&=;d e,Ef iS hf 7rS ;f jynef ,f ajrmuyf kid ;f awmifzuuf sKid ;f xdrk Swpyf g; owl d\\k.tvsifu a7\\Fajymi;f omG ;c-uJh aom wkHe,ftxdysH\\ESH\\vsuf7S-d uonf? jrefrmEikd fi.H ty rGefcrmtEG,f0ifrsm;EiS fh tjcm;tEG,wf l vlrsKd;rsm;u jzpfaom tmoHjynf ywfuKdGiaf wmi.f taemufzuf awmiaf pmif;a'oESihf w&wk Ef kid fiH ,leefjynef ,fwiG f a7F\\ajymi;f 7mvrf;wGif ydwfqdk\\[ef\\wm;bod uhJodk\\ 7S d ta7\\Szuaf vmif*sDw'G f 99'*D 7cD e\\f txda'ow\\dkwiG f aechJaoma-umifwh pfa-umi;f ucsiwf kd\\rSm jrerf mEidk fiH vnf; ucsivf lrsKd;rsm;ukd awG\\7ayon?f wGi;f od\\k a7\\Fajymif;0iaf 7muf7mwGif twefaemuuf s olrsm;jzpf-uonf? jrerf mEkdifiH wiG f;odk\\0ifa7muf 1931ckEpS f jrerf mEdkifioH ef;acgifpm7if;t7 jref cJh-ujy;D aemuf -w*d He,f(arcESifrh vdcjrpf2oG,fpyf rmEidk if tH wiG ;f ae xikd uf aomucsiOf ;D a7rmS 153000 ausmf7Sd.? xdkta7twGufrSm oef;acgifpm7if;r -um;7SdoHk;axmifha'o)odk\\a7mufaomtcgwGifa7S\\ aumu,f lEikd fcahJ o;aom ywl mtdke,f [;l aumi;f e,f odk\\ qufvuf a7F\\ajymif;jcif; rjyKEkdifbuJ mvtwef 0e,af rcESihf rvdcjrpfpyf-um;7Sd -wd*He,wf kd\\wiG f7Sd -um tajcpduk af exkid fc-Jh u7[ef wlon?f ta-umif; aomucsifOD;a7rsm; ryg0ifcJhay1931ckESpfujref rSmxpdk Ofu jrefrmEkdifiaH jrmufzsm;udk arm7Sr;f wkd\\-uD; rmEkdifiHtwGif; ucsifOD;a7 214000 r~7dvS rd hfrn[f k u`r;f usiof lw\\kdu cdkifvpHk Gm ce\\freS ;f c-Jhuon?f xpdk Of pdk;cJh-uaoma-umifh[kqdkzG,f7m7Sod nf? arm7Srf;wkd\\ tcgu tmojH ynfwGiuf csitf rsK;d om;aygif;3000 r~ tiftm; ,drf;,dik faomtcgrS a7S\\odk\\qufvuaf 7F\\ &Sdonf[k tmoHoef;acgifpm7if;wGif az:jyxm; ajymif;I ,ckaexkid f7m a'orsm;odk\\wjznf;jznf; onf? Ae;f armf ESifhjrpuf D;em;c&dik frsm;tygt0ifjzpf aomucsijfynf e,af 'otwiG f;Yyif 1948cEk pS f oef a7muvf mc-hJuon?f w&wk of rikd f;usr;f rsm;ukd axmuf acgifpm7i;f t7 ucsifOD;a7 221901a,muf7Sod nf xm;jcif; tm;jzif-h wd*He,frS awmifbufodk\\pwifa7F\\ [kod7ojzihf ucsivf lrsKd;wk\\drmS wjznf;jzn;f vlO;D a7 ajymif;onfrSm c7pfEpS 1f 57mpk tv,favmufu[k wk;d wuvf suf7oSd nuf kd ood mEkid of n?f ce\\freS f;Eidk fonf? jref rmEikd if HwGif;od\\k pwi0f iaf 7muf onrf mS um; 117mpEk pS af vmuf jzpwf e7f mon[f k ,ql ucsiwf \\dk.rlvZmpfjrpf ucsivf lrsKd;wdk\\rmS wAd ufjrerf m tE,G 0f ifrsm;jzpf Eikd fayon?f -uI jrefrmvlrsKd;wdk\\EiS hf bkd;pOfabmifqufrSpI rsKd; 157mpEk pS tf v,af vmuuf pI vwl pqf ujfy;D wpqf uf &;kdwpcf wk n;f uqi;f ouvf mowl \\kd jzp-fuon?f owl \\.dk a7F\\ajymi;f vm-upOfwGif ucsifwd\\krmS a7muf7Sdjy;D jzpf r7l if;a'ormS r*`dKif;7Sif*7bHk jzpof nf[krd&dk;zvm aom 7rS ;f EiS jfhrerf mw.\\dk ,Ofaus;r= tcsuftvurf sm; rwS of m;xm;-uon?f xpdk um;. t\"_d m,rf mS obm0 tm;jzifh jyef\\jyL;aeaom awmifxdyjf zpfonf? Tjyef\\ udk pwi7f 7cdS hJ-uonf? xdrk Swpyf g; rdrwd \\dkae7m77daS 7; jyL;aeaom awmifxdyfrSm wdAufjynfa7S\\buf ponfwk\\dtwGuf a7mu7f dSjy;D aom 7Srf;jrefrmpaom ESihf plc`efe,ft-um;7dS uek f;jrifah 'oyifjzpf[ef wl owl d\\kESifh r-umc+ qkod uJoh k\\d wudk fcdkurf r= sm;jzpyf mG ; avon?f cJh.? tiftm;enf;onfh a7muf7SdjyD;vlrsKd;rsm;udk awmibf uof \\kd weG ;f xwk Ef ikd cf -hJu.? To\\kjdzihf q';kH e,f wGif aechJaom yavmifw\\kdrmS awmibf ufa7vF jD rp0f Sr;f bufo\\dk a7\\Fajymi;f vmcJIh ucsifw\\dkrmS rl q';kH e,wf Gif tiftm;ESihf tajcpdkufaevsuf7Sd-uavjyD? ucsif wkd\\rSma7F\\ajymif;-u7m wGifawmif&dk;udkvkduf-u.? tajcpukd af exidk f -u7mYvn;f rsm;aomtm;jzifh awmif &d;k awmifpG,fwkd\\udk ydrk dkESpfouf-uon?f jrefrmEikd fiH 15


www.foreverspace.com.mm ucsifvlrsK;d wGi;f o\\dk a7mufjy;D aemuf awmiwf ef;rsm;wpaf v~muf awmibf uf qeG yf 7mbokH \\/kd qeG yf 7mbrkH oS nf awmibf uf awmif&dk;twkid f;vn;f aumif;/ taemuaf wmifbuf '&ck suof \\vkd n;f aumi;f / xyrf cH oJG mG ;onhf vr;f wpof ,G /f -wd*He,ftwGif;7Sd awmifwe;f twkdif; qufvmI arcjrp7f ;dk wpaf v~muf awmifbuof \\dk qi;f vmcohJ n\\f vr;f wpfo,G f Tok\\dvr;f EpS of ,G uf jGJym;um a7\\Fajymi;f ysH\\EH\\ScJh-uon[f k ,ql zG,7f .Sd ? trnf taetxkdif &k;d om;-uaom ucsifrdom;pk ucsi[f al oma0g[m7rmS treS pf ipf pf jrerf mw\\akd c: aom a0g[m7omjzpfonf? ucsifvlrsKd;wkd\\. pum; ausmupf mrsm;wGif ucsifqakd ompum; oHk;Ee= f;xm; r[wk facs? ucsivf lrsK;d rsm;onf rdrwd kd\\udrk rd wd \\dk ‘*si;f onfudrk awG\\7ay? odk\\7mwGifoU7mZf 804ckESpfxkd; azg’vrl sK;d rsm;[kom ajymq-dk uonf? vwl pfa,muf anmifO;D a7Fpnf;ckH OneH 0ausmupf mwiG f ‘ujcif’[k [kt\"_d g,f7Sod nf? w&wk fvlrsK;d rsm;url ucsivf rl sKd; a7;xk;d xm;onuf dk a7;S O;D pmG awG\\7on?f rsm;uk‘d a,*si’f [kac:q-kduon?f t\"_d g,rf Smvl &dki;f [k77Sdonf? ,Ofaus;aom w&kwftrnfwckrSm‘ ucsitf kypf uk rJG sm; 7eS fxk’d jzpf.? awmixf dyof m;[k t\"_d g,f7onf? *si;f azgqkad om pum;rmS a,bk,stm;jzifh ucsif tmoHjynwf iG f ucsiwf d\\kukd ‘pifz;kd ’[kac:a0:-uon?f rsm;ukd ac:a0:aomvf nf; a'otvukd fqvkd ~if awmif jrerf mrwS fwrf;rsm;Y ord ;f azg’[yk g7odS nf? 7rS f;vlrsK;d buf atmufbufwiG f aexkdif-uaom ucsirf sm;ukd w\\kud ucsivf rl sK;d ukd ‘ce*f ’[k ac:a0:-uon?f ,ctk *si;f azg [kac:wiG If txufzuf (0g)jrpzf sm;zuf cgvtl rsm;uyif *si;f azgvlrsK;d udk ucsifvlrsKd; [k wGif aexdkif-uaom ucsirf sm;udk‘cck’ [kac:-u omo7d Sed m;vn-f uonf? tvGefa7S;usaom jrefrm avonf? cckqdkaomucsifpum;rSm jrpfzsm;[k t\"_d g,7f 7doS n?f {nfhonftm; rkef\\cGH{nhfcH7aom ucsifr*v‡ maqmifow\\dkor;D ucsifvlrsKd;wdk\\. tpOtf vmtm;jzifh olwkd\\onf ‘0csu0f qadk om a7S;OD;zci-f uD;rS qi;f ouaf yguf zmG ;vm-uonf[k ,kH-unf-u.? zcif-uD;0csu0f rmS om;ig;OD;7dS7m tqdkyg om;ig;OD;rS -u;D pOfi,f vkduf xif7mS ;aom vlrsK;d tkyfpk-u;D 5pkjzpfay:vm onf [tk qk7d doS n?f xdkolwd\\krmS (1)r7pf (2)vaxm (3)vzdkif (4)ticf rk Ef Sifh (5)r7rf w\\kdjzp-fuonf? tpf ukd t-uD;qk;H rS ayguzf Gm;qi;f ouaf om r7ptf yk pf krSm owl \\dkvlrsK;d pwk \\kdxJwiG f 0gt7ihqf kH;jzpIf vzikd ftyk fprk Sm tiftm;t-uD;qkH;jzpfonf? Tvrl sK;d tkypf k 5pkwdk\\ onf a7S;,citf cg vrl sK;d csi;f a7m,uS fcgtwwl uG yiaf 7maEmS aexdik af v7h d-Suonf? jyqkdchJaom vlrsKd;tyk pf 5k ptk jyif zci-f u;D 0csuf0 qodk l. nDi,^f O;D rS qi;f ouaf yguzf mG ;onf qadk om 16


www.foreverspace.com.mm


www.foreverspace.com.mm ucsivf rl sK;d tjcm;vlrsKd;tyk fpk 15pkvnf;7dSao;onf? od\\kaomf ucsifpmudk wxD Giaf y;cJhonf? ucsifvlrsKd;wkd\\onf xdok lw\\dkrSm xi7f Sm;jci;f r7Sad cs? rdrdwk\\d bmompum;jzifh ajymIrjzpfaomtac: ta0:rsm;ukd jrerf mpum;jzivhf n;f aumi;f / 7rS ;f pum;jzi\\f \"avxh ;kH prH sm; vn;f aumif; ac:a0:-uon?f ucsivf rl sK;d wk\\donf tpOtf vmtm;jzihf ewuf ukd ;kd u,G faom vrl sKd;rsm;jzpf-uonf? aus;7Gmrsm;wGif tqtdk uEiS fwh 7l ,d mrsm; 'rk qf qadk om ewqf 7mrmS tx;l yitf a7;ygt7ma7muf ucsivf lrsKd;w\\kdonf uckefjci;f / oDqdkjcif;rsm;wiG f aom ykCKd vfwpfO;D jzpfonf? r*®vmaqmifaomtcg txl;0goemxHkaom vlrsKd;rsm;jzpfonf? r*®vm wiG f vn;faumi;f wppf wkH paf ,muaf oq;kHI oj*K‹[rf nthf cg yrJG sm;wiG vf n;f aumi;f / tobk -uKHonthf cgY vn;f aumi;f wiG vf n;f aumi;f 'rk qf ewqf 7mu neF jfya7\\aS qmi7f on?f tjcm;ewfyGJrsm;wiG fvnaf umif;/ tpkvdkuftjyKH vdkuf aus;7Gmwdkif; aus;7Gmwkid f;wiG fqvikd f;[k ac:aom oDqdkuckeaf v7h -Sduonf? wpaf ,muwf n;f ujyjci;f t7yfvl-uD;rsm;7dSonf? qvdki;f udk aygrd=if;[tk ac: um; enf;yg;voS nf? a,mufsm;ESifrh def;r wJGzufu rsm;on?f xokd wl d\\konf rdrad us;7GmtwiG f; trt= ci;f / -u7mwGif wpOf D;udwk pfOD;udkifwG,f jcif;r7dS-uacs? oma7;/ ema7;udPrsm;Y jrerf mEikd if HwiG f q,ftrd fr;Œ wpOf ;D EiS fhwpOf D; om;ar;G ,yaf wmirf sm;jzifh qufo,G f rsm;enf;wl/ a7S\\aqmifnFefjyavonf? 'l;0g; avhom7S-d uonf? ucsijf ynfe,Yf xi7f Sm;ausmfapm [k ac:aomt-uD;tuJrsm;rSm aus;7Gmaygif; 20rS vSaom yGJawm-f uD;wcrk Sm ‘raemyGJ’ac: ewfylaZmyf GJ 100txd toD;oD;tkyfcsKyf-u7onf? t*®vdyf -uD;yijfzpfon?f (raemyJG 7)= ewrf sm;ukd yal Zmf yoaom tp;kd 7vuxf uYf awmitf yk qf odk rl sm;uvkd n;f cef\\xm; tavth xrSm wAd ufjrerf mvrl sKd;w\\kd. \"avxh ;kH prH sm; avon?f awmitf yk rf mS qvikd ;f (t7yf v-lu;D )EiS fh ';l 0g; jzpf[efwlonf? jrpf-uD;em;jrdK\\wGif raemewfpif wkd\\-um;wiG f7Sod nf? awmiftkyf. wm0ef0W7m;rmS -u;D aqmufvkyf7ef jynfaxmipf jk refrm EdkifiHtpd;k 7u tkyfcsKyrf =wGif ajyjypfvG,fual p7ef aus;7GmvlxEk iS hf aiGaygi;f 111850d r~xkwaf y;cbhJ l;on?f 'l;0g;wdk\\ukd quof ,G fay;7ojlzpof n?f ucsifvlrsKd;wk\\donf r&d dk;zvmtm;jzif ah rmi;f / vif; ucsifvrl sK;d wd\\kwiG f r7l i;f pmayrsm; r7-dS uacs? c7pf uiG ;f / yk7H nS Ef iS afh jywG 7l d,mrsm;ukd w;D rw= af v7h -dSuon?f ,ef omoemjyKykCdKvfrsm;u a7mrtQ7mrsm;jzihf o\\kdaomf ,cktcgYw&kwEf kid if /H tNd ,d Eikd if /H jrefrmjynrf 7JaoG;7rJ mef wuf-uaG paom ucsiftrsKd;om;wkd\\. \"m;okdif;tu 17


www.foreverspace.com.mm ucsifvrl sK;d ucsifjynfe,f pde;f vHkubm;jrKd \\wiG f 5 7ufwpf-urd f pnfum;pGm a7mi;f 0,fav7h aSd om ‘5 7uaf ps;’ wkd\\ESihfrsm;pGm quqf Hr-d ujyDjzpf7um; ndK| \\-udK;wl7d acwof pfucsifvlrsK;d ,mrsm;/ab;ayguaf jyrG sm;/ c7mrsm;udrk w= fwD;ae-ujyD jzpof n?f ,ctk cg a7;S &;kd t,0l g'w\\dkrmS wjzn;f jzn;f yaysmuf vurf y= nmrsm; vmjyD;v~if rnfonfht7mudPwGifrqdk tusKd;ESihf ucsifvrl sKd;rsm;onf vufry= nm7yrf sm;wGif EkcH sm voS lrsm; r[wk facs? ESD;jzih7f uvf ky7f aom ,Ge;f xnf ta-umif;w7m;rsm;ukd qufpyIf awG;awmjy;D rS vuf yPn;f rsm;/ awmi;f / yv;kH / trd of ;kH u7d ,d mrsm;rmS vupf vufe acsmar\\GvoS njfhyif ckid cf ahH umif;rGeof n?f \"g;t coH iohf nuf okd m vucf vH m -uawmoh n?f tx;l ojzihf rsK;d rsKd;/ v/SH aoewEf iS afh rmi;f rsm;ukd a7;S umv -umjrihf pmG uyif cikd cf Hvh Syatmif vyk wf w-fuon?f -uKd;wwH m; cwyf nmwwf vil ,vf 7l ,G wf \\dkonf treS wf 7m;uodk m rsm;aqmufvkyjf cif;/ opof m;wHwm;/ 0g;wwH m; rsm; aqmuvf kyfjcif;/ trd of maqmufvyk fjcif;tp7Sdaom ppd p7f mS azvG akd om qN7-dSuontfh avsmuf a[mif;EGr;f vkyfief;rsm;wGifvnf; u`rf;usif vdRmvSojzifh aooyaf umi;f rGepf mG aqmuvf yk wf w-fuavon?f aom t,0l g'rsm;wGif ,Hk-unfpwd fr7Sd-uacs? rsm; t,0l g' pGmaom acwyf nmwwf ucsifvli,rf sm;onf ppf ucsivf lrsK;d rsm;aov~if olwd\\koif;csK‹i;f ywyf wf vnfwiG f usK;H ozG,fwl;ajrmi;f rsm; wl;xm;jyD;v~if bufYvnf;aumif;/tyk fcsKyfa7;bufYvnf;aumif;/ oif;csKi‹ f;tay:wiG f cdkifcHhaom wif;ukyrf sm;aqmuf vkyfum trdk;rdk;I xm;ww-f uonf? olwd\\kaojyD; 0iaf 7muf tr=xr;f vsu7f d-Suon?f ucsifjynfe,ft aemuf owl \\d0k nd mOrf sm;rmS a7;S tb;kd tbmG ;rsm;.0nd mOf rsm;7Sd7mo\\dk oGm;a7mufyl;aygif;-uonf[k t,l7Sd-u wuG f a7;S ,ciuf a'ox;kH wr;f rsm;urkd ;DS I a7;om;xm; onf? ucsiwf pfOD;aov~if oal e\\pOf ok;H avoh Hk;x 7dSaom\"g;/ vSH/ aoewEf Sihft0wftpm;rsm;udk olESihf aom w7m;Oya'rsm;om7cdS 7hJ m/ ,ctk cgwiG rf l ucsivf l twjlrKy| Ef aSH v7h oSd n?f rsK;d rsm;. ,Ofaus;rw= ;dk wufvmonEf iS fh tr~ w7m;pD 7ifx;Hk rsm;vnf; ajymif;vJIvmcoJh n?f ucsijfynef ,f wiG f pu7f iS wf 7m;o-lu;D &;kH ukd 1951c{k jyvD 1 7uaf e\\u yif pwifzGivfh pS cf hoJ n?f Tw7m;&k;H rmS jynaf xmipf k jrerf mEkdifiaH wmf. w7m;vFwaf wmf vuaf tmufcH jzpaf von?f txufwGif az:jychJaom ta-umif;jcif;7mrsm; a-umihf ucsivf rl sKd;wdk\\rmS rsm;r-umrtD wGif; jynf axmifpk jrerf mEdkiif HawmfwGif txl;yif ta7;ygt7m a7muaf om vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;tjzpEf iS hf aw\\Gjri7f awmhrnf rSm rvGJwnf;? OD;b7Sif 18


www.foreverspace.com.mm uav;oli,fESihfupm;jci;f uav;rsm;ukd -urd vf ;kH EiS &hf ukd rf OS m+xf uG rf n[f k a7;S tcguvtl rsm;,-kHuncf -hJu./,cak cwyf nm7wdS \\duk r/l xpkd Hepfqd;k udk oabmrusbJ Om+fynmydrk zdk \\HGjzKd;wGiuf s,fap7ef uav;rsm;pdwwf ikd ;f usupm;jci;f uktd m; ay;-uon?f upm;jcif;.ta7;-uD;yHk ? ?uav;rsm; ynm rnfuJhodk\\ tusKd;7Sdvmonfudk odem;vnfaomtcg vl-uD;rsm;yif u,kd vf uf v=y7f mS ;upm;jci;f ukd tavh oif-um;a7;Y upm;jcif;onf pmoif-um;ay; tusihf jyKvyk -fuavon?f jci;f EiS fh xyfwlxyfr~ ta7;-uD;avonf? upm;jci;f tm;jzifh u av;wd\\kY um,Avomru Om+Avyg uav;pdwfESiwfh d7>mefw\\kdpwd f zHG\\jzKd;w;kd wufEdik favon?f (uif'g*gwif „ &=?) u av;wdkif; upm;jcif;jziofh m tcsdefukefvGefvk-d uI/ uav;oli,frsm;ukd tusKd;jzpfxGef;aprnhf ud,k f vuvf y= 7f Sm;upm;jcif;Y0goemygatmif oGeof iaf y; upm;7rnqf vdk ~if rnof nuhf av;r~ jii;f y,vf rd rfh nf 7etf xl;vktd yfayonf?pdwyf nmyg7*rl sm;onf u r[wk af cs// vwl \\k.d e*pkd wd of nyf if uav;t7,G Yf upm; av;w\\dk.pwd uf rkd ppkH r;f rD w7d >meuf av;rsm;. pwd uf kd 7eof m pwd tf m;xuof ef.? uav;rsm;. u,dk tf *g® tvsif avhvm-un-fh u.?xkdodk\\avhvm-unfh7mwiG f uav;rsm;jyKry= EkH iS hf w7d >merf sm; jyKrlykoH nf rjcm;em; tpwd tf yikd ;f rsm;Y7adS om titf m;rsm;onf vokd nf xuf vSa-umif;udkaw\\G7.? wd7>mefi,fuav;rsm;onf yakd eojzihf xktd m;ydkrsm;utkd o;kH cs7ef upm;ay;7onf vnf; uav;rsm;en;f wul pm;7eof m pwd foef-u.? [kqdkavonf? rupm;aomuav;onf use;f rma7; obm0uyif uav;rsm;tzkd\\ upm;7rnhftajctae Yvnf;aumif;/Om+yf nmzH\\GjzKd;a7;Yvn;f aumi;f /csKd\\wJh rsK;d ukd zewf D;xm;7m uav;wkdi;f upm;oiahf yon?f wwof n?f upm;7rnthf 7,G wf iG f upm;ay;rS omt7m xkd\\jyif owl \\dkonxf odk \\dkupm;7jci;f rSm aemivf -l uD; 7m w;kd wufEkid af yrnf? vlw\\dkonf trad r;G uwn;f u jzpvf maomtcg vrl u= Pd vyk if e;f t00w\\kdY u`r;f usif yck uwf iG ;f 0,af jcvuf vy= 7f mS ;upm;vmc-hJuI wjzn;f jznf;ajy;umvFm;umESihf upm;wwvf mjyD;aemuf/ -uD;jyif;vmaomtcg upm;uGif;rsm;Y pepfwus upm;-uavawmoh n?f xdok \\dk upm;omG ;,i;f EiS rfh rd Yd uav;avmuY r&k;d Ekdfiaf om 0dkif;-uD;ywfywf vufcsif;wJIG 0kdif;-uD;ywfywf 'la0a0[k oDqdkum aysmyf g;pGm 0kid f;vSnhf upm;ae-uonhf uav;wpfpk 19


www.foreverspace.com.mm upm;jci;f .ta7;-u;D ykH [if;csufwrf;/ t&yk uf av;rsm;jzifh uav;xde;f wr;f paom rdef;rr=ESihfqdik fonhf upm;en;f rsm;udk upm; avh7dS.? a,musfm;uav;rsm;uvn;f opfyifwuf wr;f /upm;p7maoew/f wwk /f \"g;rsm;uikd If ppwf ukd f wr;f / eye;f v;kH wr;f ponjfzifh upm;ww-fu.? To\\kd upm;jci;f rmS wpef n;f tm;jzihf aemiaf 7;twuG f avuh sif jci;f jzpof n[f k q7kd ayrn?f i,7f ,G pf Owf iG f v-lu;D rsm; jyKrvl kyuf kdiof nfwkd\\udk twk,lum trsK;d rsK;d tzHkzHk upm;jci;f jzifh olw\\kdYOm+yf iG vhf i;f jci;f / ajrmjf riwf wf jcif;/ pdwf\"gwfykrd kdckdirf mvmjci;f paom tusKd;xl;rsm; 7Eikd af von?f waysmfwyg; av~mpD;upm;ae-uonhf uav;rsm; pdwyf sKdruS ,dk Ef k u,kd cf ¶muse;f rm oefprG ;f roS m pwd \"f mwof n-funf vdRmvmap7ef jzpfonf[kqkdEdkifayonf? wd7>mef vif7iF vf e;f Edki.f ? u,kd fEiS hpf wd of nf 'GefwJaG eaom uav;rsm;ukd -unfhrnqf kdv~if a-umifuav; onf odk;ar;G vH;k ukd wdk\\umajrm| uuf m upm;aejcif; a-umifh uk,d fuv=yf7mS ;rS wudk,vf kH;7Sd aoG;om;rsm; onf aemiof -l uD;jyif;vmaomtcg ol\\tpmjzpfaom aumi;f pGm vnS hyf wof mG ;vmEdik fjy;D v~if O;D aEmS uof nf -uuG uf kd rnuf ohJ \\kzd r;f ,ul m uspD ,uf pm;7rnuf kd ,ck tvyk vf yk Ef idk af yrn?f xadk -umiuhf pm;jci;f onf O;D aEmS uf uyif oifaeouJhodk\\jzpf.? acG;i,fuav;rsm; tvkyf aumif;aumif;vkyfEdik f7etf wuG f txl; wpfaumifay:wpf aumifxyfI owfykwfwrf;vdkuf wrf;ajy;wrf; upm;jcif;onf aemif-uD;jyif;vmI vdtk yof jzihf ynmoi-fum;a7;Y upm;jci;f uydk g xnhf 7eof rl sm;EiS hf 7iqf ikd 7f onthf cg cck aH 7mS iwf rd ;f wwaf tmif oGif;xm;-uavon?f wpfenf;qkd7aomf upm;jcif; avuh siahf eonEf Sifh wlawmoh n?f ukdrS;D I ynmoif-um;ay;onf? upm;jcif; urkd SD;I v\\lobm0wiG vf n;f w7d >meuf av;rsm;uohJ \\kyd if jzp7f m rdef;uav;rsm;onf tkd;ykwfuav;rsm;jzifh xrif; ynmoi-fum;ay;onf [qk 7dk mwiG f tvyk of abmrygbJ tupm;ouof ufEiS hf tcsdejfzKe;f jcif;jzpfon[f k rxif rwS of iahf y? vyk 7f rnthf vyk f ujdki;D ji;D ai\\Gai\\G nn;f nn;f tar7duefuav;wpfpk opfwkH;rsm;jzihf upm;aejcif;? Tupm;enf;onf vlukdoepf Grf;apI pdwfu;l —m+f 7ihfoefaponf? 20


www.foreverspace.com.mm upm;jci;f .ta7;-u;D ykH nLnLESifh pwd rf yghwygr[kwbf J aysmfaysmf7Fi7f FiEf iS fh wef;vFJ upm;jcif;udkvnf; uav;rsm; crkH if-uon?f cywf GifwGijfy;D atmif jyKvyk af y;jci;f om jzpfavonf? a7;S acwuf uav;rsm;udk vGwfvyfpmG upm;cdik f;xm; jyKjyiaf 7;orm;jzpaf om z7m;A,Ef iS hf reG wf uqf ;dk 7;D w\\.dk a[majymcsufrsm;a-umifh/ uav;rsm;.pdwf\"mwf jci;f jzifh ynmwwfrnfr[wk [f xk icf -hJu.?a7;S vl-uD; ukd ydkrdek m;vnvf mojzihf t-uifemzuuf m t-urf; rsm;u uav;wd\\konf t;dk cuG rf sm;ESiyhf rmwIl ‘p7n;f 0g'rsm;uydk ,fazsmufjy;D v~if uav;.pwd \"f mwEf Sifh n|d tkd;cGuf-uD;pGmv~ufvsifwefpufusrsm; jynfhaom E=di;f I ESpfjcdKu7f muzdk efwD;ay;jcif;tm;jzifh ynmc7D; vm;o\\k[d al ompum;t7 ae\\pOEf iS thf r~ owl \\pdk wd yf g onf ydrk wkd iG uf s,rf nf jzpfa-umif;ukd oabmykdufrd-uav onf?(z7m;A,f/ rGefwufqkd;7D; „7= )okd\\jzifh jzpaf p rygonjf zpaf p/ A[ok wk ay;7rnf? okd\\rSom uav;pwd wf idk ;f us upm;jci;f EiS ,hf OS rf ;DS aom ynmoif ynma7tdk; jynhfjzKd ;vmrnf {uefjzpof nf? uav; en;f updk xiG cf -hJu.? ynma7;Y upm;jci;f ontf veG f wdk\\onf bmr~rowd wfaom trkud ftrrJ sm;jzpfonf toHk;us ta7;-u;D a-umif;uadk cwfryD nm7iS rf sm; -u yif0ecf -H uavon?f uav;vl-u;D tm;vkH; tupm; EiS thf nD wzH smEiS Ehf uS rf S Om+yf nmxuG rf n[f ,k -kHuncf Jh EiS thf vyk f woabmwn;f usaomtcg tm;oeIf pwd f -u.? Todk\\jzihfuav;rsm;tay:wiG f pmusufv~if ygvuyf gjyKvyk af qmif7uG wf w-fuon?f vl-uD;yijfzpf usuf rusuvf ~iEf uS frnf[laom t\"RpeH pof nf a7;S u -u;D pd;k chaJ von?f aemurf S uav;rsm;.pwd f\"mwf tajctaew\\dkudk pl;prf;avhvmcJhonfh ynma7;qkdi7f m acGukd,fpDESihf auseyfae-uaom uav;o;kH OD; uBmhtdkvif;ypfae\\wiG f 7efukefjrdK\\ atmifqef;upm;uiG f;Y t-udwfte,fEFJaeonhf aAmfvD abmyGaJ umif;wpfckukd Tod\\kawG\\7.? 21


www.foreverspace.com.mm upm;jci;f .ta7;-u;D ykH upm;p7mrsm; ap ol 0goemygonthf vyk wf pcf uk dk vyk af e7v~iyf iyf e;f 0g;prsm;ESihf jyKvkyaf om upm;p7mrsm;jzihvf nf; om; on[f ok abmrxm;/ tysi;f ajyupm;ae7on[f yk if orD;i,frsm;ukd EpS of rd afh pc-Jhuavon?f xirf wS wf wf.? EpS jfcKdu7f mtvyk uf dk vyk af e7v~iaf ysmf *smreED iS hf qGpZf mvefEkid if wH \\kdonf a7;S EpS faygif;rsm;pmG yukd fvmI pdwuf l;—m+fu;l rsm;vn;f qwuxf r;f ydk; w;dk wuvf mrnfjzpaf yon?f pwd yf g0ipf m;aoma-umihf upI uav;upm;p7mrsm;udk uBmtE\\SHtjym;o\\dk wif tvyk wf iG f tm&kHp;l pkud fEkdifjy;D v~if -uH7nzf ef7nfrsm; y\\dka7mi;f csc-hJ uonf? xkdwdik ;f jynfrsm;rS acwpf m;aom xwk uf m -uD;ymG ;w;dk wu7f mvr;f udk pxiG Ef idk af von?f t&yk rf sm;rmS aum&f kyfuav;rsm;ESifh armaf wmfum;/ rD; xkda-umifh uav;rsm;ukd olwkd\\pdwftygqHk;jzpfonfh 7xm;/ pubf ;D ponthf &yk uf av; rsm;jzpof n?f uav; upm;jci;f jzifhom ynmoifay;v~if tvGefyiof ifh avsmaf von?f Tokd\\pwd yf gr=ukd zewf D;ay;Edkifonfh rsm;wufp;D Edik af om vy= jfri;f &kyrf sm;/ ESpaf ,mufpD;csm; tcsurf sm;rmS jyKvyk 7f rnjfzpaf om tvyk of nvf n;f aumi;f / 7[wrf sm;ukd uBmt7yf7yf7dS rnfonfhuav;r~rEpS f vyk ef n;fonvf n;faumi;f uav;w\\.dk pwd \"f mwEf iS hf uudk nf D oubf rJ aeEikd af y? *syeEf dik if /H csuuf qkd vAkd g;u;D ,m; a7S;qefaomfvnf; rwdrfaumEkdifonhf 7HF\\&yk frsm; Eidk if wH d\\krvS n;f pUL/ 0g;/ xi7f LS ;om; /a-u/G 7\\HuF saJG umf ponwf \\dkjzifh jyKvkyfxm;onhf upm;p7mrsKd;pukH kd uBm apjcif;/ uav;wkd\\. b0ESifh7if;ESD;apjcif;/7nf tEH\\Stjym;o\\dk t-u;D tus,f wify\\dka7mi;f cscaJh vonf? 7G,fcsu7f Sdjci;f / t\"_d g,7f jdS ci;f wkd\\ jzpaf von?f ( jref rmuav; upm;enf;rsm;/t*vdyuf pm;enf;rsm; 7= ) upm;p7mvkyfie;f onf p;D yGm;a7;vkyfief;jzpfonhf twidk ;f upm;p7m jyKvyk af omowl \\odk nf rrd wd \\d.k uek uf dk wiG uf s,pf mG a7mi;f csEdik 7f etf wuG f upm;p7mrsm;uykd rdk dk aumif;rGeaf tmif wxD iG fEdik f7ef tjr-JuKd;pm;c-hJuon?f -uKd;pm;onhf twdkif;vn;f ,cktcg od_yH nmESif,h SOf aom puwf yuf pm;p7m tqe;f tjym;rsm; ay:ayguf vmayjy?D a7xwJ iG f ckwfarmi;f Edik af om oab‡m&kyuf av;rsm;/ oyH wfjziohf mG ;aom armaf wmuf m;&kyuf av; rsm;/oHvrf;ay:wiG f ywfajy;aomrD;7xm;&kyfuav; rsm;/ avxJwGif ysH0JEdik faom av,mOfysH&kyfuav; rsm;rmS uav;oil ,rf sm;omru v-luD;rsm;yif EpS jfcKduf oabmusp7mjzpaf yon?f uav;upm;p7m trsK;d rsK;d 7dS7mwiG ftcsKd\\rmS v=yf7mS ; Ekdijf cif;r7Sdaom t&kyfaorsm;omjzpof nf? tcsKd\\rmS v=y7f Sm;Edki/f cwk farmi;f Eidk faom t&yk 7f Sirf sm;jzpof n?f upm;p7mrsm; ? ?upm;p7mrsm;onf vwl prf sK;d t&kyfavmuY twef;pm;jrihfonhf oyH wfpuf&kyrf sm; EiS fhwpfrsK;d wpfEkid if EH iS whf pEf idk if H uJvG JaG umif;uvJG JrG nf jzpaf omvf n;f / a7;S ya0+uD yif ay:aygucf aJh yon?f o\\dk7mwGif vwl \\kd.acwfonf trsK;d rsKd;ajymif;vcJ ohJ nfh twdik ;f uav;upm;p7mrsm;onvf n;f acwftvudk f trsKd;rsKd; wk;d wuaf jymi;f vJvmcJ-h uayonf? txl; ojzihpf ufr=ESiohf _d yH nm xGef;um;vmonhf tcgrpS I uav;upm;p7mrsm;. tqithf we;f rSm ood domom wkd;wufIvmcJhayon?f a7S;acwvf wl dk\\onf 7HF\\ESifh jyKvyk af omjrif;&yk /f EmG ;&yk rf sm;/ 0g;yifusLyirf S jyKvyk f aom ajyGuav;rsm;jzifh rdrdwdk\\om;or;D rsm;. pdwf aysm7f iF rf u= kd zewf D;ay;c-hJ u.? t0wfpwk frsm;/opfwkd 22


www.foreverspace.com.mm upm;p7mrsm; jrefrmvh uf7mjzpfaom bvD ;l acgif;/ewfacgif;/,Ofrif;&kyf/oli,fawm&f yk f/zkd;b&yk f/jrif;&yk pf onfrsm; tcsK\\drSmrl uav;rsm;pwd uf l;—m+f xuof efwdk;wuf EiS whf uG ri;f om;&yk /f ri;f or;D &yk /f jri;f &yk /f usm; &yk rf sm; a7;twuG f zefwD;ay;I uav;rsm;ud,k wf dik f wyqf if wGif -udK;wyfxm;aom &kyfao;&yk frsm;rSm ,ae\\wkdif jyKvyk 7f aom upm;p7mrsm; jzpaf yonf? jrefrmEdik if HwGifvnf; uav;upm;p7m jyKvkyaf 7mif; atmifyirf &d;k Eidk af o;acs? t0wpf / pULpw\\dkjzihf jyKvyk f csorl sm;7dSon?f OD;b&kyf(zkd;b&kyf) ypfwkdi;f axmif xm;aom bDvl;acgi;f / usm;acgif;ponrf sm; vn;f 7dS on?f t&kyfrsK;d pkHudk rsm;aomtm;jzifh bk7m;wef vuf7majrmufvSonhf *syefjrif;pD;ol7Jaumif;&kyf uav;wkdif; rESpfoufbJraeEkdifonyh f v=yfjrif;&kyf 23


www.foreverspace.com.mm upm;p7mrsm; upm;&Hk/tm; 7efukefwUokdvf tm;upm;&Htk wiG f; EpS fwef;Am;ay:Y uif; upm;&kH/tm; ? ?tm;upm;&Huk dk t*‡vyd fvd*k sif raeZD,rf[k ac:onf? *sifraeZD,rf qdkonfh jrD;aumufaxmifaeaom wUovdk Af varmifwpfOD; pum;onf *sirf aem[h al om *7pd um;rS qi;f ouvf mI ukd,fwkH;vkH;[k t\"d_g,f7onf? a7S;acwf*7d aqmi;f 7dS qdik rf sm;EiS yhf JGaps;we;f rsm;Y a7mi;f csav7h dS-u vil ,frsm;onf ud,k vf uf-uhcH ikd af 7; oiwf e;f qi;f csed f onf? ,ckacwwf iG frl upm;p7mrsm;udk qkid rf sm;zGifh wiG f rrd wd \\d0k wfqixf m;aom t0wrf sm;ucdk sGwIf upm; vpS If yif a7mi;f csae-ujy?D xqdk idk rf sm;wiG f upm;p7mrsm; -uonf? tm;upm;&Hwk Gif ud,k fvuf -uhHcidk af 7;/ aygh trsK;d pvHk Sonjhfyif a7;S acwf upm;p7mrsm;xuf rsm;pmG yg;zswfvwaf 7;/ ukd,ft*‡gtpdwftydki;f rsm; tcsK;d tqifth wef; jrifvh monfudkvnf; awG\\7ayonf? tqpaf jyjypfa7; ponwf \\dktwuG f avhusihuf pm;Eidk f uav;p;D pufb;D uav;rsm;/ armaf wmuf m;uav;rsm; aom yPn;f rsm;xm;77dS .? rsm;aomtm;jzihf ausmif; ESifh jrif;&kyfuav;rsm;rmS uav;wdki;f vdkcsifruaf rm rsm;wGif upm;&rHk sm;xm;7Sjd yD;v~if ausmif;om;vli,f avmuaf tmiyf if aumi;f reG -fuayon?f xudk ohJ \\dk upm; rsm;tm; ukd,fvufusef;rmzGH\\jzdK;vmatmif enf; p7mrsm;. tqithf we;f w;dk wuIf vmjyrD eS af omvf n;f vr;f wus oijfyay;av7h adS yon?f tm;upm;&rHk sm;wiG f EdkifiHjcm;xkwuf ek f tjzpfokd\\um; ra7mufao;acs? vufESifhqGJwu7f ef -udK;rsm;ESihf avSum;rsm;udvk nf; aumi;f /uiG ;f Ag;(7i;f Ag;)/ wwe;f Ag;/ EpS wf e;f Ag;rsm;udk upm;p7mvyk if e;f wiG f rsm;aomtm;jzihf tvyk &f rHk sm;rS vnf;aumif;/ 'rfA,fAg;AJac: tav;rsm;ESifh ydkv~H-uGi;f usefaeaom yPnf;tptersm;udk okH; -u ti;f ';D ,ef;uvyaf c: wif;ywk frsm;uvkd n;f aumif;;/ onf? opfwkod pfptwGuf opf&Hok pfpurf sm;rS vnf; vufo;D xkd;usiphf 7m abmv;Hk ESifh vufaxmuf cek fjyD; aumif;/ t0wfprsm;twuG f pucf sKyfaomXmersm;rS upm;7aom jrif;Ag;rsm;ukdvnf;aumif;/upm;p7m vnf;aumif; tajrmuftjrm; 0,f,l7ayonf? yPnf;trsK;d rsK;d udk awG\\jrifEdik af yon?f ,cyk iTf r~ wkd;wuaf eaom upm;p7mvyk if e;f onf tm;upm;avhusif7h mwiG f ukd,vf utf *g‡ tm;vkH;ukd tem*wfumvwGif ,ckxuf tqaygif;rsm;pGm wpcf Ek iS wfh pcf k tqiaf jyatmif vy= 7f mS ;Eikd fr=EiS hf tuH udk f wk;d wuf vmOD;rnrf mS ,rHk Sm;z,G fr7Sad cs?(ykpH H vn;f 7)= tcsufusatmif v=y7f Sm;Edkirf o= nf ta7;t-u;D qHk; usef;rma7;onf trsK;d orD;rsm;twuG fvn;f ta7;-uD;.? TyHkwGif taemufEdkiif Hausmif;otl csK\\d -udK;avScg; -udK;wef; rsm;jzihf usef;rma7;avhusihfaepOf Tokd\\awG\\7onf? 24


www.foreverspace.com.mm upD uqkefv jzp.f ? To\\dvk y= 7f mS ;Eidk 7f erf mS omrevf wl d\\ktwuG f cuf crJ njfzpaf omvf n;f / tm;upm;&wHk iG f qidk 7f myPn;uf 7d ,mrsm;jzifh pepfwusavhusifxh m;oltzkd\\rSmrl rnf okd\\r~cufcjJ ci;f r7Sad y? tm;upm;enf;rsm;ukd avhusihf ay;jci;f jzihf u,dk .f use;f rmru= odk mr[wk /f pwd fuse;f rmru= vdk n;f 7apEidk of n?f x\\adk -umiyhf if Eidk if wH idk ;f vvdk Ydk tx;l ojzihf ausmi;f rsm;wiG f tm;upm;&rHk sm; xm;7uSd m vli,frsm;tm; tm;upm;enf;rsm;ukd pHepfwus avuh siohf ijfyay;vsu7f daS yon?f (uk,d vf uf-u\\Hcidk af 7; vnf;7)= upD ? ? aumrf e= \\f 7?= vjrwfuqkeYf aAm\"dyifudk anmifa7 oGef;avmi;f aepOf uqkevf ? ?uqek [f k ,ctk a7;tac: jyKae anmiaf 7oeG ;f yJGawmf usi;f yjci;f tavvh nf; wpfjydKif aomv.trnfukd yk*Hacwfxkd; ausmufpmwkd\\wGif wnf; jzpfay:vmonf[k xifrSwf7avonf? uqk ek [f tk a7;rsm;on?f y*k aH cwfY toH;k wiG f us,af om ukqek f/ uqke[f l wecf l;/ uqkefpaom q,fEh Spfvwkd\\wiG f aom ta7;ESpfrsKd;wGif ukqek of nfrlvjzpfI ,i;f rS uqkef/0gq/kd 0gacgif/ oDwif;usGw/f wefaqmirf kef;/ uqek of \\dk a7G\\avsmonf[k ,ql 7ayon?f ewaf wmf [Il ajcmurf sK;d aomtac:w\\kdrmS omoema7; ud;k uG,f ,H-kunaf 7;ESifh ouqf idk af von?f Tuqkef uk/ u.teufonf a7jzpIf / qek f.teufrSm v7moD wGif aet7dSetf jyi;f xeqf Hk; jzpfaoma-umifh oeG ;f avmi;f on[f k jzpaf oma-umihf uqek vf uakd 7oeG ;f a7rsm; yicf e;f ajcmuaf v7h 7dS um;/ jrwpf mG b7k m; yiG ahf wmrf l v/ a7avmi;f v [kaumu,f 7l on?f uqk ke/f uqkef 7m aAm\"yd iuf dk 7nrf wS uf m aAm\"yd if tymG ; awmrf sm;udk [laom v.tac:rSm tvGefa7;S usonuf kdaxmuf waysmwf yg; a7piof eG ;f avmi;f jci;f rsm; jyKch-J uojzihf aomf jrerf mEdkifioH k\\domoema7muof nfh tcgrSpI a7t;kd ukd,pf DESihf uqkeaf nmifa7yGJ qiEf FJ-uol vyS sKjd zLrsm; 25


www.foreverspace.com.mm uqek vf jynhaf e\\ uaZmfaygujf cif; rD;xGef;7efESihf rD;arF;7ef toHk;jyK7onfh unifqqD kdif wucf sed wf iG f a*gwrb7k m; tavmi;f awmof nf o¤nK w—m+fawmuf kd 77Sdawmfrljci;f ? vjynfhae\\Y usif;yaomyGJawmf tcg-u;D udkuqkef 4?r[moU7mZf 148ckuqkefvjynfah e\\wGif rœm anmifa7oeG ;f yGJawmf[kvnf; ac:prwS fjyKch-J uon?f rif;wk\\d. tif-ui;f O,smOfY b7k m;7Sify7ed d¤mefpH0if (uqkefvjynfhae\\„ &= ) xrdk ~ru cef;ajcmufaom awmrf ljci;f w\\dk jzpaf vonf? ti;f tidk /f a7uefwd\\krS ig;rsm;uydk if a7rsm;7ma'o od\\k xkud Jhodk\\b7k m;7iS .f tjzpfawmfpOfwGif xl;jcm;rSwf a7F\\ajymif;ay;jci;f tm;jzifvh nf; ZD0dw'ge ig;vFwfyGJ om;xkduaf om Tuqkefvjynafh e\\tm; b7k m;ae\\[k rsm;ukd ,cxk uwf kid f jyKvkyfvsuf7Sd-uon?f Ak<omoem0if taygif;wdk\\u txGwtf jrwf xm;-u vsuf a*gwrb7k m;7iS of nf Tae\\TtcgY o¤nKw uqek vf onjfrerf wpqf ,Ehf pS vf wiG 'f wk ,d vjzpIf a7—F m+fawmuf kd 7awmrf 7l ef tm;xkw7f mwiG f trSDjyK jy©d 7moED iS hf wnl oD n?f r;dk O;D uscge;D jzpof nthf avsmuf awmfrlaom aAm\"yd itf m; a7oGef;avmif;jci;f paom rdk;oHavoHrsm; pwif-um;7avon?f ukokdvfaumif;r=wkd\\ukdjyK-uukefonf? (aAm\"dyif„ vnf;&=?) a7oGef;avmif;-uonrf Sm uqkefvwGif uqkefvjynfhae\\ ? ?uqek vf jynahf e\\onf A<k om a77Sm;jywvf yfI ndK|;avsmtf Hhaom aAm\"dyifukvd ef; oem0iwf \\dk. ae\\xl;ae\\jrwf-u;D jzpfayonf? xakd e\\. qe;f pjdkynfap7eftwuG fjzpfayon?f xl;jcm;csurf sm;um; 1?b7k m;tavmi;f awmf oak r\"m7iS 7f aooh nf Tb] xkdtavhtxonf A<k omoem0iwf d\\kwiG f aysmuf uBmY av;qlajrmufjzpfaom a*gwrtrnfjzifh u,G jf cif;r7SdbJ ,ckxufwkdif ESpfpOtf jrJ uqkef bk7m;pipf pf {uejfzpvf rd rhf nf[k 'yD u7‡ mjrwpf mG b7k m; vjynfah e\\wGif anmifa7oGef;yJGrsm;jyKvkyfvsuf 7Sd-u xrH S e,d wAsm'dwfukd uqek vf jynafh e\\wiG f cH,jlcif;? avonf?(A<k „ &)= 2?r[moU7mZf 68ckuqkefvjynhfae\\wGif a*gwr b7k m;tavmi;f awmf o<d šri;f om;tm; zmG ;jriaf wmf uaZmfaygufjcif; ? ? o-um;rS t,vf uadk [m rjlci;f ? (t7u)f jzpfvmjcif;/ t,fvudka[mrSwzef 77S 3?r[moU7mZf 103cuk qek vf jynaf e\\t&+k f um7nf(ykef;7nf)jzpfvmjcif;/opfoD;rsm; trSnfh vGefIyyk of kd;oGm;jcif;/aygirf k\\Hrsm;yGvmjci;f / EGm;Ek\\dcsOf oGm;jcif;paomtjzpfajymif;vJjcif;rsKd;ukd uaZmf aygufjcif;[kac:.?pyspfoD;/yef;oD;paom toD; rsm;rS7aomo-um;/aumufESHrsm;rS 7aomo-um; rsm;xJokd\\ waq;xnfhvkdufaomtcg uaZmfayguf vmI t,fvuadk [mEiS fhumAeG 'f kdifatmufqdkuf wd\\kudk 7.? okd\\aomfwaq;a-umihf wkduf&udk tf m;jzifh Tokd\\ ajymi;f I t,fvuadk [mjzpfvmonrf [wk f? waq;rS jzpfay:vmaom tifZkdif;a-umifh o-um;ESifhwuG tjcm;yPn;f rsm;onf rvl tajcryS sujf ym;um yPnf; opf tjzpfokd\\ ajymi;f vJoGm;7onf? waq;rSmap;I tjrK|yf wufaeaomyPnf;jzp.f ? ta7mirf mS ten;f i,f0gI AufwD;7D;,m;rsm;yg0if.? waq;ukd t7ucf su7f m/ uaZmfazguf7m/ tcsOfazguf7mwkd\\Y rsm;pmG toH;k jyK-u7avonf? EmG ;Ekd\\csO/f axmywf/'defcJpaom yPnf;rsm;jzpvf m jci;f . ta-umif;7i;f rSmvn;f tyiaf vmuqkdif7m yPn;f rsm;wiG f t7i;f caH om Auwf ;D 7;D ,m;rsK;d tcsK\\drS jzpfay:vmonfh tiZf kdi;f u EmG ;Ekd\\ukd tajcajymif;vJ 26


www.foreverspace.com.mm uniqf qD idk f uniyf if oGm;apjcif;yif jzpfonf? xkda-umifh uaZmfayguf atmif e,uf moabmh7GufajcmufwiG f oif&h kH xnfhI jcif;onf tifZdik ;f rsm;u wkduf&ukd fjzpfap/oG,0f duk If t7uG cf si;f acguftyk fjyD; v~i0f g;ES;D jzifh vkHpGm 4 5 jzpaf p/ yPn;f rsm;udk rlvtajcrSysujfym;apjy;D v~if u csufpn;f 7onf? ,i;f ukd uniqf Dwikd /f unifqD aZmfaygufI yPnf;opftjzpfokd\\ ajymi;f vJapjcif;yif xky/f unifqaD csmi;f [ak c:on?f jzp.f ? vcl ¶mu,dk wf iG ;f Yvn;f \"mwof bm0tm;jzifh unifqDwkdif. t7G,fyrm+rSm t7nS fok;H rduk cf ef\\/ tifZdkif;rsm; jzpfvmI xkdtifZkdif;rsm;onf vlwdk\\ v;kH yw'f *g‡ ;jym;ce\\f 7odS n?f uniqf Dwpyf domv~if t pm;vkdufaom tpm;tpmrsm;ukd a-unuaf pon?f wkdif 50ce\\f7Eidk of nf? uniqf uD dk eus,af umirf sm; (waq;?Auwf ;D 7D;,m;?t,vf ukda[m?7=) -uKduwf wIf 0g;usnuf vdk pHk mG ywd 7f on?f tq\\rdk vaHk omf c0dk iaf eaom eus,af umixf uG If twyk cf 7H av7h odS n?f unifqDwdkif ? ?uniqf wD idk of nf jrerf maus;7mG rsm;Y rD;xGef;7efESirhf D;ar;F 7eftokH;jyKaomyPnf;jzpf unifqD wpwf ikd fv~if jym; 40 50 ce\\fay;I 0,f on?f uniyf irf 7S aom uniqf DjzijhfyKvyk xf m;on?f ,7l onf?7Srf;ESihf u7ifvlrsKd;wkd\\ trsm;tjym; vkyf uniqf Dudk xkw,f yl kHrSm awmawmiYf aygufa7muf udik fa7mi;f csavh7doS n?f aom vkH;ywf5awmifr8S awmif txd-uD;rm;onfh unifyif-u;D wGif atmuaf jctjrpfrS txuf3awmif uniyf if ? ?uniyf ifrsK;d wiG funief D/ unifjzL/ umG ce\\fY jyu2f awmif/ apmuf 2 awmicf e\\f \"g;yqk ed f unifys/H unifukyf/ unifa-umifacs;/ unif0uf EiS hf xiG ;f azmuIf wiG ;f *vidk 1f awmicf e\\f tus,7f v~i/f awmif;[Il trsK;d rsKd;uGJjym;vsuf 7aSd oma-umifh tyif opfpopfaygurf sm;udk z,f7Sif;I opfudkif;ajcmuf uvdk n;f aumif;/ cpGJ dwjf yD;uniof m;ukdvnf;aumif;; rsm;jzirhf ;D wduk 7f onf? wpaf e\\EiS whf pnf Ohf wudk faomrf D; jri&f rkH ~jzifhrnof nhf uniyf ifrsKd; jzpfonuf dk wud spmG avmijfy;D wiG ;f *vikd xf oJ \\dk uniqf rD sm; ,pdk ;D usonuf dk cjJGcm;oEd idk 7f ef c,J Of;on?f txujfrerf mjynYf unif cy,f 7l on?f eyD irf sm;udk trsm;tjym; aw\\G7I atmufjrerf mjynYf tyi-f uD;v~if 5 ydomrS ^ ydomtxd 77SId tyif unijf zLyif rsK;d ukd trsm;tjym; awG\\Ekdifonf? jcKIH i,fv~if 2yod mrS 3 ydomtxd 77dSonf? 7aom ajym7v~if uniyf ifwkd\\onf tvGef-uD;rm;aom t uniqf Dukd -uaomif;0g;usnfjzihfjzpaf p/ usGJcsKcd jGH zihf yirf sK;d jzpof n?f tcsK\\donf tjriahf y 150 ce\\f/ yipf nvf ;Hk jzpaf p xnh7f on?f ajrtd;k jzihf rxnh7f acs? ywf 15 ayce\\ftx7d wdS wof n?f xudk ohJ \\djkrirhf m;aomt yif-u;D rsm;wGif t7i;f ydik ;f ay^0 rS ay100 avmuft xkdaemuf anmiof m;/ ayguof m;/ atmucf sif; pm xrd mS tuidk ;f tcurf sm; ui;f piuf m ajzmiphf i;f aewwf om;/ usnof m;/ o7uof m;/ opyf if tajcmuf taq;G onf? tacguftayG;rmS tvGefacsmrGwf.? unif rsm;udk xak csI opof m;ysOfay:wiG f uniqf DEiS hf or yiof nf tpvk udk rf aygubf J ajymuuf sm; ayguaf v7h IdS jrerf mEikd if YH tjrpJ dr;f awmrsm;wGif aw\\GjrifEikd of n?f uniof m;onf enD pnf pf ta7mi7f IdS tiof m;xuf tenf;i,nf ohH nf? tom;-ur;f I tawmtf wef ckdif cahH omvf n;f jrerf mEidk if H 7moOD w'k +uf dk cEH idk 7f nf r7adS cs? jcvnf; tpm;v,G of n?f xakd -umifh tom;aoatmif jyKvkyjf y;D rS tokH;csoifhon?f jrefrmEdkifiHwGif unif om;udk avrS sm;EiS hf aoWmrsm; vyk 7f mY to;Hk rsm;on?f uniof m;udk opuf uG vf cS i;f jci;f twuG of ;Hk Eidk of nhf tjyiuf 7tD pdk wk qf D owk af y;v~if -um7nS cf aH oma-umihf Eidk if jHcm;o\\dak 7mi;f csEidk zf ,G 7f m tvm;tvmrsm;pmG &odS n?f unifyirf 7S &daS omtquD ktd cs\\kdawm7yfrsm;Y a7eHqD tpm; r;D xeG ;f -uon?f uniqf wD idk rf sm;trnjfzirhf ;D ar;F *vkdifxGif;jyD; rD;wkdufenf;jzihf unifqDxkw,f laepOf 27


www.foreverspace.com.mm uniyf if unGwyf if 7efa7mif;csaom aumufnif;usnf awmuf 7G,f7Sd vn;f unwG uf dk -uKduEf pS of uof rl sm;I tpmx;l tpm xef;7Gupf onfESihf xkyfpnf;xm;onfh tawmifhukd qef;wp7f yftjzpfjzihf aps;-u;D ay;I 0,,f lpm;okH;-u awG\\z;l okH;zl; -uayrnf? xkdunifqDwkdirf Sm opfaqG; on?f tpuav;rsm;udk uniqf ED iS hf e,xf m;onhf yPn;f yif jzpfon?f (uniqf wD kdi„f 7=) uniqf Dwkid uf kd r;D &SL; a7mrb7k irf sm; -u;D p;dk onahf cwf rpS I unwG uf tdk pm r;D widk tf jzpfvnf; ok;H Eikd of n?f ,Of;aeaom temrsm; aumi;f wpcf tk jzpfjzihf pudk yf sK;d c-Jhu.? unwG frSm EpS f udk owk fvrd ;f ay;Edik of jzihf aq;zuvf n;f 0iof n?f -umcyH irf sKd; jzpf7musepmG jyKjyixf m;onhf pukd cf i;f wGif taprh sm;udk pudk fysKd;I tyirf sm; aeom;wus jzpvf m rk;d OD;ay:onfh t7omxl;uaJ om [if;vsmunGwf v~if EpS fpOEf SpfpOf tyipf \\dkrsm; xuG af y:vmrnjfzp.f ? ok\\daomf tyifrsm; oefpGrf;pGmxGufEdik f7ef ajr-oZm tpOf jznhaf vmif;ay;7onf? taemufEdkifiH rsm;wGif aqmif;ESifhaEGt-um; py7if;Owk (aEGul;Owk)rSm unwG af y:csed jfzpof n?f unwG yf ipf \\dkrsm; ajrjyirf S ay:xuG fvmI 6 vurf o\\rdk [wk f 8vurf jrivhf monthf cg pm;o;Hk 7ef twuG f xtkd yiif ,f rsm;ujdkzw,f -luonf? tu,If tyiuf kd -uD;jyif;atmifxm;vkduvf ~if iuS farG;iSufawmifuJhod\\k aom tcutf 7uG frsm;jzihf tvGefwiwhf ,fonfhtyif jzpfvmayrnf? tyiG fhuav;rsm;rSm jzLI teDa7mif toD;rsm;o;D on?f xadk -umifh tcsK\\dunwG yf irf sK;d w\\dkudk jcHO,smOfrsm;wGif tvStytwGuf oufouf pkdufysK;d xm; wwf-uonf? unwG yf irf sKd;aygi;f 120 xm;0,ef ,wf iG f uniqf uD dk atmuyf g EpS ef n;f jzihf unwG yf ifvDS;jzwf7ef (u) enf;rSm; (c) enf;reS f xwk ,f -luon?f yxren;f rmS -uuaf ygiaf p; xkw,f l ouohJ \\dk 37uwf p-furd f 47uwf p-furd f yipf nuf dk \"g;jzihf ausm7f SdI tcsKd\\wikd f;jynrf sm;wiG f unwG f&dik ;f yirf sm;EiS hf xpIf qxD kwf,len;f jzpof n?f wpEf pS tf wGi;f unif unwG Ef ,G yf irf sm;vn;f 7doS n?f yiwf pyf irf S av;vce\\f xudk ohJ \\dk qxD wk Ef dik If ppk ak ygi;f uniqf Dysr;f r~ 15 yod mce\\f 7Eidk of n?f unGwyf iuf dk pduk yf sK;d 7mY ysK;d ci;f wGif aygifrsm;jyK vyk If twef;vudk f rsK;d aphrsm;ukd o;kH vufrpD cGmvsuf 'kwd,enf;rmS yipf nuf kd 'g;jzifh xpfjyD;oumv ysK;d -uoJ n?f twe;f wpcf Ek iS whf pcf k 3 ayce\\f umG aeap7 ,xdk Guf vmaom uniqf DEiS hf op7f Gufajcmufrsm;udk on?f xukd ohJ \\dk rsK;d apuh ydk sK;d jy;D wpEf pS -fumrS unwG yf if a7mI tyi7f if;udk r;D jrKd|uaf y;7on?f r;D jrK|dujfyD; 27uf p\\dkrsm;uwdk ;l az:I tjrJwr;f pduk xf m;rnphf udk cf i;f o\\dk a7F\\ t-umwiG f xtdk yirf S ,xkd uG vf maom qrD sm;udk pok rd ;f ajymi;f ay;7on?f xpdk ukd cf i;f wiG f wpwf e;f EiS whf p wf e;f 7on?f x\\kdaemuf 27urf ~ tem;ay;jy;D v~if wpfzerf ;D 4ayr5S ayxd umG apI wpfyiEf iS wfh pfyif 2 ayce\\fcmG jrK|duIf qxD wk ,f jlyeof n?f xedk n;f twidk ;f 'ZD ibf mvrS arvtxd unifqDukd xwk f,lEdkifonf? ok\\daomf yxren;f avmuf oe\\fpifjcif; r7Sday? unwG yf if ? ?wpEf pS vf ~if wp-furd of m 7motD vudk f ay:onhtf jyif t7omxl;aom [i;f o;D [if;7Gufyif jzpof nhf unwG yf iuf dk vrl sm;tjrwwf E;dk 0,,f l pm;o;Hk -uonf? jrerf mEdik fiHwiG f r;dk O;D usp vrsm;Y unGwf rsm;ukd aps;xJY a7mif;cs-uonf? taemuEf dik fiwH kd\\Y 28


www.foreverspace.com.mm uwd;k aumif uxed f vsuf xm;7onf? rsKd;aphukd pkud yf sKd;jyD; 5 ESpf-umrS rsm; ukd jzpaf p ‘†rHp0D 7oH •H ©a'r’d Toue‡ f;udkoH unGwyf if aygurf sm;udk pm;oH;k 7etf v\\dkimS jzw,f El idk f •m awmrf sm;tm; vŒ'ge;f yg.[k av~muxf m;I onf? xkad -umifvh n;f unGwfudk 7Ekdicf aJ om[if;oD; qufuyf vŒ'ge;f -uavonf? [i;f 7Gutf aeEiS hf vwl \\dok nf tzd;k om;em;ay;I 0,,f l pm;o;Hk -uavonf? om0 jdynf aZw0eaf usmi;f awmYf owD i;f o;Hk ae awmrf al om jrwpf mG b7k m;ocitf m; z;l ajr|m7f ef b]0CD uwkd;aumif ? ?uwkd;aumifonf [rd 0Mm 7[e;f o;Hk usyd f w\\odk nrf rd wd \\dk 0gq0dk guy7f mjzpaf om au awmiuf ke;f jrihf opaf wmrsm;wiG f 7adS om '7,f wpfrsKd; wjynrf S 0gu`wfaomtcg ajcvsif c7D;jzifh -uGvm jzpIf ,if;udk vuwf ibf momjzifh armch syaf rmch sDzg7m [k ac:onf? rsm;aomtm;jzifh wpfaumiwf nf; ae -u.? xtdk cg r;dk -u;D on;f xepf mG 7mG oeG ;f ojzi7hf [e;f ww.f ? wpcf gwp7f H zrdk wIJG aeonuf adk w\\G7.? o\\7dk m rsm; rd;k a7 pkpd Gwf -uukefonf? xkod \\dk rk;d a7ppkd Gwaf om wGif tpkttkyfzJ\\GIum; raeacs? t7G,fa7mufaom ou‡e;f jzihfyif ylaZm-f u7onfukd jrwfpGmbk7m;ocif taumirf mS tvsm;3 ayce\\f7IdS yc;Hk wiG f vurf 20ce\\f jriohf n?f ta7mif trsK;d rsK;d 7aSd omvf n;f rsm;aomtm; jriaf wG\\7aomtcg xcdk 7;D on7f [ef;wdk\\udk ta-umif; jzifh atmuyf ikd ;f jzLI/ tay:yidk ;f onf rD;c;kd a7mi/f od\\kr jyKI y7l rd 0guyjfci;f Yjynphf aHk om 7[e;f w\\dktm; uxed f [kwf tnKda7mif jzpof nf? ci;f ciG fhjyKa-umi;f ynwaf wmfrlcJhavon?f tzkdEiS fhtr ESpaf umifpvk;H Y OD;csKd r7Sdacs? okd\\aomf tzkd.tay:ar;&kd;wGif atmufokd\\xkd;xGufaeaom uxed yf aJG wmuf dk ‘r;dk vuek pf J uxed yf ’JG [al om q&dk ;dk tpG,rf sm; 7IdS ckcuH mu,G 7f mY xtdk p,G rf sm;udk toH;k EiS thf n/D oDwif;u`wf vjynahf usmf wpf7ufae\\rwS ef jyKEdik of n?f tveG f ar;F -uKdiaf om uw;dk qtD wuG f xkd oW0gwk\\dudk axmifacsmujf zifh zrf;,l-u.? uwkd; aqmifrek f;vjynahf e\\txd cif;usi;f 7onf? jrefrmEidk fiH quD kd tx;D 0rf;Akud f atmuwf iG 7f aSd om*vi;f twd rf 7S 7dS wiG f a7;S yk*aH cwtf cguyivf ~if tpjyKI uxdecf i;f yGJ on?f *vi;f twd rf mS oyH 7k mo;D t7,G cf e\\f 7IdS uw;dk qD usif;ycJh-uonf? ,ckacwf uxdefcif;7mwGifr7ESd Grf; wpaf tmipf ce\\fyg7.dS ? uw;dk e\\Honf tveG pf ;l &uS m wm yg;aom 7[ef;tm;jzpaf p/ t-u;D qHk; rax7ftm;jzpf &nS cf aH oma-umihf uw;dk udk tveG tf z;dk weaf om yPn;f wpfck tjzpjf zifh ta&\\Swkid ;f wGitf o;kH jyK-uonf? apuyvf LS 7ef Owfou‡ef;tjyif tjctH 7H vŒz,G f yPn;f rsm;udk xnohf iG ;f vLS 'ge;f av7h oSd n?f uxed cf i;f 7mY o•H duppfppf jzpof ihfonhf twuG f tvŒ\\wum rsm;u rnfonhyf Pn;f um; oH•duyPn;f / rnfonhf yPnf;um; yCk vud yPnf; jzpfon[f k cJjG cm;av~muf uwwG yf if ? ?uwwG yf iof nf anmiyf irf sK;d wiG f yg0iIf tjrpJ dr;f vef;um csKzH kwf t-uD;pm;uohJ \\dk wnf7dS on?f tacguf/ t7Guf/ toD;ESifhwuGwyifvkH;wGif tar;G Erk sm;7odS n?f t7uG cf si;f tnm| qidk of n?f to;D rmS q;D jzLo;D t7,G cf e\\f7IdS ta7mirf mS 0gjy;D v~if tnKda7mif tar;G Erk sm; z;kH vrF f;aeon?f jrerf mEidk if 7H Sd opfawmwidk f;vvdk drk Smyif uwGwyf if rs m;udkawG\\7I txl;ojzifh jrerf mEikd fiaH tmufykid f;Y yrdk akd w\\G77dS on?f uwGwfoD;rSnfhukd vwfvwfaomvf nf;aumif;/ ,dxk d;k Iaomfvnf;aumif; pm;oH;k -uon?f uxed f ? ?0gwGi;f o;kH vywfv;Hk 0grusK;d rysubf J rd;k vukefpJ uxdefyGYJ awG\\7aom Owof u‡ef; ya'omyif y0g 7+mjyKaom 7[e;f 77dS m ausmi;f wudk Yf uxed cf i;f -uonf? uxed fci;f 7mY oue‡ ;f wpxf nuf djk zpaf pt 29


www.foreverspace.com.mm u';l vlrsKd; uaepdkyi/f yifv,f wif-um;oifhayon?f uxed fcif;I ou‡ef;77dSaom uecydk if ? ?uecydk iuf dk rjribf ;l aom&f 7dS rn?f jyi;f xepf mG 7[ef;wdk\\rSm uxdeftmedoiif g;yg; cHpm;7a-umif; \"mwof mG ;apwwaf om uecdk to;D qe(f 0g) uecadk p.h usr;f *efrsm;wiG f rdef\\qakd vonf? oWud rdk l ud,k af w\\Gjziahf omvf nf;aumif;/ ajymo-Hum; jziafh omvf n;f aumif; jrefrmEdik if YH ood l rsm;ayonf? u';l vrl sKd; ? ?u';l vrl sK;d rsm;rmS a&;S usvaS om ouf uecykd ifrsm; rvl ayguf7ma'ormS yo~L;u`ef;pk jzpf vlrsKd;pwk iG yf g0ifI xvkd lrsK;d pk0if vlrsKd;i,f 5rsKd; I jrefrmEkid fitH ESH\\tjym;&dS awm&Gmrsm;Y jcpH nf;&kd;&Gm teuf vlO;D a7trsm;q;kH jzpof n?f 1931 cEk Spf oef; pnf;&k;d wav~mufwGif ,if;wdk\\ukd pdkuyf sKd;xm;wwf acgifpm7if;t7 vlrsKd;tm;jzifh vlO;D a7 36000cef\\ -uonf? uecydk iof nf tjrpJ rd ;f opyf iif ,rf sKd;jzpIf 7SdI u';l bmompum;ukd ajymqdkolO;D a7rSm 20000 tjrihf 15ayraS y20ce\\f/ yipf nvf H;k ywf wpaf ycrGJ S 2ay r~7dSon?f (oufvlrsKd; 7)= cGJcef\\txd&Sod nf? yipf ntf acguf acsmrGwfI rGJjym a7mif &odS n?f opof m;ta7mijfzLI rmausm.? t&uG f u';l wkd\\onf rrd dwkd\\ukd,fukd t„ou/f ouf [lI rsm; &Snvf sm;vsm; jzpfon?f awmof vi;f v avmuf onm wyaf c:-uon?f yk*aH cwaf usmupf mw\\dkwiG f xkd wGif ao;i,af om tyGihrf sm;yGifoh nf? tjyifcGaH csm olwk\\dudk uML[k a7;om;az:jyI/ w&wk frSwfwrf; aeaom to;D rsm;rSm wpvf ufre;D yg;&SnIf oH;k ajrm| ihf w\\dkwiG uf m; csKid wf [k k a7;om;onf? y*k aH cwf ausmuf jzpfjy;D v~if twiG ;f Y taphrsm;ygonf? taprh sm;rmS pmrsm;t7 xadk cwuf u'wl \\kod nf waumi;f jrKd\\yw0f e;f acsmrwG vf suf vurf 0ucf e\\f &nS uf m yoHk !metf m;jzihf usijfzpaf om oi;f wJG jynEf iS hf r;l jrp0f rS ;f txuyf idk ;f 'yD 7J i;f ajryaJ pEh iS hf tveG wf l.? xtkd aphrsm;onf txuwf iG f a'owd\\kwiG f aecJ-hua-umi;f o7d onf? az:jycohJ nthf widk ;f jyi;f jyi;f xexf ef \"mwof mG ; apwwf 13 7mpkEpS f tOD;ykdi;f y*k aH cwtf wGi;f u jrefrmEdik if H aom oabm&doS jzihf ,i;f wd\\kudk 0r;f Ekwaf q;rsm;wiG f tv,fydkif;wGif jrdK\\jyjyn7f Gm wnfaxmif cJhjyD;aom xnohf Gi;f az:pyaf vh &d-Suon?f jrerf mw\\dkonf ajrmuzf uof \\kd ys\\HESH\\a7F\\ajymi;f aexidk -f u 7mY u';l wd\\k. a'oudyk g odr;f oiG ;f c-hJu.? xtkd csed f ueckd toD;t7GufEiS hf taphrsm;? cGJjcm;xm;aom ajryJaph rSpI u';l wkd\\EiS fh qufo,G fr= ykrd rdk sm;jym; vmcohJ n?f ESihfwol nfh t7mrsm;rmS ueckdaphuav;rsm;jzpf.? jrerf mEidk if H txuyf idk ;f udk jAwd od ~w\\dk wudk cf udk f ord ;f uepydk i/f yivf ,f ? ?yivf ,f uepydk iuf dk a7uepydk if ,jl yD;aemuf u';l w\\dkonf 0ef;okda'orS ajrmufbuf [kvnf; tcsKd\\u ac:-uonf? a7csKdESifh quf ok\\d wjzn;f jznf; a7F\\ajymif;aexkdifvmcJ-h uonf? ,cktcgwiG f olwd\\kudk uomc&idk wf Gif;7Sd {7m0wjD rpf taemubf uuf r;f a'oYtrsm;q;Hk aw\\G7on?f ajrmuf buAf e;f armf c&idk /f jrp-fu;D em; c&idk Ef iS hf taemuaf jrmuf buf txufcsif;wiG ;f c&idk wf d\\kYvnf; ys\\HE\\HSaexidk vf suf 7-dS uon?f u'l;wkd\\onf tm;vk;H vkdyif Ak< omoemawmfukd ou0f i,f H-kun-fuon?f jrerf mvrl sKd;/ &rS f;vrl sKd;w\\dkEiS fh a7maEmS aexidk f-uojzihf xvkd rl sK;d w\\kd. ,Oaf us;r=x;Hk p\"H avhtcsKd\\udk 7&Sdxm;olrsm; jzpf-uon?f u';l w\\dkajymqadk om bmompum;wiG f jrefrmpum; trsm;yif yg0ifaeonfukad wG\\7.? aps;tokH;tE=ef;/ a7wuG rf = to;Hk tEe= ;f w\\dkwiG uf m; &rS ;f bmompum;ukd trsm;q;Hk o;Hk p-JGuon?f od\\k7mwiG f owl \\d.k r7l if;bm om pum;rmS jrerf mpum;/ &rS f;pum; wkd\\EiS frh wlay? u'dk; ? ?(c7mwyH ;fkd u';kd „ 7)= 30


www.foreverspace.com.mm uepdyk ivf ,f uaepkd;yif pyaf eaom {7m0wD jrp0f useG ;f ay:a'o/ weom‡ 7uD r;f -uon?f xtdk csed Yf wpyf ivf ;Hk 0g0i;f vrk wwf vyS pmG &dk;ESihf 7cidk furf;&;dk wav~mufw\\kdwGiaf yguof nf? xkd w7GJ &JoG D;aeaom uep;kd oD;w\\kdrmS jri7f orl sm;tzkd\\ omG ; tyiof nf tjrpJ dr;f yifrsK;d jzpIf jrerf mEikd if YH xi;f qukd f 7nuf sp7m jzpaf wm.h ? pyspof ;D cidk uf oJh \\kd tjywG vf ukd /f 7ef taumi;f q;Hk opfyiwf prf sK;d jzpof n?f tcdik vf udk of ;D ojzihf t*‡vyd fvrl sK;d w\\dku jrefrmpyspof ;D yivf ,f uepykd if-u;D rsm;onf tjrihaf y 60 rS ^0 yif[Il yif trnfay;xm;-uon?f txd/ yifpnfvkH;ywf 5 ayrS6aytxd &dSwwfon?f uep;dk oD;onf rrnS hfao;rtD csed fwGif tprd ;f a7mif xi;f tjzpf ckwvf jJSy;D aomtcg tyivf duk f xwk f,l7ef &dIS rnS vfh maomtcgrS 0gvmon?f tcGH0g twiG ;f &Sd c,J O;f ojzihf wpaf yce\\fpD jzwjfy;D rS avrS sm;vnS ;f rsm;jzihf ESif;qaD 7mifazsmah zsmh tjrFmokH;ckukd vlwdk\\pm;okH;-u jrKd\\ta7muf wiyf \\kda7mi;f csavh&d-Suon?f on?f tjrmF rsm;twiG ;f Y tapwh pfapph Dyg&d.S ? uepd;k oD;wGiftcsKd okd\\r[kwf csKcd sOfrsKd;ESihf tcsOfrsK;d [lI EpS rf sK;d xi&f mS ;&oSd n?f jrefrmEkdifiHY taphrsm;uodk m pudk fysKd;-uonf? 'ycf s ta&S\\tdN,d u`ef;pkwiG frl tukdif;quef nf;jzifrh sKd;yGm; apouohJ \\dk jrerf mEidk if YH vn;f pr;f oy-funohf iahf yon?f rkd;O;D us Owak jymif;csed fwGif uav;oil ,frsm;onf uep;kd o;D udk tveG tf u`pH m;r7d mrS 0r;f uduk jfci;f / \"mwf av~mjci;f rsm; jzpfymG ;wwof jzihf v-lu;D rdbvyk of lrsm; owxd m;z\\kdvkdon?f uep;dk om;rmS vtl z\\dk to;Hk r0ivf oS jzihf Ttyiuf dk to;D 77etf wGuof m pudk yf sK;d avh&-Sd uonf? xif;qkdu7f aom uepdyk if. t7uG fEiS hftzl;rsm; yifv,fuepokd m;onf cidk frmI tvGeaf v;onf? tprd ;f vudk cf pJG wd rf S v,G uf ol n?f tom;. ta7mirf mS eD npnf pjfzp.f ? uepodk m;udk wwH m;widk rf sm;EiS ahf vuS ,dk f xnrf sm;tjzpf tokH;jyK7efvn;f txl;aumif;onf? vnS ;f bD;/ avmS wf u/f &uG wf dik f ponrf sm;tjyif yqk ed /f vufukdifuJhokd\\ ckdifcHhaom vufukdifESifht&kd;rsm; jyKvkyf7eftwGufvnf; tvGefoifhavsmfaom tom;jzpof n?f uepkdyifonf taygujf refI taphudkaomfvnf; aumi;f / uidk ;f jywuf adk omvf n;f aumi;f pudk yf sK;d Eidk of n?f uepk;d yif ? ? uep;dk o;D udk jrerf mEidk if YH uav; 0g0g0if;I pm;csipf zG,faumif;onfh uepkd;oD;wGJ vl-u;D rusef pm;z;l -uojzihf uepd;k yifudk vlwidk f;yif od-uayrnf? uepk;d yifonf tjrpJ dr;f yifrsKd;jzpfI txufESifhatmujf refrmjynf rkd;rsm;aom a'orsm; wGifaygufonf? t&G,rf Sm tvwfpm;rsKd; jzpfojzifh tjriahf y 40r5S 0txd/ yifpnfvHk;ywf 3 ayrS 5 ay txdom &S-d uonf? uepk;d om;. ta7mifrSmnKd I toifhtwifrh monf? wydk\\wJGESihfwaygif;vrsm;wGif ye;f yiG hfI wefc;l ESifh uqkevf rsm;wiG f toD;rsm; rnS fh 31


www.foreverspace.com.mm uEuk rm urmcGHb0rS vufr=ynmtpGrf;jzihf uEkurm tvuS ek fyPnf;rsm;tjzpfod\\k ajymif;vJoGm;aomtcg uEkurm ? ?c;Hk urm a,muof mG ;paom c&ck GH uEuk rmjzihf 7ixf ;dk / -u,of ;D / vnqf pJG aom vuf rsm;wGif txyf 3 xy&f doS nhfteuf tcsKd\\aom c&ck GH 0wwf eqf mrsm;uvdk n;f aumif;/ aq;vyd cf uG f/ jymye;f w\\dYk atmuqf ;Hk o\\rkd [wk f twiG ;f zutf usq;Hk txyrf mS ue/f \"g;&;dk / x;D &;dk / \"gwyf aHk bmipf aom v\\lto;Hk taqmif acsmrFwaf jymivf uIf yvk aJ 7mif xaeonuf dk aw\\Gb;l rsm;uvdk n;f aumi;f jyKvyk -fuon?f opof m;/ ,eG ;f xnf -uayrn?f Ttxyrf mS uEuk rmtxyjfzpIf Ttxyf ponwf \\Edk iS hf zupf yIf vn;f w7l ,d mEiS hf trd of ;Hk y7ad bm* rsm;wGif ye;f uGurf sm; az:7mY uEkurmukd tokH;jyK rsK;d yg&Sod nfhc&ck GHrsm;ukd uEuk rm[ak c:-uon?f -uao;on?f jrerf mEidk if wH iG f uEuk rmjzihf jyKvyk af om uEuk rmtxywf iG f yg0iaf omyPn;f rsm;rmS yvk wJ iG f yPn;f tok;H taqmifrsm;udk txl;ojzifh jrdwfe,frS jyKvyk f a7mi;f csav&h oSd n?f yg0ifaomyPnf;rsm;ESihf twlwlyifjzpfon?f xkH; \"mwyf gaomyPn;f EiS fh O;D csKud oJh \\kdrmaomyPn;f w\\dkonf ,cktcg yvypf wpfjzifvh n;f Ekurmtwuk kd jyKvkyf-u7m uEkurmtwrk Sm uEuk rmppfuJhokd\\yif tqifhqihftxyfxyf wnaf e-uon?f xkdtxyfrsm; vSyI uEkurmppfxuf tzdk;csKdon?f (urm/c&ck G/H ay:okd\\ tvi;f usa7mufaomtcg txyfwkd\\. vGwf ykv„J vnf;7=) aeaom tpGe;f rsm;u tvif;ukd ,kid af paoma-umifh twGif;om; ykvaJ 7mifxaeonhf uEuk rmcGH prd f;/ e/D 0g/ jympaom oufwaHh 7mirf sm; jzpfay:vmI vSyaomuEuk rma7mif xuG vf monf? uEkurm txyfygaom c&ck GrH sm;ukd uBm\\tyyl kdi;f a'orsm;. urf;&;kd wef;rsm;wiG f awG\\7wwfon?f awmifyifv,fu`ef;rsm; (ypdzdwfawmifydkif;u`ef; rsm;)/ zdvpfyikd fu`ef;p/k -opa-w;vD;,m;wdkuf/ yem; rm;Ekdiif H/ umvDzk;d eD;,m;jynf awmifydki;f / *syefu`ef; w0udk fEiS rhf œm,ku`e;f q,G f (yo~LK;u`e;f p,G f) w\\dkwGif txl; aygrsm;on?f jrerf mEikd if H yivf ,f ur;f &;dk we;f wav~mufwGivf n;f awG\\7on?f taumif;q;kH uEk urmrsm;ukd -opa-w;vD;,m;wudk fEiS hf o[D k–d f u`ef; wkd\\r7S on?f yem;rm;Eidk if rH S 7aom uEuk rmrmS ao; i,fI tom;xlon?f ajrmuftar7duwudk f/ rP pyDjrpfESihf tjcm;jrprf sm;&Sd a7csKdcHk;aumif;rsm;rvS n;f uEkurmrsm;udk 7&dwS wfayon?f 32


www.foreverspace.com.mm uae'gEidk fiH ? ?uae'gEidk if Honf tar7ud ef jynf jznf; jrifhwuvf suf awmizf utf idk -fu;D ig;tdik fEiS hf ped f axmipf .k ajrmuzf uwf iG fwn&f IdS taemuzf upf eG f;7dS avm7ifhjrpftxd us,fjye\\fpGmwnf&dSonf? tus,f tvmpume,f rwS yg; ajrmutf ar7wd duk f. ajrmuf t0e;f tm;jzihf uae'g. o;Hk yEHk pS yf cHk e\\f&IdS opaf wmrsm; ydik ;f a'o tm;vkH; yg0ifaom Edik if jHzpof n?f ta&S\\EiS fh jzihfz;kH tkyvf su&f odS nhjf yif a7tidk frsm;vnf; txl;ayg taemufrSm rdkif2^00 ausmf&Snfvsm;I ajrmufbuf rsm;on?f xudk ek ;f jyijfri.hf xu0f ucf e\\frmS ay 1000 ESifh awmifbufrmS (tmwdwf u`ef;prk sm;ryg) rdkif yif rjriwhf w-fuaomvf n;f tcsK\\dae7mw\\dYk rl ay 6000 1600 ce\\f&Sd jy;D v~if/ {7,d mtm;jzifh pwk7e;f rkid faygif; txd jriahf vonf? ajrmufbufzsm;rSm 7moDOwk 3843144 ridk fce\\fr~ us,0f e;f onf? Oa7mywdkufEiS fh tvGefat;Iopfyi-f u;D rsm; raygufEdik fonfh twuG f tus,ft0ef;wlr~vsuf us,fjyef\\I tzdk;xdkuwf ef uswfwD;jyiaf ' o[k ac:-u.? ajr-oZm acgi;f yg; aom opaf wm-u;D rsm;&jdScif;/ ajrwiG ;f ajrywGif obm0 ojzifh v,f,mvyk fie;f rxGe;f um;aomfvnf;/ wiG ;f yPn;f tm; jynphf k-H uG,f0jcif; wk\\da-umifh oe;f aygif; xGufyPn;f tm; jynfhpkHjci;f / opfawmrsm;rS opfaysmh 200 cef\\r~aom vlrsm;yif acsmicf sdpGmaexkdif touf zwfEiS fh om;arG;aumirf sm; 7&jdS ci;f / a7tm; oHk;v~yf arG;Ekdiof nf? okd\\7mwGif uae'gEikd fi.H ,ckvuf&Sd pp\"f mwtf m; -u,G 0f jci;f w\\dka-umihf xudk ek ;f jyijfriohf nf vOl D;a7rmS 14 oe;f ausmfr~om jzpof nf? uae'gEidk if HtwGuf txl;ta7;ygavonf? uae'gEidk if .H oiG jfyitf aetxm;udk obm0a'o tWvMdwf ur;f ajca'owGifurf;&kd;wef; e,rf sm; -u;D 5 cjkzihf caJG 0yidk ;f jcm;Eidk of n?f ,i;f w\\dkrmS avm7i;f jzpaf om e,;l A7eZf pG /f EsL;azgif;ve;f / EdAk gpu;dk &mS ;EiS hf &eS ;f uek ;f jyijfrih/f tWvMwd f ur;f ajca'o/ pdeaf vm7if y7ithf u'f yG uf sGe;f rsm; yg0i-f u.? tufyvufcs,D ef jrp0f Sr;f a'o/ ya77D vGijf yifa'oESihf taemufbuf awmif. tqufjzpaf om awmif&k;d awmifuke;f rsm; awmifwe;f a'owkd\\ jzp-fu.? &oSd jzihf ajrrsuEf mS jyirf mS rnnD mvbS J v=id f;x uohJ d\\k jzpaf eon?f EsL;azgi;f vef;onf vm;A7ma'g a7at; avm7i;f &Se;f uek ;f jyijfriohf nf tmwwd of r]k 7mur;f pD;a-umif; &oSd nthf wuG f tvGeaf t;aomvf n;f / usef ajcESifh ['fqefyifv,af tmf ur;f ajcwk\\drS wjznf; 33


www.foreverspace.com.mm 34


www.foreverspace.com.mm uae'gEidk if H e,rf sm;wiG f 7moOD wk r~wnnD wG of n?f tz;dk weof pf rmS pdefavmh7pfjrpf jzpof nf? rkdif 19000 ce\\f&dSI awmrsm; &doS nhjfyi/f ajr-oZmaumif;aom ae7muuG f tWvMdwf ork]7mxJok\\d pD;0if.? e,fvqif rsm;vn;f tEH\\Stjym; &doS nf? ur;f ajcwav~muwf iG f jrp/f csmcsjDrpEf iS hf qupf uuf cs0D rjfrprf sm;onf ['qf ef eu&f i=d ;f aumif;rGeaf om oabm‡ qyd rf sm; aygrsm;.? yivf ,fatmfxJokd\\ pD;0if-uI 2514 rkdif &Snaf om ped af vm7ihf jrp0f rS ;f a'oonf uae'g. obm0 rUifZDjrpf ontf mwdwfork]7mxJokd\\pD;0if.? t aemubf uwf iG f uvkd º;D ,m;jrp/f za7ZmjrpEf iS hf ,l;ueG f; a'ow\\dkwiG f ti,fq;Hk jzpaf omvf n;f vOl ;D a7trsm;qH;k jrpwf kd\\onf ypzd dwf ork]7mxoJ kd\\ pD;0if-uonf? aexdkif7ma'o jzpfonf? v,f,m vkyif ef;twuG f uae'gEdkifiHwiG f awmifbuef ,fpy&f dS tdki-f uD; ig; aumi;f reG af oma'o jzpof njhfyif a7tm;aygrsm; ojzihf tidk tf jyif uek ;f wiG ;f a7tikd f tajrmutf jrm;vn;f &.dS ? pufr=vkyfief; xGef;um;onf? uDGAufjrdK\\/ rGef; xktd dkifrsm;rSm tif;i,f/ tidk fi,fuav;rsm;rS rdkif x7D;atmjrKd \\/ atmwh 0jrKd \\ uhJod\\kaom jrdK\\-uD;rsm;onf aygif;rsm;pmG us,0f e;f onfh a7tkid -f uD; rsm;txd xjdkrp0f rS f;a'oY &-dSu.// t&,G ftpm;pm; jzpf-uonf? xif&mS ;aom tkdi-f uD; ya77vD iG fjyiaf 'oonf avm7if;&Sef; uek ;f jyijfrihf rsm;rSm rewD d;k Ag;/ 0ief yD uf/ *7dwfA,J m;/ *7wd fqavh ponfwkd\\ jzpf-u.? tawmftwef-uD;rm;aom q;Hk 7m 0ief yD ujfrKd\\. ta&\\Szuef m;rS a7m\\u;D awmiwf e;f a7csKdtkid frsm;pGmvnf; &dSao;onf? uae'gEkid fiHwGif rsm; txd ridk af ygi;f 800ce\\f us,jfye\\f.? xadk 'owiG f reDw;dk Ag;e,/f qupf uucf sD0ref ,Ef iS hf t,vf Ag;wm; jrprf sm;/ tidk rf sm;. ppk ak ygi;f tus,tf 0e;f rSmpw7k e;f rkid faygi;f 228000 r~&Sdavonf?(* 7dwf vdwf e,rf sm;yg0i-f uon?f ajrmubf uyf dik f;wGif opfawm a'o„ 7)= rsm;ayguaf 7mufI awmifbuyf kdi;f onf nDnmysH\\ysL; avonf? ajr-oZm aumif;rGefxuof efonfh t uae'gEikd if oH nf -u;D rm;us,0f e;f I tmwwd Zf ek Ef iS hf avsmuf v,,f mvyk if ef;xGe;f um;onhf tcsutf jcm orydik f;Zkewf kd\\wiG f usa7muf wn&f Sod nfh tavsmuf a'o-u;D jzp7f m xadk 'oonf uae'gEidk if tH zkd\\ajr-u;D 7moDOwk trsKd;rsKd; uJGjym;onf? a,b,k stm;jzifh rS a&Fo;D 7mt7yyf if jzpfon?f a'otrsm;wk\\drSm aqmi;f tcgwiG f tveG af t;I aEG taemubf uf awmiwf e;f a'oonf jAwd od ~uvkd º;D tcgwGif twef yljyif;-uonf? ajrmubf uzf sm; usaom ,;l ueG ;f e,f/ taemuaf jrmuf e,Ef Sihf uAGD uf ,m;e,f/ ,;l ueG ;f e,fEiS thf ,vf Ag;wm;e,f temuf e,f ajrmuyf dik ;f wd\\kwiG f tmwwd f7moOD wkudk 77-Sd uI buef ,fpyf wav~muwf iG f usa7mufI awmipf Of ['fqef yivf ,fatmf onf wpfEpS fv~if u;kd vr~a7cJ awmiwf e;f rsm; ,OS jfyKdivf suwf n&f odS n?f ta&\\Sbuqf ;Hk avonf? Tokd\\jzihf uae'gajrmuyf dkif;wav~muf awmifwef;rSm a7m\\uD;awmijf zpfI taemuzf ufrS ,SOaf eaom awmifwef;rsm;rSm qvJ uwfawmif EiS fh wGif ESif;rsm;om tusrsm;I rkd;t&Gmenf;.? awmifbufusaom a'orsm;wGif ylaE;G r~waom ur;f &k;d wef;awmifrsm; jzpof nf? a7m\\u;D awmiwf ef; 7moDOwkudk 77-dS uonf? ta&S\\buYf 7Sad om urf;&dk; rmS ay ^000 rS 13000 ausmtf xd jri.fh ?(a7m\\uD; we;f e,rf sm;rSm aeusuJ syJ l aomfvn;f taeawmrf ~jzpf awmifwe;f 7)= ok\\d7mwGif tjrifhqHk; awmixf dyrf sm; rSm ,l;ueG ;f e,fwiG f &Sdaomvkd*eaf wmifxyd f (ay aom aEGOwrk sKd;ukd 7&SId rdk;7GmoGef;jcif; rsm;on?f ya77vD Gijfyiaf 'owGif at;jraom aqmi;f Owkudk 7&dS 119850)ESihf pdetf Dvdki;f ,uaf wmifxdyf (ay 18000) aomfvnf; a7m\\u;D awmifwef; rsm;bufrS wkdufcwf wkd\\jzpf-u.? jAdwod ~ukvd ºD;,m;e,fwGif ajr-o Zmaumi;f aom csKdifh0Srf;a'o &odS jzifh opof ;D yirf sm; vmaom ‘csdEGwf’ac:avylrsm;a-umifh tat; '+frjyif;xefvSacs? o\\dk7mwGif a7m\\uD;awmifwef; pudk yf sK;d -uI Ek\\dxuG yf Pn;f xwk vf kyf-uon?f rsm;uyif ypzd wd bf urf S wukd cf wvf monhf a7c;dk a7ai\\G ypdzwd f ork]7mEiS fh tWvMwd fork]7mzuwf iG f ygaomavwkd\\ukd wm;qD;xm;jyefojzifh ya77D vGifjyifa'o. taemufawmiyf ikd f;rSm rd;k acgiof n?f rdkiaf ygif; 13000 cef\\&Snaf om urf;&k;d wef;&Sdvsuf/ tWvMdwfork]7m zu&f Sdurf;&kd;wef;rSm tauG\\ ypdzwd furf;ajc wav~mufwGirf l rk;d rsm;pGm7GmoGe;f I taumuf tveG frsm;.? ['fqeyf ivf ,af tmEf iS fh pdef ypzd wd of r]k 7mrwS udk cf wvf monhf yal E;G aomava-umihf ta7\\Szuf urf;ajca'owkd\\xuf yIkd yal E;G onf? avmh7ihfauG\\wdk\\rS uae'gEkdifi.H tv,fA[kdce\\fokd\\ a7mufatmif a7a-umif;c7D;jzifh tv,G fwul oGm; a7muEf idk of n?f uae'gEidk if wH iG tf xi&f mS ;q;Hk aom jrpf 35


www.foreverspace.com.mm uae'gEidk if H a7muh ;D awmiwf ef; aemufcHEiS hf &c= if;omonhf rmvdkif; tkdif ta&S\\rStaemuof k\\d uef\\vef\\jzwf wnf&Svd suf EkdifiH tus,tf 0e;f .o;Hk ywHk pyf aHk usmuf dk z;Hk vrF ;f ayguaf 7muf uae'gEidk if oH nf pudk yf sKd;jci;f EiS hf o;dk EmG ; ar;G jrLjci;f aeaom opaf wmrsm;rSmuae'gEidk if H. 'wk ,d ta7; vyk if e;f rsm;tx;l xeG ;f um;ojzihf vOl ;D a7 av;ywHk pyf rHk mS ygaom obm0yPn;f tm;yif jzp.f ? opxf wk vf yk if e;f pkud fysK;d ar;G jrLol rsm; jzp-fuon?f ya77vD iG fjyirf sm; twGuf tokH;jyKvsuf&daS om opaf wmrsm;. tus,f wiG f *sKH/ rka,mpyg;/ jrif;pm;*sKH/ bDoGmav~mf (ESrf; t0e;f rmS pw7k e;f ridk af ygi;f 435000 ce\\fr~&IdS xwk vf yk f csyfav~mf)ESifh jruaf 7pmrsm;ukd pkdufysK;d -uI okd;/ EmG ; 7&Sad om opfom;rsm;udk pULvkyf7ef opfaysmzh wf tajrmutf jrm; ar;G jrL-uonf? ta&S\\buf&Sd urf; twuG f tokH; cs-uonf? uae'gEidk fioH nf owi;f &kd;wef;e,rf sm;wiG f tmv;l / rkefvmO0dik f;ESihf o-um; pmpUL xkwfvkyaf 7mif;csr=Y uBmwiG f xyd fwe;f rS rkevf mrsm;ukd txl;pduk yf sK;d -u.? opof ;D txGurf sm; vudk af e.? tz;kd wef opaf wmrsm; ysujfyKe;f wrd faum aom e,frsm;rmS ta&S\\bufwGif Edrk mpudk;&Sm;e,fEiS fh oGm;jcif;rS umuG,f7ef {uaygif; ^5 oef;ausmfukd teG af w;7,D ;kd e,f w\\dkjzpfI taemubf uwf iG f jAwd od ~ opaf wm-uKd;0idk ;f tjzpf oD;oef\\xm;&doS n?f ukvd º;D ,m;e,f jzpfon?f teG faw;7;D ,;kd e,f awmif ydkif;ESifh uGDAufe,fwkd\\wGif aq;udkt-u;D tus,fpkduf uae'gEidk if oH nf ig;zr;f jci;f vyk if e;f rS 0iaf iG tajrmuf -u.? okd;arG; trsm;qkH;xuG af ome,rf Sm t,vf Ag; tjrm; 7&S.d ? ig;zrf;7mXmewkd\\ukd ukef;wGif;jrpf wm;e,f jzpof n?f pudk yf sK;d ar;G jrLjci;f vyk if e;f udk jri| whf if acsmi;f tif;tkdifwk\\dY zr;f aom a7csKdig;zrf;7mXme/ tm;ay;aom oabmjzifh tpkd;7 wkd\\onf t yifv,fY zrf;aom tWvMdwfig;zrf;7mXmeESifh at;\"mwof Hk; uek af vSmif&kHrsm;EiS hf usDjrifhrsm;udk ulnD ypzd wd fig;zr;f 7m Xme[Il o;Hk ae7m cGJjcm;xm;on?f aqmuvf kyfay;chJonfhjyif prf;oyf avvh mr=twuG f a7csKid g;zr;f 7mXmerS 7aom a7csKid g;rsm;rmS jynfwiG f; pkdufysKd;jcHrsm;zGifhay;jcif;/rD;7xm;vrf;rsm;oG,f okH; jzpfoGm;-uaomfvnf; yivf ,rf S7aom ig;rsm; azmuaf y;jci;f rsm;udvk n;f aqmif&uG fcahJ vonf? rSm uae'gEidk if H. pD;yGm;a7;udk txl; zH\\GjzKd ;aponf? tWvMdwf ig;zrf;7m XmerS aumh'ig;/ yZk eG fwyk f-uD; EiS hf urmrsm;u7dk I ypzd wd f ig;zr;f 7mXmerS qmre;f ig;udk trsm;tjym; 7&Sod nf? jAdwdo~udkvº;D ,m;e,fEiS fh EdAk gpudk;&Sm;e,wf d\\kwiG f ig;aoWmvkyif e;f rsm; xGef; um;.? om;ar;G aumifrsm; arG;jrLaom vkyif e;f rSm y7ihf uae'gEkdifiH. 0ifaiGaumif;voS nhf ig;zrf;jci;f vkyfief; 36


www.foreverspace.com.mm uae'gEidk fiH tu'Gf yuf seG ;f / teG af w;7;D ,;dk e,/f uADG uef ,Ef iS hf rewD ;dk ,l;ueG fjynef ,f uvGef;'kduaf 'oY a7FusifaeolwpfOD; Ag;e,fwkd\\wGif xGef;um;I ta7;ygaom vkyif ef; wpf7yfjzpf.? arG;jrLaom om;arG;aumifrsm;rSm wiG f t,fvAg;wm;e,fESihf jAwd od ~ udkvºD;,m;e,f wkd\\Yvnf;aumi;f wl;az:77d.S ? o\\dk7mwiG f oHxuG If ajracG;jzLrsm;/ ajrGyg-uD;rsm;/ ajrGygarG;&Snfrsm;/ ovH yk if e;f xeG ;f um;aom tGeaf w;7;D ,;dk e,Ef Sifh uGAD uf ajryG gjzLrsm;/ AAD mzsrH sm;EiS hf -uuG uf w;dk rsm; jzp-fuon?f e,wf \\dkrS rikd 1f 000ausm2f 000 e;D yg;r~ c7;D umG vrS ;f ojzihf om;arG;ta7mif;t0,frSm txl;aumif;rGefonfth ta7;ygoihof avmuf rygvSacs? a7eHaw\\G&dS wl;az: avsmuf ,ctk cg uae'g EkdifiHwGif om;arG;aumif aome,frsm;rSm t,vf Ag;wm;e,/f taemuaf jrmuf e,/f tGeaf w;7D;,;dk e,fESihf e,l;A7eZf pG ef ,rf sm; jzpf ar;G jrLaomjcaH ygi;f ajcmuaf xmiaf usmf ckepaf xmicf ef\\ -uavon?f &daS eavjy?D uae'gEidk if oH nf obm0 yPn;f tm; -u,G 0f onjhfyif uae'gEidk if oH nf o,ZH mwyPn;f rsm;vn;f aygrsm; a7tm;vnf; okH;rukefEkdifavmufatmif aygrsm; -uG,f0.? t\"duta7;-uD;aomoWKrsm;rSm a&F/ ausmurf ;D aoG;/ epfu,/f a-u;eD/ oyG /f aiG/ c/J ukad Amh EiS fh ausmu*f rG ;f rsm; jzpf.? uBmay:&dS a&FxuG faom EkdifirH sm;wGif uae'gonf wwd,vkduof nfhjyif uBmwGif toH;k jyKvsu&f aSd om epfu,tf m;v;kH . 90 7mcidk Ef e= ;f rmS uae'grS xuG af von?f uBmYo;Hk vsu&f dS aom ausmuf*Grf;rsm;ukdvnf; 7mckdifE=ef;tjynfh avmuf yif uae'grxS wk fvyk fjze\\fcsDc.Jh ? teG faw;7;D ,dk; e,fonf oWKwl;az:7m t\"due,fjzpvf suf xedk ,rf S a&EF iS hf a-u;ewD \\duk dk trsm;tjym; 7&aSd von?f tEk jkrLA;Hk (tuwf rAf ;Hk ) vkyf7mY tx;l ta7;-u;D aom ,al 7; eD;,rf;oWKudk *7wd fA,m;a7tkdif-u;D te;D Y aw\\G7.? ausmurf ;D ao;G udk ta&\\Sbuyf idk ;f wiG f EAdk gpu;kd &mS ;e,Ef iS fh e,;lA7eZf pG ef ,wf Y\\dk vn;faumi;f/ taemuzf uyf idk ;f uae'gEkdifiH taemufydki;f wpfae7mY jrif;qJGaumuf7dwfpufrsm;jzihf *sKH yifrsm;udk 7dwfodrf;aepOf 37


www.foreverspace.com.mm uae'gEidk if H ojzihf purf v= yk if e;f zufY tvm;tvm rsm;pmG aumi;f o;D o;D w\\kdYvn;f wUovkd af usmif;-uD;rsm; &adS von?f reG vf oS n?f r-umvaS o;aom EpS rf sm;twiG ;f u purf = uae'gEkid if H wUodvk fausmi;f tm;vkH;Yausmif;om; vkyif ef;rsm; ododomom wdk;wufvmonfhtwuG f O;D a7 wpof de;f ausm7f Sd.? ,ctk cg purf v= yk if e;f xuG yf Pn;f rsm;. wezf ;dk rmS v,f widk ;f jynf pnuf m;w;dk wuaf p7ef 7nof evf suf tp;dk ,mvkyfie;f xGuf yPnf;rsm;. wefzdk;xutf weyf if 7 w\\odk nf r;D 7xm;vr;f azmuvf yk jfci;f udk tx;l tm;ay; ykdvsu&f dSonf? pu&f Hk-uD;rsm;rSm trsm;tm;jzihf pdef cohJ n?f uae',D eyf pzd wd f r;D 7xm;vr;f -u;D rmS 1885ck avm7ihf jrp0f rS ;f wav~mu/f teG af w;7;D ,;dk e,Ef iS hf uAGD uf EpS wf iG f azmuvf yk f jy;D p;D c.hJ ? yxr uBmpp-fu;D twiG ;f Y e,f awmifbufe,fpyfwav~muYf &adS omjrKd\\-u;D rsm; woD;ykCvykid f r;D 7xm;vrf; tcsKd\\ukd tpkd;7u odrf; wiG fwn&f Sd-uonf? pufr=vyk fief;rsK;d pk7H dSaom jrdK\\-u;D ,ljyD;aemuf xrkd ;D 7xm;vrf;w\\dkukd pak ygi;f um 1923ck 2 jrKd\\rmS reG ;f x7;D atmjrKd\\ESihf w7dk Gewf jdkrKd\\w\\kdjzpfI tjcm; ESpwf Gif uae',D eaf e&Sief ,f r;D 7xm;tz\\GJ z\\GJpn;f vudk f aom jrKd\\rsm;rmS a,b,k stm;jzihf vyk if e;f wprf sK;d wprf sK;d onf? ava-umi;f o,f,lyk\\daqmifa7; vkyfief;rmS twGufom xif&Sm;-uonf? tGeaf w;7;D ,kd;e,f&dS vnf; rsm;pGmw;dk wufvsu&f 7dS m tar7ud efjynaf xmif 0iqf mjrKd\\wGif armaf wmuf m;vyk if e;f -u;D us,fI [,f p/k Oa7myEdik if rH sm;ESihf tmwwd fa'ow\\kdo\\dk ava-umi;f rDvwejfrKd\\onf uae'gEidk if .H orH +vd yk if e;f A[Xdk me jzifh oGm;vmEkid fonf? av,mOfysHrsm;rSm jynwf iG f; -u;D jzpof nf? uDGAufjrdK\\onf pULpufrsm;twuG f jynyf o,,f yl \\dak qmiaf 7; twuG of mru uae'gEidk if H xi&f mS ;.? ya77vD iG jfyiaf 'o&dS 0ief yD ujfrKd\\/ tu'f ref . tzkd;wefvSaomopfawm-uD;rsm;ukd rD;ab;rS wefjrdK\\ESihf u,fv*g7DjrdK\\rsm;wGif *sKrH e= \\f-udwfjci;f ESifh umu,G 7f mYvnf; rsm;pGmto;Hk 0ifonf? 'wk d,uBm troJ m;pnfowG fjci;f vyk if e;f rsm; xGef;um;avonf? ppf-u;D twGif;Y armfawmfum;vr;f rsm;ukd wkd;wuf ig;aoWmvyk if e;f twuG f xi&f mS ;aomjrKd\\w\\dkrmS jAwd od ~ azmuvf yk cf -hJu.? e,tf o;D o;D &dS uek ;f vr;f rsm;uqdk uf ukdvºD;,m;e,f7Sd Aefu;l Ag;jrKd\\ESifh e,l;A7eZf Gpef ,f&dS o,G af y;vudk jfci;f jzihf uae'gEidk if wH pzf uzf sm;rS wpzf uf pde*f `e;f jrdK\\wk\\d jzp-fuon?f zsm;o\\dk aygufa7muof n\\f ridk f 5000cef\\ &nS vf sm;aom Eidk fijHzwf r;D 7xm;vr;f -u;D ukd 1942 cEk Spwf iG f ziG chf .hJ ? uae'gEidk if wH iG f aexidk -fuaom vrl sm;rmS jAwd od ~EiS hf uae'gEdik if Honf jAwd od ~\"eo[m,tzJ\\G0if Edik if H jyiof pvf rl sK;d tqutf E,G rf sm; jzpof n?f jAwd od ~vl jzpfvsuf ud,k fykdif tyk fcsKyfa7;ukd tapmq;kH 7&Sdaom rsKd;wkd\\rSm tar7duefvGwfvyaf 7;ppfyGJ jzpyf Gm;pOuf 'rkd eD ,D eEf idk if H jzp.f ? z\\JpG n;f tyk cf sKyyf Hk tajccH Oya'opf uae'gzuof \\dk ajymi;f a&\\Fvm-uaom uvdk edk eD ,of pfxl t7 ,El udk wf uuf if;'r;f Eidk fi.H &iS bf 7k iof nf uae'g axmiof lrsm;jzpfI jyiof pfvlrsKd;wk\\drSm 18 7mpEk pS f EkdifiH. bk7ifjzpfonf? xkdb7k if. uk,d fpm;uae'g twGif;u uae'gokd\\ a7mufvm-uolrsm; jzpfonf? 'rdk eD ,D euf dk wm0ecf 7H orl mS b7k icf cH sKyf jzpIf e,tf o;D 'wk ,d uBmpp-fu;D rjzprf ED iS hf jzpjfy;D ptcsed wf \\dwk iG f jAwd d oD;wiG fvn;f bk7ifcHrsm; xm;7Sad vonf? uae'g o~u`e;f prk S jAwd od ~ vrl sK;d rsm;pmG wd\\konf uae'go\\dka7F\\ ygvDrefrmS atmh0jrdK\\awmfY 7SdjyD;v~if txufvFwf ajymi;f aexidk cf -hJu.? uAGD uef ,rf wS yg; useef ,tf m; awmfESihf atmufvwF fawmfwkd\\ yg0if-u.? txuf vH;k wiG f t*v‡ yd bf momrmS &;Hk o;Hk bmomjzpaf omvf nf;/ vFwfawmf wiG f trwf 96 a,mu&f ISd / atmuvf wF f vlOD;a7 av;ykHwpfyHkausmfwk\\drSm jyifoppf um;udkom awmfwiG f trwaf ygi;f 245 a,mu&f Sod n?f 'drk DeD,ef ajymqkod k;H pGJ-uon?f vOl D;a7 14 oef;ausmf7Sdonhf wGibf k7icf HcsKyrf Sm t-u;D tuJjzpaf omvf nf; tyk cf sKyf teuf wkid f;7if;om;rsm;jzpf-uaom tufpuD;rk;d ESihf r=a7;7mwGirf l ygvDrerf S wifajr|mufaom 0ef-uD;csKyf 7ufti'f ;D ,ef;wd\\krmS 125000ce\\fom&adS von?f uomv~if -udK;uidk fjc,vf S,af vonf? uae'gEkdiif .H ynma7;rSm tx;l acwrf oSD nhtf m; vlrsKd; toD;oD;wiG f trsK;d om;txdr;f trwS f &-dS u avsmfpmG uBm\\Edkiif -H u;D rsm;EiS fh 7ifaygifwef;vkdufEkdif onhf en;f wl uae'gEikd fiHwiG f ‘ary,7f uG ’f rmS trsK;d onf? jrdK\\-u;D wdik f;wiG f txuwf e;f ausmif;rsm;/ aum om; txdrf;trSwf jzpaf von?f vdyaf usmif;rsm;ESifh pD;yGm;a7;ausmi;f rsm;&SdIe,ft 38


www.foreverspace.com.mm uae'g.pdwf0ipf m;z,G tf wwd bf 0 veG cf ahJ omtEpS wf paf xmicf e\\fu Oa7mywukd of m;rsm;pwif aw\\G&cdS IhJ wpcf gu t*‡vyd Ef iS jhfyiof pwf \\kd pm;usuf vck ohJ nfh uae'gEikd if oH nf 'drk eD ,D etf yk cf sKyaf 7;ukd To\\dkwqifhjy;D wqihf -uKd;yr;f chJ7ayonf? uae'gEdik if oH rdki;f ––––EiS hf tkycf sKyfa7; ? ?uae'g pmG awG\\7SdcJhon[f k q7dk ayrn?f (uJaAgah *s„vnf;7)= Ekdifi.H orkid f;um; pifppftm;jzihf uBmopwf Gif 149^ cEk pS wf iG tm7Swukd of \\kd ta7\\Sajrmubf urf S omG ; t*v‡ yd fEiS fh jyiof pwf \\kd tiftm; jydKi-fuonfrS pwiIf Eidk of nvhf r;f ayguf7mS az7G ef t*v‡ ejfynrf S xGucf aJh om uae'g Eidk if oH nf aemufqH;k Y rnof \\dk rnyf Hk vwG vf yf *`efuJaAghonf ig;aygrsm;7m uae'gurf;ajcw onhf Eidk if wH pcf k jzpvf monthf a-umi;f jzpof n?f uae'g av~mufokd\\a7muf7SdcJhjy;D aemuf EsL;azgif;vefEiS hf udyf EdkifiH wkd;wufvmykrH Sm tcsuftvuf rsm;pGmwdk\\wGif A7ufwefu`ef;rsm;ukd t*‡vdyftpdk;7ykid ftjzpf odrf; tar7ud ef e,of pfrsm; vwG fajrmuaf 7;twuG f -uKd ; yudk cf haJ omvf n;f xekd ,of prf sm;udk t*v‡ dyf tp;dk 7onf yr;f yHkESihf qifwlonf? ok\\daomf rwlonfhtcsufrSm ta7;r,l caJh cs? uae'gEidk if .H twiG ;f zuf a'orsm; tar7duefjynfaxmif ukdrl jyifopfvlrsKd;rsm; pkEkdifiHonf awmfvSefykef uom vnS vhf nof mG ;vm uefjcif;jzifh vGwfvyfa7; p;l pr;f 7mS azcG -hJu.? ukd7cJhI uae'g EkdifiHrSm *`euf aJ Ag.h aemuwf iG f ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfa7;ukd uae'gEkid fiHokd\\ a7mu7f dS wqifhjyD;wqifh wkd;wuf vmorl Sm jyifopvf lrsK;d 77SdchjJ cif; jzpfayonf? u Zuuf mwaD ,;qodk jlzp.f ? ae'g EkdifiHum; jAdwdo~ (umwaD ,; vnf;„7)= \"eo[m,EkdifiHrsm;xJwGif umwaD ,;onf 1534 yxrqkH; 'dkrDeD,efukd,yf kdif ckESpfwiG f ped af vm7ifhyif tkyfcsKyfa7; 7cJhonfhEkdifiH v,fauG\\ukdawG\\7SdcJhI jzp.f ? aemuwf pEf pS wf iG f ped af vm 7ijhrf p&f ;dkwpaf v~muuf dk qef uae'go\\dpk wifa7mu7f dS wuf vSnfhvnfumxkd vmolrsm; a'o w0udk uf dk jyiof pyf idk f ajrmuftar7duwkduf tjzpf e,of pwf pcf k xl wGif vljzLrsm; yxrqkH; axmicf ahJ omvf n;f / 1542 pwif a7mu7f Sdvm7m a'o ckEpS fwGif ysufoGm;av rSm uae'gjzpfonf? xkd onf? xkdaemuf tESpf a'ookd\\ at'D 10 7mpkEpS f ^0ce\\f-umonwhf idk af tmif rwkdifrDu aemhprefvlrsKd; jyiof pwf \\dkrmS jynwf iG ;f ppf rsm;onf *7if;vefu`ef; rsm; jzpyf Gm;aeojzihf e,f rSwpfqifh a7muf7Sd vmcJh oprf sm; quvf uf 7mS azG onf[k qkd-uonf? okd\\ *`efuaJ Amoh nf uae'gEkdifiHudk Todk\\ OD;pmG awG\\7SdcJh.? jci;f rjyKEdik cf -hJ uacs? ok\\d aomf oufaocH taxmuf aomf jyiof pf wHigonf txm; [lI tckdiftrm rsm;onf EsL;azgif;vef; rawG\\7ao;acs? o\\kdjzpIf t*v‡ ef jyn7hf iS f oWr [if u`ef;teD;okd\\ ig;zrf;vmjrJ vmaecJh7mrS om;ar;G e7D bk7if. vuaf tmuwf iG f trx= r;f aom twD mvsH ta7mif;t0,fvkyfief;onf tusKd;tjrwf7Sdaom oabm‡ om; *sGeuf aJ Agh omv~if uae'gEidk if uH dk a7;S O;D vyk if e;f wpcf k jzpaf -umi;f o7d vdS mjy;D aemuf e,of prf sm; 39


www.foreverspace.com.mm uae'gEidk if oH ridk ;f EiS fh tyk cf sKyfa7; xal xmiuf m a7mi;f 0,f azguuf m;I aexidk -fu jy;D v~if avm7ifph onhf jrprf sm;o\\kd oGm;a7mupf Hkpr;f -uonfh t;kd tdrfopf wnfcJ-huonf? yCk Kd vfrsm;rSm jyifopfvlrsKd; 7uf'Dqef/ Zdk;va,;ESifh omoemjyK bke;f -uD; rmuuf/ pydevf lrsKd; 'D'kd;wd;k ESifh tajcpudk 7f ma'ojzpvf mjci;f jyiof pvf lrsK;d vmqwJ \\kd jzpf-uonf? uae'gwGif e,foprf sm; tajcwus pwifwnf axmifcJholumjyifopvf rl sKd; qrrf sL,,f 'g7Srfyvdef 1642 cEk pS wf iG f reG ;f x7;D atmjrKd\\udk omoemjyK A[dk qodk jlzpIf o\\ul dk uae'gEidk if .H zci[f vk n;f ac:prwS f pcef;tjzpf wnfaxmifcJhonf? jyifopfbk7if14 jyK-uon?f xydk Ck Kdv-fu;D onf 1604 cEk pS Yf ,cEk Adk gpu;dk quaf jrmuf v0l oD nf uae'gEidk if uH dk jyiof pf jynof pf 7mS ;ac:onhf tmau;';D ,m;wiG f e,of pwf pcf uk vdk n;f tjzpf 1663 ckESpwf iG f ord f;yudk f tkyfcsKyfon?f jyifopf aumif;/ 1608cEk Spwf iG uf m; uGDAufjrKd\\udvk n;f aumif; vrl sK;d trsm;tjym;udvk nf; xadk 'orsm;Y omG ;a7muf pwiwf naf xmicf ohJ n?f x\\jdkyif 7rS yf ved of nf ped af vm7ihf tajcpkduf aexdkif7efapvFwfcJh7mrS ,ckuae'D EiS hf atmwh 0jrpf rsm;udk qewf ucf 7hJ m [sL7eG Ef iS hf teG af w; ,efvlrsKd;rsm; qif;ouaf yguyf Gm;vmon?f 7;D ,;dk tikd -fu;D rsm;ukd awG\\7cdS ohJ n?f xd\\kjyif o\\lutdk pjJGyKI rSnfah c:chaJ om 7Srfyved af 7tidk -fu;D uvkd n;f awG\\c.hJ ? jyiof pvf ufatmuwf iG f 7rS f;yved .f aemuwf iG f uae'go\\kd a7mu7f vdS mchoJ lrmS jyiof pjfynof puf kd tyk cf sKy7f ef jyiof pbf 7k iuf b7k icf H t*‡vdyvf lrsKd; [ief 7[D 'qf ef jzpf.? ['fqefonf wpOf ;D / -u;D -uytf yk cf sKyof wl pOf ;D EiS hf c7p,f me*f +kd ;f csKyf taemuaf jrmubf uvf r;f udk 7mS az,G i;f / ['qf ejfrpEf iS hf wpOf ;D w\\dkukd ce\\xf m;cohJ n?f b7k icf .H tx;l aqmi7f uG f ['fqefyifv,fatmfw\\dkudk awG\\7dcS Joh n?f 1629 ckESpf 7aomwm0erf mS e,of pwf iG f aexidk of rl sm;ukd wikd ;f 7i;f wGif jyifopuf kvd kdeDe,fopf uGDAuuf kd t*v‡ dyfw\\dku om; vl&ikd f;rsm;jzpfaom t&D dkudKGiwf dk\\. ab;7erf S um wudk cf udk of rd ;f ,cl ahJ omvf n;f r-umrD jyiof pwf \\dkvuof \\dk u,G f ay;7jci;f jzpaf yon?f od\\kaomf aumi'fh gz7Gewf m jyeIf ay;tyvf duk 7f on?f euof nf 16^2 cEk pS rf pS I b7k icf tH jzpf tyk cf sKyf aomt xkdaemuwf iG fum; rpfpPyD/atmhw0/ td[k dki;f tdk ped f cg xvdk &l ikd f;w\\kd. 7efrmS at;jird ;f omG ;avon?f z7eG f wmeurf mS jyiof pf jynof pof \\dk vma7muf tyk cf sKy7f aom uDGAufwkud fyGJrS jAdwdo~AkdvfcsKyrf SL; *sdrf;0.k aemufqHk;tcsdef? Twkud fyGJY ESpzf ufpv;Hk rS AdkvfcsKyfrSL;rsm; usqHk;-u.? 40


www.foreverspace.com.mm uae'gEdik if oH rdik ;f ESifh tkycf sKyfa7; bk7ifcH rsm;xwJ iG f tawmqf kH; yCk Kd vfwO;D jzpf.? jye7f m Oa7mywudk Yf cek pEf pS pf pyf JG jzpyf mG ;vmaom tcg xydk Ck Kdv-fu;D onf uae'gEidk if tH wiG ;f buof \\dk vnS vhf nf uae'g7Sd t*v‡ yd Ef Sihf jyiof pwf d\\k. tajctaermS ydrk kd omG ;vm p;l pr;f 7mS azaG pjy;D aemuf e,of prf sm;wnaf xmif q;dk 7mG ;vmcohJ n?f Tt-urd rf mS uae'gwiG f t*v‡ yd wf \\dk aemuqf ;kH t-urd f tm;jydKirf -=u;D jzpIf jyifopEf iS hf tif';D apI tuuG fusaom ae7mrsm;wGif cHwyfpcef;rsm; ,e;f vl&kid ;f ppyf J[G k ac:avon?f tpwiG f jyiof pfw\\dk wnaf xmifum jyiof pfEkid fiHawmf ykdrudk s,jf yef\\atmif ta7;omcahJ omvf n;f 1^50 jynEhf pS rf pS I ppyf rJG mS wprf sK;d jyKcohJ n?f z7eG wf meuof nf jyiof pf jynof p.f b7k icf H wpzf Hk ajymi;f voJ mG ;on?f t*v‡ yd wf \\dkonf twiG ;f zu7f dS tjzpf 2 -udrwf kid fwikd f aqmif7uG fcJoh nf? jyifopfwdk\\. tcsuftjcmXmersm;ukdvnf;aumif; vPG AwjfrKd\\ uvdk n;f aumi;f ; ord ;f ,cl .hJ ? 1^59 cEk pS wf iG f z7eG wf meuf yxrt-urd f b7k icf tH jzpf aqmi7f uG cf hJ Avkd fcsKyfr;Œ 0k onf jyiof pf ppAf dvk cf sKyf reG ;f ur;f O;D p;D pOuf yif t*v‡ yd wf \\dEk iS hf e,fvok nfh tm;jyKdirf -=u;D ay: cck uH m umu,G af eaom uAGD ujfrKd\\o\\dk cswD uwf udk cf udk 7f m aygufchJon?f t*‡vdyfw\\kdonf t&D dkudGKifvl&ikd f;rsm;udk jrKd\\te;D 7Sd atA7m[rvf Gijf yif-u;D wGif wudk yf GJ jzpyf mG ; avon?f wudk yf wJG iG f ppAf vdk Ef pS Of ;D pv;Hk usq;Hk omG ;aomf jyiof pwf \\kdtm; wudk cf duk 7f ef ajrm| uf ay;choJ n?f 1690 vnf; t*‡vdyfwdk\\ atmiyf G7J um uDAG ufudk ord ;f yduk f jynfhESpfwGif t*v‡ dyfwdk\\zufrS qm0DvsHzpf onf Eidk cf .hJ ? 1^60 jynEhf pS wf iG f reG ;f x7aD tmjrKd\\udk ord ;f yudk f EAdk gpu;dk 7Sm;o\\dk csDwuf wduk fckud f odrf;yudk fcJhjy;D aemuf 77dScJhon?f xkdaemuf yg7pfpmcsKyf (1^63 cEk Spf)t7 uAGD ujfrKd\\o\\kd cswD uwf ukd cf duk fcahJ aomvf n;f ratmifjrif jyiof pwf kd\\u uae'gudk t*‡vdywf \\kd vuof \\kd ay;tyf cJah cs? aemiaf omtcgY EkAd gpukd7Sm;ukd jyifopwf d\\kokd\\ 7avon?f jyevf nf ay;tyf7avonf? jyiof pfw\\dkonf uae'gwiG f quvf uf aexdik -fu uae'gY xkdtcgut*‡vdyfw\\kd. e,fopfrsm;rSm 7m xpdk Ouf vOl ;D a7rmS 60000 ausm7f odS n?f yxrq;Hk jAwd od ~ uae'g udk wm0ecf H tyk cf sKy7f orl Sm Avdk cf sKyrf ;Œ enf; yg;I jyiof pef ,of prf sm;om yrdk dk rsm;jym; jy;D v~if *sdrf;rma7; jzpf.? rma7;onfjyifopfwkd\\ukd tyk fcsKyaf 7;vn;f aocsmusejyD; jzpfon?f jyiof pfwk\\d w7m;r~wpGm tkyfcsKycf Jhon?f xkd\\jyif jyifopfwk\\dtm; omoema7; vwG f vycf iG uhf dk ay;c.hJ ? jyiof pwf 7m;r onf oW7d odS rl sm;jzpIf t&D kud fuKGdiwf \\kdrwS yg; tjcm; Oya'rsm;ukdvnf; av;pm;cJhonf? ol\\aemufwiG f aomv&l idk ;f rsm;EiS hf cirf i7f i;f E;DS -u.? o\\dak omf t*v‡ yd f b7k icf 7H mx;l udk qucf H aom *dik ;f umvweof nvf n;f wd\\k u vlO;D a7 rsm;onf? 1^11 cEk Spwf iG f t*v‡ yd wf d\\k rma7;. peptf widk ;f tyk cf sKycf .hJ ? xpdk epuf ydk if jAwd od ~ tpkd;7onf 1^^4 ckESpfuDGAuftufOya'jzifh onf EkdAgpuk;d 7Sm;ukd odrf;,cl hJ.? ,l;x7ufpmcsKyf vucf cH Jah von?f *kid ;f um vwefonf uae'gukd (1^13 ckESpf) t7/ EsLazgi;f ve;f / EAdk gpukd;7mS ;EiS fh EpS af ygi;f 30 r~ vdRma7;jcm;pGm tyk cf sKycf ahJ oma-umifh ['qf eyf ivf ,af u\\G w0duk f7Sd a'orsm;ukd t*v‡ dywf d\\k tar7duef vGwfvyaf 7;ppfyJG twiG f;Y uae'gonf 7-uon?f jyiof pwf dk\\onf wjzn;f jzn;f e,fcs\\JvmchJ jAwd od ~Eidk if aH wm.f oPmawmuf dk apmiohf &d adk ocahJ yon?f -u7m taemuzf u7f dS a7m\\u;D awmiaf jcod\\kyif a7mucf Jh xadk -umihf 7Sryf vdeuf dk jyifopf uae'g zcif[k ac:qdk -uouJhokd\\ umvweftm;vnf; jAdwdo~uae'g. avon?f tidk -fu;D rsm;a'ow0ukd Ef iS hf t[dk idk ;f tdk jrp0f rS ;f zci[f k ac:q-kduonf? wav~muf vl0;D Z,D ³m; e,of d\\k wikd fatmif jyiof pwf \\dk onf cHwyrf sm;udk aqmuvf kyf chJ-uonf? tyk cf sKyaf 7;w;kd wuvf mjcif; tar7duef vGwfvyaf 7;ppfyJG jzpfymG ;aomtcg ok\\daomf z7Gewf meu.f ae7mukd qufc-H uaom tar7duefjynfe,frsm;rS jAdwdo~ tpkd;7tm;oPm razgufvkdol t*‡vdyfvlrsKd;trsm;tjym;yif jyiof pfbk7ifcHrsm;um; t7nftcsif;ESifh rjynfhpk-H u uae'gokd\\ ajymif;a7F\\vm-uonf? xkdolrsm;onf onfhjyif jyifopfwkd\\vnf; ta-umif;a-umif;a-umifh teG af w;7;D ,;dke,af wmiyf idk ;f wiG vf n;f aumi;f / ur;f &;dk we;f uae'gwGif tajcpkdufaexkdif7ef vma7mujf cif; r7Sd awmhacs? xkda-umihf jyiof pfwkd\\tiftm;rSm wjznf; jzn;f avsmhyg;vmawmhon?f Oa7mywkdufY -op-wD; ,ef; xD;eef;qufcHa7;ppfyGJ jzpfyGm;aomtcg t*v‡ yd ef ,of pjfzpaf om e,;l t*v‡ ef e,of m;w\\dkonf jyifopwf \\dk. tcikd frmq;Hk cwH yjfzpof nhf vPG AwfjrKd\\ukd wudk cf duk of rd ;f yukd -fu.? o\\kdaomf xpdk pyf tJG jyD;wiG f jyif opwf \\dkod\\k jyetf y7f avonf? xdkaemuf 1^54 cEk pS rf pS I wduk cf kdurf r= sm; jzpyf mG ;cJh 41


www.foreverspace.com.mm uae'gEdik if oH rdik ;f ESifh tyk cf sKyfa7; a'orsm;wiG vf n;f aumi;f aexidk -fuon?f xodk wl \\udk m; tyk f xktd awmtwGif; uae'gtaemuyf kdif;ok\\dvnf; pGef\\ csKyaf 7;wiG f vxl k u,dk pf m;v,S f yg0iaf qmi7f uG Ef idk of nhf pm;omG ;a7muIf e,af jroprf sm; quvf uf 7mS azcG 7hJ m tcGihfta7;rsKd;ukd vkdvm;olrsm;jzpf.? xkda-umifh taemubf uwf iG f ypzd wd of r]k 7mtx›d i;f / ajrmuzf uf ,cifu77SdcJhaom tcGifhta7;rsKd;ukd r-umc+ wiG f tmwwd fa'orsm;txvd nf;aumif; c7;D aygufchJ awmif;qkcd J7h m jAdwod ~tpk;d 7u 1^91 ckEpS f uae'g -uon?f To\\jdzk ihf 1811cEk pS tf poa\\dk 7muvf ~if taemuyf idk ;f tuOf ya'udk jy}me;f ay;cJoh nf? xkd tufOya't7 EiS hf ajrmuyf idk ;f uae'gw\\dkrmS vtl rsm; vnS vhf npf ;l pr;f uae'gEidk if rH mS txuf uae'gEiS hf atmuuf ae'g[Il 7mS azG aygufa7mujfy;D a'orsm; jzpaf eavjy?D o\\dkaomf EpS yf dik ;f uJoG mG ;onf? txuuf ae'grmS t*v‡ yd vf lrsK;d xdak 'orsm;wGif om;ar;G vyk if e;f twuG f a7mi;f 0,af 7; rsm;onfh jynfe,fjzpfI ,ck tGefaw;7D;,kd;e,f Xmersm;om 7adS eay ao;on?f jzpvf monf? xpdk Ouf rl awm-uD;jrurf aJ 'o jzp.f ? atmuuf ae'gwiG f jyiof pf vrl sK;d rsm;I ,ck uADG uef ,f 1812cEk pS pf pyf JG jzpfvmonf? xdktufOya't7 ta7S\\zuf yifv,f tar7ud efvGwfvyaf 7;ppfyGJ jy;D onrf SpI tar7d ur;f &;dk we;f wpaf v~muwf iG f ur;f &;dk we;f e,rf sm; [ak c: uejfynaf xmipf Ek iS fh uae'gw\\odk nf e,pf ywf iG f r-umc+ onfh EkAd gpukd;7Sm;/ e,l;A7efZpG f/ y7ifth uf'yG fu`ef; wkdufckdufr=rsm; jzpfymG ;cJhon?f xkdrS wyg; uae'g EiS hf uyd Af 7uwf ef w\\udk dk e,f onf v&l idk ;f rsm;tm; vuf opfrsm;tjzpf todtrSwf eufay;I ajr|mufay;ae jyKcohJ n?f onf[k tar7duef jynf e,foprf sm;ukd b7k ifcH axmifpku xifjrifcJoh nhf csKyf vuaf tmucf H b7k ifcH jyif/ 0ajymom,monfh wpOf ;D pD tyk cf sKyof n?f vwF f uae'gudk tar7ud ef uGef awmEf pS f7yf yg0iaf om Oy *7ufvFwfawmfrS ppfvkd a'jyK tz\\JGrsm;vn;f 7-SduI vm;olwppf uk odrf;oGif; atmufvFwfawmfrsm;okd\\ vkdchJ.? xadk -umifh 1812 vlxku u,dk pf m;vS,frsm; cEk pS Yf Oa7mywukd wf iG f eykd a7G;aumufwifajrm| ufcGihf vD,epf pfyGJrsm; jzpfyGm;ae 7avon?f ok\\daomf xdk onfth ckduf uae'gESifht Oya'jyK tz\\JGrsm;. tcGifh ar7duefwkd\\ ppfjzpfyGm;-u tm+mrSm tvGefenf; onf? uae'grmS tar7d yg; vSayonf? txuf uefjynfaxmifpkxuf uae'g b7k ifcHrSm a*s/ vltiftm;tvGefenf;yg; *sD/ qifrukd;jzpIf atmuf aomvf n;f jAwd od ~ tpkd;7 uae'g bk7ifcHrSm a*s/ EiS fh widk ;f 7i;f om;w\\.dk ulnD *sD/ qifrukd;jzpfI atmuf r=a-umifhtar7duefwkd\\ukd uae'gbk7ifcHrSm *dkif;um ckcHEkdifchJonf? xkdppyf GJtjy;D vwefyif jzpfavonf? wGifuae'g7Sd t*‡vyd fESihf awm-uD; jrufrJae7m t uDGAufjrdK\\ukd 7Srfyvdef vuef ufcs ay;tyf7pOf jyiof pwf \\drk mS ao;G pn;f omG ;jy;D rsm;tpm; yg0iaf om t v~if7efolukdEkdifcJhojzifh xuf uae'gukd b7k icf H qirf u;dk onf tcuftcrJ sm; rdrdwd\\k. tpGr;f tpukd ,-Hk unfvm-uonf? t-um;rS xlaxmifcohJ n?f olonf e,of prf sm; wnf axmifay;I w7m;&Hk;rsm; zGihfvSpfay;chJ.? vrf;rsm; u,dk fydik tf kycf sKyaf 7;777Sd ef-uKd;yrf;r= azgufum wHwm;rsm; aqmufvkyaf y;cJh.? ,ck wkd uae'gEdik if H. tyk cf sKyaf 7;rmS wpwp w;dk wufvm 7eG wf [kd wk iG 7f adS om a,mjhrKd\\udk wnaf xmicf .Jh ? tar7d onf[k qkd7aomfvnf; uae'gjynfom;rsm;um; uefjynfaxmipf kEdik firH S vltrsm; ajymif;a7\\Faexkdif7ef xrdk ~jzihf rausey-fuao;acs? ta-umi;f rmS owl \\dkonf v\\=Haqmf tm;ay;chaJ vonf? 42


www.foreverspace.com.mm uae'gEidk if oH ridk ;f EiS fh tyk fcsKyfa7; u,dk pf m;v,S yf g0icf iG hf tyk cf sKyaf 7;rsK;ud odk m 77ISd wm0ecf H vFwaf wmfrSm atmuvf wF fawm[f k xdef;odrf; 7aom tyk cf sKyaf 7;rsKd; r77adS o;aoma-umifh jzp.f ? xakd -umifh tzG\\Jr~omjzpfap7ef az:jyxm;on?f xkd\\jyif e,fopf 1812 cEk pS f ppfyGtJ jy;D wGif tkycf sKyfa7;w;dk wuf 777dS ef bk7ifcHrsm;onf Oya'jyKvFwfawmfwiG f tiftm;t awmihfqHk;ygwDEiS fh oihjf rwpf Gm aqmif7GufoGm;7eEf iS fh ,ciuf xuf -uKd;yr;f -uavon?f 1^91 cEk pS f uae'g xkdygwDrsKd;rS t-uaH y;ykCdKvfrsm;ukd a7;G cs,f ce\\fxm; tufOya't7 jAwd od ~b7k ifu cef\\xm;aom bk7icf H 7euf kdvn;f axmucf H cohJ n?f csKyfonf uae'gukd tyk cf sKy7f avonf? b7k ifccH sKyf TaxmufcHcsufwkd\\ukd tcsdef-umjrifhrS vufawG\\ wdkifyif aqG;aEG;7etf wGuftxuf vwF af wmfrS a7G; aqmi7f uG cf .hJ ? txuEf iS ahf tmuf uae'gw\\udk dk tyk cf sKyf a7; wpcf wk n;f atmuwf iG f y;l aygi;f 7e[f al om 'wk ,d cs,xf m;aom yCk Kdvrf sm; yg0iof nhf tr= aqmif aumif axmufcHcsufukd 1840 jynfEh Spf yl;aygi;f a7;tuf ptD z\\JGwpcf k 7Sdon?f txufvwF fawmf tz\\GJ0ifrsm;rSm Oya't7 aqmif7uG cf Joh n?f 1841 cEk pS rf pS I xjkdynf vnf; b7k icf HcsKyf tqufqufu a7;G cs,fce\\fxm; e,frsm;rSm ta7\\Suae'g/ taemuf uae'g[Il wiG cf hJ on?f o\\adk omf ur;f &;dk we;f e,rf sm;um; wpof ;D wpjfcm; olrsm;jzpIf Oya'jyKtzJ\\Gvnf; rnfaom xtkd ra= qmif pD 7daS eao;onf? y;l aygif;a7; tufOya'jy}me;f jyD; aumipf tD z\\JGonf b7k ifccH sKyof \\kd wm0efcH 7avonf? aemuf 6 EpS -f umrS wm0ecf H tyk fcsKyfa7;rmS taumif bk7ifccH sKkyfonf jAdwdef7Sd tm+mykdirf sm;okd\\ wqifh txnaf y:cohJ n?f xtdk csed wf iG f avm'h g7r.f om;ruf wm0ecf 7H jye7f m tyk cf sKyof rl sm;EiS hf vxl rk mS tquuf if; avmht,fv*sifonf b7k ifcHcsKyf jzpfavonf?t,f uGmvsu7f dS.? xkd\\jyif bk7ifcHcsKyfrsm;rmS rsuEf Smprd ;f v*sifonf uae'D,efwk\\dtm; wm0ecf tH kyfcsKyfa7;ukd aqmif7uG Ef idk af tmif prG ;f aqmicf oJh n?f tkyfcsKyaf 7;wiG f rsm; jzpof njhfyif ESptf en;f i,rf ~om trx= r;f 7ojzifh jyiof pwf \\dkuvdk nf; yg0ifciG fah y;cJhonf? vFwaf wmf. tkycf sKyfa7;tm+mukd tr=aqmiftzJG\\uom -udK;ukdif axmucf cH suf7aom rnof nyhf gw0D if 0e-fuD;rsm;ESirfh vmawmhon?f xkdtcg tzGJ\\0irf sm;onf olwk\\d. t qdk wzGJ uIf widk ;f jynfutdk yk cf sKycf h.J ? o.l aqmif7uG f aygi;f toif;ESifh aqGrsK;d om;csif;wkd\\ukd ta7;ygaom csurf sm;a-umifh uae'gEidk if H tyk cf sKyaf 7;rmS t*v‡ ejfynf tkycf sKyaf 7;rsKd; jzpfvmcoJh nf? tpd;k 7 7mx;l rsm;wiG cf e\\fxm;-u.? okd\\jzpfI xpkd Ouf txuf uae'gwiG f tyk cf sKyaf 7;rmS vuof i7hf m 7mx;l jynaf xmipf jkzpvf mjcif; ay;I tyk fcsKyof nhf om; wlnDrsm; tyk fcsKyaf 7;rsKd;[Il wm0ecf H tyk cf sKyaf 7;udk ur;f &;dk we;f e,rf sm;wiG of m acsmarmpmG aqmif7GufEkdifchJon?f yl;aygif;xm;onfh vn;f aumi;f / atmuf uae'gYum; trd af wm*f +dk ;f om; uae'gwGiuf m; wm0ef cHtyk fcsKyfa7;onf racsm tyk cf sKyaf 7; [Il vn;f aumi;f rauseyrf r= sm; ay:ayguf armcJah cs? jyifopfESihf t*‡vdyfwkd\\onf a'oqkdi7f m vmc.Jh ? xadk -umihf 183^cEk pS wf Gif txuuf aegY r ta7;udPuav;rsm;Yyif tjiif;ymG ;r=rsm; ay:ayguf UifZDacgi;f aqmiIf vnf;aumi;f / atmuuf ae'gY cohJ njhfyif Oya'jyK vwF af wmYf t*v‡ yd Ef iS jhfyiof pf u,dk f ygyED ;dk acgi;f aqmiIf vn;f aumi;f oyl ek xf avon?f pm;v,S fOD;a7rSm nwD l nrD ~cef\\yif 7adS eon?f vOl ;D a7 rsm;aom txuf uae'gudk vOl ;D a7en;f onhf atmuf xtdk csed wf iG f ur;f &;dk we;f e,rf sm;uvn;f tEek n;f jzifh uae'gESifh ukd,fpm;vS,fwef;wlay;onfukdvnf; tyk cf sKyaf 7;udk jyKjyifay;7ef awmif;qdck ohJ n?f rausey-f uacs? okd\\jzpf7m uae'gudk jyefvnfI EpS yf idk ;f c7GJ rnuf ohJ d\\k 7adS e.? xodk \\dk cvJG ukd fjyevf ~ivf nf; olyek rf sm;ukd jAdwdo~tpdk;7 ESdrEf Sif;Eidk faomfvnf; jynef ,f EpS cf vk ;Hk twuG f tusK;d wul Pd rsm; aqmi7f uG 7f m uae'gtyk cf sKyfa7;udk wdk;wuaf y;7ef pO;f pm;p jyKvm wiG f tcutf crJ sm;aw\\Gp7m ta-umi;f 7oSd n?f tcsK\\du jynef ,Ef pS fcvk k;H wiG f jynef ,fto;D oD;ESiqfh dik f7m uPd on?f xadk -umihf tajctaeudk axmuvf rS ;f tp7D icf 7H ef rsm;twuG f tpd;k 7oD;jcm;xm;7duS m ESpfcvk H;k EiS hf ouf neF -f um;csuEf iS whf uG avm'h g7ruf kd bk7icf cH sKytf jzpf qikd af om uPd rsm;twuG f A[dk tp;dk 7wcxk m;7dS tyk cf sKyf ce\\fxm; apvFwvf kud f.? avmh'g7rfonf ig;vr~ om bk7ifcHcsKyftjzpf aqmif7GufcjJh yD;aemuf jAdwdo~ ajrmutf ar7du ta7;rsm;qkdif7m tpD77ifcHpmukd a7;qGJI jAdwdo~tpkd;7okd\\ wifjycJhonf? xkdt pDt7ifcHwGif uae'gukd wm0efcHtkyfcsKyfa7;rsKd; ay;tyf7eEf iS hf txuEf iS afh tmuuf ae'gudk y;l aygi;f 7ef oiahf vsmf a-umi;f yg0iof n?f wm0ecf H tyk fcsKyaf 7; ay; tyf7mwGif atmufvFwfawmf trwfrsm;. axmuf cH csuuf d7k aom uuAf deutf z\\JG xm;77Sd efEiS f th xuf 43


www.foreverspace.com.mm uae'gEidk if oH ridk ;f ESifh tyk fcsKyfa7; 7ef t-uaH y;-uon?f x\\djkyif tar7ud ef jynwf iG ;f ppyf JG tm+mrsm;udk A[tdk pd;k 7o\\dk tyEf iS f;on[f k qxdk m;7m a-umihf uae'gjynef ,rf sm;onf wo;D wjcm;pD aejci;f uae'gtpdk;7onf tar7duefjynfaxmifpk A[dtk pkd; xuf pn;f v;Hk nnD wG pf mG 7vdS ~if titf m; yrdk adk wmiwhf i;f 7xuf tm+myIkd 77dSavonf? tyk cf sKyfykH pepfrSmjAd wod ~ peptf widk ;f yijfzpof n?f jAdwod ~b7k ifu xdkEikd f rnf/ ab;7eaf y:ayguaf omf pnf;vH;k nDnGwfpmG cck EH dik f iHtm; tkycf sKy7f ef b7k icf cH sKyf ce\\fxm;aomvf n;f b7k if rn[f k tcsKd\\u ,-Hkun-fuavonf? xodk \\dk wppf n;f ccH sKyrf Sm wefckd;tm+mr7dSay? uae'gtpdk;70e-f uD; wpvf ;Hk wn;f 7rdS S a7\\Stz\\wdk iG f rsm;pmG w;dk wuf -u;D ymG ;Eidk f rsm;. t-uaH y;csuftwkdif;aqmif7Guf7oljzpfon?f rn[f vk nf; ,Hk-unf-uavon?f uae'gEidk if H tyk cf sKyfa7;wiG f tu,fyif wefc;dk tm+m t7dqS kH;rSm 0ef-u;D csKyf jzpf.? tpk;d 7tzJG\\wiG f 0e-f uD; xktd awmtwGif; 1864 cEk SpfwGif urf;&k;d wef;e,f 20 xurf en;f 7IdS xodk wl \\dok nf tyk cf sKyaf 7;qdik 7f mXme rsm;onf rrd dw\\kd tcsi;f csi;f yl;aygi;f 7ef tpn;f ta0; rsm;. t-u;D tuJ wm0efcHrsm; jzpf-uon?f jynyf wp7f yuf si;f yc.hJ ? xtdk pn;f ta0;o\\dk txuEf iS ahf tmuf a7;7mXmeukd 0ef-uD;csKyfuom ukdifavh7Sdonf? uae'gjynef ,frsm;rS uk,d pf m;vS,frsm;vnf; wuf uae'gygvrD ewf iG f vwF af wmEf pS 7f y7f odS n?f txuf a7muf cohJ n?f xudk ,dk pf m;v,S rf sm;u ur;f &;dk we;f e,f vwF af wmwf iG f 7mouyf euf ,kd pf m;v,S f 102 O;D yg0iIf rsm;y;l aygi;f a7;wGif rdrwd d\\ke,frsm; yg0iyf l;aygi;f vkda ,if;wkd\\ukd uae'gy7DADaumifpD.t-uHay;csuft7 a-umi;f ajymq-dku.? xadk -umihf yl;aygi;f a7; tpn;f bk7ifcHcsKyfucef\\xm;onf? atmufvFwfawmfrS ta0;udk uAGD ujfrKd\\Y xyrf uH si;f yum uae'g7edS ,rf sm; twnfjyKjy}mef; wifyd\\kvkdufaom Oya'-urf;rsm;ukd txuvf wF af wmuf y,cf sEidk cf iG hf wpcf suvf wF tf m+m tm;vkH;ukdyl;aygif;I jynfaxmifpktzGJ\\ zGJ\\pnf;7ef Oya'wp7f yf a7;qGcJ -hJu.? jynaf xmifpk tzJ\\Gtpn;f uae'gEkdifiH. jrdK\\awmfjzpfaom atmhw0jrKd \\7Sd jynfaxmifpk uvkd nf; uae'g 'kdrDe,D eEf kdifiH[k trnfay;7efa7G; ygvrD ef taqmufttkH-uD; cs,cf oJh nf? okd\\aomf xpkd DpOcf suuf dk EsLazgif;vef;EiS hf 7aSd omf vn;f txufvwF fawmfwiG f Eidk fiaH 7; tm+m y7ithf u'f yG ef ,rf sm;u oabmrwcl ahJ y? EAdk gpu;dk 7mS ;EiS hf tenf;i,f r~om7doS n?f e,l;A7efZGpef ,frsm; uvnf; ESpfESpfr~ pOf;pm;jyD;rS oabmwlcJh.? 186^ ckESpfwGif pDpOfcsufudk atmufvFwfawmrf Sm jynof lwkd\\ua7G;aumufwif ajrm| uvf udk af om u,dk pf m;v,S rf sm; yg0iof n?f omref tjyD;owaf p7ef jAdwod ~ygvDreuf jAdwdo~ ajrmuf tm;jzihf ouwf r;f rmS 5 EpS jfzp.f ? 186^ cEk pS f jAwd od ~ tar7ud tuOf ay'udk jy}mef;vduk .f ? uae'g'rkd eD D ajrmuftar7du tufOya't7 uDGAufe,f. ,efEidk if H. yxrqH;k 0ef-u;D csKyfrmS qma*s/ at/ rU u,dk pf m;v,S Of ;D a7udk 65 O;D owrf wS xf m;on?f tjcm; a':e,f jzpof n?f jynfe,frsm;rSmvlOD;tvkduf ukd,fpm;vS,f rsm; apvwF cf Gih7f avon?f tyk cf sKyaf 7; uae'gonf jAwd od ~\"eo[m, Eidk if rH sm;wiG f yg0iIf *7dwjfAwd ed Ef iS vhf n;f aumi;f / tjcm;aom 'rkd eD ,D ef Eidk if H rsm;EiS hf vn;f aumi;f we;f wul ,dk yf idk tf yk cf sKyaf 7; 77adS om Edik fijH zpof n?f okd\\aomf 186^ cEk SpfjAdwod ~ ajrmuft ar7ud tuOf ya'wiG yf g0iaf om tajccOH ya'udk uae 'gygvrD euf xyrf H jyiEf idk of njhfyif uae'gEidk if tH wuG f tjy;D owf t,lcH w7m;&Hk;awmrf Sm y7DAD aumifpDyif jzpaf eao;on?f rnfo\\kdjzpaf p txufygudPEpS f 7ypf v;Hk udk uae'gygvrD e.f axmucf cH su7f roS m ouqf idk f 7mwkd\\u aqmi7f uG -fuavonf? uae'g'rdk eD D,eEf idk if HtwiG ;f Y jynfe,uf ;dk cEk iS hf e,f -u;D EpS cf 7k IdS tar7ud ejfynaf xmipf k Eidk if uH ohJ \\dk jynef ,f rsm;ukd pkaygif;xm;.? okd\\aomf tajccHOya'wGif jynef ,rf sm;twuG f tm+mrsm;uadk z:jyI -uGi;f aom 44


Like this book? You can publish your book online for free in a few minutes!
Create your own flipbook